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Instructors' Attitudes toward Nontraditional Students Positive, Study Shows.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 400 Georgia postsecondary vocational-technical instructors received responses from 77.8%, most of whom felt more positive toward nontraditional students in terms of their ability to concentrate, reasoning and listening skills, time management, class preparation, assignment and coursework completion, initiative, eagerness to learn,…

Melichar, Barbara E.

1994-01-01

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Addressing social barriers and closing the gender knowledge gap: exposure to road shows is associated with more knowledge and more positive beliefs, attitudes and social norms regarding exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is rarely practiced despite its significant child survival benefits. A key constraint to increasing EBF rates in Zimbabwe and most of the developing world is that key decision makers (fathers/partners and other family members) are often poorly informed about EBF and do not attend antenatal clinics where health information is routinely provided. Informed by formative research, a district-wide campaign was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to encourage EBF and expressing and heat treating (EHT) breast milk as a means to maintain EBF. The campaign combined traditional strategies of education, counselling and outreach through health service delivery with a novel road show 'edutainment' intervention to reach men and other community members. A post campaign evaluation measured the association of road show exposure with 20 knowledge items and summative scores of social norms, beliefs and attitudes obtained through exploratory factor analysis. In adjusted models, road show exposure was associated with correct EBF knowledge (?=1.0, 0.001), EHT knowledge (?=1.3, P<0.001) and greater perceived benefits of condom use during pregnancy and breastfeeding (?=0.5, P<0.001), and more positive EBF social norms (?=0.6, P<0.001), EBF beliefs and attitudes (?=1.0, P<0.001) and attitudes towards condom use during breastfeeding (?=0.6, P<0.001). Road show exposure was more strongly associated with EBF knowledge among men (P-value for gender×exposure group interaction=0.03), suggesting that it also closed the knowledge gap between men and women. Longitudinal studies will determine whether road shows were associated with changes in EBF practices. PMID:21972843

Jenkins, Alison L; Tavengwa, Naume V; Chasekwa, Bernard; Chatora, Kumbirai; Taruberekera, Noah; Mushayi, Wellington; Madzima, Rufaro C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N

2012-10-01

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Tracking Positions and Attitudes of Mars Rovers  

Science.gov (United States)

The Surface Attitude Position and Pointing (SAPP) software, which runs on computers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers, tracks the positions and attitudes of the rovers on the surface of Mars. Each rover acquires data on attitude from a combination of accelerometer readings and images of the Sun acquired autonomously, using a pointable camera to search the sky for the Sun. Depending on the nature of movement commanded remotely by operators on Earth, the software propagates attitude and position by use of either (1) accelerometer and gyroscope readings or (2) gyroscope readings and wheel odometry. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine-tune the position updates, particularly on high-wheel-slip terrain. The attitude data are used by other software and ground-based personnel for pointing a high-gain antenna, planning and execution of driving, and positioning and aiming scientific instruments.

Ali, Khaled; vanelli, Charles; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Martin, Alejandro San; Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Alexander, James

2006-01-01

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Open and Positive Attitudes toward Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter argues that the most important thing for a nonnative English-speaking teacher is to have an open and positive attitude toward students. A teacher's willingness to work out problems with individual students, coupled with openness to students' ideas and criticism, should help improve students' negative attitudes toward…

Hsu, Chia-Fang

2014-01-01

5

Relation of Student Social Position to Consumer Attitudes and Understanding  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)

Litro, Robert Frank

1970-01-01

6

Attitude and position estimation on the Mars Exploration Rovers  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA/JPL 's Mars Exploration Rovers acquire their attitude upon command and autonomously propagate their attitude and position. The rovers use accelerometers and images of the sun to acquire attitude, autonomously searching the sky for the sun with a pointable camera. To propagate the attitude and position the rovers use either accelerometer and gyro readings or gyro readings and wheel odometiy, depending on the nature of the movement ground operators are commanding. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine tune the position updates, particularly in high slip environments. The capability also exists for visual odometry attitude updates. This paper describes the techniques used by the rovers to acquire and maintain attitude and position knowledge, the accuracy which is obtainable, and lessons learned after more than one year in operation.

Ali, Khaled S.; Vanelli, C. Anthony; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey J.; Maimone, Mark W.; Yang Cheng, A.; San Martin, Miguel; Alexander, James W.

2005-01-01

7

Accent imitation positively affects language attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian) of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating) the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants). After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers' perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory. PMID:23734137

Adank, Patti; Stewart, Andrew J; Connell, Louise; Wood, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

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Positive dissimilarity attitudes in multicultural organizations : The role of language diversity and communication frequency  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the field of diversity studies with novel insights on how language diversity and communication frequency influence dissimilarity attitudes. Design/methodology/approach – The authors examine language diversity and communication frequency as group-level antecedents for positive dissimilarity attitudes by use of questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic culturally diverse departments. Findings – The results showed that communication frequency has strong positive relationships with three variables depicting positive dissimilarity attitudes, namely openness to linguistic, visible and informational diversity. Contradicting our predictions, language diversity had positive associations with all variables portraying positive dissimilarity attitudes. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail. Originality/value – Few prior studies have dealt with the relations between language, communication and dissimilarity attitudes.

Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

2012-01-01

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Projectile attitude and position determination using magnetometer sensor only  

Science.gov (United States)

A priori information given by the complete modelling of the ballistic behavior (trajectory, attitude) of the projectile is simplified to give a pertinent reduced evolution model. An algorithm based on extended Kalman filters is designed to determinate: " position: x,y,z references in earth frame. " value and direction of the velocity vector; its direction is given by 2 angles (? and ?). " attitude around velocity vector given by 3 angles: roll angle in the range [0, 2?], angle of attack ? and side-slip angle ? in the range of few milliradians. The estimation is based on the measures of the magnetic field of the earth given by a three-axis magnetometer sensor embedded on the projectile. The algorithm also needs the knowledge of the direction of the earth magnetic fields in the earth frame and aerodynamics coefficients of the projectile. The algorithm has been tested on simulation, using real evolution of attitude data for a shot with a 155 mm rotating projectile over a distance of 16 km, with wind and measurement noise. The results show that we can estimate milliradians with non-linear equations and approximations, with good precision.

Changey, Sebastien; Fleck, Volker; Beauvois, Dominique

2005-03-01

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Position and attitude tracking control for a quadrotor UAV.  

Science.gov (United States)

A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances. PMID:24534327

Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui

2014-05-01

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Attitude toward obesity showed by the teacher-training pupils of the University of Huelva  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study analyses the attitude toward the obesity and the overweight that show the pupils of first and third course of the University of Huelva (N= 299) comparing the students of physical education (N= 123) with the students of kindergarten and primary education (N= 176). This design supposes a replication of the investigation made by O’Brien, Hunter and Banks (2006), who compared the attitude toward the obesity between one group of students of physical education and another group ...

Carmona Ma?rquez, Jose?; Tornero Quin?ones, Inmaculada; Gago Sampedro, Juan; Sierra Robles, A?ngela

2012-01-01

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Multi-platform Integrated Positioning and Attitude Determination using GNSS:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is trend in spacecraft engineering toward distributed systems where a number of smaller spacecraft work as a larger satellite. However, in order to make the small satellites work together as a single large platform, the precise relative positions (baseline) and orientations (attitude) of the elements of the formation have to be estimated. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, the general term for systems as GPS and Galileo) receivers can be utilized to provide baseline estimates wit...

Buist, P. J.

2013-01-01

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Attitude toward obesity showed by the teacher-training pupils of the University of Huelva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study analyses the attitude toward the obesity and the overweight that show the pupils of first and third course of the University of Huelva (N= 299 comparing the students of physical education (N= 123 with the students of kindergarten and primary education (N= 176. This design supposes a replication of the investigation made by O’Brien, Hunter and Banks (2006, who compared the attitude toward the obesity between one group of students of physical education and another group that studies psychology. In order to measure the attitude toward the obesity, explicit and implicit instruments, together with a questionnaire of physical-sport habits were used. The results confirm that all the pupils present a negative attitude toward the obesity and the overweight, being higher in the students of physical education, and among these higher in the pupils of third course. On the other hand, the pupils that show more interest toward the sport, and those students that practice more sports, possess a higher negative attitude toward the obesity and the overweight that those students that are not interested in or don’t practice sport

Carmona Márquez, José

2012-07-01

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IMU/GPS System Provides Position and Attitude Data  

Science.gov (United States)

A special navigation system is being developed to provide high-quality information on the position and attitude of a moving platform (an aircraft or spacecraft), for use in pointing and stabilization of a hyperspectral remote-sensing system carried aboard the platform. The system also serves to enable synchronization and interpretation of readouts of all onboard sensors. The heart of the system is a commercially available unit, small enough to be held in one hand, that contains an integral combination of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, a differential GPS subsystem, and ancillary data-processing subsystems. The system utilizes GPS carrier-phase measurements to generate time data plus highly accurate and continuous data on the position, attitude, rotation, and acceleration of the platform. Relative to prior navigation systems based on IMU and GPS subsystems, this system is smaller, is less expensive, and performs better. Optionally, the system can easily be connected to a laptop computer for demonstration and evaluation. In addition to airborne and spaceborne remote-sensing applications, there are numerous potential terrestrial sensing, measurement, and navigation applications in diverse endeavors that include forestry, environmental monitoring, agriculture, mining, and robotics.

Lin, Ching Fang

2006-01-01

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Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

Fulmer, Gavin W.

2013-08-01

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Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects’ self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

IkuoKabashima

2009-05-01

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Using Visual Odometry to Estimate Position and Attitude  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer program in the guidance system of a mobile robot generates estimates of the position and attitude of the robot, using features of the terrain on which the robot is moving, by processing digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras mounted rigidly on the robot. Developed for use in localizing the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles on Martian terrain, the program can also be used for similar purposes on terrestrial robots moving in sufficiently visually textured environments: examples include low-flying robotic aircraft and wheeled robots moving on rocky terrain or inside buildings. In simplified terms, the program automatically detects visual features and tracks them across stereoscopic pairs of images acquired by the cameras. The 3D locations of the tracked features are then robustly processed into an estimate of overall vehicle motion. Testing has shown that by use of this software, the error in the estimate of the position of the robot can be limited to no more than 2 percent of the distance traveled, provided that the terrain is sufficiently rich in features. This software has proven extremely useful on the MER vehicles during driving on sandy and highly sloped terrains on Mars.

Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry; Schoppers, Marcel; Olson, Clark

2007-01-01

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Facilitating positive attitudes towards an innovative programme for baccalaureate nursing education:  

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Full Text Available A survey of nurse ward leaders understanding of, and their attitude to, community/ problem based learning (CPBL approach adopted for the education of nursing students in the degree programme of the University of Natal in Durban (UND was conducted. This was with a view to intervening, if necessary, to ensure positive understanding and attitude among the nurse leaders towards the non-traditional CPBL of UND nursing students. It was hypothesised that focused discussions, between facilitators and nurse ward leaders, aimed at providing information and explanation about the advantages of changing from traditional to non-traditional educational programmes in nursing would enhance positive attitude towards the students and their education programme. Using a questionnaire developed for this study, quantitative and qualitative data were twice collected at intervals of 5-6 months from 54 nurse ward leaders who interacted with the CPBL students in 27 wards of 2 provincial hospitals. The data, collected in the early part of the students’ deployment and at 5-6 months after included information about the participants understanding of CPBL; their rating of CPBL students in terms of expected knowledge and practice; and their attitude towards CPBL nursing students in clinical settings. Contact sessions were held with the participants in between the measures for a discussion about the CPBL programme and the expectations of the learners. Analysis of the pre and post measures showed more favourable attitude, improved understanding, and tolerance towards the students by the nurse ward leaders in the post-measures than in the pre-measures. The writers concluded that if students in this type of programme must experience satisfaction with less intimidation, implementers of CPBL programmes in nursing should relentlessly involve the qualified nurses and other professionals working with the students in informative discussions about the purpose and the process of learning in such programmes.

O. Adejumo

2000-09-01

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An experimental study of the effect of green positioning on brand attitude  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reducing the environmental impact of a product or its manufacturing process not necessarily limits the company’s activities. In the context of a green branding strategy, it might as well open new business opportunities. Ecological positioning provides a strategic tool for the active implementation of green brands. The empirical study shows that more positive attitudes are developed towards a brand positioned by environmental attributes and that these effects vary as a result of the implementation of different types of ecological positioning strategies. Although most researchers in ecological marketing recommend rational persuasion strategies, in this study the effect of an ecological positioning by emotional brand benefits appears to be even stronger than effects of rational perceptions of functional benefits for the environment.

PATRIK HARTMANN

2004-06-01

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Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward oth...

Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Technology of forming a positive attitude to physical training students of special medical group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Defined effective technology stages of forming a positive attitude towards physical education of students in special medical groups, stimulate motivation, epistemologically, informative, content-procedural, analytical and adjustment. For each stage technology offered special tools: lectures, seminars, analysis articles, mini conference on improving technique, racing games, mini-competitions, diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, analysis of log data on attendance. Selected criteria forming positive attitudes towards physical education: theoretical and practical, formed groups for research: experimental and control, analyzed results introduction of technology, efficiency of the proposed technology and means forming a positive attitude towards physical education students in special medical groups.

Mukhamediarov N.N.

2013-04-01

22

Supporting or Opposing Privatization in Education: Teachers' Attitudes and Positions of Power in Israeli Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The consequences of neoliberal policies in education are controversial. Based on the micro-political approach, this study had two aims: (1) to examine teachers' attitudes toward the effect of privatization on inequality and educational improvement; and (2) to examine the link between teachers' positions of power in school and their attitudes

Addi-Raccah, Audray

2012-01-01

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Patterns of healthy lifestyle and positive health attitudes in older Europeans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: To determine (i) the extent to which recommended lifestyle healthy behaviors are adopted and the existence of positive attitudes to health; (ii) the relative influence of socio-demographic variables on multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health; (iii) the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health. Design: two distinct healthy behavioral measures were developed: (i) healthy lifestyles based on physical activity, no cigarette smoking, no/moderate alcohol drinking, maintaining a "healthy" weight and having no sleeping problems and (ii) positive health attitudes based on having positive emotional attitudes, such as: self-perceived good health status, being calm, peaceful and happy for most of the time, not expecting health to get worse and regular health check-ups. A composite healthy lifestyle index, ranging from 0 (none of behaviors met) to 5 (all behaviors met) was calculated by summing up the individual's scores for the five healthylifestyle items. Afterwards, each individual's index was collapsed into three levels: 0-2 equivalent to 'level 1' (subjectively regarded as 'too low'), a score of 3 equivalent to 'level 2' ('fair') and 4-5 as 'level 3' satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' practices. The same procedure was applied to the positive health attitudes index. Multinomial logistic regression analyses by a forward selection procedure were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Participants: a multi-national sample consisting of 638 older Europeans from 8 countries, aged 65-74 and 75+, living alone or with others. Results and conclusions: maintaining a "healthy" weight was the most frequently cited factor in the healthy lifestyles index and therefore assumed to be the most important to the older Europeans in the study; positive attitudes to health were relatively low; participants achieved a 'satisfactory' level for healthy lifestyles index (level 3) more frequently than a satisfactory level for positive attitudes to health; having a satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' was directly related to having a satisfactory level of positive attitudes to health based on the positive health attitudes index; income and geographical location in Europe appeared to be key predictors for meeting both the recommended healthy lifestyle factors in the index and having positive health attitudes however, the composition and nature of the study sample should be taken into consideration when considering the impact of the location on healthy lifestyles and attitudes to health across Europe.

Kozlowska, Katarzyna; Szczecinka, A.

2008-01-01

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Attitudes toward Women in Managerial Position in Pakistan: A Comparative Study  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken in order to investigate the difference in attitude towards women in managerial position between male and female employees. It is a comparative study in which 50 employees including 25 male and 25 female participated as a sample. The minimum educational qualification was graduation. After taking their consent they were individually requested to fill in the demographic data sheet, followed by Attitudes toward Women as Managers (ATWAM Scale. For statistical analysis t’test was applied, which indicates that there is no significant difference between males and females in their attitude towards women managers in Pakistan. Supplementary findings reveal that males residing in joint families have significantly negative sex-role stereotypes towards women as managers whereas males residing in nuclear families possess a neutral attitude towards women as managers. Further males having working mothers as well has significant positive attitude towards woman managers as compared to males having mothers who are housewives.

Uzma Ali

2013-06-01

25

Using constructivist teaching strategies in high school science classrooms to cultivate positive attitudes toward science  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the premise that the use of constructivist teaching strategies (independent variable) in high school science classrooms can cultivate positive attitudes toward science (dependent variable) in high school students. Data regarding the relationship between the use of constructivist strategies and change in student attitude toward science were collected using the Science Attitude Assessment Tool (SAAT) (Heron & Beauchamp, 1996). The format of this study used the pre-test, post-test, control group-experimental group design. The subjects in the study were high school students enrolled in biology, chemistry, or environmental science courses in two high schools in the western United States. Ten teachers and twenty-eight classes, involving a total of 249 students participated in the study. Six experimental group teachers and four control group teachers were each observed an average of six times using the Science Observation Guide (Chapman, 1995) to measure the frequency of observed constructivist behaviors. The mean for the control group teachers was 12.89 and the mean for experimental group teachers was 20.67; F(1, 8) = 16.2, p =.004, revealing teaching behaviors differed significantly between the two groups. After a four month experimental period, the pre-test and post-test SAAT scores were analyzed. Students received a score for their difference in positive attitude toward science. The null hypothesis stating there would be no change in attitude toward science as a subject, between students exposed to constructivist strategies, and students not exposed to constructivist strategies was rejected F(1, 247) = 8.04, p =.005. The control group had a generally higher reported grade in their last science class than the experimental group, yet the control group attitude toward science became more negative (-1.18) while attitude toward science in the experimental group became more positive (+1.34) after the four-month period. An analysis of positive attitude toward science vs. gender was undertaken. An initial significant difference in positive attitude toward science between females and males in the experimental group was established (p =.05). There was no significant difference in positive attitude toward science between those same females and males after the experimental period. Consistent with other results, attitudes toward science for both males and females in the control group became less positive after the study, while males and females in the experimental group had a more positive attitude toward science after four months of using constructivist strategies. Looking at females only, the control group started out with a significantly more positive attitude toward science (mean = 43.40) compared to the experimental group (mean = 39.26, p =.0261). Although a significant difference in positive attitude between females in both groups was not found after the treatment period, the mean attitude score for females in the experimental group increased 2.044, while the mean attitude score for females in the control group decreased by 1.750. Constructivist strategies and their relationship with fostering positive attitudes toward science, might prove a viable solution for addressing the major concern of gender equity and enrollment in higher level science and mathematics courses.

Heron, Lory Elen

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A National Survey of Canadian Co-op Coordinators' Attitudes toward Volunteer Positions and Co-op Student Entrepreneurship.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of cooperative education coordinators in Canada (96 of 130) found that more than half had positive attitudes, philosophically and practically, toward volunteer/unpaid positions for co-op students, especially among coordinators of mandatory programs. They had extremely positive attitudes toward entrepreneurial positions. (SK)

King, Brent; Pearson, Shani; Young, Jeffrey D.

1997-01-01

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Positive Attitude: A Guarantee for Success in Employment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faced with the current severe employment situation, college students have passive psychology, which influences their employment. In order to have better employment, college students should have positive psychological quality.

Aiqing Meng

2010-04-01

28

Attitude Estimation and Position Control of VTOL UAVs using IMU and GPS Measurements  

CERN Document Server

We address two fundamental problems associated with the control of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs): attitude estimation and position control. We propose two velocity-aided attitude observers which utilize a global-positioning system (GPS) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The `velocity-aided' class of observer uses an accelerometer to measure the system \\emph{apparent acceleration} (instead of the gravity vector), and is therefore better suited for applications where the rigid-body (aircraft) is subjected to significant linear accelerations (which is to be expected for VTOL UAVs). We also propose a position controller which utilizes the accelerometer in a similar fashion. More precisely, rather than using the system orientation (as is usually done in the existing position controllers), we use the vector measurements (accelerometer and magnetometer measurements) directly in the position control law. Consequently, the proposed position controller does not ...

Roberts, Andrew

2011-01-01

29

The attitudes of nurses towards HIV positive patients  

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Full Text Available AIDS is increasing in South Africa at an alarming rate. Registered nurses consequently have more frequent contact with HIV positive patients. Opsomming VIGS neem drasties toe in Suid-Afrika. Geregistreerde verpleegkundiges het gevolglik meer gereelde kontak met MIV-positiewe pasiënte. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

M Greeff

2003-02-01

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Methods for enhancing carrier phase GNSS positioning and attitude determination performance  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis explores the methods for enhancing the performance of using low cost, single frequency Carrier phase Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (CDGNSS) in real-time, safety or liability critical applications. This is done by improving the integer ambiguity resolution performance and carrier phase error modeling. CDGNSS is considered for a broad range of real-time applications which require both a high precision relative positioning and attitude determination system. This is because of the drift-free nature of the GNSS measurement errors and the precise nature of the carrier phase measurement. The key to making full use of the precise nature of the carrier phase measurement is to fix the integer ambiguity quickly and reliably. This poses the biggest challenge for a low cost single frequency system. For the attitude determination problem, the precisely known baseline lengths can be used to improve the integer ambiguity resolution performance. Traditionally, the relative positioning problem was solved independently of the attitude determination problem and, thus could not leverage the precisely known baseline lengths of the attitude determination system. However, by integrating the two systems together, the precisely known baseline lengths can be used to improve the relative positioning system as well. The first part of the thesis develops an integration framework to improve the integer ambiguity resolution performance for the relative positioning system and the attitude determination system simultaneously. The second part of the thesis provides a GNSS antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV) error model development to improve the accuracy of the integrated system. It also examines the feasibility analysis of using the developed error model for a real-time dynamic application. The challenging of using this in the real time lies in the fact that PCV error magnitude is small (less than 2cm) and the developed error model is a function of unknown parameter such as attitude. A feasibility analysis of the developed model with a set of specific antennas is performed and assessed.

Zheng, Guijin

31

Teachers' Self-Perceptions and Descriptions of Students for Whom They Hold Positive Attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study identified characteristics that 43 kindergarten teachers used to describe themselves and students toward whom they held positive attitudes. Teacher self-perceptions and descriptions of favored students were examined. Results indicated that teachers used a common set of characteristics to describe themselves and those students they regarded…

Driscoll, Amy; Reynolds, Ralph

1984-01-01

32

Assessing Riverside Community College Nursing Student Attitudes toward Exposure to AIDS/HIV-Positive Patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…

Kross, Carolyn Sue

33

Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Disabled People: Definition of, Rationale and Prospects for Anti-Disablist Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article outlines the findings of an Economic and Social Research Council-funded study exploring the role of English state primary schools in promoting positive attitudes towards disabled people. Data emerging from a survey of schools and interviews with teachers are presented. The article considers progress made by schools against particular…

Beckett, Angharad E.; Buckner, Lisa

2012-01-01

34

Enhancement of Positioning and Attitude Estimation Using Raw GPS Data in an Extended Kalman Filter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used to estimate an objects position,given that the object has a GPS antenna. However, the system requires informationfrom at least four independent satellites in order to be able to give a positionestimate. If two GPS antennas and a carrier-phase GPS measurement unit is usedan estimate of the objects heading can be calculated by determine the baselinebetween the two antennas. The method is called GPS Attitude Determination(GPSAD) and requires that an ...

Carlsson, Jesper

2014-01-01

35

Beyond fear appeals: contradicting positive smoking outcome expectancies to influence smokers' implicit attitudes, perception, and behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smokers often have (implicit or explicit) positive smoking outcome expectancies that motivate them to smoke. For instance, they may feel that smoking is relaxing, that it improves concentration, or that it is seen as cool and attractive by peers. These expectations are, for the most part, illusory. In order to counteract these expectations, we designed cigarette package warning labels that contradicted common positive outcome expectancies. We investigated the effectiveness of our new warning labels in two experiments. We first measured smokers' implicit attitudes toward smoking using an affective priming method and found that our new warning labels changed positive attitudes into ambivalent attitudes. We then tested whether our warning labels changed smokers' self-reported positive outcome expectancies and smoking behavior. Smokers presented with the new warning labels immediately associated positive outcome expectancies less strongly with smoking and reported smoking fewer cigarettes in the 24 hours following the experiment. Explicitly taking the reasons for unhealthy behavior into account when trying to change people's habits could offer a valuable contribution to effective health campaigns. PMID:22178602

Glock, Sabine; Unz, Dagmar; Kovacs, Carrie

2012-04-01

36

Integrated GNSS attitude determination and positioning for direct geo-referencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0:8, matching the theoretical gain of ? 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station. PMID:25036330

Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J G

2014-01-01

37

Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0.8, matching the theoretical gain of 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station. PMID:25036330

Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-Andre; Teunissen, Peter J. G.

2014-01-01

38

Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0.8, matching the theoretical gain of 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.

Nandakumaran Nadarajah

2014-07-01

39

A Novel Sensor for Attitude Determination Using Global Positioning System Signals  

Science.gov (United States)

An entirely new sensor approach for attitude determination using Global Positioning System (GPS) signals is developed. The concept involves the use of multiple GPS antenna elements arrayed on a single sensor head to provide maximum GPS space vehicle availability. A number of sensor element configurations are discussed. In addition to the navigation function, the array is used to find which GPS space vehicles are within the field-of-view of each antenna element. Attitude determination is performed by considering the sightline vectors of the found GPS space vehicles together with the fixed boresight vectors of the individual antenna elements. This approach has clear advantages over the standard differential carrier-phase approach. First, errors induced by multipath effects can be significantly reduced or eliminated altogether. Also, integer ambiguity resolution is not required, nor do line biases need to be determined through costly and cumbersome self-surveys. Furthermore, the new sensor does not require individual antennas to be physically separated to form interferometric baselines to determine attitude. Finally, development potential of the new sensor is limited only by antenna and receiver technology development unlike the physical limitations of the current interferometric attitude determination scheme. Simulation results indicate that accuracies of about 1 degree (3 omega) are possible.

Crassidis, John L.; Quinn, David A.; Markley, F. Landis; McCullough, Jon D.

1998-01-01

40

Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change. PMID:17430368

Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R

2007-04-01

42

Self-disclosure of HIV status: perception of malaysian HIV-positive subjects towards attitude of dental personnel in providing oral care.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of Malaysian HIV-positive subjects towards the attitude of dental personnel in providing oral care to them. The study design was cross-sectional with the sampling frame comprising of 27 Government Drug Rehabilitation Centres throughout Malaysia. A convenience sample was then taken from 20 centres with the highest enrolment of HIV-positive subjects. A self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information on the perception of HIV-positive subjects towards the attitude of dental personnel in providing oral care to the patient with HIV-positive. The study sample consisted of 509 HIV-positive individuals with a mean age of 31.3+/-12.9 years old. Of these, only 15.1% attended a dental clinic after confirmation of HIV-positive status. The study demonstrated that 67.5% of the HIV-positive subjects disclosed their status voluntarily to the dentists and majority of the dentists (76.9%) did not show any negative reaction on knowing their HIV positive status. There was also no difference in the attitude of auxiliary staff toward the above disclosure. In conclusion, the study showed that oral health care personnel are more receptive to the HIV-positive subjects receiving dental care and treatment. PMID:16044826

Sujak, S L; Abdul-Kadir, R; Omar, R

2005-01-01

43

Developing positive attitudes toward geriatric nursing among Millennials and Generation Xers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the increase of the older adult population, there exists a shortage of health care professionals trained to help this population remain independent as long as possible. Ageism, common among younger adults, affects the capacity building of health care for older adults. Research has indicated that increased knowledge about older adults, as well as exposure to the elderly, may alter nursing students' attitudes regarding careers in gerontological nursing. However, questions remain as to what are the most effective ways to provide gerontological content in nursing programs and enhance attitudes toward older adults.With the understanding that younger adults see a need to balance work and play, a baccalaureate nursing program provides examples of ways to accomplish this through integration of courses, simulations, positive images of aging, and learning activities that enhance empathy for both frail and healthy older adults. PMID:22860477

Heise, Barbara A; Johnsen, Vickie; Himes, Deborah; Wing, Debra

2012-01-01

44

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors show positive staining for somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A).  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with tumors that secrete phosphaturic hormones, most notably fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The majority of tumors associated with this syndrome show stereotypical histological features and are now known as phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs). We postulated that immunohistochemistry for somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) could be used to definitively identify PMTs or other tumors that cause TIO. Immunohistochemistry for FGF23 and SSTR2A was performed on 15 tumors from 14 patients with a definite diagnosis of TIO. All showed positive staining for both markers. While FGF23 staining was quite focal in some tumors, SSTR2A showed diffuse strong expression. In 40 control tumors not known to be associated with the clinical or biochemical features of TIO, FGF23 expression was found in 2 cases (one aneurysmal bone cyst and one osteosarcoma). SSTR2A expression was found in 9 control tumors (4 synovial sarcomas, 2 hemangiomas, 2 aneurysmal bone cysts and one osteosarcoma). Only one tumor (an aneurysmal bone cyst) showed positive staining for both FGF23 and SSTR2A. SSTR2A also commonly stained neoplastic and non-neoplastic endothelial cells. We conclude that neither FGF23 nor SSTR2A expression are specific for the diagnosis of PMT. However both stains are highly sensitive. Because of its diffuse strong expression and widespread availability, immunohistochemistry for SSTR2A is useful to confirm the diagnosis of PMT in an appropriate setting particularly if material is limited. Negative staining can serve as an excellent rule out test for this diagnosis. PMID:24060005

Houang, Michelle; Clarkson, Adele; Sioson, Loretta; Elston, Marianne S; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Dray, Michael; Ranchere-Vince, Dominique; Decouvelaere, Anne-Valerie; de la Fouchardiere, Arnaud; Gill, Anthony J

2013-12-01

45

A Precise Position and Attitude Determination System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy ? GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Wieland, M.; Kuhlmann, H.

2013-08-01

46

Implicit Attitudes Toward Green Consumer Behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of implicit (automatic attitudes to explain the weak attitude-behaviour relationships often found in green consumer behaviour research. Therefore, not only explicit but also implicit attitudes toward green consumer behaviour were measured by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT. Explicit measures revealed positive attitudes, while the IAT showed more positive attitudes toward the ecological than toward the traditional product (Experiment 1 or no differences in these attitudes (Experiment 2 and follow-up study. When existing products were involved, implicit attitudes related to behavioural intention, even where the explicit attitude measure did not.

Delphine Vantomme

2005-12-01

47

Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and constr...

Julija Lapuh Bele; Matjaz Debevc; Irena Morel; David Rozman

2008-01-01

48

Young women's attitudes toward continuous use of oral contraceptives: the effect of priming positive attitudes toward menstruation on women's willingness to suppress menstruation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated American women's attitudes toward menstrual suppression and the effect of priming attitudes toward menstruation on women's willingness to suppress menstruation. One hundred college women randomly were assigned to either a positive priming group or a negative priming group. The positive priming group first completed the menstrual joy questionnaire (MJQ) followed by a willingness to suppress menstruation (WSM) questionnaire, the beliefs and attitudes toward menstruation (BATM) questionnaire, the menstrual distress questionnaire (MDQ), and a demographic questionnaire. The negative priming group completed, in the following order: the MDQ, WSM, BATM, MJQ, and demographics. Priming affected women's reports of positive cycle-related changes on the MDQ, but not women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Higher scores on the MJQ, positive attitudes toward menstrual suppression, and previous oral contraceptive (OC) use were predictors of women's willingness to suppress menstruation. Women's primary source of information about menstrual suppression was "media," and their primary concern was "safety." Thus, researchers should continue to investigate the long-term effects of continuous OC use and to analyze information about menstrual suppression in the popular press. PMID:18663629

Rose, Jennifer Gorman; Chrisler, Joan C; Couture, Samantha

2008-08-01

49

Nonlinear control of marine vehicles using only position and attitude measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents new results on the design and analysis of nonlinear output feedback controllers for auto pilots and dynamic positioning systems for ships and underwater vehicles. Only position and attitude measurements of the vehicle are used in the control design. The underlying idea of the work is to use certain structural properties of the equations of motion in the controller design and analysis. New controllers for regulation and tracking have been developed and the stability of the resulting closed-loop systems has been rigorously established. The results are supported by simulations. The following problems have been investigated covering design of passive controller for regulation, comparison of two auto pilots, nonlinear damping compensation for tracking, tracking control for nonlinear ships, and output tracking control with wave filtering for multivariable models of possibly unstable vehicles. 97 refs., 32 figs.

Paulsen, Marit Johanne

1996-12-31

50

Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and constructivist approaches in e-learning, where efficient e-course and well-skilled mentors have an important role. This article describes the model of introducing e-learning in an organization, and its realization in praxis.

Julija Lapuh Bele

2008-08-01

51

Tehran dentists' knowledge and attitudes towards hepatitis B and their willingness to treat simulated hepatitis B positive patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dental profession has a high risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) contamination and can play a crucial role in controlling HBV cross-contamination. In this cross-sectional study we used unique methods to assess Tehran dentists' knowledge, attitude and behaviour regarding HBV. Two simulated HBV-positive patients visited 300 general/specialist dentists in their offices and recorded dentists' willingness to treat them. Later, the dentists were interviewed regarding their knowledge about hepatitis B and attitude to HBV-positive patients. The mean knowledge score of dentists was 14.3 (SD 6.9) out of 44 and the mean attitude score was 20.0 (SD 3.6) out of 39. A majority of dentists (55.6%) were willing to treat a patient with HBV, unconditionally or with conditions. Some individual attitude items correlated with knowledge items concerning transmission of the virus and its prevention. Dentists' willingness to treat patients did not correlate with knowledge or attitude, except for the attitude item on concern about becoming infected. PMID:25150357

Khosravanifard, B; Rakhshan, V; Najafi-Salehi, L; Sherafat, S

2014-08-01

52

Is Contact with People with Disabilities a Guarantee for Positive Implicit and Explicit Attitudes?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past 50 years research on attitudes toward people with disabilities has repeatedly revealed negative attitudes by predominantly using self-report measures. The main aim of the present contribution was to develop an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit attitudes toward people with disabilities. For this purpose 47 university…

Hein, Sascha; Grumm, Mandy; Fingerle, Michael

2011-01-01

53

Obtaining small smart weapon airframe position and attitude information using video image processing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining position, attitude, and aimpoint of a small smart weapon as a function of time is extremely difficult and expensive. This paper describes an accurate, low-cost, portable method for collecting flight imagery and extracting position, attitude, and aimpoint information. This system consists of an onboard CCD camera, transmitter, and associated ground-based equipment. A firepulse from the weapon computer asynchronously takes a snapshot of the aimpoint. The ground- based equipment consists of video cassette recorders and a real-time digital disk recorder as well as GPS-derived IRIG-B encoders. Once the 60 Hz imagery is received and encoded with IRIG-B timecode, it is recorded. The stored imagery is then transferred to a computer workstation for digital image processing that includes individual field and line correction to remove electronic distortions and timing ambiguities. Optical distortions are corrected pixel-by-pixel using pixel maps to 'rubber-sheet' the imagery or build camera models. Images, grouped into several blocks, may be imported directly into OrthomaxR for further processing, which includes manually tagging fiducials and ground control points so that links between image and real space can be made and a 'least squares bundle adjustment' can be applied. An alternative method uses the City University Bundle Adjustment program to perform the necessary mathematical computations on all images in one large data set. An automated method, Video Motion Modeling System, is used to significantly reduce the labor and time involved in data processing. Results from all three methods are presented and compared in the following sections of this paper.

Fail, R. Wallace; Keeler, Joe E.; Keller, G. E.; Korn, R. A.

1999-10-01

54

Attitudes and attitude change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what are the psychological processes through which consumers evaluate new objects (attitude formation), retrieve evaluations from memory (attitude activation), and update evaluations in response to new information (attitude change)? The purpose of this chapter is to familiarise the reader with classical and contemporary attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types of attitudes. This is the reason why a thorough understanding of attitudes is one of the most important skills a marketer can have. That same is true in related areas such as communications research: concepts like public opinion, corporate reputation, and corporate image are nothing more than particular types of attitudes. Even the utility concept in economics can simply be regarded as a synonym for attitudes.

Scholderer, Joachim

2010-01-01

55

Sleep Duration, Positive Attitude toward Life, and Academic Achievement: The Role of Daytime Tiredness, Behavioral Persistence, and School Start Times  

Science.gov (United States)

Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is…

Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

2013-01-01

56

Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid showing a positive enhancement upon metrizamide CT cisternography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of epidermoid tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle cistern is reported in a 43-year-old woman with left trigeminal neuralgia. Plain CT scan revealed a low density area at the left cerebellopontine angle and left ambient cisterns, which could not be differentiated from their enlargement. Metrizamide CT cisternography showed a irregular, high density pattern in the low density filling defect which was extending into the suprasellar and interpeduncular cisterns. The developmental mechanism of this specific finding in the metrizamide CT cisternography was discussed on the basis of morphological characteristics of epidermoid tumor. (author)

57

Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention : The role of positive sensory experience  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

European consumers are sceptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if actual sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence consumers' attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. An experiment was conducted in which subjects in the experimental group tasted cheeses, one of which was labelled as 'produced using GMOs.' The cheeses were selected in a way that ensured that the subject had a sensory preference for the GMO cheese. A control group tasted cheeses that were unlabelled. After the tasting, subjects completed a conjoint analysis task about cheese, in which the type of starter culture used (GMO/conventional) was one of the attributes. Subjects also were administered a set of items measuring attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. Results showed that for subjects in the experimental group (who believed that they had tasted a GMO cheese, with which they had a positive sensory experience) a) attitude towards GMO in food production was less negative, and b) type of starter culture used (GM/conventional) had less impact on their buying intentions with regard to cheese than for subjects in the control group.

Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

2004-01-01

58

Positive Attitude Change toward Psychiatry in Pharmacy Students Following an Active Learning Psychopharmacology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Psychiatric care in many rural communities has been demonstrated to be less adequate compared with urban environments partially because of attitudes and stigmatization issues. Educated pharmacists with professional attitudes can have a major impact in helping mental health patients receive more accurate diagnostic assessments and safe…

Einat, Haim; George, Angela

2008-01-01

59

Positive Mood Risk Attitudes, and Investment Decisions : Field Evidence From Comedy Movie Attendance in the US.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Positive mood has been repeatedly shown to affect risk attitudes in laboratory settings, where subjects’ exposure to movie clips is among the most widely used and effective mood-induction procedures. Yet, conflicting lab results about the estimated sign of the mood effect have led researchers to formulate two alternative theories. The affect infusion model (AIM) argues that happy moods foster risk-prone behavior, whereas the mood-maintenance hypothesis (MMH) takes the opposite stance. In this paper I test the predictions of these two theories using real-world financial data and focusing on the same moodshifting mechanism commonly employed in lab studies. More specifically, I exploit the time-series variation in the domestic theatrical release of comedy movies as a natural experiment for testing the impact that happy mood (proxied by weekend comedy movie attendance) has on investment in risky assets (proxied by the performance of the U.S. stock market on the following Monday). My hypothesis rests upon the evidence that individual investors are more likely to ponder trading decisions during the weekend and trade on Mondays. To control for unobserved factors that may contemporaneously affect movie attendance and equity returns, I employ the percentage of theater screens dedicated to the comedy genre as an instrument. Using a sample of data from 1995 to 2010, I estimate that an increase in comedy attendance on a given weekend is followed by a decrease in equity returns on the subsequent Monday, which supports the MMH.

Lepori, Gabriele

60

Bias in medicine: a survey of medical student attitudes towards HIV-positive and marginalized patients in Russia, 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Russia has a substantial HIV epidemic which is poised to escalate in the coming years. The increases in prevalence of HIV will result in increased healthcare needs by a medical system with limited experience with HIV. A healthcare provider's attitude towards a patient plays a significant role in determining the patient's health-related behaviours and medical outcomes. Previous studies have identified negative attitudes of medical students towards people living with HIV. Studying the prevalence of such attitudes is of particular interest, as medical students represent the future workforce and also as the schooling years present a unique opportunity to nurture bias-free healthcare providers. The study measures prevalence of prejudicial attitudes towards HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients who belong to marginalized subgroups. Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students of a Russian medical university. Of 500 students surveyed, 436 provided sufficient data to be included in the analysis. Prejudicial attitudes were defined as reluctance to provide medical care to a specified hypothetical patient. Nine hypothetical HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were proposed: physicians, injecting drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men and a patient HIV-positive due to blood transfusion. A log-binomial regression solved using generalized estimating equations was utilized to identify factors associated with reluctance to treat. Results: Prevalence of reluctance to provide medical care to HIV-positive patients in marginalized subgroups was high (ranging from 26.4% up to 71.9%, compared to a maximum of 7.5% if a patient was an HIV-negative physician. Students in their clinical years reported more negative attitudes than preclinical students. In general, female students were less willing to provide care than their male counterparts. Conclusions: Prejudicial attitudes about HIV-positive patients and those in marginalized subgroups of the population are prevalent among medical students in Russia. Given the increasing prevalence of HIV in the country, reasons for this hesitance to treat must be identified and addressed. Educational programs for healthcare providers are urgently needed to eliminate bias in the delivery of critically needed medical care. These targeted interventions should be coupled with other programs to eliminate structural barriers to care.

Damir A Bikmukhametov

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions. M.S. Thesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

1994-01-01

62

Trained Peer Response to Develop EFL Students' Positive Attitudes toward Peer Response  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports part of a broader action-research study on training EFL students in the use of strategies for effective peer response. Surveys using questionnaires were conducted among 20 university students involved in the action research to measure the changes in attitudes toward peer response before and after the classroom-based action research. The findings suggest that significant changes were obtained in all the questionnaire items regarding attitudes toward peer response. The stud...

Utami Widiati

2003-01-01

63

Attitudes to reproductive genetic testing in women who had a positive BRCA test before having children: a qualitative analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The scope of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is licensed has recently been expanded in the United Kingdom to include genetic predisposition to adult-onset cancer. This qualitative interview study explores reproductive decision making, knowledge of and attitudes to reproductive genetic testing (prenatal diagnosis and PGD) with 25 women aged 18–45 years who received a positive BRCA test in the United Kingdom before having children. In this cohort of younger women,...

Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Donnelly, Louise; Moynihan, Clare; Savona, Cornelie; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Lavery, Stuart; Watson, Maggie

2012-01-01

64

Trained Peer Response to Develop EFL Students' Positive Attitudes toward Peer Response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reports part of a broader action-research study on training EFL students in the use of strategies for effective peer response. Surveys using questionnaires were conducted among 20 university students involved in the action research to measure the changes in attitudes toward peer response before and after the classroom-based action research. The findings suggest that significant changes were obtained in all the questionnaire items regarding attitudes toward peer response. The students indicated that classmates' oral and written comments helped them enrich the content of their writing, improve the organization of their writing, and improve the language (including grammar and vocabulary of their writing.

Utami Widiati

2003-01-01

65

Developing Positive Attitudes toward Interprofessional Collaboration among Students in the Health Care Professions  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether attitudes toward interprofessional collaboration (Physician-Nurse, Physician-Social Worker, Nurse-Social Worker) held by medical, social work, and nursing students changed after completing an interprofessional curriculum consisting of (a) Interprofessional Education Development Session and (b) the Senior Aging and…

Park, Juyoung; Hawkins, Michele; Hamlin, Elwood; Hawkins, Wesley; Bamdas, Jo Ann M.

2014-01-01

66

A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate.

Wang, Bo; Deng, Zhihong; Wang, Shunting; Fu, Mengyin

2010-06-01

67

A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate

68

Rethinking procrastination: positive effects of "active" procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals. PMID:15959999

Chu, Angela Hsin Chun; Choi, Jin Nam

2005-06-01

69

Sarcocystis neurona major surface antigen gene 1 (SAG1) shows evidence of having evolved under positive selection pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The major surface antigen gene 1 (SAG1) is conserved among members of Sarcocystidae and may play an important role in parasite pathogenesis. Additionally, generation and selection of different antigenic variants of SAG1 has the potential for inclusion in a subunit vaccine or in the development of a diagnostic assay. In this study, patterns of nucleotide polymorphism were used to test the hypothesis that natural selection promotes diversity in different parts of SAG1 of Sarcocystis neurona. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of SAG1 from multiple S. neurona isolates identified two alleles. Sequences were identical intra-allele and highly divergent inter-alleles. Also, phylogenetic reconstruction showed sequences clustering into two clades. Tajima's and Fu and Li's neutrality tests indicated that selection is more likely to be acting on SAG1. Moreover, a sliding window analysis based on the ratio of silent substitutions to amino acid replacements provided strong evidence that two short segments in the central and 3' domain of SAG1 have been under positive selection in the divergence of the two alleles, suggesting that it may be important for the evasion of host immune responses and would be a suitable target for vaccine development. PMID:15517384

Elsheikha, Hany M; Mansfield, Linda S

2004-12-01

70

Positioning accuracy analysis of adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude is presented according to the characteristics of the target transport subsystem in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The mechanism consists of a tangent mechanism adjusting rotation angle and a set of orthogonal tangent mechanism adjusting two-dimensional deflection angles. The structural parameters of the adjusting target mechanism are analyzed according to principle errors, structure errors and motion errors of following. The analysis results indicate that the system error of the adjusting target mechanism is influenced by the displacement of the linear actuators, the actuator ball radius, the working radius of the tangent mechanism, the angle error of the inclined installation hole, the centralization error of the actuators, the orthogonal error of the two tangent mechanism, and the angle errors of the inclined target rod inclined rotation shaft. The errors of the inclined target rod and inclined rotation shaft are the two greatest impact factors, the spherical contact error is the next. By means of precise assembly and control system compensation, the accuracy of the adjusting target mechanism can be less than 0.1 mrad. (authors)

71

Optimal integer resolution for attitude determination using global positioning system signals  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a new motion-based algorithm for GPS integer ambiguity resolution is derived. The first step of this algorithm converts the reference sightline vectors into body frame vectors. This is accomplished by an optimal vectorized transformation of the phase difference measurements. The result of this transformation leads to the conversion of the integer ambiguities to vectorized biases. This essentially converts the problem to the familiar magnetometer-bias determination problem, for which an optimal and efficient solution exists. Also, the formulation in this paper is re-derived to provide a sequential estimate, so that a suitable stopping condition can be found during the vehicle motion. The advantages of the new algorithm include: it does not require an a-priori estimate of the vehicle's attitude; it provides an inherent integrity check using a covariance-type expression; and it can sequentially estimate the ambiguities during the vehicle motion. The only disadvantage of the new algorithm is that it requires at least three non-coplanar baselines. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator.

Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis; Lightsey, E. Glenn

1998-01-01

72

An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination  

Science.gov (United States)

During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions.

Wang, Bo; Miao, Lingjuan; Wang, Shunting; Shen, Jun

2009-07-01

73

An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions

74

Prosocial attitudes and empathic behavior in emotional positive versus negative situations: brain response (ERPs) and source localization (LORETA) analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research firstly investigated the neural correlates (ERPs, event-related potentials) of attitudes to engage in prosocial-helping behaviors, and secondly, it analyzed the relation between these brain-based potentials and personal profile (high vs. low empathic profile). It was considered the subjects' behavior in response to specific emotional situations (positive vs. negative) in case it was required a possible prosocial intervention. Thirty-one subjects were invited to empathize with the emotional contexts (videotapes that reproduced two person's exchanges) and to decide whether to intervene or not to support these persons. BEES questionnaire for empathic behavior was submitted to the subjects after the experimental session. ERP acquisition and LORETA source analysis revealed a negative ongoing deflection (N200 effect) more prefrontally distributed (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) in response to prosocial intervention options mainly for negative and positive contexts. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between high-empathic profiles, intervention behaviors (higher frequency of interventions) and N200 amplitude (higher peak). These results highlight the role of emotions in prosocial behavior, since the N200 effect was considered a marker of the emotional significance of the interpersonal situation. Secondly, the empathic trait may explain the prosocial decisional processes: Higher empathic trait contributes to induce subject's intervention behavior which in turn appears to be directly related to the cortical responsiveness within the prefrontal areas. PMID:22976172

Balconi, Michela; Canavesio, Ylenia

2013-03-01

75

Thoughts, Attitudes, and Feelings of HIV-Positive MSM Associated with High Transmission-Risk Sex  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents survey data collected from a sample of HIV-positive men (N = 182) who had high transmission-risk sex, defined as unprotected anal intercourse with a man whose HIV-status was negative or unknown, in the previous 6 months. Despite the tremendous changes in HIV treatment and their impact on people living with HIV, little recent…

Skinta, Matthew D.; Murphy, Jessie L.; Paul, Jay P.; Schwarcz, Sandra K.; Dilley, James W.

2012-01-01

76

Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The positive core construct of psychological capital (or simply PsyCap), consisting of the psychological resources of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, has recently been demonstrated to be open to human resource development (HRD) and performance management. The research stream on PsyCap has now grown to the point that a quantitative…

Avey, James B.; Reichard, Rebecca J.; Luthans, Fred; Mhatre, Ketan H.

2011-01-01

77

An examination of key experiences which contribute to a positive change in attitude toward science in two elementary education teacher candidates at the University of Wyoming  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation utilized life history methodology (Armstrong, 1987; Bogdan & Biklen, 1998; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 1977; Marshall & Rossman, 1995; Patton, 1987; Taylor & Bogdan; 1984) to examine lifelong science experiences of two elementary education teacher candidates at a land grant institution with a large, undergraduate teacher education program. Purposive sampling techniques (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998) led to the selection of two teacher candidates who reported high science anxiety when they began university coursework. The investigation focused on five broad questions: (a) What were key experiences in the elementary teacher education program which contributed to a positive change in attitude toward science? (b) What science experiences, in and out of school, did the teacher candidates encounter while they were in elementary school, junior high school, high school, and college? (c) How did the elementary education program's science course structure, professors, and field experiences contribute to the change in attitude toward science? (d) How much time was involved in the change in attitude toward science? and (e) What were the effects of the change in attitude on the teaching of science in the elementary classroom? Each candidate completed approximately twenty hours of interviews yielding rich descriptions of their lifelong science experiences. Data also included interviews with science and science education professors, journaling, and observations of student teaching experiences. Data analysis revealed four over-arching themes with implications for teacher educators. First, data showed the importance of relationship building between professors and teacher candidates. Professors must know and work with teacher candidates, and provide a structure that encourages question asking. Second, course structure including hands-on teaching strategies and students working in small groups over an extended period of time was vital. Third, integrating language arts with science proved important because the generally high comfort level experienced by elementary teacher candidates toward language arts may be extended to the teaching of science. Teacher candidates realize the benefits for both teaching and learning when the two subjects are integrated. Last, the study revealed the powerful effects of field experiences which include teaching science in the public schools and demonstrated the drawbacks of field experiences which do not include teaching science.

Cason, Maggie A.

78

Automated Processing of GPS/MEMS-IMU Data for Position, Velocity and Attitude Determination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This master thesis deals with the problematic of the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements with inertial data acquired by a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Inertial Measurement Units (IMU). This technology is employed for the purposes of sport performances assessment, as it enables reconstructing accurately athletes trajectories. Based on a recent development at the TOPO laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), a new software's a...

Fournier, Hugues

2009-01-01

79

The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy  

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Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather’s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

Mahsa Kazempour

2014-02-01

80

Embodied positioning/discourse analysis of a research based leadership development forum : Showing identity work as an in situ accomplishment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present article engages a discourse analysis of identity work as it is accomplished in a research and dialogue based leadership development forum in a university setting. It displays how different interactional setups in a positioning exercise prompt diverse spaces of possibilities that shape the identity work in situ. Through a micro-generic positioning analysis of the participants’ small story efforts (M. Bamberg, 2006; M. Bamberg & Georgakopoulou, 2008) combined with an analysis of dialogicality and other-orientation (Bakhtin, 1986; Linell, 2009) it is shown how counter and complicit discourses co-emerge in interaction giving space for certain lines of subjectification (Deleuze, 1992). The research contributes to a dawning field of scholars that study organizational (dialogical) practices up close and it questions the taken for granted assumptions of, for instance, staged dialogue as a natural positive phenomenon with attached emancipating consequences. It aspires to emphasize both the boarder (D) andthe local (d) dimensions of discourse, which is increasingly pursued and recommended within the field of interaction, dialogue and discourse studies. (Bager, 2013; Bager et al., forthcoming; Iedema, 2003; Linell, 2009; Phillips, 2011)

Bager, Ann

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

OPG and PgR show similar cohort specific effects as prognostic factors in ER positive breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is well known for bone destruction in skeletal metastases but has also been implicated in osteoclast-independent roles in tumorigenesis and de novo metastasis. Experimental data suggest contribution of progesterone to tumorigenesis may be mediated by RANKL. Importantly, modulation of this pathway became possible through the availability of denosumab, an artificial counterpart of OPG, but significant gaps remain in the translation of preclinical findings on the pathway. We analyzed gene expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG from 40 Affymetrix datasets encompassing 4467 primary breast cancers and focused on ER positive disease. We did not observe a significant prognostic value of RANK and RANKL mRNA expression. In contrast, OPG was associated with a better prognosis among 1941 ER positive cancers (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.53-0.77; P PgR are independently associated with good prognosis in ER positive breast cancer. However both markers share common cohort specific differences in contrast to proliferation markers as Ki67 which may be based on the underlying biology. PMID:24785095

Sänger, Nicole; Ruckhäberle, Eugen; Bianchini, Giampaolo; Heinrich, Tomas; Milde-Langosch, Karin; Müller, Volkmar; Rody, Achim; Solomayer, Erich Franz; Fehm, Tanja; Holtrich, Uwe; Becker, Sven; Karn, Thomas

2014-10-01

82

"Challenging Disabling Attitudes, Building an Inclusive Society": Considering the Role of Education in Encouraging Non-Disabled Children to Develop Positive Attitudes towards Disabled People  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty to…

Beckett, Angharad E.

2009-01-01

83

Three-dimensional repositioning tasks show differences in joint position sense between active and passive shoulder motion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proprioception is important in maintaining shoulder joint stability. Previous studies investigated the effects of unconstrained multiplanar motion, with subjects able to move freely in space, on repositioning tasks for active shoulder motion but not passive motion. We sought to further explore joint position sense with 3D passive, robot-guided motions. We hypothesized that target repositioning error would be greater in the case of passively placed targets than for actively placed targets. To investigate, 15 healthy individuals participated (8 female, 7 male), who were at most 6?ft (183?cm) tall to accommodate the equipment, and who had no history of shoulder injury, surgery, or significant participation in throwing sports. Target orientations were centered at 44° of elevation and 32° of horizontal rotation from the frontal plane. Two sets of 10 trials were performed. The first set involved active placement followed by active replacement, and the second set involved passive, robot-guided, placement followed by active replacement. Repositioning error was greater following passive placement than active placement (p?position sense at the shoulder. PMID:22072560

Erickson, R I Carl; Karduna, Andrew R

2012-05-01

84

Development of the gambling attitude scales: preliminary findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social scientists recognize gambling as a universal phenomenon that occurs in a myriad of forms. Although gambling is often a harmless social activity. some participants become pathological gamblers. Given the negative consequences associated with pathological gambling, it is important to understand attitudes toward gambling because they typically represent a readiness to act. One hundred and seventy university students completed four gambling attitude scales constructed to measure general attitudes and attitudes toward gambling in casinos, betting on horse races, and playing the lottery. Results showed the scales to be internally consistent and to have short-term temporal stability. The most positive attitudes were shown toward playing the lottery and the least positive were shown toward betting on horse races. In general, men reported more positive attitudes than women. Positive attitudes toward gambling were related to a tendency toward risk taking. PMID:9783655

Kassinove, J I

1998-10-01

85

Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Potential Entrepreneurs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores entrepreneurial attitudes among potential entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Multi-stage sampling maximized representation. Four hundred and eighty masters of business administration (MBA students (potential entrepreneurs from six public sector Pakistani universities returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: entrepreneurial acceptability, entrepreneurial intentions and personal factors. Moreover, the perceptions of the potential entrepreneurs on locus of control, self efficacy, subjective norms and instrumental readiness were also analyzed. The majority of students showed generally positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship at all six universities. Overall there was a significant difference between negative and positive attitudes (negative mean 184, positive mean 284. There was also some impact of demographic variables, such as university, parental income and profession. Both genders exhibited similar attitudes at most of the sample institutions. The implications for practice and policy are discussed.

Akhtar Ali (Corresponding author

2011-09-01

86

A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador  

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Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide.

Sara De Meyer

2014-07-01

87

A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador  

Science.gov (United States)

Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide. PMID:25024066

De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

2014-01-01

88

Attitudes to reproductive genetic testing in women who had a positive BRCA test before having children: a qualitative analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The scope of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is licensed has recently been expanded in the United Kingdom to include genetic predisposition to adult-onset cancer. This qualitative interview study explores reproductive decision making, knowledge of and attitudes to reproductive genetic testing (prenatal diagnosis and PGD) with 25 women aged 18-45 years who received a positive BRCA test in the United Kingdom before having children. In this cohort of younger women, BRCA testing was motivated by risk management decisions; for some, BRCA status has affected their later decisions about having children. The perceived severity of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) influences thoughts about passing on the mutation to children and willingness to consider reproductive genetic testing, but most participants do not believe HBOC is a condition for which pregnancy termination is justified. PGD is considered more acceptable and advantageous because it would prevent transmission to future generations, but women have concerns about selecting embryos and the fact that they and affected family members would not have been selected. Women would also be deterred by the need to undergo in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and ovarian stimulation for PGD. Awareness of reproductive testing options was very variable among the cohort. The findings highlight the complexities of reproductive decision making for young women who knowingly carry a BRCA mutation, and the dilemmas inherent to reproductive genetic testing when the condition being tested for also affects a prospective parent. Counselling and psychological support for BRCA-positive women and couples concerning reproductive options are strongly indicated. PMID:21811309

Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Donnelly, Louise; Moynihan, Clare; Savona, Cornelie; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Lavery, Stuart; Watson, Maggie

2012-01-01

89

Kinetic analysis shows that vitamin A disposal rate in humans is positively correlated with vitamin A stores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitamin A (VA) kinetics, storage, and disposal rate were determined in well-nourished Chinese and U.S. adults using model-based compartmental analysis. [(2)H(8)]Retinyl acetate (8.9 micromol) was orally administered to U.S. (n = 12; 59 +/- 9 y; mean +/- SD) and Chinese adults (n = 14; 54 +/- 4 y) and serum tracer and VA concentrations were measured from 3 h to 56 d. Using the Windows version of the Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software, we determined that the average time from dosing until appearance of labeled retinol in serum was greater in U.S. subjects (40.6 +/- 8.47 h) than in Chinese subjects (32.2 +/- 5.84 h; P < 0.01). Model-predicted total traced mass (898 +/- 637 vs. 237 +/- 109 micromol), disposal rate (14.7 +/- 5.87 vs. 5.58 +/- 2.04 micromol/d), and system residence time (58.9 +/- 28.7 vs. 42.9 +/- 14.6 d) were greater in U.S. than in Chinese subjects (P < 0.05). The model-predicted VA mass and VA mass estimated by deuterated retinol dilution at 3 and 24 d did not differ. VA disposal rate was positively correlated with VA traced mass in Chinese (R(2) = 0.556), U.S. (R(2) = 0.579), and all subjects (R(2) = 0.808). Additionally, VA disposal rate was significantly correlated with serum retinol pool size (R(2) = 0.227) and retinol concentration (R(2) = 0.330) in all subjects. Our results support the hypothesis that VA stores are the principle determinant of VA disposal rate in healthy, well-nourished adults. PMID:18424609

Cifelli, Christopher J; Green, Joanne B; Wang, Zhixu; Yin, Shian; Russell, Robert M; Tang, Guangwen; Green, Michael H

2008-05-01

90

The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common ancestor of all the Deuterostomia.

Grondona Jesus M

2009-06-01

91

Cultivating a positive attitude  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of quality control in Japanese industry and in particular in the Mitsubishi Group is described. Examples are given of the beneficial results of introducing quality assurance at all levels of the company. (U.K.)

92

Metacognition, study habits and attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between fifth grade students’ metacognition levels, and their study habits and attitudes. Participants of the study consist of 221 students, 125 female and 96 male, enrolling to six public primary schools in Turkey. The results revealed that there is a medium positive relationship between metacognitive knowledge and skills and study habits (r = .351, p < .05, study attitudes (r = .415, p < .05 and study orientation (r = .434, p < .05. Additionally, the results of the study showed that there is no significant relationship between metacognition and study habits and attitudes for low and medium achievers but, there is a significant relationship for high achievers.

Gokhan ÖZSOY

2009-10-01

93

Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents’ positive attitudes towards people with mental illness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents’ attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.

John Tsiantis

2012-07-01

94

Attitudes toward Counselling Practicum: An Implication for the Caring Attitude of Future Counsellors in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This action research was conducted during the counseling practicum for trainees from the Bachelor of Education (Guidance and Counseling) program from one of the local universities in Malaysia. There was a great concern about the attitudes of counseling practicum trainees. The assessment of their attitudes shows some levels of positiveness, but it…

Harun, Lily Mastura

95

Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. ?(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (Pfood production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (Pfood production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. PMID:23260729

Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

2013-01-01

96

Fuzzy measure of secondary students’ attitude towards Mathematics  

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Full Text Available In this paper we proposed a fuzzy concept for measuring Likert type scale to measure students’ attitude towards mathematics with an example of small sample. Students’ attitude towards mathematics has been a factor that is known to influence students’ achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to find out the students attitude towards mathematics in a selected school of Midnapore (Rural. A total of 20 secondary students were administered with a questionnaire to find out their attitudes towards mathematics. The students answered questions regarding their personal confidence to mathematics and perceived usefulness of mathematics. The results show that the students’ positive attitude towards mathematics is medium.

Bhowmik, Monoranjan

2013-01-01

97

A case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy 6 years after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. The primary tumor was negative for HER-2 as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH (1+, and ratio, 1.1, but examination of the recurrent lymph node metastasis showed positivity for HER-2 by FISH (ratio, 5.2. No lesions were detected in either her left breast or in other organs, and the patient was diagnosed as having HER-2-positive recurrent disease. Combination chemotherapy using weekly paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated, and a clinically complete response was achieved. This report suggests the benefit of routine evaluation of HER-2 status in recurrent breast cancer with the introduction of HER-2-targeting agents.

Haruta Rumi

2011-11-01

98

Attitude Accessibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitude formation, attitude accessibility and attitude-behavior consistency were studied. Experiments indicated that subjects could respond more quickly to inquiries about their attitudes when based on direct behavioral experience with attitude objects t...

R. H. Fazio

1981-01-01

99

Invasive breast carcinoma cases showing both estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity and c-erb B2 overexpression (a clinicopathologic study of 66 cases  

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Full Text Available We analyzed clinicopathologic characteristics of invasive breast carcinomas, where both hormone receptor positivity and c-erb B2 overexpression were detected by immunohistochemical methods. The rate of hormone receptor positivity for invasive breast carcinomas with c-erb B2 overexpression was 27.61% (66/239. The majority of the cases showed high levels of immunopositivity for hormone receptors. The mean age of patients was 52.96 while pre and postmenopausal patients were equal in number. The vast majority of the cases were high grade-invasive ductal carcinomas of low stages. Of 36 cases with available clinical follow-up, 8 displayed either local recurrence or distant metastasis in a relatively short duration (1-17 months. Our findings reveal that invasive breast carcinomas with both hormone receptor positivity and overexpression of c-erb B2 have a tendency to occur in premenopausal patients and have adverse prognostic characteristics even at low stages.

Ali BAli BA?

2006-01-01

100

Intending to stay: Positive images, attitudes, and classroom experiences as influences on students' intentions to persist in science and engineering majors  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary research on persistence in undergraduate education in science and engineering has focused primarily on identifying the structural, social, and psychological barriers to participation by students in underrepresented groups. As a result, there is a wealth of data to document why students leave their majors, but there is little direct empirical data to support prevailing presumptions about why students stay. Moreover, researchers have used widely differing definitions and measures of persistence, and they have seldom explored field differences. This study compared three ways of measuring persistence. These constituted three criterion variables: commitment to major, degree aspirations, and commitment to a science/engineering career. The study emphasized social factors that encourage students to persist, including four predictor variables---(1) positive images of scientists/engineers, (2) positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality, (3) positive classroom experiences, and (4) high levels of social integration. In addition, because researchers have repeatedly documented the degree to which women are more likely than men to drop out of science and engineering majors, the study examined the potential impact of gender in relation to these predictor variables. A survey was administered in the classroom to a total of 285 students enrolled in a required course for either a biological sciences and or an engineering major. Predictor variables were developed from standard scales, including the Images of Science/Scientists Scale, the Attitudes toward Women Scale, the Women in Science Scale, and the Perceptions of Prejudice Scale. Based on logistic regression models, results indicate that positive images of scientists and engineers was significantly related to improving the odds of students having a high commitment to major, high degree aspirations, and high commitment to career. There was also evidence that positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality as well as positive classroom experiences improved the odds of students' having high degree aspirations. There was limited evidence to suggest the significance of gender in interaction with the predictor variables. There was tentative evidence that field differences may play a critical role in persistence. The study concludes on two points. The first is that gender may be a more important factor in explaining why some students leave their science and engineering majors than in explaining why others stay. The second is that research directed at improving diversity in science would benefit from discussion about the measures of persistence.

Wyer, Mary Beth

2000-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

Nursing students' attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents baseline data on attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients and homophobic levels among nursing students in three Baltic Sea countries: Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. The aim is to describe and compare nursing students' attitudes in these three countries and to explore how attitudes towards HIV/AIDS correlate with background variables. The total sample comprised 471 nursing students. The respondents demonstrated average attitude scores towards patients with HIV/AIDS and rather positive attitudes towards homosexually oriented patients. Significant country differences were found, with Finnish nursing students showing the most positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients and homosexually oriented patients. Previous experience of HIV/AIDS patients was the single factor with the greatest positive impact on nursing students' attitudes. Nursing students' willingness to provide care for an HIV/AIDS patient was associated with a positive attitude towards these patients. Length of employment experience correlated negatively with general attitude, and older nursing students with more work experience showed a more negative attitude towards homosexual patients. Proper education to achieve a sound knowledge base and good nursing skills promotes a more positive attitude to HIV/AIDS. It is important that nursing students are sensitive and show respect for the patient's human dignity. There is need for greater harmonization of education in the three countries. PMID:19645805

Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Staniuliene, Vida; Istomina, Natalja; Aro, Ilme; Kisper-Hint, Ima-Riina; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Välimäki, Maritta

2009-06-01

102

Attitudes to nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a study of risk perception and attitudes with regard to nuclear waste. Two data sets are reported. In the first set, data were obtained from a survey of the general population, using an extensive questionnaire. The second set constituted a follow-up 7 years later, with a limited number of questions. The data showed that people considered the topic of nuclear waste risks to be very important and that they were not convinced that the technological problems had been solved. Experts associated with government agencies were moderately trusted, while those employed by the nuclear industry were much distrusted by some respondents, and very much trusted by others. Moral obligations to future generations were stressed. A large portion (more than 50 per cent) of the variances in risk perception could be explained by attitude to nuclear power, general risk sensitivity and trust in expertise. Most background variables, except gender, had little influence on risk perception and attitudes. The follow-up study showed that the attitude to nuclear power had become more positive over time, but that people still doubted that the problems of nuclear waste disposal had been solved. 49 refs

103

Deterministic and Recursive Approach in Attitude Determination for InnoSAT  

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Full Text Available Attitude determination system (ADS was indispensable in attitude control of satellite. Especially for InnoSAT due to the limitation of budget, weight, and power, the attitude was determined using onboard position sensors. Previous research has successfully implemented the attitude determination using only Earth's magnetic field sensors for small attitude angle, but the approach produced quite big error for large attitude angle. This paper presents attitude determination for InnoSAT using combination of sun sensors and earth's magnetic field for large attitude angle. The attitude was determined using a deterministic (QUEST and recursive (EKF approach. A problem arises when using the sun sensors while the satellite experiencing eclipse. Consequently, the accuracy of both approaches was analyzed at eclipse and no eclipse conditions. The result shows that deterministic approach produced better accuracy at no eclipse but recursive approach produced better accuracy at eclipse. The strategy to apply the both approaches and eclipse conditions also discussed in this paper.

Harijono Djojodihardjo

2011-12-01

104

Scaring Kids' Shows Off TV.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents the view that activist groups whose attitude is that television advertising is bad for children are scaring off the advertisers and making it difficult for positive children's programs to obtain funding. (SS)

Raspberry, William

1980-01-01

105

The Determinants of Consumers’ Attitude Towards Advertising  

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Full Text Available The advertising industry is a lucrative business in Malaysia. However, government intervention in the industry has to certain extent regulated the content of the advertisement messages. This in turn has impacted the formation of consumers’ attitude towards advertising. As such, it is crucial to identify the determinants of their attitude. The aim of this research is to investigate the determinants of consumers’ attitude towards advertising among tertiary students in a private higher education institution in Malaysia. A total of 263 undergraduate business students from a private university in Malaysia participated in this research. The outcome shows that credibility, informative, hedonic/ pleasure and good for economy positively relates to consumers’ attitude towards advertising.
Keywords: attitude towards advertising; credibility; informative; hedonic/pleasure; good for economy.

Lau Teck Chai

2010-08-01

106

A case of bilateral renal cell carcinoma associated with long-term dialysis showing false-positive immunoreactivity for TFE3 as Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/transcription factor 3 (TFE3) gene fusion (Xp11 translocation RCC) are a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma. A middle-aged Japanese man, who had a medical history of dialysis for more than 12 years, had bilateral renal cancers with a background of acquired cystic disease of the kidney and remarkable deposition of calcium oxalate in the tumorous area. The right renal tumor showed papillary architecture of clear cells with diffuse and strong immunoreactivity for TFE3 and focal and weak positivity for cathepsin K, suggesting a possibility of Xp11 translocation RCC. However, RT-PCR failed to detect any type of the reported fusion genes involving TFE3. Thus, the sample was sent for a TFE3 break-apart FISH assay in a renal tumor consultation service, which reported no evidence of TFE3 gene rearrangement. The right renal tumor was finally diagnosed as papillary renal cell carcinoma with cystic change. We report here a case of bilateral renal cell carcinoma in a patient undergoing long-term dialysis, which showed false-positive immunoreactivity for TFE3 immunostaining. Titration of TFE3 immunohistochemical staining (IHC) should be performed and cross-referenced with the FISH or RT-PCR results to avoid the misinterpretation of TFE3 IHC results. PMID:24228124

Kurisaki-Arakawa, Aiko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Mitani, Keiko; Fukumura, Yuki; Nagashima, Yoji; Argani, Pedrum; Yao, Takashi

2013-01-01

107

Attitudes of university precalculus students toward mathematics.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics. PMID:15941096

Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile

2005-04-01

108

Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor  

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Full Text Available El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus vivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia.Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

Diego Carrera Martínez

2011-06-01

109

Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente / Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus v [...] ivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia. Abstract in english Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming [...] the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

Diego, Carrera Martínez; Beatriz, Braña Marcos; Estefanía, Vegas Pardavila; Mónica de la, Villa Santoveña.

2011-06-01

110

Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour among HIV-positive and HIV-negative clients of a confidential HIV counselling and testing centre in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data are presented from HIV serodiagnoses and knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaire responses for 250 HIV-positive and 250 HIV-negative consecutive clients attending the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand in 1993. The study was conducted to describe the clients, operation, and impact of the public HIV counseling and testing center. The men and women were of mean age 26-29 years in a range of 16-64 years. 16% overall were HIV-1-seropositive; 13% of men and 24% of women. 21% requested the HIV test in response to previous high-risk behavior, 20% felt sick, 18% were checking a previous HIV test result, 10% planned marriage or a new relationship, and 5% planned to have a baby. Heterosexual risk behavior was reported by 85% of clients, but only 1% reported male homosexual or IV drug use risk behavior. These behaviors were reported despite the existence among the sample of ample information about HIV transmission risks and AIDS prevention measures. An history of sexually transmitted disease, not using condoms, low education and salary levels, and being female were associated with HIV infection. Former negative HIV test results were associated with higher levels of condom use, while most clients expressed the intention to reduce their HIV risk behavior in response to either a positive or negative HIV test result. Most clients had caring attitudes toward people with HIV and AIDS. The authors note that sufficient demand exists for confidential HIV counseling and testing services in Thailand. Such services should be considered as a means of reducing HIV transmission in Asia, especially in areas of high HIV seroprevalence. PMID:7802986

Phanuphak, P; Müller, O; Sarangbin, S; Sittitrai, W

1994-09-01

111

Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians. PMID:23952927

Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

2013-01-01

112

Students’ Attitudes towards the English Proficiency Enhancement Programme  

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Full Text Available This article examines students’ attitudes towards the English Proficiency Enhancement Programme (EPEP carried out in one of the public universities in Malaysia. It draws on a study of 167 participants of the inaugural programme in 2010. A questionnaire was administered to evaluate their attitudes towards four categories of the programme: facilitators, schedule, activities and benefits. Analysis of data was done quantitatively. A main finding is that the EPEP impacted positively on the participants. Other findings show no significant differences in attitudes between gender but attitudes between diploma and undergraduate participants were significantly different. Resultant suggestions include continuing with this programme but with some modifications.

Izah Mohd Tahir

2012-07-01

113

Honest versus Fake Scores on the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale-Form A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined whether the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons test could be faked by 38 physical therapy students who took the test once honestly and once faking positive attitudes. Results showed fake scores were significantly higher than honest scores, indicating that respondents were able to fake positive responses. (JAC)

Vargo, James W.; Semple, John E.

1984-01-01

114

An Examination of Personality and Demographic Factors on Attitudes toward Old People.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of college students showed that persons scoring higher in aggression demonstrated more negative attitudes toward the aged. Females, older students, and graduate students were more positive. Students majoring in business subjects tended to be more negative, while social work students had the most positive attitudes toward older people.…

Thorson, James A.; Perkins, Mark L.

1980-01-01

115

A Teacher Attitude Inventory: Identifying Teacher Positions in Relation to Educational Issues and Decisions. Research and Development Memorandum No. 118.  

Science.gov (United States)

This memorandum reports on the preliminary research using a 24-item inventory designed to measure teacher's positions in relation to education issues and teaching decisions. The instrument, whose development is reported, is intended to identify representatives of two dichotomous styles of teaching: traditional, teacher-centered teaching and…

Whitmore, Joanne Rand

116

A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10?11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

Acuna-Alonzo, Victor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hunemeier, Tabita; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Ortiz-Lopez, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramirez, Hugo; Leon-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramirez-Jimenez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Angeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, Jose; Cedillo-Barron, Leticia; Gomez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodriguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Catira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

2010-01-01

117

Tumours from MSH2 mutation carriers show loss of MSH2 expression but many tumours from MLH1 mutation carriers exhibit weak positive MLH1 staining.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsatellite analysis (MSA) in tumour tissue is useful for pre-selection of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients for mutation screening, but is time-consuming and cost-intensive. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for expression of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins is simple, fast, and indicates the affected gene. IHC has therefore been proposed as an alternative pre-screening method. However, some authors report a lower sensitivity of IHC compared with MSA. The present study reports IHC results for MSH2 and MLH1 performed in 82 tumours with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) from 81 carriers of pathogenic mutations in MSH2 or MLH1. One hundred per cent (38/38) of the tumours from MSH2 mutation carriers showed loss of MSH2 staining; in all cases, the affected MSH2 gene was predicted correctly by IHC. Complete loss of MLH1 expression was observed in 66% (29/44) of MLH1 mutation carriers. Weak positive MLH1 staining was observed in 14 (32%) cases and, in one case, normal MLH1 staining was seen. The pathologist was aware of the weak staining pattern as an indicator of an MLH1 mutation; 98% of the MLH1 mutations were predicted correctly. To evaluate whether weak positive MLH1 staining is observed more often with in-frame or missense mutations, IHC data from 23 MSI-H tumours from carriers of unspecified variants were added and mutations were grouped into truncating mutations, large non-truncating deletions, and small non-truncating mutations. Weak MLH1 staining was observed in all three categories and it is postulated that other factors, such as mutation of the second allele, also influence protein expression. In conclusion, IHC can be regarded as a very useful method for selecting HNPCC patients for mutation analysis, as long as it is interpreted by an experienced pathologist. The high specificity of IHC in terms of indicating the affected gene is useful for evaluating unspecified variants. However, the staining pattern does not predict whether the underlying germ-line mutation is truncating or not. PMID:16216036

Mangold, Elisabeth; Pagenstecher, Constanze; Friedl, Waltraut; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Ohlendorf, Maike; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Aretz, Stefan; Buettner, Reinhard; Propping, Peter; Mathiak, Micaela

2005-12-01

118

Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological processes in the soil have been modelled with simulation model SWAP. The experiment started in 2010 and is ongoing. Data, collected so far show that the plots with controlled drainage (all compared with plots equipped with conventional drainage) conserve more rain water (higher groundwater tables in early spring), lower discharges under average weather conditions and storm events, reduce N-loads and saline seepage to surface waters, enhance denitrification, show a different 'first flush' effect and show similar crop yields. The results of the experiments will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of controlled drainage on complex hydrological en geochemical processes in agricultural clay soils, the interaction between ground- en surface water and its effects on drain water quantity, quality and crop yield.

schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

2014-05-01

119

Sports Ideology, Attitudes toward Women, and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tests the associations of sports ideology with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes in a sample of 304 college students. It was found that sports ideology is positively associated with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes but only among males. Reciprocal causal influences between sexist attitudes and sports ideology are discussed. (SLD)

Harry, Joseph

1995-01-01

120

Attitude determination with GPS - Experimental results  

Science.gov (United States)

An approach to Global Positioning System (GPS) attitude determination and the results of an experimental evaluation are presented. The most outstanding features of the method are the fundamental observable used for attitude calculation, the triple difference, and the introduction of a new parameter, the differential dilution of precision (DDOP), which relates the GPS satellite geometry to the GPS accuracy when measuring angular magnitudes. The experiment used two commercial off-the-shelf GPS C/A code receivers delivering integrated Doppler measurements. The algorithm is robust with respect to phase cycle slips and does not require solving the usual integer ambiguity of the measurements. The preliminary results show that absolute attitude determination requires a calibration of the baseline and that the relative attitude accuracy is on the order of 0.1 deg or 2 mrads for the case of a 2-m-long baseline.

Martin-Neira, Manuel; Lucas, Rafael; Martinez, Miguel Angel

1990-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Attitude stability criteria of axisymmetric solar sail  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive attitude stability criteria of a solar sail whose membrane surface is axisymmetric are studied in this paper under a general SRP model. This paper proves that arbitrary attitude equilibrium position can be designed through adjusting the deviation between the pressure center and the mass center of the sail. The linearized method is applied to inspect analytically the stability of the equilibrium point from two different points of views. The results show that the attitude stability depends on the membrane surface shape and area. The results of simulation with full dynamic equations confirm that the two stability criteria are effective in judging the attitude stability for axisymmetric solar sail. Several possible applications of the study are also mentioned.

Hu, Xiaosai; Gong, Shengping; Li, Junfeng

2014-07-01

122

Attitudes towards wind power development in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively with the experiences and level of exposure to the impacts of wind turbines.

Ladenburg, Jacob

2006-01-01

123

Tactile Activities and Learning Attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tactile learning activities generated positive evaluative attitudes in fifth-grade learners toward geography. These learners did better academically when their competence was measured by content tests. (RM)

Blahut, John M.; Nicely, Robert F., Jr.

1984-01-01

124

Loss aversion and price volatility as determinants of attitude towards and preference for variable price in the Swedish electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a survey of a random sample of 488 Swedish residents showed that a positive attitude towards and preference for a variable price agreement with the incumbent electricity supplier was negatively affected by loss aversion, and a positive attitude also negatively affected by beliefs about price volatility. Although correlated with attitude and preference, age, education, and current choice of a variable price agreement had no independent effects. Income and current electricity costs had no effects

125

Evaluation of three tumor markers (CEA, CA19-9, nm-23) in tumor tissues of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma showing positive peritoneal lavage solution for malignant cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Approximately 50% of patients with serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma develop peritoneal recurrence and die of this disease during the first 2 years, even if curative resection is performed. Peritoneal lavage samples (PLS) from 31 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were obtained at laparotomy and the free cancer cells in the lavage solution were investigated. The aim of this study was to compare positive peritoneal lavage solution compare with expression in gastric carcinoma CEA,...

Fatma Tokat; I??n Soyuer; Hülya Akgün; Mehmet Aslan; Mustafa Kula

2007-01-01

126

CD133-positive cancer stem cells from Colo205 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line show resistance to chemotherapy and display a specific metabolomic profile.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decade, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have drawn substantial interest in cancer research since they have been described as major targets to improve treatment of tumors and to prevent recurrence and metastasis. In this paper, we report on the search for CSCs within the Colo205 human adenocarcinoma cell line. We describe that CD133 (prominin) was the only reliable marker for the isolation and characterization of CSCs within a Colo205 cell population. CD133-positive cells displayed many CSC characteristics, such as tumorsphere formation ability, expression of early-stage development markers, high invasiveness, raised tumor initiation potential and resistance to cisplatin chemotherapy treatment. In vitro analyses also highlighted a specific metabolomic profile of CD133-positive cells and we concluded that the chemotherapy resistance of CSCs could be related to the quiescence of such cells associated with their reduced metabolism. Furthermore, in vivo metabolome analyses suggested that a high level of circulating glutathione molecules could also promote treatment resistance. From the perspective of metabolomics, we also discuss the controversial use of serum-free in vitro cultures for CSC enrichment prior to further phenotype characterization. PMID:25221643

Vincent, Zangiacomi; Urakami, Kenichi; Maruyama, Koji; Yamaguchi, Ken; Kusuhara, Masatoshi

2014-07-01

127

CD133-positive cancer stem cells from Colo205 human colon adenocarcinoma cell line show resistance to chemotherapy and display a specific metabolomic profile  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past decade, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have drawn substantial interest in cancer research since they have been described as major targets to improve treatment of tumors and to prevent recurrence and metastasis. In this paper, we report on the search for CSCs within the Colo205 human adenocarcinoma cell line. We describe that CD133 (prominin) was the only reliable marker for the isolation and characterization of CSCs within a Colo205 cell population. CD133-positive cells displayed many CSC characteristics, such as tumorsphere formation ability, expression of early-stage development markers, high invasiveness, raised tumor initiation potential and resistance to cisplatin chemotherapy treatment. In vitro analyses also highlighted a specific metabolomic profile of CD133-positive cells and we concluded that the chemotherapy resistance of CSCs could be related to the quiescence of such cells associated with their reduced metabolism. Furthermore, in vivo metabolome analyses suggested that a high level of circulating glutathione molecules could also promote treatment resistance. From the perspective of metabolomics, we also discuss the controversial use of serum-free in vitro cultures for CSC enrichment prior to further phenotype characterization.

Vincent, Zangiacomi; Urakami, Kenichi; Maruyama, Koji; Yamaguchi, Ken; Kusuhara, Masatoshi

2014-01-01

128

Ehrlichia ruminantium Major Antigenic Protein Gene (map1) Variants Are Not Geographically Constrained and Show No Evidence of Having Evolved under Positive Selection Pressure  

Science.gov (United States)

In a search for tools to distinguish antigenic variants of Ehrlichia ruminantium, we sequenced the major antigenic protein genes (map1 genes) of 21 different isolates and found that the sequence polymorphisms were too great to permit the design of probes which could be used as markers for immunogenicity. Phylogenetic comparison of the 21 deduced MAP1 sequences plus another 9 sequences which had been previously published did not reveal any geographic clustering among the isolates. Maximum likelihood analysis of codon and amino acid changes over the phylogeny provided no statistical evidence that the gene is under positive selection pressure, suggesting that it may not be important for the evasion of host immune responses. PMID:11682561

Allsopp, M. T. E. P.; Dorfling, C. M.; Maillard, J. C.; Bensaid, A.; Haydon, D. T.; van Heerden, H.; Allsopp, B. A.

2001-01-01

129

Young Men, Religion and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explains attitudes towards gays and lesbians, and explores the complex relationship of religiosity, youth, masculinity and support for gay rights. Based on a large, reliable and nationally representative study (n=1405 from PEW Center carried out in 2006, we estimate three logistic regression models predicting approval for gay marriage, gay adoption and gays in the military, which helps us to observe the differences. We conclude that while religiosity and fundamentalism negatively affect support for all three issues, the relationship varies by age and gender. Generally, young men do not show differences in their views of gay marriage, but men, especially religious, young men do show more negative attitudes than their female counterparts in support for gay adoption. Finally, men show more positive attitudes towards gays in the military.

Gilbert Zicklin

2007-11-01

130

Adolescents' Enjoyment of Graphic Horror: Effects of Viewers' Attitudes and Portrayals of Victim.  

Science.gov (United States)

Finds that more permissive sexual attitudes and lower levels of punitiveness were associated with adolescents' greater enjoyment of "slasher films." Shows that traditional attitudes toward females' sexuality were positively associated with gore-watching motivations and with greater enjoyment of previews featuring female victims. (SR)

Oliver, Mary Beth

1993-01-01

131

Surveys Assessing Students' Attitudes toward Statistics: A Systematic Review of Validity and Reliability  

Science.gov (United States)

Students with positive attitudes toward statistics are likely to show strong academic performance in statistics courses. Multiple surveys measuring students' attitudes toward statistics exist; however, a comparison of the validity and reliability of interpretations based on their scores is needed. A systematic review of relevant electronic…

Nolan, Meaghan M.; Beran, Tanya; Hecker, Kent G.

2012-01-01

132

Psychological determinants of attitude towards and willingness to pay for green electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a mail survey of 855 Swedish household consumers showed that willingness to pay for green electricity increased with a positive attitude towards green electricity and decreased with electricity costs. Attitude towards green electricity was in turn related to awareness of consequences of environmental problems for oneself, others, and the biosphere, concerns for these consequences, and self-transcedent value types

133

The Attitudes of People with a Disability to Undertaking VET Training. Occasional Paper  

Science.gov (United States)

This research used a survey to investigate the attitudes of people with a disability towards undertaking training. The findings show very positive attitudes towards training by participants and, although the ability to generalise to the wider population is limited, one thing is clear: generally, people with a disability are willing to undertake…

Nechvoglod, Lisa; Griffin, Tabatha

2011-01-01

134

Exploring the Relationships among Multicultural Training Experiences and Attitudes toward Diversity among Counseling Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors surveyed a national sample of master's-level counseling students regarding their multicultural training experiences and their attitudes toward racial diversity and gender equity. Hierarchical regression models showed that student perceptions of program cultural ambience predicted positive cognitive attitudes toward racial diversity.…

Dickson, Ginger L.; Jepsen, David A.; Barbee, Phillip W.

2008-01-01

135

Influence of Attitudes, Significant Others, and Aspirations on How Adolescents Intend to Resolve a Premarital Pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined how sexually active adolescent women intended to deal with premarital pregnancy and what influenced intentions. Subjects holding positive general attitudes toward abortion showed stronger intentions toward terminating unwanted pregnancy. Abortion attitudes of significant others influenced intentions. More career-oriented subjects…

Brazzell, Jan F.; Acock, Alan C.

1988-01-01

136

Attitudes toward the Elderly: Identifying Problematic Usage of Ageist and Overextended Terminology in Research Instructions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of the Aging Semantic Differential completed by 142 undergraduates showed significant attitude differences related to descriptions of "old,""elderly," and "ages 70-85." Attitudes were significantly more positive regarding the 70-85 category. Results suggest that using stereotypical language during the research process creates bias in…

Polizzi, Kenneth G.; Millikin, Richard J.

2002-01-01

137

Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs, and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods: Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results: 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score. Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY levels. Conclusion: EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:511–517.

Teresita M. Hogan

2014-07-01

138

Pollen-specific, but not sperm-specific, genes show stronger purifying selection and higher rates of positive selection than sporophytic genes in Capsella grandiflora.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selection on the gametophyte can be a major force shaping plant genomes as 7-11% of genes are expressed only in that phase and 60% of genes are expressed in both the gametophytic and sporophytic phases. The efficacy of selection on gametophytic tissues is likely to be influenced by sexual selection acting on male and female functions of hermaphroditic plants. Moreover, the haploid nature of the gametophytic phase allows selection to be efficient in removing recessive deleterious mutations and fixing recessive beneficial mutations. To assess the importance of gametophytic selection, we compared the strength of purifying selection and extent of positive selection on gametophyte- and sporophyte-specific genes in the highly outcrossing plant Capsella grandiflora. We found that pollen-exclusive genes had a larger fraction of sites under strong purifying selection, a greater proportion of adaptive substitutions, and faster protein evolution compared with seedling-exclusive genes. In contrast, sperm cell-exclusive genes had a smaller fraction of sites under strong purifying selection, a lower proportion of adaptive substitutions, and slower protein evolution compared with seedling-exclusive genes. Observations of strong selection acting on pollen-expressed genes are likely explained by sexual selection resulting from pollen competition aided by the haploid nature of that tissue. The relaxation of selection in sperm might be due to the reduced influence of intrasexual competition, but reduced gene expression may also be playing an important role. PMID:23997108

Arunkumar, Ramesh; Josephs, Emily B; Williamson, Robert J; Wright, Stephen I

2013-11-01

139

How and when do personal values guide our attitudes and sociality? Explaining cross-cultural variability in attitude-value linkages.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines how and when personal values relate to social attitudes. Considering values as motivational orientations, we propose an attitude-value taxonomy based on Moral Foundation Theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2007) and Schwartz's (1992) basic human values theory allowing predictions of (a) how social attitudes are related to personal values, and (b) when macro-contextual factors have an impact on attitude-value links. In a meta-analysis based on the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992) and the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; k = 91, N = 30,357 from 31 countries), we found that self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values relate positively to fairness/proenvironmental and care/prosocial attitudes, and conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values relate to purity/religious and authority/political attitudes, whereas ingroup/identity attitudes are not consistently associated with value dimensions. Additionally, we hypothesize that the ecological, economic, and cultural context moderates the extent to which values guide social attitudes. Results of the multi-level meta-analysis show that ecological and cultural factors inhibit or foster attitude-value associations: Disease stress is associated with lower attitude-value associations for conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values; collectivism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for conservation values; individualism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values; and uncertainty avoidance is associated with stronger attitude-values links, particularly for conservation values. These findings challenge universalistic claims about context-independent attitude-value relations and contribute to refined future value and social attitude theories. PMID:23339521

Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald

2013-09-01

140

Impact of work experience placements on school students' attitude towards mental illness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims and method Research shows that 16- to 19-year-olds express the greatest level of negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of work experience placements in influencing secondary-school students' attitudes towards mental illness and career choices. The Adolescent Attitude Towards Mental Illness questionnaire measured and assessed the adolescents' attitude changes. Pre- and post-evaluation questionnaires assessed changes in their career choices. Results There was a statistically significant change in the adolescents' attitudes, especially regarding categorical thinking and perceptions that people with mental illness are violent and out of control. There was also a positive shift in their career choices towards options in the field of mental health. Clinical implications Work experience placements can have a positive impact on secondary-school students' attitudes towards mental illness and may improve the level of student recruitment into the field of psychiatry. PMID:25237537

Kennedy, Vanathi; Belgamwar, Ravindra B

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
141

The investigation of the reading attitudes of second grade students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level primary school students in respect to several variables using the “Reading Attitude Scale towards Primary School Second Grade Students” which is developed by Özbay and Uyar (2009. Study group consists of 508 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th levels of state primary schools in Ni?de city centre. Thus, the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level students in accordance with gender and school variables are intended to be defined. At the end of the study, the reading attitude levels of the second grade students are seen positive. It is concluded that the reading attitude score averages of second grade students show a significant difference with regard to genders, schools and classes at which they study.

Kamil ??eri

2010-07-01

142

Importance of showing HBsAg and HBcAg positivity in the liver for better aetiological definition of chronic liver disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum and tissue hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers were compared in 35 alcoholic and 23 non-alcoholic subjects affected by chronic liver disease. Seventeen point one per cent of alcoholic and 21.7% of non-alcoholic subjects had HBV tissue markers, but not serum markers, for this virus. It is therefore concluded that showing the presence of HBV tissue markers permits a better aetiological definition of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative chronic liver disease, both in alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. PMID:3818980

Cuccurullo, L; Rambaldi, M; Iaquinto, G; Ferraraccio, F; Ambrosone, L; Giardullo, N; De Vita, A

1987-02-01

143

Importance of showing HBsAg and HBcAg positivity in the liver for better aetiological definition of chronic liver disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum and tissue hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers were compared in 35 alcoholic and 23 non-alcoholic subjects affected by chronic liver disease. Seventeen point one per cent of alcoholic and 21.7% of non-alcoholic subjects had HBV tissue markers, but not serum markers, for this virus. It is therefore concluded that showing the presence of HBV tissue markers permits a better aetiological definition of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative chronic liver disease, both in alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3818980

Cuccurullo, L; Rambaldi, M; Iaquinto, G; Ferraraccio, F; Ambrosone, L; Giardullo, N; De Vita, A

1987-01-01

144

Sci Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sci Show, an entertaining series of quirky YouTube videos, tackles topics ranging from âÂÂHow Do Polarized Sunglasses Workâ to âÂÂStrong Interaction: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics.â Most episodes are less than five minutes long, but they pack a wallop of handy science info. Anyone short on time but long on big questions will benefit from the series. Episodes will be helpful to teachers and parents looking to spark enthusiasm in young minds. Viewers may want to start with recent episodes like âÂÂTodayâÂÂs Mass Extinction,â and the âÂÂWorldâÂÂs First See-Through Animalâ and âÂÂHow Do Animals Change Color?â before digging into the archives for gems like âÂÂThe Truth About Gingersâ and âÂÂThe Science of Lying.âÂÂ

145

Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China : A hierarchical value-attitude model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology. The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism and attitudes towards technology points towards the belief of Chinese people that technology is a positive determinant of food safety, and that interest in technology steams from altruistic predispositions.

Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G

146

Social psychology and energy attitude consumer change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most issues in social Psychology is study of attitude. Attitudes are causes of human behavior. If we regard energy consumption as a behavior for changing behavior in field of energy we must to study attitude and attitude change.In social psychology attitude define as positive and negative affective state to a matter of object. In this paper try it describe approaches and theories about attitudes and attitude change such as classical conditioning operant conditioning, social learning and cognitive. We hope this paper will be useful for planners and expert that work in this field

147

Attitudes towards offshore wind farms-The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identif as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.

148

Attitudes towards offshore wind farms. The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular. (author)

Ladenburg, Jacob [Danish Institute of Governmental Research (AKF), Nyropsgade 37, 1602 Copenhagen V. (Denmark)

2010-03-15

149

Attitudes towards offshore wind farms-The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.

Ladenburg, Jacob, E-mail: Jal@akf.d [Danish Institute of Governmental Research (AKF), Nyropsgade 37, 1602 Copenhagen V. (Denmark)

2010-03-15

150

GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).  

CERN Multimedia

GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

2004-01-01

151

ATTITUDE TOWARDS CHEATING AMONG STUDENTS OF PROFESSIONALAND NON PROFESSIONAL COURSES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was done to compare the attitude towards cheating of the professional and nonprofessional course students. In this study the sample consisted of 20 professional and 20 nonprofessional course students, studying in DEI and University. For the measurement of Attitude towards Cheating, Attitude towards cheating scale by Sharma was administered on the sample. It consists of 35 statements which are either positive or negative. Responses were to be obtained on five point scale. t-test was used for statistical analysis. The finding of this study showed that the students of professional courses have more positive attitude towards cheating as compared to the students of nonprofessional course. The value of t=16.59** was found to be statistically significant at .01 level between the two group of subjects.

SHRAWAN SHINDE

2012-12-01

152

Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus

2013-04-01

153

Premenarcheal Mexican girls' expectations concerning perimenstrual changes and menstrual attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine both the perimenstrual changes that Mexican premenarcheal girls expect to experience and their attitudes toward menstruation. A total of 750 premenarcheal girls in fifth and sixth grade were studied. Participants completed a Perimenstrual Change Checklist, which listed 20 negative possible perimenstrual changes and ten positive ones, and a Spanish version of the Adolescent Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire. The results showed a set of mostly negative perimenstrual expectations, the most common being discomfort, cramps or abdominal pain and mood swings. Concerning menstrual attitudes, the girls scored highest on secrecy, followed by negative feelings and by positive feelings. The girls who perceived menstruation as a negative event and with secrecy, expected more negative perimenstrual changes, while those who perceived menstruation as a positive event expected more positive perimenstrual changes. We believe premenarcheal girls, with no personal experience, must be more influenced by cultural stereotypes which are of a negative nature. PMID:12189902

Marván, M L; Espinosa-Hernández, G; Vacio, A

2002-06-01

154

Social attitudes modulate automatic imitation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In naturalistic interpersonal settings, mimicry or ‘automatic imitation’ generates liking, affiliation, cooperation and other positive social attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find out whether the relationship between social attitudes and mimicry is bidirectional: Do social attitudes have a direct and specific effect on mimicry? Participants were primed with pro-social, neutral or anti-social words in a scrambled sentence task. They were then tested for mimic...

2009-01-01

155

Social attitudes modulate automatic imitation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In naturalistic interpersonal settings, mimicry or "automatic imitation" generates liking, affiliation, cooperation and other positive social attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find out whether the relationship between social attitudes and mimicry is bidirectional: Do social attitudes have a direct and specific effect on mimicry? Participants were primed with pro-social, neutral or anti-social words in a scrambled sentence task. They were then tested for mimicry using a stimulus-resp...

Leighton, J.; Bird, G.; Orsini, C.; Heyes, C.

2010-01-01

156

Social attitudes modulate automatic imitation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In naturalistic interpersonal settings, mimicry or ‘automatic imitation’ generates liking, affiliation, cooperation and other positive social attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find out whether the relationship between social attitudes and mimicry is bidirectional: Do social attitudes have a direct and specific effect on mimicry? Participants were primed with pro-social, neutral or anti-social words in a scrambled sentence task. They were then tested for mimicry using a stimulus-...

2010-01-01

157

Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

2010-01-01

158

Job attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Job attitudes research is arguably the most venerable and popular topic in organizational psychology. This article surveys the field as it has been constituted in the past several years. Definitional issues are addressed first, in an attempt to clarify the nature, scope, and structure of job attitudes. The distinction between cognitive and affective bases of job attitudes has been an issue of debate, and recent research using within-persons designs has done much to inform this discussion. Recent research has also begun to reformulate the question of dispositional or situational influences on employee attitudes by addressing how these factors might work together to influence attitudes. Finally, there has also been a continual growth in research investigating how employee attitudes are related to a variety of behaviors at both the individual and aggregated level of analysis. PMID:22129457

Judge, Timothy A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D

2012-01-01

159

The Impact of Magic Johnson's HIV Serostatus Disclosure on Unmarried College Students' HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, Risk Perception, and Sexual Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unmarried heterosexual college students' human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, attitudes, risk perception, and sexual behavior were assessed before and after Magic Johnson's HIV-positive serostatus disclosure. After the disclosure, students showed small increases in HIV knowledge scores, but their attitudes, risk perceptions, and sexual…

Ehde, Dawn M.; And Others

1995-01-01

160

Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

 
 
 
 
161

A Correlation Study of Student Attitudes Toward Science in a Southern State High School  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this correlational research study was to examine the attitudes toward science of students in Grades 11 and 12 and to investigate if there were differences resulting from gender, grade level, ethnicity, and the level of the curriculum received in average or advanced placement (AP) honors science. The participants of this study consisted of 50 randomly selected male and female high school students who were enrolled in AP and average science classes in an urban Southern state high school. The study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) instrument to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories including (a) Social Implications of Science, (b) Normality of Scientists, (c) Attitude Toward Scientific Inquiry, (d) Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, (e) Enjoyment of Science Lessons, (f) Leisure Interest in Science, and (g) Career Interest in Science. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there were gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the seven subscales and measuring different aspects of science attitudes. Statistical treatment of the TOSRA survey involved the use of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple and linear regression. Findings did not reveal significant gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were differences on several of the subscales. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean attitude scores for grade level. However, the study did reveal differences in ethnicity and attitudes toward science. With regard to ethnicity, scores for Native Americans and Whites were higher than scores for Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics indicating that Native Americans and White students showed a more positive attitude toward science. Regarding the level of curriculum received by students who were exposed to advanced level science courses showed more positive attitudes toward science than those students who were enrolled in average science classes.

Barco-Southall, Crystal

162

Multivariate Effects of Level of Education, Computer Ownership, and Computer Use on Female Students’ Attitudes towards CALL  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating Iranian female students’ attitude towards CALL and its relationship with their level of education, computer ownership, and frequency of use. One hundred and forty-two female students (50 junior high-school students, 49 high-school students and 43 university students participated in this study. They filled in A-CALL questionnaire that assessed their attitudes towards CALL with respect to four factors: effectiveness of CALL vs. non-CALL, surplus value of CALL, teacher influence, and degree of exhibition to CALL. The findings revealed that the sample had a general positive attitude towards CALL while they showed the highest positive attitudes towards teacher influence and the lowest positive attitudes towards effectiveness of CALL vs. non-CALL. Students’ attitude toward CALL across level of education was found to be significantly different just in degree of exhibition to CALL; while university students had the highest level of positive attitudes in this regard. Further, computer ownership could make a difference in students’ attitude towards teacher influence. No statistically significant difference was found between the attitudes of those students who used computer more frequently and those students who did not use it quite often.

Mehrak Rahimi

2012-03-01

163

Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

Tomazic, Iztok

2011-01-01

164

Candidate Teachers’ Attitude toward Scientific Research  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine candidate teachers’ attitude toward scientific research. The study was a descriptive survey. Study group was composed of 713 education faculty students. Data were collected with a scale called ‚Scale of attitude towards scientific research? developed by the researchers. Data analysis involved calculation of descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, min, max, frequency and percentile, analysis of variance (ANOVA, LSD, and t tests. As a result: Teacher candidates' attitude toward scientific researches levels are ‚high? according to all the factors. Teacher candidates' attitudes toward scientific researches levels are significantly different according to departments except ‚Positive Attitude toward Researches? factor. Teacher candidates' attitude toward scientific researches levels are significantly different according to genders for ‚Be ‚the reluctance of help researchers?, ‚Negative Attitude toward Researches? and ‚Positive Attitude toward Researches? factor.

Özgen KORKMAZ

2011-12-01

165

Developing An Attitude Scale Towards Young People  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, it was aimed to develop a scale measuring attitudes of adults toward young people. The scale, labeled as Attitude Scale Toward Young People (ASTYP), consists of 52 items and is Likert type scale. The scale includes positive and negative attitude statements which related to the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of attitude. The validity and reliability study of the scale were conducted on a study group including 302 adults. The evidence for the construct validity of...

Suna, Eren Hayri Bas?kent U?niversitesi; Erkan Ati?k, Zeynep Mesleki Yeterlilik Kurumu; Gu?ney Karaman, Neslihan Bas?kent U?niversitesi; C?ok, Figen Ted U?niversitesi

2013-01-01

166

An Examination of Democratic Attitudes of Primary School Teachers  

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Full Text Available As democracy can develop better in a society of democratic people, democracy education can also get its intended goals better in a democratic school environment. As the most influential people in a school environment were teachers, this study, too, aimed to determine their levels of democratic attitudes. In the present study, 60 primary school teachers working in the schools attached to the Bursa Metropolitan Municipality were surveyed. The relationships between their attitudes and some variables were studied. These variables included school they work, age, gender, marital status, number of children they have, education level, teaching experience and number of broth-ers or sisters. The questionnaire used for this study was validated by Aydogan & Kukul (2003 based on previous studies made by Gomleksiz (1988, Yildirim (1994 and Atasoy (1997. For the validity of the questionnaire, Cronbach Alpha coefficient (0.829 was calculated. The results suggest that teachers show very positive attitude with a score of 103. When the items were examined individually, some significant relationships were found with the variables. Teachers should have positive democratic attitudes in order to give lessons of democracy to their students. An appropriate and encouraging environment should be prepared in order for students to gain desired democratic outcomes. In a democratic environment, teachers’ positive attitudes will help their students to gain critical thinking skills, effective discussion skills, capability for fighting against inequity, cooperation and collaboration skills, and showing empathy and respect for diversity.

S. Gulec

2009-12-01

167

Interactions among Attitudes toward Teaching and Personality Constructs in Early Childhood Pre-service Teachers  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine early childhood education teachers’ attitudes toward teaching, and their relationship to internal-external locus of control and sociotropy and autonomy orientations. The participants in this study were limited to 180 undergraduate students enrolled in early childhood education in three different universities in Ankara, Turkey. The results showed that the participants had fairly high positive attitudes toward teaching. On the other hand, despite these high positive attitudes, almost half of the participants indicated that their future plans did not include being involved with early childhood education. In general, the demographic characteristics were not significantly related to these attitudes. Attitude toward teaching was negatively related to overall external locus of control and it was not related to internal locus of control at a significant level. In relation to sub-factors, belief in chance and meaninglessness of effort also showed a negative relationship with attitude toward teaching. Attitude toward teaching was not significantly related to either of sociotropy or autonomy orientations. However, when computing correlations with the sub-scales of the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale, only attitude toward teaching was found negatively correlated with concern about disapproval subscale.

Emine Ferda BEDEL

2008-01-01

168

Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

2012-01-01

169

Mexican beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and gender-role ideology in marriage.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and sixty-one Mexican respondents completed a questionnaire that measured beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and another that measured gender-role ideology in marriage (GRIMQ). The participants were divided into two groups according to the GRIMQ: "high machismo/marianismo" and "low machismo/marianismo" groups. The participants belonging to the first group showed the most negative attitudes toward hysterectomy. In this group, men showed more negative attitudes toward hysterctomy and were less likely than women to believe that hysterectomy has positive aspects. The findings are discussed in light of male dominance and female subordination that prevail in certain cultural groups of Mexico.xs. PMID:22577739

Marván, Ma Luisa; Quiros, Vanessa; López-Vázquez, Esperanza; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet

2012-01-01

170

Therapist attitudes towards computer-based trainings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer-based trainings are a promising avenue for increasing access to training in evidence-based practices. However, little is known about whether therapists are willing to use them. Results from a national survey of practicing therapists (N = 1,067) indicated that 26 % of therapists reported previously using a computer-based training and overall attitudes (as measured by the Computer-Based Training Attitudes Scale) were positive. Higher therapist computer fluency and greater openness to new treatments predicted positive attitudes. Therapists with more positive attitudes were more likely to have previously used a computer-based training. Implications are discussed. PMID:24150441

Becker, Emily M; Jensen-Doss, Amanda

2014-11-01

171

Examining Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes towards Teaching Profession and Pupil Control Ideology  

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Full Text Available The attitude of teachers towards teaching profession is as important as teaching knowledge. It is estimated that teachers who have positive attitudes towards teaching profession may show humanistic attitudes and behaviors to students. Therefore, this study examines correlation between attitudes towards teaching profession and pupil control ideology of teacher candidates. The participants of the study comprise 281 teacher candidates at Ondokuz May?s University’s Faculty of Education. In this study, two instruments were used for data gathering. “Teaching Profession Attitude Scale” was used to evaluate the attitudes towards teaching profession of the teacher candidates. “Pupil Control Ideology Inventory” was used for determining the level of pupil control ideology of teacher candidates on a humanistic-custodial dimension. The results of Pearson moment correlation analysis indicated that the pupil control ideology was negatively correlated with the attitude towards teaching profession of teacher candidates. According to simple regression analysis, the attitude towards teaching profession is a significant predictor for pupil control ideology on teacher candidates T-test analysis indicated that there was no significant difference according to gender in terms of pupil control ideology and the attitude towards teaching profession of teacher candidates.

Ebru O?UZ

2011-12-01

172

THE EFFECTS OF ANIMATED AGENTS ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDES  

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Full Text Available Animated agents are electronic agents that interact with learners through voice, visuals or text and that carry human-like characteristics such as gestures and facial expressions with the purpose of creating a social learning environment, and provide information and guidance and when required feedback and motivation to students during their learning experience. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the use of pedagogical agents in learning materials designed in multimedia on the achievement and attitudes of students. A general evaluation of the research findings indicate that the use of multimedia software developed by using pedagogical agents positively affects student achievement and attitude. The achievement of the students who worked with the software significantly increased, but no significant difference in terms of different pedagogical agents was observed. The comparison of the student’s attitudes revealed no significant difference in terms of different pedagogical agents, yet the attitudes regarding “bearing human features” showed positively significant difference for the software with body shot of a real person. As it is seen in the unstructured interviews with the participants conducted during and after the experimental process, it should be stated that the students had positive attitudes towards the software and the use of pedagogical agent and expressed their liking.

Figen UNAL-COLAK

2012-04-01

173

How Chinese Face Perception Influences Consumer’s Implicit and Explicit Attitude towards Brand Country of Origin  

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Full Text Available Chinese people pay much attention to their faces. Face plays a very important role in Chinese daily life. Chinesepeople usually do kinds of Face Works in order to earn face, enhance face, or save face. Face work influencesconsumer’s attitude toward brand country of origin (BCO in China market. What’s more, face work makes itdifferent between implicit and explicit attitudes towards a certain brand. Although existing literatures haveverified some factors that affect implicit and explicit attitudes towards BCO, few research study the effect offace perception on BCO. The study uses both questionnaire and IAT technique to measure the effect of faceperception on the implicit and explicit attitudes toward BCO. Results showed that: (1 consumers with high faceperception have a more positive explicit attitude toward Japanese /American brands, and (2 face perceptionmoderates the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes towards BCO.

Zhuomin Shi

2012-02-01

174

The Potential Positive Impact of Sup-ported Employment on the Oral Health Status, Attitudes and Behavior of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID con-stitute a unique but heterogeneous population, which includes a great variety of mental and developmental disorders, as well as congenital syndromes. Nowadays, many persons with mild or moderate ID, with specific training, can make considerable efforts to improve their lives, by having a job in either open or supported employment. On the other hand, since dental caries and periodontal diseases are among the most common secondary conditions affecting people with ID, oral diseases may detract the quality of life from disabled persons.The hypothesis: Employment (sheltered workshop, open or supported employment of persons with ID, may enable these individuals to improve their oral health status, attitudes and behavior, compared to the ID individuals who are not working, due to the development of specific socio-emotional characteristics and dexterities.Evaluation of the hypothesis: According to previous reports, employed people with ID demonstrated better self-esteem and greater autonomy, more satisfaction with their vocational/non-vocational ac-tivities and higher quality of life.

Vasileios Margaritis

2012-03-01

175

Evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of students towards peers with disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and a control group, both comprising two rural schools. An intervention program was developed for kindergarten (n(experimental) = 22, n(control) = 31) and elementary school students without disabilities (n(experimental) = 91, n(control) = 127) (age range 4-12 years old). This intervention consisted of a 3 weeks education project comprising six lessons about disabilities. The Acceptance Scale for Kindergarten-revised and the Attitude Survey to Inclusive Education were used to measure attitudes at three moments: prior to the start of the intervention, after the intervention and 1 year later. The outcomes of the multilevel analysis showed positive, immediate effects on attitudes of kindergarten students, but limited effects on elementary school students' attitudes. PMID:23982486

de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander; Post, Wendy

2014-03-01

176

Low-attitude Oxfordian position of the oravic crustal segment (Pieniny Klippen Belt, western Carpathians). Was it a slow drift or a big jump?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Bajocian and Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian limestones and Bathonian- Callovian neptunian dykes which cut the limestones from the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB) were samples for rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study. The samples were measured in the Paleomagnetic Laboratory in the Institute of Geophysics, Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava and in the Paleomagnetic Laboratory of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. SIRM(T) curves show that limestone and dykes from Mestecko contain hematite with blocking temperature about 650-670 deg C. Babina limestone and dykes contain magnetite with Tb between 470 and 570 deg C, usually accompanied by small hematite tail. Sometimes goethite with Tb about 80-100 deg C is seen. Dykes and limestone from Vrsatec contain magnetite with Tb 570 deg C or hematite with unblocking temperature of 670 deg C. After cleaning of recent soft component by temperature of 200 deg C and a field of 10-20 mT, hard component was revealed. After tilt correction mean directions found in Bajocian and Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian limestones have scattered declination but similar reversed inclination between 35 deg and 49 deg. Exceptions is mean direction for Bajocian limestone from Boleslav which have normal polarity. Mean directions for Bathonian- Callovian dykes are scattered in situ and after tilt correction. Fold test for inclination only showed pre-folding inclination for Bajocian and pre-folding inclination for Bajocian and Oxfordian-Kimmeridgain limestone and scattered inclination for in situ and tilt corrected directions for dykes. Mean paleoinclination calculated for Bajocian and Oxfordian-Kimmeridgain limestone are 38.5 deg and 42.5 deg, respectively, which corresponds to 22 degN and 25 degN of paleolatitude. This is about 10 deg - 15 deg lower than the value of inclination expected for that age for Pieniny Klippen Belt from Jurassic poles for Stable Europe. As positive fold test prove pre-folding age of isolating directions other possibility - flattening of inclination should be considered. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and magnetic remanence (AARM) can be used to evaluation of origin and deviation of NRM in sedimentary rocks. Axes of AMS are scattered for all localities. The degree of anisotropy is weak. Shape parameter T shows equal distribution of oblate and prolate fabric. On the contrary, ARM maximum axes are well clustered, especially for Mestecko and Vrsatec. Maximum axes are distributed in a vertical plane for Mestecko and in horizontal plane for Babina and Vrsatec. This evidences that the AAMR fabric is not related to the sedimentation and compaction processes but it was controlled by magnetization process and ambient field direction. However, anisotropy axes are not close to NRM directions. For Mestecko they are steeper. This exclude an effect of shallowing of NRM. On this basis we can assume that more southern paleolatitude of the Pieniny Klippen Belt than expected is demonstration of paleogeography and tectonics and points to the close vicinity of PKB to African plate in Jurassic.

177

Determinanten für eine hausärztliche Berufswahl unter Studierenden der Medizin: Eine Umfrage an drei bayerischen Medizinischen Fakultäten [Predictors of a positive attitude of medical students towards general practice – a survey of three Bavarian medical faculties  

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Full Text Available [english] Objective: Germany is witnessing an increasing shortage of general practitioners (GPs. The aim was to determine predictors of the job-related motivation of medical students of three medical faculties with different institutionalisation of general practice as an academic discipline.Methods: Medical students were surveyed with a standardised questionnaire about their attitudes towards general practice and their motivation to work as a GP in different working conditions. Predictors for positive attitudes and motivation were calculated using logistic regression models.Results: 940 (15.2% out of 6182 medical students from three Bavarian medical faculties participated in an online survey. 585 (62.7% were female, and the average age was 25.0 (standard deviation 3.7. The average grade of a university-entrance diploma was 1.6 (standard deviation 0.5. 718 (76.4% could imagine working as a GP. However, they favoured being employed within another organisation and not having their own private practice (65.5% vs. 35.1%. “Presence of a professorship of general practice” was associated with a positive attitude towards general practice (OR 1.57; 95%CI 1.13-2.417. Motivation for working as a GP was associated with “being female” (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.80-3.56 and “presence of a professorship of general practice” (OR 1.68; 95%CI 1.14-2.46. Having a lower grade for one’s university-entrance diploma was associated with a higher preference to work in one’s own practice (OR 1.39; 95%CI 1.02-1.90.Conclusion: A high amount of medical students were open-minded towards general practice. However, they favoured employment within an organization over working in their own practice. Institutionalisation of general practice as an academic discipline might be of importance to gain positive attitudes towards general practice and motivate medical students to work as a GP.[german] Zielsetzung: Der zunehmende Hausärztemangel wird immer mehr zu einem realen Versorgungsproblem. Ziel war es, an drei Universitäten mit unterschiedlichem Grad der Institutionalisierung des Fachs Allgemeinmedizin Einflussfaktoren zu ermitteln, die die Motivation für eine spätere hausärztliche Tätigkeit begünstigen. Methodik: In einem standardisierten Fragebogen wurde die Haltung gegenüber dem Fach Allgemeinmedizin und die Bereitschaft zur Niederlassung in eigener hausärztlicher Praxis bzw. Motivation zur Arbeit in Anstellungsverhältnissen erfasst. Einflussfaktoren auf Haltung und Motivation für eine spätere hausärztliche Tätigkeit wurden mittels binär logistischer Regression berechnet.Ergebnisse: 940 (15,2% Studierende von insgesamt 6182 Studierenden aus drei bayerischen Universitäten (Erlangen, LMU und TUM haben sich an einer internetbasierten Umfrage beteiligt. 585 (62,7% waren weiblich. Das Durchschnittsalter betrug 25,0 Jahre (Standardabweichung 3,7. Die durchschnittliche Abiturnote war 1,6 (Standardabweichung 0,5. 718 (76% der Studierenden könnten sich eine hausärztliche Arbeit vorstellen, wobei die Anstellung der Selbstständigkeit vorgezogen wird (65,5 vs. 35,1%. Für die wertschätzende Haltung gegenüber der Allgemeinmedizin zeigt sich die „Existenz eines Lehrstuhls“ als stärkster Prädiktor (OR 1,57; 95%CI 1,13-2,417. Die stärksten Prädiktoren für die Motivation zu einer späteren hausärztlichen Tätigkeit sind „weibliches Geschlecht“ (OR 2,56; 95%CI 1,80-3,56 und die „Existenz eines Lehrstuhls“ (OR 1,68; 95%CI 1,14-2,46. Eine weniger gute Abiturnote war mit einer höheren Bereitschaft zur Selbständigkeit assoziiert (OR 1.39; 95%CI 1.02-1.90.Schlussfolgerung: Diese Studie zeigt, dass durchaus viele Studierenden gegenüber einer hausärztlichen Tätigkeit aufgeschlossen sind, allerdings präferenziell im Angestelltenverhältnis und nicht in selbstständiger Niederlassung. Eine Institutionalisierung der Allgemeinmedizin scheint bedeutsam zu sein für eine positive Einstellung zum Fach und zur Motivation für eine spätere hausärztliche Tätigkeit.

Schelling, Jörg

2013-11-01

178

Teachers’ Attitudes Towards inclusive Education in Austria  

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Full Text Available The study reports the results of several empirical studies on teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of pupils with special education needs in different academic settings. The survey’s data sets of altogether 578 primary school teachers in Austria, queried in 1998 and 2009, were reanalyzed. The chosen instrument of investigation was Reicher’s scale “Einstellung zur Integration in der Schule (EIS [attitudes towards inclusion in school]“ (1988. Concerning reliability and factorial structure, the scale fulfills the requirements which an instrument of investigation has to achieve. With regards to content, the analysis of the data showed that teachers evaluate the inclusion of pupils with mental retardation as a greater challenge than the inclusion of pupils with physical or learning disabilities. With reference to the general attitude towards academic inclusion, there were no differences between primary school teachers and special education teachers. However, the results revealed a moderate effect of the field of work the respondents were engaged in. Teachers working in inclusive fields declare a more positive attitude towards academic inclusion than teachers in non-inclusive settings, disregarding the type of disability.

Peter Rossmann

2011-12-01

179

Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: the importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu - Fotolia.com; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen - Fotolia.com). PMID:23857924

Aerni, Philipp

2013-10-01

180

Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10–12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.

Magarey Anthea M

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Managerial attitude toward quality assurance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper will present what relationships exist between the attitude toward quality assurance and the variables of training and experience on the part of managers within the nuclear power industry. Managerial attitude toward quality assurance was measured via questionnaires submitted to managers within architect-engineering, nuclear steam supplier, and constructor firms throughout the United States. The data from the completed questionnaires were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and conclusions were drawn. Additional study results related to major factors for positive and negative attitudes toward quality assurance will be presented

182

Gender Equality, Parenthood Attitudes, and First Births in Sweden  

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Full Text Available We analyse Swedish survey data on attitudes about parenthood among young adults aged 22-30 in 1999, and examine who became parents over the next four years. Our results show that while both men and women perceive more benefits to parenthood than costs, men are more likely than women to perceive both negative and positive consequences of parenthood. Further, gender role attitudes shape parental attitudes differentially for men and women. More egalitarian men perceive fewer costs and more egalitarian women perceive fewer benefits than those with more traditional gender role attitudes. Our analyses of the transition to parenthood indicate that, even controlling assess­ments of the costs and benefits of children, men with more traditional attitudes were more likely to become fathers at an early age, while gender role attitudes had no effect on women’s transition to parenthood. In contrast, there were no gender differentials in the effects of costs and benefits, each of which strongly affected the transition to parenthood, but, of course, in opposite directions. We interpret these findings to indicate that even in a country as far into the Second Demographic Transition as Sweden, negotiating shared parenthood is still sufficiently difficult that it depresses fertility, but now because of its impact on men.

Eva Bernhardt

2006-12-01

183

Nonlinear Robust Control for Spacecraft Attitude  

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Full Text Available Nonlinear robust control of the spacecraft attitude with the existence of external disturbances is considered. A robust attitude controller is designed based on the passivity approach the quaternion representation, which introduces the suppression vector of external disturbance into the control law and does not need angular velocity measurement. Stability conditions of the robust attitude controller are given. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the attitude controller.

Wang Lina

2013-07-01

184

Metacognition, study habits and attitudes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between fifth grade students’ metacognition levels, and their study habits and attitudes. Participants of the study consist of 221 students, 125 female and 96 male, enrolling to six public primary schools in Turkey. The results revealed that there is a medium positive relationship between metacognitive knowledge and skills and study habits (r = .351, p < .05), study attitudes (r = .415, p < .05) and study orientation (r = .434, p < .05...

O?zsoy, Gokhan; Memi?s?, Aysel; Temur, Turan

2009-01-01

185

Attitude towards Biology and Its Effects on Student’s Achievement  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the relation between attitudes towards science in biology courses and students’ biology achievement. A total of 185 grade 12 (age 17-18 years students in Isfahan answered to a 30-item questionnaire provided by authors based on STAQ-R inventory. The results showed that among attitude towards science dimensions, only “biology is fun for me”, have meaningful and positive relation with students’ achievement in biology. Also there was no significant difference between girls and boys in attitude towards biology, although girls had better achievements in biology in comparison with boys.

Ahmad R. Nasr

2011-09-01

186

Attitudes of Sultan Qaboos University Students towards Some Environmental Problems and their Willingness to Take Action to Reduce them  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Our earth suffers from many environmental problems which need to be tackled at the individual level, requiring individuals to develop those attitudes which will guide them to environmentally supportive behavior. The objectives of this study were to investigate (i the attitudes of Sultan Qaboos University students to some environmental problems, (ii their willingness to take action to ameliorate these problems, (iii the effect of students? gender and college of study on their attitudes and (iiii to examine the relationship between students? attitudes and their willingness to take action to reduce these problems. Approach: Data were collected from 317 students from five different faculties. The data were collected by using a questionnaire containing 48 items distributed over 5 dimensions: Energy, water, air pollution, waste and desertification. Validity and reliability were examined. Results: The results showed generally that the students hold positive attitudes towards the issues raised and that female students showed more positive attitudes than males. The results indicated that students? attitudes towards environmental problems did not appear to be influenced by the university faculties in which they are studying, except in the case of energy, where significant differences were observed between the attitudes of students from the faculty of Education and the faculty of Agriculture, the former showing more positive attitudes than the latter. The results showed that students were willing to take action to reduce environmental problems; this was not affected by gender or faculty. Conclusion: The findings suggested the necessity to develop students? attitudes and willingness to take responsibility to reduce these problems.

Ahmed B.H. Al-Rabaani

2009-01-01

187

Fulltime employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore the employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia in order to contribute to the efforts for positive changes in the Serbian economy. Qualitative survey of attitudes was realized through the use of focus groups. Participants were fulltime employees from five developed and underdeveloped locations in Serbia. The results showed that the main obstacle to improving the working culture of employees is massive failure of the labour inspections and unfavorable political environment. Until the state does not ensure effective implementation of ratified ILO Conventions and labour related adopted legislative, there are no conditions for developing quality working culture and economic progress in Serbia.

Kordi? Ljiljana

2012-06-01

188

Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion  

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Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN. Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001 and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004, has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.

André Kunz

2010-12-01

189

Analysis of Consumer Attitude Using Fishbein Multi-Attributes Approach  

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Full Text Available The development of today's economy growing rapidly, accompanied by increasingly sophisticated technological advances that led to the emergence of competition among firms.Increasing number of motorcycle brand in circulation led to a very tight competition in the motorcycle market, particularly in the type of motorcycle. This makes the consumer faced with various choices of brands, so the motorcycle manufacturers need to know the tastes and desires of consumers to create and sell a motorcycle can be favored by consumers. The purpose of this study were to determine what attributes are considered important by consumers to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, and to assess consumer attitudes toward product attributes motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, The model used is multi-attribute attitude model of Fishbein Attitude Toward To Object Model and the Theory Of Reasoned Action. The results of this study indicate that (1 that are considered important attributes are attached to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki is the attribute Price has the highest positive score compared * with a score of other attributes for each of the Honda brand motorcycle , Yamaha, and Suzuki. (2 consumer attitudes showed a positive attitude in which the score for the Honda is +60.03, +56.14 Yamaha, and Suzuki is +55.00. (3 the dominant factor influencing purchasing decisions motorcycle products for the Honda brand is a member of the family, while for the brand Yamaha, and Suzuki are the others

Abdullah Ramdhani

2012-07-01

190

Iranian EFL Learners’ Attitude towards Idioms in English  

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Full Text Available Iranian EFL learners have proven to have a positive attitude towards English in general. This study is an attempt to investigate the attitude of the Iranian EFL learners towards learning and producing idioms in particular. A random number of 40 students majoring in English translation and Literature at Isfahan University, Iran was surveyed using an attitude questionnaire. The domains used for the purposes of the study were: a interest in English, b attitudes towards learning English, and c attitudes towards learning and producing idioms. The results revealed that participants have a very high positive attitude towards learning idioms.

Maedeh Tadayyon

2014-03-01

191

Attitude of Students towards Technical Education in Osun State  

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Full Text Available The study examined the attitude of students towards technical education in Osun State, Nigeria. Descriptive research method was adopted by the investigator. The population of the study was made of 350 students comprising 200 males and 150 females. One validated research instrument was used to gather data. One research hypothesis was answered in the study. The results showed that: male students were more favourably disposed towards Technical Education since there was a significant difference between their mean attitude scores(4.008; students from rural setting had a higher disposition toward Technical Education as compared with their counter parts from the urban setting(4.912; the composition of the students showed a positive disposition with no much difference between their mean attitude scores; the t-value computed to establish the relationship between attitude and performance levels of students showed a negative correlation (t = -1.48; in spite of geographical location there was no marked difference in the attitude and interest of students for Technical Education. Almost half of the colleges do not have enough competent instructors. Among others, it was recommended that the state government should make efforts to purchase more teaching and learning aids for effective teaching in technical colleges. Comprehensive in-service programme must be devised by government for practicing instructors to update their knowledge in their various area of specialization.

B.O. Lawal

2012-02-01

192

F-SAT attitude stabilization system  

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This paper describes the design of a stabilization system for control of a spacecraft designed to be launched on a medium-sized launch vehicle. The system is required to provide accurate attitude control and determination for a nominally nadir-pointed spacecraft with moderate attitude maneuver capability. The spacecraft uses reaction wheels as the primary actuators and an effective magnetic momentum desaturation system. Attitude determination is based on stellar position measurements and gyroscope bias estimations to maintain attitude knowledge. A significant design problem involves the stabilization of maneuverable flexible solar arrays with low natural frequency. The attitude determination and control system is composed of sensors, actuators and an integrated electronics unit. A propulsion system allows for incremental velocity adjust capability and actuation during back-up attitude control. This paper provides a description of the attitude determination and control system configuration and functional operation. In addition the component characteristics are presented.

Kim, James S.; Rodden, Jack J.; Bone, Jeffery W.

1993-09-01

193

Preservice teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of heritage education in elementary social studies  

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Full Text Available This study explores pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward heritage education, an approach to teaching history grounded in first-hand experiences with material culture. The research was conducted at a large Midwestern university in the United States, in a methods course that included 28 pre-service teachers. Data were derived from both quantitative and qualitative instruments, including attitude surveys completed before and after classroom activities and a field trip to a local history museum; these activities aimed to introduce teachers to the meaning and purpose of using material history in elementary classrooms. We found that pre-service teachers already had highly positive attitudes toward inclusion of heritage education; that they considered heritage resources educationally valuable; and that they wanted to use such resources in their teaching. Participants’ attitudes, however, showed little or no change after participating in classroom activities, presumably because their initial perceptions of heritage materials were so uniformly positive

Cemil C. YE??LBURSA

2011-11-01

194

Trust in social actors and attitudes towards genetically modified organisms in Slovenia  

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Full Text Available This article tries to fulfil the research gap left by the fact that no study to date has examined how trust in social actors affects attitudes towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Therefore, two key hypotheses were posited: a trust in social actors is a more important factor of attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs; and b trust in certain social actors is a more important factor than trust in other social actors. Telephone survey data of adult Slovenians were used. The analyses show that: a general trust in social actors has a positive effect on attitudes towards GMOs; b trust in various social actors has different effects; and c trust in social actors has a stronger effect on attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs.

Karmen Erjavec

2013-01-01

195

A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Voluntary Blood Donation among Medical Students in Puducherry, India  

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Full Text Available Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%. About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77% showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%. In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%, in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student’s showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis.

S. Latha

2013-01-01

196

Use of nonlinear identification in robust attitude and attitude rate estimation for SAMPEX  

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A method is described for obtaining optimal attitude estimation/identification algorithms for spacecraft lacking attitude rate measurement devices (rate gyros), and then demonstrated using actual flight data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft. SAMPEX does not have on-board rate sensing, and relies on sun sensors and a three-axis magnetometer for attitude determination. The absence of rate data normally reduces both the total amount of data available and the sampling density (in time) by a substantial fraction. In addition, attitude data is occasionally unavailable (for example, during sun occultation). As a result, the sensitivity of the estimates to model uncertainty and to measurement noise increases. In order to maintain accuracy in the attitude estimates, there is an increased need for accurate models of the rotational dynamics. The Minimum Model Error(MME)/Least Square Correlation(LSC) algorithm accurately identifies an improved model for SAMPEX to be used during periods of complete data loss or extreme noise. The model correction is determined by estimating only one orbit(the identification pass) just prior to the assumed data loss(the prediction pass). The MME estimator correctly predicted the states during the identification phase, but more importantly determines the necessary model correction trajectory, d(t). The LSC algorithm is then used to find this trajectory's functional form, H(x(t)). The results show significant improvement of the new corrected model's attitude estimates as compared to the original uncorrected model's estimates. The possible functional form of the correction term is limited at this point in the study to functions strictly of the estimated states. The results, however, strongly suggest that functions based on the relative position of the satellite may also be possible candidates for future consideration.

Mook, D. Joseph; Depena, Juan; Trost, Kelly; Wen, Jung; Mcpartland, Michael

1995-01-01

197

Landowner attitudes toward natural gas and wind farm development in northern Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US has undergone a recent boom in the development of onshore wind farm and natural gas energy projects and contentious debates over the construction of these projects are common in communities across the US. A survey of landowners in a region of Northern Pennsylvania (N=1028) undergoing simultaneous development of both wind and natural gas development shows that landowners are generally much more polarized and negative towards gas development than wind farm development, and that attitudes toward natural gas development is highly dependent on environmental attitudes and industry leasing, development, or employment experience. Landowner proximity to the development explains a small amount of the variation in attitudes towards wind energy. Recommendations for energy policy and future research are discussed. - Highlight: ? A Pennsylvania survey reveals attitudes toward natural gas and wind development. ? Gas drilling attitudes became more negative; wind farm attitudes more positive. ? Environmental concern and industry experience influence attitudes toward energy. ? Proximity to wind is weakly related to attitudes; proximity to gas is not related.

198

Attitudes of Primary Mathematics Pre-Service Teachers Candidates toward Graduate Education  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes of mathematics pre-service teachers candidates to graduate education in terms of variables such as numerical data, and also students’ attitudes towards post-graduate education, the correlation analysis which was made with different components. The study consists of 139 candidates attending to Primary Education Departments in Marmara University in the 2006-2011 academic years. In the research method pattern consisted of quantitative data was conducted. The research data was consisted of general averages, preference ranking and using attitude scale which was developed by Ünal and ?lter (2010 with the name of the scale of attitudes towards post-graduate education. The data on scale were analyzed SPSS 17.0. Moreover, correlation analysis was performed. According to the survey the attitudes of teachers of undergraduate to graduate education with general averages, and preference ranking (ranking shows the count of settled preferences and the attitudes of graduate education in terms of the variables were statistically significant differences between the attitudes of graduate education. In general, students have a positive attitude to graduate education is seen. In addition to these graduate graduation average of average and high average graduation and there is a significant relationship between ALES score.

Elif Bahad?r

2014-08-01

199

Adolescents’ Attitudes toward Ecstasy Using  

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Full Text Available Background & Aim: Using illicit drugs such as Ecstasy is a deviant behavior in adolescents. Attitude toward using illicit drugs can predict its usage. This study was carried out in order to determine the adolescents' attitude toward using Ecstasy in 2006. Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, eight hundred adolescents aged 16-18 years who lived in the west of Tehran recruited from public regions of municipality. Data was gathered using authors-structured questionnaire. After filling in informed consents, the questionnaires were completed by the respondents. Results: Findings revealed that 78.9 % of the adolescents had negative attitudes and 17.5% had positive attitudes toward using Ecstasy. Boys and girls attitudes were not significantly different. Conclusion: Regarding relatively high negative attitudes among the adolescents toward Ecstasy using, it seems that investments in health promoting programs were appropriate. Nevertheless, along with these programs, parents and teachers should pay more attention to the issue.   Key words: adolescent, attitude, drug abuse, Ecstasy

N Seyedfatemi

2008-09-01

200

[On attitudes toward marital and intergenerational relationships].  

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Structures and determinants of normative attitudes concerning marital and intergenerational relationships were studied. The data are based on the Public Opinion Survey on Population Issues carried out by the Institute of Population Problems in June 1990. 3 principal components were extracted from 11 questions on attitudes toward marriage and conjugal unions. The 1st is interpreted as the conservative attitude toward universal marriage and traditional sex-role differentiation. The 2nd is though to be intolerance for premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse, and the 3rd is the positive attitude toward such current issues as divorce or preservation of wife's surname. Regression analysis shows that such factors as age, education, marital status, and ideal family size have statistically significant effects on the 1st primary component, an index of universal marriage and extramarital sex measured by the 2nd component, the effect of community size is also statistically significant as well as the variables mentioned above. Only a small portion of the 3rd component which indicates attitude toward recent issues on marriage is explained by the regression model. From 8 questions concerning intergenerational relationships, 2 meaningful principal components have emerged. These are interpreted as the norm of supporting aging parents and the avoidance of frequent daily contact between parents and married children. Married people who are highly educated, living in urban areas, not living with their parents, or have a small family tended to have low scores on the 1st principal component and seem to hold the value of intergenerational independence. In addition to education, urban residence, living with parents, and ideal family size, the effect of living with married children is also significant on the 2nd component which indicates partition of daily life. (author's modified) PMID:12155021

Suzuki, T

1991-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs

202

Examining Life Satisfaction Levels of High School Student in term of Parental Attitude and Some Variables  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the correlation between life satisfaction levels of high school students with parental attitude. Life satisfaction levels of high school students was also investigated in terms of perceived academic achievement, perceived economic status, grade level, grown place, age, gender and parents’ education level. The participants of study consist of 245 students, 107 girls, 138 boys, between ages 15 and 19. The data were collected through the Satisfaction with Life Scale developed by Diener, Emmons, Laresen ve Griffin (1985 and adopted in Turkish by Köker (1991; Parentel Attitude Scale developed by Kuzgun and Eldeleklio?lu (1996 and Personal Information Form developed by researcher. Correlation analysis, regression analysis and t- test were used to analyze data. Results show that there were positive medium level correlation between democratic mother attitude and democratic father attitude with life satisfaction. There were also negative level correlation authoritarian and protective mother and father attitude and grade level with level of life satisfaction. In the direction of these relational findings; in regression analysis used method of enter mothers’ democratic attitude determined that perceived high academic achievement and perceived high socio-economic status are positively predictive whereas mother’s authoritarian attitude and grade level are negatively predictive of life satisfaction (F(1, 245= 12.002, p.05.© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

Sedef Ünsal Seydoo?ullar?

2012-12-01

203

Goal orientations and attitudes toward doping.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to determine if there is a relationship between attitudes toward doping and achievement goal orientations of athletes. Questionnaires from 830 athletes (including 263 females) were obtained. Athletes declared moderately positive attitudes, with attitude toward anti-doping controls as the strongest and attitude toward sanctions as the weakest. Females declared significantly more favourable attitudes than males. With respect to the relationship between goal orientations and attitudes toward doping, it was found that athletes who were high task/low ego oriented declared the most favourable attitudes, while athletes who were low task/high ego oriented declared the least favourable attitudes. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that ego orientation was significantly negatively related to, and task orientation was significantly positively related to attitudes toward doping. It means that with the increase in task orientation, attitudes toward doping became more favourable. The opposite can be said about the increase in ego orientation. It could be argued then, that creating a motivational climate which promotes task orientation (mastery climate) may aid anti-doping efforts. PMID:18214812

Sas-Nowosielski, K; Swiatkowska, L

2008-07-01

204

Crystal structure of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from a Gram-positive bacterium, Streptococcus pyogenes at 2.19 Å resolution shows the closed structure of the substrate-binding cleft  

Science.gov (United States)

Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) catalyses the release of tRNA and peptide components from peptidyl-tRNA molecules. Pth from a Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes (SpPth) was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallised. Three-dimensional structure of SpPth was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.19 Å resolution. Structure determination showed that the asymmetric unit of the unit cell contained two crystallographically independent molecules, designated A and B. The superimposition of C? traces of molecules A and B showed an r.m.s. shift of 0.4 Å, indicating that the structures of two crystallographically independent molecules were identical. The polypeptide chain of SpPth adopted an overall ?/? conformation. The substrate-binding cleft in SpPth is formed with three loops: the gate loop, Ile91–Leu102; the base loop, Gly108–Gly115; and the lid loop, Gly136–Gly150. Unlike in the structures of Pth from Gram-negative bacteria, the entry to the cleft in the structure of SpPth appeared to be virtually closed. However, the conformations of the active site residues were found to be similar. PMID:25389518

Singh, Avinash; Gautam, Lovely; Sinha, Mau; Bhushan, Asha; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, T.P.

2014-01-01

205

Enhancing Student Attitudes about Physics: A multi-university study  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite improvements in students' conceptual learning associated with research-based teaching techniques, studies in physics education research continue to show that student attitudes toward physics get worse over a single semester of physics instruction. Even courses that measure very high conceptual learning gains show degradation in students' attitudes. This is observed in courses designed for physics majors as well as in courses designed for non-physics majors. The Physics and Everyday Thinking (PET) curriculum is designed especially for non-science majors, particularly prospective and practicing elementary teachers. In addition to the foundational content in physics, the PET curriculum explicitly helps students think about what it means to learn physics as well as introducing them to broader issues about the nature and practice of science. Because the curriculum explicitly addresses issues about learning physics and the nature of science, we hypothesized that PET students' attitudes about physics would improve over one semester. We studied students from seven different universities and found small to large positive shifts in attitudes about physics among students enrolled in PET courses. We will discuss these unusually high shifts and compare them to pre/post measurements using the same attitude instruments and different curricula.

Gray, Kara; Otero, Valerie

2009-05-01

206

Effects of Puppetry on Elementary Students’ Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Individuals with Disabilities  

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Full Text Available Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB puppet shows onelementary school students’ knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities aredescribed. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and changeattitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both studies indicated that KOB performanceshad positive effects on both the knowledge and attitudes of second, third, and fourth grade students.Study 1 showed that the puppet show participants had more positive attitudes and more accuratefactual knowledge of individuals with disabilities compared to the control group participants who didnot experience the KOB puppets. Findings from Study 2 showed pretest-post test gain scores for theKOB group were larger than those for the control group. The results taken together provided evidencethat a rather simple intervention was effective in terms of changing the knowledge of and attitudestoward individuals with disabilities.

Carl J. DUNST

2012-01-01

207

Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful  

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Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

Mark Brimble1

2013-03-01

208

"Assessing the Rlationship Between Knowledge, Attitude and Healthy Behaviour Among Menopaused Women in Tehran in 2000 assessed ."  

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Full Text Available In order to determine the relationship between knowledge, attitude and health behaviour among menopausud women, a random sample of 250 menopaused women was studied. The data was collected by using a questionnaire and analysed by the SPSS programe. The study showed that seventy woman (28% had good Knowledge, only twenty seven women (11% had a positive attitude, and forty women (16% had good healthy behaviours regarding menopause duration. Also the results of this study revealed that there is a positive correlation between knowledge, attitude and healthy behaviour (P<0.001. According to the findings of this study, the menopausal women must be educated about correct health behaviour because by increasing their knowledge, they will develope a positive attitude and have a healthy behaviour in menopausal years.

D Shojaeizadeh

2002-08-01

209

Development of Metacognitive Knowledge of Reading Strategies and Attitudes Toward Reading in Early Adolescence: The Effect on Reading Comprehension  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine developmental changes in metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading during early adolescence (from 10 to 14 years, taking gender into account. A secondary aim was also to test a model of the relationships among gender, attitudes toward reading, metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies, and reading comprehension. The sample for this longitudinal study consisted of 175 students. The first data collection took place when the students were enrolled in grade 4 (10 years old, and the follow-up measurements were conducted in grades 6 and 8. At each measurement point, measures of metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading were applied in addition to text comprehension tasks. The obtained results indicated that metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies continuously improved during early adolescence, while attitudes toward recreational reading showed continuous decline from the fourth to the eighth grade, and attitudes toward academic reading dropped significantly between sixth and eighth grades. Girls consistently demonstrated better metacognitive knowledge, as well as more positive attitudes toward both recreational and academic reading when compared to boys. The model that included only attitudes toward recreational reading fitted the data better than the model comprising both academic and recreational reading attitudes. The findings of the path analysis indicated that gender had an effect on recreational reading attitudes that consistently predicted text comprehension directly and indirectly through metacognitive knowledge during early adolescence. The model fitted the data better as students got older.

Svjetlana Koli?-Vehovec

2014-04-01

210

The effect of achievement goals on moral attitudes in young athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study is to assess the hypothesis that achievement goal orientations will predict sportpersonship attitudes among young athletes, namely that task orientation will predict socially positive attitudes and ego orientation will predict socially negative attitudes. For hundred and eighty two athletes, aged 13 to 16 years completed the Portuguese versions of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQp) and of the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQp). Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships between TEOSQp and SAQp. Afterwards, relationships between ego orientation and score agreement in cheating and gamesmanship as well as task orientation and score agreement in convention and commitment were examined through EQS (version 5.7). For the estimation of the model, the maximum likelihood method was used. A matrix correlation between the variables (task orientation, ego orientation, cheating, gamesmanship, convention and commitment) showed positive correlations between task orientation and convention (r = 0.29, p commitment (r = 0. 40, p sport programs can represent a relevant framework for promoting prosocial attitudes and consequentely increment the effectiveness of educational interventions. Key pointsSport seems to be an important component of daily physical activity in children and adolescents and its importance is often viewed as positive.Literature suggests that a high task orientation has a positive link with moral variables and a high ego orientation is likely to promote inappropriate behaviours.Task orientation will predict pro-social sport attitudes, and to assess the hypothesis that ego orientation will predict anti-social sport attitudes among young athletes.It is possible to suggest a pattern in which the self-referenced achievement goals can promote the expression of sportspersonship attitudesEnvironmental factors can be more influential than dispositional orientations when it comes to sportspersonship. PMID:24149787

Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Cumming, Sean

2010-01-01

211

Correctional Officers' Attitudes toward Selected Treatment Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the attitudes of a sample of correctional officers toward selected treatment programs. Besides a number of factors which correlated with positive attitudes toward treatment, several factors correlated negatively, including number of years of service and a belief that the primary function of corrections is punishment. (Author)

Teske, Raymond H. C.; Williamson, Harold E.

1979-01-01

212

Self-Directed Learning and Student Attitudes  

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Full Text Available It is a commonly held belief that students who enjoy their experience of school perform better academically. Thus, educators often struggle with the questions of how best to motivate students and how to make learning fun. Some parents and educators, however, have simply moved away from traditional educational practices and are choosing to let students take charge of their own learning. The intent of this study is to evaluate the attitudes of students in two Sudbury model schools - schools in which students from ages 4-19 are completely responsible for their own education - and to show the positive correlation between freedom and choice in the learning environment and positive student attitudes. This study involves the opinions of 23 students from two Sudbury model schools, forming a small focus group. The schools both volunteered for the study, and students were asked if they would like to participate. The students who participated ranged in age from 4-16. Each completed a questionnaire that included both scaled questions and open-ended questions. Overall, students reported having a very positive experience of school as assessed by the questionnaire. There were also recognizable trends in their narrative answers that pointed towards an overall appreciation for the level of freedom in their schools. In general, the study proved that in the group surveyed there is a positive correlation between freedom in the educational environment and the students' attitudes about school. This study points to the validity of self-direction in the learning environment, and notes several options for follow-up studies.

Jennifer Schwartz

2007-01-01

213

Development and validation of the attitudes about sadomasochism scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development and validation of a new measure, the Attitudes about Sadomasochism Scale (ASMS). Exploratory factor analysis with 213 participants yielded four subscales (Socially Wrong, Violence, Lack of Tolerance, and Real Life). Confirmatory factor analysis with a different sample (n = 258) indicated that this four-factor model fit the data well. Validation analyses using all 471 participants showed that the ASMS positively correlated with other measures of social and sexual conservatism (right-wing authoritarianism, attitudes about lesbians and gay men, sexual conservatism, rape myth acceptance). However, a multiple regression analysis showed that the majority of the variance in the ASMS was not explained by the four measures of conservatism, indicating that the ASMS measures a unique attitudinal construct. Further validation analyses revealed that participants who had prior knowledge about sadomasochism (SM), participants who have engaged in SM, and participants who knew a friend involved in SM all endorsed more positive attitudes on the ASMS. Thus, this study presents a reliable and valid measure of stereotypical and prejudicial attitudes about individuals involved in these nontraditional sexual practices. PMID:19499457

Yost, Megan R

2010-01-01

214

Alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e hísticas hepáticas en donantes de sangre con anticuerpo al VHC positivo / Clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and hystic hepatic alterations in blood donors showing positive hepatitis virus C antibody test results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de 69 donantes de sangre, con anticuerpos al virus C positivo detectados en el Banco de Sangre Provincial, remitidos a la consulta provincial del Hospital Universitario Provincial "Vladimir Ilich Lenin", entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2006, y a qui [...] enes se le realizó biopsia hepática translaparoscópica. Con el objetivo de estimar las alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e histopatológicas hepáticas se revisaron las boletas de solicitud de biopsia. Hubo predominio de las hepatitis crónicas con actividad mínima (12; 33,33 %) y ligera (13; 36,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes estaban asintomáticos (62; 89,9 %, y con transaminasas normales (47; 68,1 %). La laparoscopia constituyó una prueba muy específica, con un 84,4 % de especificidad, con un considerable valor de una prueba positiva, 75 %, para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica. Sin embargo, las bajas cifras de la sensibilidad (41 %) y del valor predictivo de una prueba negativa (57,1 %) para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica, reafirman que la biopsia hepática sigue siendo la prueba de oro para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Abstract in english An observational and descriptive study was made on 69 blood donors, who had positive C virus antibodies detected by the provincial blood bank and had been referred to "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" provincial university hospital from January 2000 to December 2006. They were performed translaparoscopic hepat [...] ic biopsy. For the purpose of estimating clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and histopathological hepatic disorders, the biopsy request forms were checked. Chronic hepatitis predominated, with minimal activity (12; 33.335) and slight activity (13; 36.1 %). Most of patients were asymptomatic (62; 89.9 %) and their transaminase values were normal (47; 68.1 %). Laparoscopy was a very specific test showing 84.4 % specificity, with a high value (75 %) in a positive test for chronic hepatitis diagnosis. However, low figures of sensitivity (41 %) and of the predictive value in a negative test (57.1 %) for chronic hepatitis diagnosis reaffirmed that hepatic biopsy continues to be the golden test for the diagnosis of this disease.

Agustín, Mulet Pérez; Évora, Arencibia Vidal; Martha, Gámez Escalona; Menelio, Pullés Labadié; Marlen, Pérez Lorenzo; Agustín, Mulet Gámez.

215

The Effects Of Grade Level, Gender, And Ethnicity On Attitude And Learning Environment In Mathematics In High School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate different factors (grade level, gender, and ethnicity that might affect the attitudes and learning environment perceptions of high school mathematics students in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The study involved the administration of the administration of the What Is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC questionnaire and an attitude questionnaire based on the Test of Mathematics-Related Attitude (TOMRA to 600 Grades 9 and 10 mathematics students in 30 classes in one high school. Quantitative research method was used in collecting information from the sample. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results showed that male consistently reported slightly more positive perceptions of classroom environment and attitudes than did females. Anglo students’ scores consistently are a little higher than Hispanic students’ scores. There is strong evidence of associations between students’ attitudes and the learning environment.

Thienhuong N. Hoang

2008-02-01

216

Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes; Attityd till slutfoervar av anvaent kaernbraensle. Struktur och orsaker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

Sjoeberg, Lennart (Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research)

2008-09-15

217

ATTITUDES TOWARD ONLINE COMMUNICATIONS IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING  

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Full Text Available This article intended to reveal the results of a survey study in which the students’ attitudes toward online communication in open and distance learning were investigated. In the study, affects of the students’ gender and computer experience on their attitudes were also examined. A total of 626 subjects participated in the study and ‘Online Communication Attitude Scale’, developed by Ledbetter, was adapted as the data collection instrument. Mean, standard deviation, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests were used to analyze the data gathered. The results of the study indicated that students have in general positive attitudes toward online communication in ODL. Also, it showed that there is a significant difference in ‘miscommunication’, ‘social connection’ and ‘ease’ dimensions of online communication between the males and the female students. The female students see online environments as open to communication errors. On the other hand, the study supported the literature about the affect of the students’ computer experience and their attitudes toward online communication in ODL.

Irem ERDEM AYDIN

2012-08-01

218

The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

Vandermoere, Frederic, E-mail: Frederic_Vandermoere@hks.harvard.ed [Program on Science, Technology and Society, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Blanchemanche, Sandrine [INRA Paris, Metarisk Department (France); Bieberstein, Andrea [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany); Marette, Stephan [INRA, UMR Economie publique (France); Roosen, Jutta [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer BWL - Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany)

2010-02-15

219

Mathematics Attitudes and Achievement of Junior College Students in Singapore  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies that investigated students' attitudes toward mathematics and its relationships with achievement are scarce in Singapore. To address this issue, the mathematics attitudes and achievement of 984 junior college students were measured. Results indicated that students had positive attitudes toward mathematics but lacked intrinsic motivation to…

Yee, Lim Siew

2010-01-01

220

Personality: Its Impact on Attitudes toward Classroom Activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of how college students' (N=125) personality characteristics influenced their attitudes toward various second-language learning activities partially confirmed hypotheses suggesting that risk taking and sociability factors positively influenced attitudes toward free language use and negatively affected attitudes toward highly…

Ely, Christopher M.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Study of the effects of informational and persuasive messages on the attitudes of high school students toward the use of nuclear energy for electrical production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation assessed the relationship between knowledge about and attitudes toward nuclear energy. The study's purpose was accomplished by attempting to manipulate knowledge about and attitude toward nuclear energy independently. Over two thousand high school students participated in the study. A Non-Equivalent Control Group quasi-experimental design was used involving random assignment by intact groups to treatments. A knowledge treatment was designed to increase student knowledge without affecting attitudes. An attitude treatment was designed to change attitudes without changing knowledge, and a control treatment was employed for comparison to the experimental treatments. Each treatment consisted of a videotape with a viewing guide and a homework assignment. The Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery was used as a pretest, post-test, and retention test. Males scored significantly higher in knowledge and positive attitudes, but no interaction between gender and treatment was found. The study concluded that (1) there is a correlation between nuclear knowledge and attitudes, (2) knowledge about nuclear energy can be changed without affecting attitude and attitude can be changed without affecting knowledge, and (3) students show differences and attitude based on gender

222

Evaluation of relationship between metacognition components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metacognitive components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II. Methods: Thirty-six young adult outpatients with current diagnoses of BMD II(20 females and 16 males were recruited from Esfahan Counseling Center. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder-Clinical Version(SCID-CV. A battery of questionnaires including Metacognition Questionnaire and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale(DAS were self-assessed by patients before medical therapy. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the components of metacognition and its relationship with dysfunctional attitudes is positive and significant(r= 28/0, p<0/05. Multiple regression analysis showed that two of the metacognitive components emerged as potentially useful in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes(negative beliefs about uncontrollability, danger and thoughts control. Also, results indicated that those two components have a significant positive relationship with vulnerability, perfectionism and effectivenessR²= 0/29, 0/35; p<0/05. Components of positive beliefs about worry and beliefs about cognitive self-consciousness related to cognitive confidence in predicting the criterion variable and its components showed no significant contribution. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that DSM-IV BMD II outpatients with metacognitive distortions have shown higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes.

H Kazemi

2012-05-01

223

[Attitude of hemophilic adult individuals towards their disease].  

Science.gov (United States)

The mental health of hemophilic individuals and their families play an important role on the integral treatment of the disease. The knowledge of the beliefs and attitudes perceived by the patients toward their disease will make possible a positive influence in their clinical improvement, their response to the treatment, as well as their quality of life. On the basis of the Azjen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action, a questionnaire was applied to 43 adult hemophilics to determine the salient beliefs about their disease. These beliefs permitted to elaborate a main structured questionnaire named Attitude Model in Patients with Hemophilia (Modelo de Actitud en Pacientes con Hemofilia, MAPACHE, in spanish), which was administered to the individuals and thus, the attitude toward their disease was obtained. Seventy two percent (72%) gave a major importance to the clinical aspects of the disease (hemorrhage, joint discomfort and trauma), 40% knew the general concepts of hemophilia (heredity, care and seriousness of the disease), 20% mentioned the implications of the psychosocial factors and only 18% had knowledge concerning the coagulation factors deficiency and the appropriate treatment. The MAPACHE showed a slightly positive score attitude (4.44 +/- 1.12 SEM) towards the disease in the majority of the groups (74.5%); with 26% of the hemophilics with a negative attitude. There were no significant differences between attitude and clinical parameters. It is recommended that a multidisciplinary team of caregivers should focus their efforts toward education and preventive measures in order to avoid the complications and consequences of the disease, to make possible a better quality of life in individuals with hemophilia. PMID:15469070

Carruyo-Vizcaíno, Cecilia; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Carrizo, Edgardo; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Sarmiento, Sandra; Vizcaíno-Carruyo, Jennifer

2004-09-01

224

Attitudes towards telework for continuity planning in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the suitability of telework for business continuity planning (BCP) in Japan by looking at how views on telework are shaped by demographic characteristics, organizational culture, and individuals' use of technology. The study surveyed regular employees with experience of the 2011 T¯ohoku earthquake (n=39) and their responses were analyzed using cross-tabulation analysis. The results showed generally positive attitudes towards telework, overwhelmingly so with respect to BCP...

Maria, Bourna; Hitoshi, Mitomo

2012-01-01

225

Comparison of Attitudes towards suicide and its Prevention in Medical Students before and after the Apprenticeship Course  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Doctor patient relationship is directly overshadowed by physician’s attitude toward suicide. This study was aimed to compare the attitudes towards suicide and its prevention in medical students before and after the apprenticeship course.Subjects and Methods: In this study 96 medical students participate (44 before and 50 after apprenticeship course (were selected using the available sampling in University of medical sciences of Ahvaz. A questionnaire on attitudes towards suicide ATTS (Attitudes towards Suicide was used to measure suicide related attitudes and thoughts. The ATTS items address attitudes, knowledge, and personal beliefs toward suicide and suicide prevention. Also, this questionnaire includes six subscales. Permissiveness, preventability, incomprehensibility, avoidance of talking, unpredictability and loneliness& appeal. Results: The results showed that medical students who had passed the training course in comparision with students who had not passed; there were no significant difference in subscales of incomprehensibility, avoidance of talking, unpredictability and loneliness& appeal. But there were significant difference in subscales of permissiveness and preventability.Conclusion: Results showed that the total student views towards prevention of suicide and the relationship with these patients is positive. The views of students who had passed the course is more negative than other groups. Therefore, perhaps, the training in the attitude of students who have passed the course has not a positive effect.

Nilufar Khajeddin

2013-01-01

226

Danish University lecturers’ attitudes towards English as the medium of instruction  

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Full Text Available The increasing use of English in research and higher education has been the subject of heated debate in Denmark and other European countries over the last years. This paper sets out the various positions in the national debate in Denmark, and then examines the attitudes towards these positions among the teaching staff at the country’s largest university. Four topics are extracted from the debate – one which expresses a positive attitude towards English and three independent but interrelated topics which express more negative attitudes. The responses from the university lecturers show that a majority agree with all positions, negative as well as positive. This finding indicates that the attitude may not form a simple one-dimensional dichotomy. The responses are broken down according to lecturer age and the proportion of teaching the lecturer conducts in English. The results show that younger lecturers and lecturers with a higher teaching load in English are more positive towards the increase in English medium instruction.

Christian Jensen

2011-10-01

227

Can singular examples change implicit attitudes in the real-world?  

Science.gov (United States)

Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or "IAT" revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes toward African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or "ALPS" and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words-similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes. PMID:24046756

Roos, Leslie E; Lebrecht, Sophie; Tanaka, James W; Tarr, Michael J

2013-01-01

228

Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or “IAT” revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or “ALPS” and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

MichaelJ.Tarr

2013-09-01

229

Consumer attitudes towards electricity conservation in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the second half of 1996 until October 1997 the Brazilian Program to Combat the Waste of Electric Energy (PROCEL) carried out various market research studies, covering 2/3 of the country. These researches include six qualitative inquiries (focus groups), fifteen quantitative surveys and a weekly Tracking Waves to monitor an energy conservation campaign launched by PROCEL in September 1997. These studies showed contradictory positions among the Brazilian consumers regarding the efficient use of electricity. Even though the need to save was recognized by most of the interviewed households, this recognition was rarely converted into positive actions. This paper discusses the main results of these studies with a focus on a better understanding of some of the contradictions detected, in order to show how the traditional market segmentation made by the utilities, based on income groups and level of electricity consumption, is no longer sufficient to explain consumers' attitudes regarding energy conservation.

Pimentel, G.; Zaltzman, C.; Leonelli, P.A.; Principe, C.A.; Geller, H.; Souza, R.C.

1998-07-01

230

Attitudes of Preschool and Primary School Pre-Service Teachers towards Inclusive Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers' attitudes towards inclusion are important as they have the primary responsibility of implementing inclusive education. Attitudes at the beginning of teaching careers are likely to predict future attitudes. Some studies show a drop in attitudes after leaving university education. Using the Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion…

Kraska, Jake; Boyle, Christopher

2014-01-01

231

Attitudes of Europeans toward Age.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two Commission of European Communities surveys of people over age 15 and of those over 60 demonstrated a widespread belief that older people deserve public support and services and face employment discrimination. Socioeconomic factors influenced older people's sense of security and life satisfaction. Positive intergenerational attitudes appeared.…

Ageing International, 1993

1993-01-01

232

Attitudes and knowledge level of teachers in ICT use: The case of Turkish teachers  

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Full Text Available This research aims to determine teachers' influence in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT at schools. Various variables are examined such as years of experience, gender, the duration of computer and Internet use, and to determine the attitude, level of knowledge on and the frequency of ICT use among teachers. The study was conducted with 1540 primary school teachers using Knowledge, Use and Attitude Scales of ICT. The results show that the most commonly used and well-known ICT types among teachers are the Internet, e-mail and word processing, and teachers' attitudes towards computers and the Internet are generally positive. It was also found that their attitudes vary with their years of experience and levels of knowledge.

Erdo?an Tezci

2010-07-01

233

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE AND EXPERIENCE of USING A MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE PROGRAM (MATLAB  

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Full Text Available This correlation study examined the relationship between gender and the students’ attitude and prior knowledge of using one of the mathematical software programs (MATLAB. Participants were selected from one community college, one state university and one private college. Students were volunteers from three Calculus I classrooms (one class from each school in which MATLAB was used extensively. A survey regarding students’ attitude and experience on using the MATLAB program was administered to classes. The findings of the study indicated that gender differences are not related to students’ attitude and experience on the program. The results revealed slightly positive correlation between and students’ attitude and experience on the program. The implications of this study shows that teachers who use MATLAB in their instruction and classroom practices must pay attention on how much students use it, the obstacles students had to overcome to succeed in its use, and their general issues and concerns regarding MATLAB use.

Mehmet A. OCAK

2006-04-01

234

Exploring the Relationship between Teaching Staff' Age and Their Attitude towards Information and Communications Technologies (ICT  

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Full Text Available Current research seeks to understand the relationship between teaching staff' age and their attitude toward ICT. Survey methodology is facilitated through the use of the questionnaires. The survey domain is a random sampling of teaching staff in Egyptian HEI. The population for this study was 500 full-time Faculty staff, and only 412 returned and completed questionnaires are considered as the study sample. The results showed that there is a moderate and positive relationship between the age of participants and their attitude towards ICT; thus, when considering attitude towards ICT by teaching staff members in Egyptians HEI, age is a significant factor. The result of this research has significant implications to HEI when they plan, develop, and adopt ICT. HEI has to consider that teaching staff' attitude towards ICT is related to their age.

Mohamed Abdelaziz Elsaadani

2013-01-01

235

Student nurses' attitudes towards professional containment methods used in psychiatric wards and perceptions of aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine student nurses' attitudes towards professional containment methods used in psychiatric wards and its relation to their perception of aggression. We employed a cross-sectional descriptive design to evaluate nurses' attitudes. Participants included 120 student nurses who were enrolled in psychiatric nursing during their fourth (final) year of education. The 'Attitude to Containment Measures Questionnaire' and 'The Perception of Aggression Scale' were used for assessments. Student nurses exhibited positive attitudes toward 'intermittent observation', 'Pro re nata Medication' and 'Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit', respectively. The least approved method was 'net bed'. The data showed a negative correlation between approval of 'Intra-Muscular Medication' and 'mechanical restraint' with the perception that aggression was dysfunctional/unacceptable. Student nurses who believed that professional containment methods were effective also perceived aggression as less functional/acceptable. These results emphasize the importance of health care perceptions of aggression towards patients and their experience with containment measures. PMID:25157938

Ozcan, Neslihan Keser; Bilgin, Hülya; Bad?rgal? Boyac?o?lu, Nur Elçin; Kaya, Fadime

2014-08-01

236

Attitude toward Plagiarism among Iranian Medical Faculty Members  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members ofTehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. E...

Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi; Kiarash Aramesh; Kiana Hassanpour; Abbas Norouzi-Javidan; Mahsa Ghajarzadeh

2012-01-01

237

ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATIONS OF STUDENTS TOWARDS LEARNING OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS IN ENGLISH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the policy of teaching science and mathematics in English in the Malaysian educational system by focusing on the attitudes and achievement orientations of secondary school students towards the learning of these two subjects. Attitudes and achievement are two important outcomes of learning that will determine the effectiveness of an education policy. This study is based on a sample of 400 secondary school students selected from four non-premier schools. It looks into the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics as well as their variations according to four background variables, i.e., gender, ethnicity, types of feeder school and English achievement grades. It also examines the inter-correlations between the students’ attitudes and achievement orientations. Findings from statistical analyses of collected data were supplemented by more in-depth interviews. This study shows that the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics in English do not indicate that the policy has achieved its objective. However, their attitudes and achievement motivations vary according to the four background variables. The significant and positive inter-correlations between attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics further confirm the causal relationship between these two important dimensions of learning.

Tan Yao Sua

2007-01-01

238

Relationship Between The Professional Attitudes Of Secondary School Teachers With Their Teaching Behavior  

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Full Text Available The problem under research was “Relationship between the Professional Attitudes of Secondary School Teachers with Their Teaching Behavior”. Teaching is considered to be the noblest of all the profession. It is termed as the profession of the prophets. A person serving in any profession must have Positive attitude and competence in his profession. This study may be significant for knowing to major sessions of teachers training in relation to their attitude towards their profession. The research hypothesis that, there is no significant relationship between the professional attitude and teaching behaviors of secondary school teachers was tested. All theSecondary School students and teachers comprise the population of the study. A sample of 100 students from the 10 High and Higher secondary schools of DIKhan City was selected. Five male Schools and five female schools were selected. 10 students from each male and female school were taken. 50 teachers from the 10 high and higher secondary school of DIKhan city. 5 teachers each from male and female schools were selected. Two attitude scales, one for professional attitude and another for teaching behavior of the teachers were used for data collection. The co-relation statistic was used. The results show that there is a high co-relation between the professional attitude and teaching behavior of the teachers.

Liaquat Hussain

2011-10-01

239

A Study Regarding the Collage Students’ Attitudes towards Physical Activities  

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Full Text Available The study in hand was an attempt to explore the students’ attitude towards physical activities in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Main objective of the study was to know the attitude of students regarding physical activities. A representative sample of 350 students (Male =220 and Female = 130 were selected using convenient sampling technique. A 32 items Likerts Type scale measuring Attitude towards Physical Activities was developed for use with degree colleges’ student. Main finding of the study were that both the male and female students have revealed positive attitude towards physical activities as social experience. The study also illustrates that health and fitness can be improved by taking part in physical activities. A positive attitude of the students regarding physical activities as a search for excitement was found. The overall attitudes of the students (Male & Female regarding the attitude towards physical activity were measured as positive.

Salahuddin Khan

2012-09-01

240

Attitudes of Male and Female University Students Toward Students with Different Physical Disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measured the attitudes of male and female university students (N=244) toward blind and other physically disabled students. Survey results showed students reacted most negatively to blind students in academic situations and to students in wheelchairs in social situations. Females reacted more positively than males overall. (WAS)

Stovall, Carole; Sedlacek, William E.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Empathy or Antipathy? The Consequences of Racially and Socially Diverse Peers on Attitudes and Behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper estimates peer effects by taking advantage of random assignment of first-year roommates through a housing lottery at a large state university. Preliminary results show that, when compared with white students who have white roommates, white students with black roommates express much more positive attitudes regarding affirmative action…

Duncan, Greg J.; Boisjoly, Johanne; Levy, Dan M.; Kremer, Michael; Eccles, Jacque

242

Improving Student Attitudes Toward Biology  

Science.gov (United States)

Osborne, Simon, and Collins (2003) found positive correlations between attitude and certain characteristics of the classroom environment, including student-centered instructional designs, high levels of personal support, use of a variety of teaching strategies, and innovative learning activities. While these methods have been used successfully at the pre-college level, they are rare at the college level. In this chapter the authors describe their version of a student-centered, active learning science classroom and present results that indicate that their efforts were successful in changing college students' attitudes toward science. This model of instruction should help promote both general science literacy and the continued pursuit of science as a career.

Russell, Connie P.; French, Donald P.

2006-01-01

243

Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.

2011-01-01

244

Lesbian and Gay Male Group Identity Attitudes and Self-Esteem: Implications for Counseling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-six lesbians and gay men completed Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and modified version of Racial Identity Attitude Scale. Results indicated moderate inverse relationship between preencounter attitudes and self-esteem and positive relationship between internalization attitudes and self-esteem. Encounter and immersion-emersion attitudes were…

Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.

1993-01-01

245

Dysfunctional Attitudes of University Students  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess dysfunctional attitudes of university students using personal variables such as gender; type of educational institute (i.e. which college faculty or school they currently attend, which type of high school they graduated from; perception of parents’ attitudes; and socio-economic level. The study was conducted in the academic year of 2009-2010, with a total of 501 students randomly selected from 10 different faculties of Atatürk University in Erzurum Turkey. Data were collected using the “Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, adapted to Turkey by ?ahin and ?ahin (1992. A “Personal Information Form” was given to the students for collecting data about personal, organizational and social variables. The t test, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis analysis were used in data analysis. The findings indicated that the dysfunctional attitudes of university students varied significantly according to gender (t (499= -2.623, p=.009, and the faculty they attended (F(9, 491= 4.659, p=.000. Dysfunctional attitudes did not show significant differences in terms of students’ perception of their parents’ attitudes, socio-economic level and type of high school they graduated from.

Durmu? KILIÇ

2010-08-01

246

Greek Nurses Attitudes towards Death  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies explore the attitudes of nurses caring for dying patients but this is the first oneexploring Greek nurses’ attitude toward death.Purpose/Objectives: To assess how Greek nurses feel about death and examine any relationships between theirattitudes and demographic factors.Design: Descriptive quantitative. The sample comprised of 150 hospital nurses (response rate 64%.Method: Voluntary and anonymous completion of the Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R, and ademographic questionnaire. The Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R (Wong, Reker, & Gesser, 1994 is a32-item scale that uses a seven-point Likert scale to measure respondents' attitudes toward death. Demographicdata, including gender, age, previous experience working with terminally ill patients, work setting (inpatientversus outpatient, years practising as an RN were collected. No identifying information was collected from theparticipants, ensuring the results were anonymous.Results: 82% of respondents were female with a mean age of 35.54 years (19 min 48 max. The mean nursingexperience was 12.1 years. Average scores on the DAP-R sub-scales ranged from 2.90 (escape sub-scale to 5.63(neutral sub-scale. Statistically significant relationships were noted among gender, and scores on the DAP-R.Nursing experience and age were the variables most likely to predict nurses' attitudes toward death. Nurses withspecific education on palliative care had less difficulty talking about death and dying. The existence ofHospital-based teams (known as palliative care teams, supportive care teams, or symptom assessment teams hadstatistically significant relationship with fear of death and neutral acceptance scoresConclusions: In Greek hospitals nurses with more work experience tended to have more positive attitudes towarddeath and caring for dying patients.

Malliarou Maria

2011-04-01

247

Attitudes toward counseling among Asian Indians in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that Asian Indian immigrants do not consider counseling as an option for problem resolution. This study examined attitudes toward counseling among 101 Asian Indians and predicted that Asian Indian immigrants would espouse negative attitudes toward counseling and thus dismiss counseling as a coping strategy, whereas second-generation immigrants would have more positive opinions. Perceived prestige, pride, and privacy were factors predicted to positively correlate with negative attitudes. Results from an attitude survey created by the authors suggest that Asian Indians reported more neutral or fairly positive attitudes toward counseling than were expected. Individuals who immigrated before 10 years of age responded with more positive attitudes to counseling than did those who immigrated at a later age. PMID:9458592

Panganamala, N R; Plummer, D L

1998-01-01

248

Sex roles and attitudes toward gender roles of people with higher education  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of relation of sex and gender roles, more precisely, how much the degree of egalitarianism in attitudes toward gender roles depends on the category and the level of adopted sex role. The sample included 236 subjects of both sexes with high education between the ages of 25 to 65, in central and south Serbia. For the evaluation of gender role BSRI (Bem was used and for egalitarianism in attitudes SRES (Raboteg-Šari?, Ravli?. The results show that egalitarianism of attitudes is positively correlated with femininity (p<0.01 and negatively with masculinity (p<0.05. The adoption of androgyne sex role is evident in men (p<0.01 and the adoption of feminine but also of masculine role in women which correlates positively with egalitarianism in attitudes (p<0.05. Younger respondents show more femininity and more egalitarianism, but also androgyny which correlates negatively with egalitarianism (p<0.05. Considering the location of respondents we found that those who grew up in urban areas show greater egalitarianism in attitudes (p<0.01, but greater masculinity as well (p<0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

Stefanovi? Jelena

2012-01-01

249

Energy attitudes in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy issues are at present heavily debated in Finland. Public discussion is very emotional and biased against nuclear power. The undetermined situation together with the need for a decision on increasing the nuclear capacity led Imatran Voima Oy (Imatra Power Company) to measure the prevailing attitudes. The paper discusses the energy opinion surveys recently made in Finland. The general results give evidence of the changes occurring in the values of life. Environmental issues and the purity of energy production are seen as the most important factors of energy policy. Low price or availability and reliability are considered less important. The results of the surveys show, however, that people think that more electricity will be needed in the future. Natural gas, peat and hydroelectric power are most favoured. The attitude towards the use of coal and nuclear power is clearly more diffuse. In the survey, 21% want to increase the share of nuclear power, 32% want to keep its use at the present level and 35% want to reduce it. This 35% includes the one-fifth of the population that would like to abandon nuclear power altogether. Nuclear wastes and accidents are considered the most important factors contributing to the formation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. The other main factors are discussed in the paper. A great desire for information on energy policy together with personal decision making interests reflect the general attitude in Finland also. Totally incorrectttitude in Finland also. Totally incorrect information on nuclear energy is, however, surprisingly prevalent, which makes opposition to nuclear power understandable. All these factors make taking a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland difficult. (author)

250

[Attitude of the population to organ transplantation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The attitude of the Danish population towards organ transplantation was examined by means of an interview study, executed by the Gallup Institute. From a sample population of 1391 persons above 18 years of age, 798 persons (70%) were interviewed, in the period April 24th to May 3rd 1992. When asked what they thought the general attitude toward transplantation was amongst the population, 65% answered "positive" or "very positive". The attitudes to three situations, namely to organ donation after the death of a parent, spouse or child was examined subsequently. Amongst those who had an opinion, 75% (72-76%) were positive and 25% (24-27%) were negative. The younger the interviewed person, the more positive the attitude. According to the Danish law the relatives can decide for or against organ donation if the deceased has not expressed her view on organ donation. In view of the general positive attitude of the population it is proposed that we introduce a system where every adult person is asked concerning his/her attitude, e.g. in connection with the yearly income tax form or renewal of the health insurance certificate. PMID:8009722

Keiding, S; Jensen, S L; Vilstrup, H

1994-05-01

251

The impact of risk attitudes on entrepreneurial survival  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Risk attitudes have an impact on not only the decision to become an entrepreneur but also the survival and failure rates of entrepreneurs. Whereas recent research underpins the theoretical proposition of a positive correlation between risk attitudes and the decision to become an entrepreneur, the effects on survival are not as straightforward. Psychological research posits an inverse U-shaped relationship between risk attitudes and entrepreneurial survival. On the basis of recent waves of the...

Caliendo, Marco; Fossen, Frank M.; Kritikos, Alexander S.

2008-01-01

252

CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOBILE MARKETING AND MOBILE COMMERCE IN CONSUMER MARKETS  

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Full Text Available Advances in information and communication technologies are not only offering new marketing channels to companies but also significantly influencing the ways in which companies conduct their businesses and marketing activities. This paper analyses the possible significant impacts of mobile phone technology developments on marketing, and offers insights into mobile commerce and mobile marketing, which have not previously been investigated in Turkey. In the survey, mobile phone users’ attitudes towards mobile commerce and mobile marketing and their intentions to benefit from mobile phones are searched. The empirical results show that the mobile phone users’ adoption of mobile shopping is low, and apart from mobile shopping, mobile phone users have positive attitudes towards mobile advertising, entertainment, discount coupons and mobile marketing. Moreover, the demographics characteristics (age, income, occupation and employment of mobile phone users who have more positive attitudes towards mobile marketing tools are determined and managerial implications and recommendations are also given to increase mobile commerce and marketing adoption rates.

Süleyman BARUTÇU

2008-01-01

253

THE EFFECT OF ACHIEVEMENT GOALS ON MORAL ATTITUDES IN YOUNG ATHLETES  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the hypothesis that achievement goal orientations will predict sportpersonship attitudes among young athletes, namely that task orientation will predict socially positive attitudes and ego orientation will predict socially negative attitudes. For hundred and eighty two athletes, aged 13 to 16 years completed the Portuguese versions of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQp and of the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQp. Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships between TEOSQp and SAQp. Afterwards, relationships between ego orientation and score agreement in cheating and gamesmanship as well as task orientation and score agreement in convention and commitment were examined through EQS (version 5.7. For the estimation of the model, the maximum likelihood method was used. A matrix correlation between the variables (task orientation, ego orientation, cheating, gamesmanship, convention and commitment showed positive correlations between task orientation and convention (r = 0.29, p < 0.01 and commitment (r = 0. 40, p < 0.01. Ego orientation appeared to be positively correlated with cheating (r = 0.30, p < 0.01 and gamesmanship (r = 0.33, p < 0.01, and negatively with convention (r = -0.16, p < 0.01.The fit of the model was evaluated using the CFI (0.97 and SRMR (0.04. The hypothesized model was confirmed. Task and ego orientations produced a significant effect on prosocial attitudes and on antisocial attitudes, respectively. Task-oriented goals in youth sport programs can represent a relevant framework for promoting prosocial attitudes and consequentely increment the effectiveness of educational interventions

Carloc E. Gonçalves

2010-12-01

254

Employee’s Job Performance: The Effect of Attitude toward Works, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction  

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Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job and job experiences. The happier the individual, the higher is level of job satisfaction. It is assumed that positive attitude towards work and greater organizational commit­ment increases job satisfaction which in return enhances performance of the individual. Based on this phenomenon, this study is aimed to explain and empirically test the effect of attitude toward work, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment to the employee’s job performance at PT. Intech Anugrah Indonesia (PT. Intech. Data used in this study was primary data which were collected through closed questionnaires with 1-5 Likert scale. A sample of this study was 200 managerial and non-managerial staff of PT. Intech. Research carried out by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM which was run by AMOS 20.0 program. The results of this study showed that attitude towards work have positive but not significant effect to job satis­faction and employee performance. Different with attitude towards work, the organization's commitment has positive and significant effect on job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech. It means every improvement in organization’s commitment has a positive effect toward job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech.

Aries Susanty

2013-01-01

255

Combating Ageism: Change in Student Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging  

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This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…

Cottle, Nate R.; Glover, Rebecca J.

2007-01-01

256

Relationships between Learning Patterns and Attitudes towards Two Assessment Formats.  

Science.gov (United States)

For 58 college students, high self-concept and learning processes scores were related to positive attitudes toward open-ended tests, negative toward multiple choice. Low test anxiety scores were related to positive attitudes toward open-ended tests. Males were more favorable to multiple choice than females were. (SK)

Birenbaum, Menucha; Feldman, Rose A.

1998-01-01

257

Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model  

Science.gov (United States)

In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching

2012-01-01

258

Attributes Related to Attitudes toward People with Disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 162 adult members of the general public evaluated their attitudes toward people with disabilities. Among results was that the number of movies viewed about people with disabilities was positively associated with number of discussions and with positive attitudes toward people with disabilities. Gender was also significantly related to…

Eichinger, Joanne; And Others

1992-01-01

259

Image Positioning Accuracy Analysis for the Super Low Altitude Remote Sensing Satellite  

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Full Text Available Super low altitude remote sensing satellites maintain lower flight altitudes by means of ion propulsion in order to improve image resolution and positioning accuracy. The use of engineering data in design for achieving image positioning accuracy is discussed in this paper based on the principles of the photogrammetry theory. The exact line?of?sight rebuilding of each detection element and this direction precisely intersecting with the Earth’s elliptical when the camera on the satellite is imaging are both ensured by the combined design of key parameters. These parameters include: orbit determination accuracy, attitude determination accuracy, camera exposure time, accurately synchronizing the reception of ephemeris with attitude data, geometric calibration and precise orbit verification. Precise simulation calculations show that image positioning accuracy of super low altitude remote sensing satellites is not obviously improved. The attitude determination error of a satellite still restricts its positioning accuracy.

Ming Xu

2012-10-01

260

Towards estimation of HIV-1 date of infection: a time-continuous IgG-model shows that seroconversion does not occur at the midpoint between negative and positive tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating date of infection for HIV-1-infected patients is vital for disease tracking and informed public health decisions, but is difficult to obtain because most patients have an established infection of unknown duration at diagnosis. Previous studies have used HIV-1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels as measured by the IgG capture BED enzyme immunoassay (BED assay) to indicate if a patient was infected recently, but a time-continuous model has not been available. Therefore, we developed a logistic model of IgG production over time. We used previously published metadata from 792 patients for whom the HIV-1-specific IgG levels had been longitudinally measured using the BED assay. To account for patient variability, we used mixed effects modeling to estimate general population parameters. The typical patient IgG production rate was estimated at r?=?6.72[approximate 95% CI 6.17,7.33]×10(-3) OD-n units day(-1), and the carrying capacity at K?=?1.84[1.75,1.95] OD-n units, predicting how recently patients seroconverted in the interval (?) t?=?(31,711) days. Final model selection and validation was performed on new BED data from a population of 819 Swedish HIV-1 patients diagnosed in 2002-2010. On an appropriate subset of 350 patients, the best model parameterization had an accuracy of 94% finding a realistic seroconversion date. We found that seroconversion on average is at the midpoint between last negative and first positive HIV-1 test for patients diagnosed in prospective/cohort studies such as those included in the training dataset. In contrast, seroconversion is strongly skewed towards the first positive sample for patients identified by regular public health diagnostic testing as illustrated in the validation dataset. Our model opens the door to more accurate estimates of date of infection for HIV-1 patients, which may facilitate a better understanding of HIV-1 epidemiology on a population level and individualized prevention, such as guidance during contact tracing. PMID:23613753

Skar, Helena; Albert, Jan; Leitner, Thomas

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Consumers’ values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products: a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumers’ attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must no...

Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, M. G.; Perez-cueto, Armando; Saab, M. S. M.; Grunert, Klaus G.

2012-01-01

262

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION  

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Full Text Available Providing Quality Education for All children in inclusive setting has beenidentified as the most challenging, yet the most important issue in education across theworld Inclusive Education is the practice of educating students with disabilitiesalongside children without disabilities in general classrooms. Right to Education (RTEAct, 2009 attempts to provide an enabling environment for all disabled children to enterschool, attend and complete elementary education on par with other children. Successfuland effective implementation of Inclusive Education depends upon teachers' knowledgeand positive attitudes towards it. The main aim of this study was to find out the attitudesof elementary school teachers towards Inclusive Education. The Attitude TowardsInclusive Education Scale (ATIES was administered to 78 teachers working inelementary schools in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. It was found thatelementary school teachers had a positive attitude towards Inclusive Education.Significant differences were found in the scores of attitude towards Inclusive Educationwith respect to gender, locality ,age, educational qualification and teaching experienceetc.

KANDIPALLI RAMAKRISHNARAO

2013-05-01

263

Attitude and achievement patterns of seventh-grade science students: Are there sex differences?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study adapted Fennema and Peterson's Autonomous Learning Behavior model to examine sex differences in seventh grade science attitude and achievement. Six dimensions of student attitude were examined: (a) self confidence in science, (b) perceptions of the usefulness of science, (c) perceptions of science as a male domain, (d) attitudes toward success in science, (e) perceptions of teacher attitudes, and (f) attributions for success and failure experiences in science. Attitudinal data were collected during fall and spring from a sample of 65 males and 53 females. Science achievement scores at the end of grades six and seven were obtained from student records. Using repeated measures analyses of variance, the study investigated whether seventh grade males and females (a) differ in their attitudes toward science, (b) experience similar changes in attitudes toward science from fall to spring, and (c) demonstrate differences in the relationship between attitude toward science and science achievement. In general, males and females were more similar than different in their attitudes toward science. Main effects of sex were observed on only one attitudinal variable (male domain), and two attribution scales (success/ability and failure/ability). Males more than females viewed science as a male domain, and were more likely than females to attribute success in science to their ability. Females more than males, in contrast, tended to attribute failure to their lack of ability. Where changes were observed over time, males tended to show a less positive attitude from fall to spring, while females tended to become more positive in their attitudes, if they changed at all. Results indicated no sex differences in science achievement at the sixth or seventh grade level. However, attitude was a stronger predictor of achievement for males than females. These findings support the usefulness of the Autonomous Learning Behavior model as a framework for examining sex differences in science. The results also indicate that males and females who are equal in science achievement may have different attributions for their successes and failures and that these differences may have implication for future motivation to study science.

Tingley, Paula B.

1997-12-01

264

The importance of shiftwork attitudes and ethics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author, a nuclear power plant operator at the Ginna pressurized water reactor, discusses the positive and negative aspects of 12-hour workshifts, the various schedules that have been developed to optimize performance during the 12-hour shifts, and the motivation required to prepare mentally and physically for the shift. A healthy work attitude is the best guarantee of high standards of performance whether the shift be of 8-, 10-, or 12-hour duration. This healthy work attitude will cause peers to improve their attitudes and attentiveness and strive to lift their own work levels to a higher standard

265

Assessment of the attitude of nursing students about obesity in the Semnan University of Medical Sciences  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Anecdotes abound about obesity and obese person being ridiculed and society attitudes about obese persons are clearly negative and many of health care workers, also believes these myths. This study was performed to determine the attitudes of nursing students of Semnan University of medical sciences about obesity myths. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive-analytic study and was performed on 115 of the nursing students of the Semnan University of Medical Sciences in May 2006. Data was collected with researcher-made questionnaire, which it was composed of demographic data and 25 common myths about obesity. The myths were selected from the internet using key word "Obesity myths". We used 5-point Likert scale for the assessment of nursing student's attitude. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS program using chi-square and spearman correlation test. Results: The result of study showed that nursing students have anti-fat bias towards obese individuals and some of their attitudes need corrections, however, 59/1% of the students have positive attitudes about obesity myths (disagreement with obesity myths. Conclusion: Nurses are at first line of confrontation with clients and patients. Beliefs and attitudes of nurses can contribute to providing care of obese individuals. More education about obesity concept is necessary.

N. Raees Dana

2006-11-01

266

STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTITUDE TOWARDS EDUCATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SECONDARY LEVEL MINORITY STUDENTS  

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Full Text Available Attitude is the belief that one has towards people and surroundings. In case of education, students’ positive attitude may influence their academic achievement. From the present study, the researchers also highlight that there are some prime factors like anxiety, socio-economical status etc. which may create barrier for academic achievement. In the present investigation, the researchers made an attempt to study the difference, if any, between boys and girls students of minority community in respect to their attitude towards education and academic achievement. The researchers also made an attempt to find out the correlation between attitude towards education and academic achievement. A sample of 257 (127 boys and 130 girls of secondary level minority students of class-X were selected randomly. Analyzing the data, the result shows that there is no significant difference between boys and girls students in attitude towards education and academic achievement scores. It was also found that attitude towards education and academic achievement have very low negative relation (-0.10 which is not statistically significant.

Samit Kumar Das

2014-11-01

267

Gender differences in tenth-grade students' attitudes toward science: The effect of school type  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this mixed methods study was on 10th grade students' attitudes towards science. Its purpose was to examine the effect of gender and school-type on attitudes toward science. Research on attitudes toward science has focused on gender, school level, and classroom environment. Relatively little has been done on the effect of school type. In the present study, school type refers to the following variables; private vs. public, single-sex vs. coeducational and high vs. low-achieving schools. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there are gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the school type variables being investigated. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was the instrument used to provide quantitative data for this aspect of the study. TOSRA is a Likert scale consisting of seven subscales measuring different aspects of science attitudes. The qualitative component, on the other hand, explored students' perspectives on the factors, which were influential in the development of the attitudes that they hold. The events and experiences of their lives in and out-of-school, with respect to science, and the meanings that they make of these provided the data from which their attitudes toward science could be gleaned. Data for this component of the study was gathered by means of in-depth focus group interviews. The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. Statistical treatment of the questionnaire data involved the use of t tests and ANOVA. Findings did not reveal any gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were some differences on some of the subscales. School type did not appear to be a significant variable in students' attitudes to science. The results of both quantitative and qualitative components show that instructional strategy and teacher characteristics, both of which are components of the classroom environment are important factors shaping students' attitudes to science. These findings suggest that efforts to foster positive attitudes to science among high school students should focus on the enhancement of the high school science classroom environment.

Ndakwah, Ernestine Ajame

268

Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a maisupplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified

269

The influence of parents' martial dissolutions on children's attitudes toward family formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the influence of parents' martial dissolutions on their children's attitudes toward several dimensions of family formation. Hypotheses focus on the role of patients' attitudes as a mechanism linking parents' behavior to their children's attitudes. We test these hypotheses using intergenerational panel data that include measures of children's attitudes taken directly from children. Results demonstrate strong effects of parental divorce, remarriage, and widowhood on children's attitudes toward premarital sex, cohabitation, marriage, childbearing, and divorce. The results also show that parents' own attitudes link their behavior to their children's attitudes, although substantial effects of parental behavior remain after controlling for parents' attitudes. PMID:8690141

Axinn, W G; Thornton, A

1996-02-01

270

Assessing medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills – which components of attitudes do we measure?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Communication Skills Attitudes Scale (CSAS created by Rees, Sheard and Davies and published in 2002 has been a widely used instrument for measuring medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. Earlier studies have shown that the CSAS mainly tests two dimensions of attitudes towards communication; positive attitudes (PAS and negative attitudes (NAS. The objectives of our study are to explore the attitudes of Norwegian medical students towards learning communication skills, and to compare our findings with reports from other countries. Methods The CSAS questionnaire was mailed simultaneously to all students (n = 3055 of the four medical schools in Norway in the spring of 2003. Response from 1833 students (60.0% were analysed by use of SPSS ver.12. Results A Principal component analysis yielded findings that differ in many respects from those of earlier papers. We found the CSAS to measure three factors. The first factor describes students' feelings about the way communication skills are taught, whereas the second factor describes more fundamental attitudes and values connected to the importance of having communication skills for doctors. The third factor explores whether students feel that good communication skills may help them respecting patients and colleagues. Conclusion Our findings indicate that in this sample the CSAS measures broader aspects of attitudes towards learning communication skills than the formerly described two-factor model with PAS and NAS. This may turn out to be helpful for monitoring the effect of different teaching strategies on students' attitudes during medical school.

Holen Are

2007-03-01

271

A Study on Students' Attitude towards Computer and their Academic Achievement in Srikakulam region  

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Full Text Available : An attempt has been made in this paper to study of high school students' attitude towards computer and their academic achievement in Srikakulam region. Normative survey method has been used in the present investigation. Random sampling technique has been used in the selection of the sample of as many as 135 high school students in Srikakulam region. The findings of the study show that there is no significant difference between male and female, OC/BC/SC&ST students in Srikakulam region. There is significant positive correlation between attitude towards computer and academic achievement of high school VIII to X standard students in Srikakulam region.

N. Venkata Swamy Naidu

2013-12-01

272

The Student's Attitude toward Use Platform as Learning Resources at University of Granada  

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Full Text Available The study aim to investigate students' attitudes towards use platform as learning resources at University of Granada (UGr, a survey of two hundred fifty-eight male and female undergraduate students from faculty of education, were randomly selected to participate in the study. The results of the study shows a positive attitude toward use of platform as learning resources and there was a significance difference, due to the gender, owning a personal computer (PC, and having access to the internet, and it was in favor of male students, and student who own a pc, and student whom do have access to the internet respectively.

Ahmad Alobiedat

2010-12-01

273

Counter-conditioning as an intervention to modify anti-fat attitudes  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effect of anti-fat attitude counter-conditioning using positive images of obese individuals participants completed implicit and explicit measures of attitudes towards fatness on three occasions: no intervention; following exposure to positive images of obese members of the general public; and to images of obese celebrities. Contrary to expectations, positive images of obese individuals did not result in more positive attitudes towards fatness as expected and, in some cases, indices of these attitudes worsened. Results suggest that attitudes towards obesity and fatness may be somewhat robust and resistant to change, possibly suggesting a central and not peripheral processing route for their formation.

Stuart W. Flint

2013-04-01

274

Student Attitude toward Entrepreneurship as Affected by Participation in an SBI Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Before and after participating in the Small Business Institute programs, 220 students completed the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation. Students with high locus of control and younger students were more likely to form positive attitudes about entrepreneurship. (SK)

Hatten, Timothy S.; Ruhland, Sheila K.

1995-01-01

275

Television Quiz Show Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

276

Relationship of Community Leaders Knowledge and Attitude in Role of Dengue Fever Control in Kawalu Tasikmalaya  

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Full Text Available Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. If not treated quickly, it can develop into a lethal hemorrhagic disease. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design aimed to determine the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever in Kawalu Public Health Centre Tasikmalaya City. The study population is all public jigures who are in the Kawalu Public Health Centre, with sample size of 68 respondents. Sampling technique was purposive sampling. The results were analyzed with chi­square (X2 to see the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between knowledge of the role of community leaders in the control of dengue fever (p = 0.578, as well as the attitude of no significant relation to the role of community leaders (p = 0.177. The role of society is not based on the knowledge and a positive attitude, or a positive attitude and know it but not yet reflected in its role in the control of dengue fever; may be one cause of the dengue fever problem is difficult of resolve so far. Health care workers are expected to approach and field studies in more depth so that people contribute more significantly in the control of dengue fever.

Yanyan Bahtiar

2012-11-01

277

Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Neyshabour Primary Health Care System Personnel  

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Full Text Available Health care personnel are the first line of contact for public with the health care system and therefore, can have an important role in public’s oral health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of Health Care centers personnel in Neyshabour, Iran. One hundred and thirty four health care personnel in Neyshabour participated in this cross sectional study. A researcher-led questionnaire was used to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of participants. Oral hygiene examination was carried out by a qualified dentist using simplified oral hygiene index. Then the association between knowledge, attitude and behavior of health care personnel with age, gender, occupation and education level were assessed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that 56% of participants had good knowledge, 80% reported positive attitude and 86% of personnel reported tooth brushing once daily. Average score for oral hygiene index was 1.26±1.66. Personnel with higher educational level had more knowledge (p = 0.007 and people with higher education and income had more positive attitude (p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively. The oral hygiene index of people with higher education was better than others (p = 0.001. It seems that level of knowledge and behavior of studied Health Care employees regarding oral health needs improvement. Enhancement and continuation of oral health educational courses is mandatory.

Taraneh Movahhed

2014-01-01

278

An Investigation into EFL Instructors’ Attitudes towards Using Instructional Technology in Language Classes: A Case Study  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining EFL instructors’ attitudes towards using technology in language classes. The participants of the study were 40 male and female EFL instructors at Guilan Province, Iran during the spring semester of 2010. The Technology Attitude Scale (TAS was utilized to collect the relevant data. The TAS consists of twenty items with responses provided on a Likert scale. The participants were also asked to respond to three open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the respondents’ attitude towards technology use. The findings of the study revealed that both male and females had an almost highly positive attitude towards technology. However, based on the descriptive statistics, the male instructors had a more positive attitude towards technology use compared to their female counterparts. To determine the role of gender, an independent-samples t-test was run which revealed no significant difference. One-way ANOVA showed that the responses of three groups of participants who were distinguished based on their teaching experience were not statistically different from each other. Based on the qualitative section of the study, the most important obstacles enumerated by the respondents were lack of facilities in language classes, teachers’ lack of skills and relevant knowledge and students’ preference of traditional methods and their lack of familiarity with technology use, respectively.

O. Derakhshan

2013-04-01

279

Type of Birth, Depression and Anxiety as determinates of Breastfeeding Attitude among Nursing Mothers  

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Full Text Available This study examined Type of Birth, Depression and Anxiety as determinates of Breastfeeding attitude among Nursing Mothers in Edo and Kogi State Nigeria. A total of two hundred (200 currently Breastfeeding mothers participated in the study. This comprises of a hundred and twenty breastfeeding mother drawn from the General Hospital Auchi Edo State and eighty drawn from Ajaokuta Steel Medical Centre Kogi State. A questionnaire was used in collecting data. The questionnaire consisted of four sections. The demographic variables, Breastfeeding attitude scale, Depression and Anxiety sub-scales. Results of the study revealed that mothers who had normal delivery reported positive attitude towards breastfeeding than mothers who gave birth through caesarian section (t=3.38, df 198 P < 0.05. There were no significant differences in the reported attitude of mothers scoring high and low on the Zung depression inventory towards breastfeeding. Likewise there were no significant differences in the reported attitude of mothers scoring high or low towards breastfeeding. Results obtained also shows that there was an interaction effect between type of delivery and depression on breastfeeding attitude among nursing mothers. An interaction existed also between type of Delivery and anxiety; Depression and anxiety but surprisingly, type of delivery, depression and anxiety did not have an interaction effect on the prediction of breastfeeding attitude among nursing mothers. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that there is need for counseling and enlightenment campaign embarked upon by government, and non-governmental organization as well as all health professional concerned within Nigeria to eliminate this wrong attitude and belief about Caesarean section birth as well as campaign on the nutritional values of breastfeeding milk to children. The need for mothers who went through CS to be counseled on the need to believe in themselves as well as the benefit of breastfeeding to the child and mother is very important.

Imhonde H. O.

2012-08-01

280

Attitude, Parental Encouragement and Perception of the Importance of English in English Language Learning  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the students’ perception of the importance of English language amongst a sample of 150 Upper Six students from a population of 755 students from six schools in the district of Marang, Terengganu. Also studied was whether their attitude towards learning English language is positive and whether they receive sufficient parental encouragement and support in their English language learning. It was found that the students were well aware of the importance of English language and also had a very positive attitude towards English Language learning. The parental encouragement and support scores also recorded a high total mean. In all three instances the sample means were well above the mid-point means indicating that the sample means fell in the higher halves of the mean scores. This implies that students are well aware of the importance of English language, are very positive about learning English language and receive more than adequate parental encouragement and support in their English language learning. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant and positive relationship between the students’ perception of the importance of English language and their attitude towards learning the language. Since the students’ attitude and parental encouragement and support seem to be satisfactory, future researchers should investigate whether the curriculum offered is suitable for rural students.

Gopala Krishnan Sekharan Nair

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges. PMID:23836312

Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

2014-03-01

282

The impact of party on nuclar power attitudes in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mass attitudes to nuclear power in general and to the more specific problems having to do with the management of nuclear waste are related to each other. People with anti-nuclear attitudes tend to view many of the nuclear waste problems differently than persons who are positive to the use of nuclear power. Hence, the study of mass attitudes to nuclear power is of relevance for the study of attitudes to nuclear waste. The present study analyse attitudes to nuclear power as well as attitudes to nuclear waste. The emphasis, however, is on the development of mass attitudes to nuclear power. The setting is Sweden and the time-frame the last 20 years. (author)

283

PSYCHOSOCIAL SPORT MARKETING ATTITUDES OF  

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Full Text Available One of the strategy implementations in the achievement of the Nigeria Sport policy development is effective sport marketing (Onifade, 1999. The Nigerian government has been said to be solely responsible for funding and marketing sports hence, achieving the sports developmental goal is at its lowest ebb (Esuku, 2003.This study examined the socio- psychological sports marketing attitudes of the stakeholders in the achievement of sports goal by 2020. It also determined attitudes of stakeholders towards sports marketing. The participants for the study consisted 1,200 Nigerian sampled from twelve States and from the various professions, who are stakeholders to sports marketing (corporate and private organizations, sports Journalists, sports psychologists, sports councils, ministry of sports, coaches, labour unions, University and athletes. They were purposively sampled. The main research tool was the questionnaire that was used to obtain information on the different variables. The descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages were used for the analysis of the demographic information, while inferential statistics of one way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance. The results confirmed that Nigerian government is solely responsible for marketing sports which ought not to be if effective sports marketing must be realized toward the attainment of the millennium goals. Also revealed are fair positive socio- psychological attitudes of few corporate organizations, and negative socio- psychological attitudes from individuals of most corporate organizations. Suggestions were advanced towards the improvement of achieving the sports developmental goals.

Tomas E. Boye

2011-05-01

284

Experiments with small helicopter automated landings at unusual attitudes  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes a set of experiments involving small helicopters landing automated landing at unusual attitudes. By leveraging the increased agility of small air vehicles, we show that it is possible to automatically land a small helicopter on surfaces pitched at angles up to 60 degrees. Such maneuvers require considerable agility from the vehicle and its avionics system, and they pose significant technical and safety challenges. Our work builds upon previous activities in human-inspired, high-agility flight for small rotorcraft. However, it was not possible to leverage manual flight test data to extract landing maneuvers due to stringent attitude and position control requirements. Availability of low-cost, local navigation systems requiring no on-board instrumentation has proven particularly important for these experiments to be successful.

Bayraktar, S

2007-01-01

285

Transcultural nursing with Native Americans: critical knowledge, skills, and attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Native American nurses are in an ideal position to articulate how to serve Native people in ways that respect indigenous cultures. Forty Native American nurses and nursing students completed a survey on knowledge, skills, and attitudes/values necessary for culturally competent service provision to Native patients. Four knowledge themes, four skill themes, and three attitude/value themes were identified. Nurses must know about and show respect for the culture and history of Native groups, including culturally specific health beliefs and healing practices. Skills must be tailored for work in a non-Western context, and containment skills become particularly important. Additionally, respecting diversity and traditions and being open-minded and nonethnocentric are fundamental. This study provides valuable information nurses can use to enhance their work with indigenous people. PMID:10693406

Weaver, H N

1999-07-01

286

Association of Group Learning with Mathematics Achievement and Mathematics Attitude among Eighth-Grade Students in the US  

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This study examined a large, nationally-representative sample of eighth-grade students in the US to assess how the frequency of group learning activity in mathematics classrooms was associated with mathematics achievement and three measures of attitudes toward mathematics. Results showed that moderate amounts of group work in class had positive

Smith, Thomas J.; McKenna, Cornelius M.; Hines, Ellen

2014-01-01

287

Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.

Fan?ovi?ová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

2010-10-01

288

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV. PMID:20485857

Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary

2009-12-01

289

Reversal of Attitude: The Influence of Counter-Attitudinal Information  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Research has shown that both positive and negative information can alter a neutral attitude towards an unknown person, with negative information having, in general, a larger impact. Though this positive-negative asymmetry has received considerable attention, it has, to our knowledge, not been tested in more current and powerful social media, such as youtube. Although attitudes are not fixed, literature on the reversal of a recently established attitude by providing counter-attitudinal information is sparse. Therefore, the main aims of the present study were to examine positve-negative asymmetry in attitude formation using youtube fragments and to test the permanence of the establihed attitude by providing counter-attitudinal information. Approach: A total of 89 persons received either a positively (P or a negatively (N valued youtube fragment concerning a neutral target person. Subsequently, half of each group received positive written information (groups PP and NP regarding the target person; the other half received negative written information (groups PN and NN. Results: The results indicate that it is indeed possible to change a neutral attitude using youtube fragments, with a larger attitude change after negative than positive material. Textual information reversed this attitude, with an equal effect for positive and negative information. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is possible to quickly change an attitude towards a neutral person using youtube fragments, this formed attitude can easily be reversed by providing textual counter-attitudinal information. These findings can contribute to gaining a better understanding of the effect of modern social media on attitude formation and its transiency.

Pauline Dibbets

2012-01-01

290

Euthanasia Attitude; A Comparison of two Scales  

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Full Text Available The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term "euthanasia" influences people's support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors.In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared.197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS or Wasserman's Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the The HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised.Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness.It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it.

Javad Hatami

2011-01-01

291

Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term “euthanasia” influences people’s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman’s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term “euthanasia”, the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it. PMID:23908751

Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

2011-01-01

292

Preservice elementary teachers' alternative conceptions in science and attitudes toward teaching science  

Science.gov (United States)

The improved preparation of preservice elementary teachers in university education programs is a specific target of current attempts to reform science education. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which preservice elementary teachers held twelve alternative conceptions in earth/space, life, and physical science along with their attitudes toward teaching science and to determine the relationship between the number of alternative conceptions held and attitudes toward teaching science. The study also explored whether specific types of conceptions are associated with positive or negative attitudes toward teaching science. One hundred and eighty four preservice elementary teachers at various universities in Louisiana completed a demographic information form, an assessment of alternative conceptions, and an attitude survey on the first day of a science methods course. Over 75% of the participants held alternative conceptions regarding sun-earth relationships during the day and in the summer, the cause of lunar phases, the application of inertia to a moving airplane, and the effect of rust on the mass of a nail. Participants' attitudes toward teaching science were favorable overall and on the "need for science" and "time required to prepare and teach science" subcomponents. In comparison, the means for the "comfort/discomfort" and "handling science equipment" subcomponents were closer to neutral. Correlation coefficients showed an inverse relationship between the number of alternative conceptions held by the total sample on the "basic need American students have for science" subcomponent as well as three items on the attitude scale and an inverse relationship between the number of alternative conceptions held by participants with the highest number of alternative conceptions (8 or more) and their overall attitudes toward teaching science, their attitude toward the basic need students have for science, their feelings about the time required to prepare and teach science, and seven items on the attitude survey. An alternative conception regarding how electricity functions in a circuit was associated with significantly lower attitudes among participants. An understanding of this concept may be critical to the development of prospective elementary teachers who feel positive about teaching science and should be considered in teacher preparation programs.

Schulte, Paige Lilley

293

GNSS Carrier Phase-based Attitude Determination: Estimation and Applications:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attitude determination through the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals is one of the many applications of satellite-based navigation. Multiple GNSS antennas installed on a given platform are used to provide orientation estimates, thus adding attitude information to the standard positioning service. Precise attitude estimates are obtained by exploiting the higher ranging resolution of the carrier phase observables, which are of two orders of magnitude more accurate tha...

Giorgi, G.

2011-01-01

294

Attitudes Of Middle School Students Towards The Forests In Nicosia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study the attitudes of middle school students’ towards forest were investigated and the results were compared in terms of gender, types of school, and grades level. A total of 199 students from public and private schools were participated in the study and the data was collected through “the AttitudeToward theForest Scale” which included 32 questions.. At the end of the study, it was found that middle school students have positive attitudes towards forest. In addition, girls’ ...

O?zbas?, Serap

2013-01-01

295

Current Language Attitudes of Mainland Chinese University Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on an investigation of Chinese university EFL learners’ attitudes towards English and Chinese in relation to their motivation to learn the language and awareness of their ethnic identity. 302 university students answered a 22-item Language Attitudes Questionnaire and 112 of them answered four open-ended questions. Analyses of the data reveal that the participants held positive attitudes towards English, were motivated to learn the language, and valued their associatio...

Shan Zhao; Meihua Liu

2011-01-01

296

Perceived relationship with God fosters positive body image in college women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive body image is defined as healthy body-related attitudes that go beyond the absence of distressful symptoms. A warm and secure relationship with an important other person has been linked with attitudes of acceptance and appreciation toward one's body as well as adaptive eating patterns. This study tested whether a warm and secure relationship with God was similarly related to positive body image. Undergraduate women completed self-report measures of religiosity, life satisfaction, body appreciation, body acceptance by others, functional orientation, and intuitive eating. Multiple regression analyses showed that relationship with God contributed variance to most of the well-being variables. PMID:23325380

Homan, Kristin J; Cavanaugh, Brianna N

2013-12-01

297

MAN AND HIS WORLD-ATTITUDE. REPORT 2. WORLD-ATTITUDE AND SELF-DETERMINATION ??????? ? ??? ?????????????. ????????? 2. ????????????? ? ???????????????  

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Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of the interrelation of human world-attitude and self-determination. The author shows the differences in the nature of links of world-definition and world-creativity of environment as two procedural components of world-attitude and self-determination of a human being

Belyaev I. A.

2011-11-01

298

Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time: a comparison between 1996 and 2004  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although medical specialists traditionally hold negative views towards working part-time, the practice of medicine has evolved. Given the trend towards more part-time work and that there is no evidence that it compromises the quality of care, attitudes towards part-time work may have changed as well in recent years. The aim of this paper was to examine the possible changes in attitudes towards part-time work among specialists in internal medicine between 1996 and 2004. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these attitudes were associated with individual characteristics (age, gender, investments in work and whether attitudes of specialists within a partnership showed more resemblance than specialists' attitudes from different partnerships. Methods Two samples were used in this study: data of a survey conducted in 1996 and in 2004. After selecting internal medicine specialists working in general hospitals in The Netherlands, the sample consisted of 219 specialists in 1996 and 363 specialists in 2004. They were sent a questionnaire, including topics on the attitudes towards part-time work. Results Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time became slightly more positive between 1996 and 2004. Full-time working specialists in 2004 still expressed concerns regarding the investments of part-timers in overhead tasks, the flexibility of task division, efficiency, communication and continuity of care. In 1996 gender was the only predictor of the attitude, in 2004 being a full- or a part-timer, age and the time invested in work were associated with this attitude. Furthermore, specialists' attitudes were not found to cluster much within partnerships. Conclusion In spite of the increasing number of specialists working or preferring to work part-time, part-time practice among internal medicine specialists seems not to be fully accepted. The results indicate that the attitudes are no longer gender based, but are associated with age and work aspects such as the number of hours worked. Though there is little evidence to support them, negative ideas about the consequences of part-time work for the quality of care still exist. Policy should be aimed at removing the organisational difficulties related to part-time work and create a system in which part-time practice is fully integrated and accepted.

de Jong Judith D

2006-10-01

299

A Holographic Road Show.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

1979-01-01

300

Relação entre atitudes sexuais, conhecimentos e atitudes sobre VIH/Sida na orientação sexual / Relation between sexual attitudes, knowledge and HIV/AIDS attitudes in sexual orientation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As atitudes e os conhecimentos face à sexualidade não se têm mantido constantes ao longo do tempo. Neste sentido, investigou-se que relação existe entre conhecimentos sobre a transmissão do VIH/Sida, as atitudes sexuais e as face aos portadores do VIH/Sida, em estudantes universitários. Pretende-se [...] ainda avaliar como os conhecimentos e atitudes se relacionam com a orientação sexual. Administraram-se 3278 questionários a 993 homens e 2285 mulheres. Os resultados demonstram que a maioria é sexualmente ativa, teve a primeira relação sexual aos 16 anos. Encontraram-se diferenças estatisticamente signficativas entre a orientação sexual: os homossexuais iniciam a vida sexual antes dos heterossexuais, estes apresentam uma atitude sexual mais positiva do que os bissexuais e por sua vez os homossexuais apresentam uma atitude menos discriminatória face aos portadores do VIH/Sida do que os bissexuais. Para a vivência da sexualidade ser positiva é crucial apostar na educação sexual como estratégia da saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Abstract in english The attitudes and knowledge concerning sexuality haven’t remained constant over time. In this sense, we investigated the relationship between knowledge about HIV / AIDS transmission, sexual attitudes and attitudes towards those living with HIV / AIDS in university students. We also intend to assess [...] how knowledge and attitudes relate to sexual orientation. 3278 questionnaires were administered to 993 men and 2285 women. The results show that most are sexually active, had their first sexual intercourse at 16. We found statistically significative differences as for sexual orientation: homosexuals begin their sexual lives before heterosexuals and these present a more positive sexual attitude than bisexuals. Homossexuals have a less discriminatory attitude towards people infected with the HIV / AIDS than bisexuals. To experience sexuality positively it’s crucial to invest in sexual education as a strategy of sexual and reproductive health.

Marta, Reis; Lúcia, Ramiro; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz; Celeste, Simões.

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Relação entre atitudes sexuais, conhecimentos e atitudes sobre VIH/Sida na orientação sexual / Relation between sexual attitudes, knowledge and HIV/AIDS attitudes in sexual orientation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As atitudes e os conhecimentos face à sexualidade não se têm mantido constantes ao longo do tempo. Neste sentido, investigou-se que relação existe entre conhecimentos sobre a transmissão do VIH/Sida, as atitudes sexuais e as face aos portadores do VIH/Sida, em estudantes universitários. Pretende-se [...] ainda avaliar como os conhecimentos e atitudes se relacionam com a orientação sexual. Administraram-se 3278 questionários a 993 homens e 2285 mulheres. Os resultados demonstram que a maioria é sexualmente ativa, teve a primeira relação sexual aos 16 anos. Encontraram-se diferenças estatisticamente signficativas entre a orientação sexual: os homossexuais iniciam a vida sexual antes dos heterossexuais, estes apresentam uma atitude sexual mais positiva do que os bissexuais e por sua vez os homossexuais apresentam uma atitude menos discriminatória face aos portadores do VIH/Sida do que os bissexuais. Para a vivência da sexualidade ser positiva é crucial apostar na educação sexual como estratégia da saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Abstract in english The attitudes and knowledge concerning sexuality haven’t remained constant over time. In this sense, we investigated the relationship between knowledge about HIV / AIDS transmission, sexual attitudes and attitudes towards those living with HIV / AIDS in university students. We also intend to assess [...] how knowledge and attitudes relate to sexual orientation. 3278 questionnaires were administered to 993 men and 2285 women. The results show that most are sexually active, had their first sexual intercourse at 16. We found statistically significative differences as for sexual orientation: homosexuals begin their sexual lives before heterosexuals and these present a more positive sexual attitude than bisexuals. Homossexuals have a less discriminatory attitude towards people infected with the HIV / AIDS than bisexuals. To experience sexuality positively it’s crucial to invest in sexual education as a strategy of sexual and reproductive health.

Marta, Reis; Lúcia, Ramiro; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz; Celeste, Simões.

302

The Relationship between Depression and Religious Attitudes in Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Depression is one of the main causes of debility all over the world. Its prevalence is reported to be 10% -64% in students. Various researches indicate that utilizing religious approaches play an efficient and effective role in treating mental disorders. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between depression and religious attitudes in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences (QUMS, Qom, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive– analytical study, 250 students of QUMS were assessed by means of three questionnaires; a standard depression test questionnaire, and religious attitude questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical procedures of Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal- Wallis test and Spearman Correlation Coefficient and P<0/05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: The study showed that 44.8%of the subjects had no depression, 37.2% had minor depression, 14.8% were moderately depressed, and 0.8% were intensely depressed while 2.4% very intensely depressed. The study also showed that 82% of the cases had positive attitudes toward religious beliefs and 18% had negative ones. Moreover, results showed that there was a meaningful but negative relationship between depression and religious attitudes (P<0/02.Conclusion: Regarding the positive effects of religious beliefs and practices on mental health, it is recommended to use this potential in community health planning especially when dealing with young adults.Keywords: Depression; Attitude; Religious; University Students.

Ahmari Tehran H.

2009-11-01

303

Enhancing Physiotherapy Students' Attitudes toward Disabled People.  

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Negative or narrow attitudes toward the physically disabled can be detrimental to success in rehabilitation, yet programmes aimed at improving attitudes frequently fail. An 18 hour programme aimed at increasing first-year physiotherapy students' knowledge of the disabled and reasons for negative attitudes was evaluated. At course commencement when compared with an Australia-wide sample, students revealed more positive attitudes regarding the needs but not the characteristics of the disabled. At course completion students perceived the disabled as more similar to other people in their characteristics and needs. Students felt less ignorant about disability and exhibited more of a coping perspective: pitying and admiring the disabled less and fearing disability less. They still experienced guilt and discomfort regarding interaction. PMID:25025173

Gething, L; Westbrook, M

1983-04-01

304

Changing attitudes toward disabilities through unified sports.  

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A cognitive/affective/behavioral intervention was implemented to change attitudes of college students towards individuals with disabilities. College swim team members were randomly assigned to intervention (N ?=? 16), and no-intervention control groups (N ?=? 17), with intervention group students and 8 Special Olympics swimmers working together to pursue swimming-related goals in 4 sessions over a 6-week period. Results indicated that on a revision of the Symons, Fish, McGuigan, Fox, and Akl (2012) attitudes inventory, the intervention group participants displayed significant increases in positive attitudes from pre- to posttest, whereas the control group participants did not. Written participant comments corroborated this improvement. A key element in the improved attitudes was the increased comfort level experienced by the college swimmers in their interactions with the Special Olympics swimmers. PMID:25247728

Sullivan, Emma; Masters Glidden, Laraine

2014-10-01

305

Knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management of pediatric nurses in Turkey.  

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Nurses play an important role in managing children's pain. The nurse's accurate assessment, appropriate intervention, and evaluation of pain relief measures are necessary for positive patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses regarding the child's pain. The Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Survey (PNKAS) was used to evaluate the nurses' knowledge and attitudes. The PNKAS consists of 40 questions. In this study, 29.9% of nurses had a diploma and 40.6% associate's, 25.0% bachelor's, and 4.5% master's degree, and respondents had an everage 6.1 years pediatric nursing experience. The total mean score on the PNKAS scale was 38.2%. The highest score was 65%, and the lowest score 15%. The findings of the survey show that pediatric nurses in Turkey have insufficient knowledge regarding pain management and could benefit from additional education on that issue. PMID:24315279

Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakc?, Ayse Ferda

2013-12-01

306

Relationship between Drug Attitudes of Schizophrenic Patients on Discharge and Re-hospitalization  

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Full Text Available "n "nObjective: Non-compliance is one of the major problems in treatment of patients with schizophrenia. It is also the most significant risk factor for relapse and re-hospitalization. Previous studies showed that 25-70% of all patients with schizophrenia have negative attitudes to drugs. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the relationship between drug attitude and discharge and the rate of re-hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia. "nMethod: This cohort study was carried out on 200 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI was completed for all the patients at the time of discharge. All patients were followed-up for one year for ehospitalization. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between drug attitude and specific risk factors. "nResults: The Mean age of patients was 37.34±10.74 years. Positive and negative drug attitudes were 68%.5 and 27% respectively. The rate of rehospitalization was 41.5% during the one year follow-up. The rate of negative attitude was not significantly different between the two groups with and without re-hospitalization. However, the mean DAI score was significantly lower in the re-hospitalized patients. Multivariate analysis showed that lower DAI score and being female were significant and independent risk factors for re-hospitalization. "n "nConclusion: The more negative attitude the patients with schizophrenia had towards drugs, the more rate of re-hospitalization they had. Moreover, female patients are at higher risk for re-hospitalization.

Hannaneh Taghizadeh

2008-08-01

307

The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472

Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

2014-01-01

308

The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/SE-GNSS Attitude Determination  

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Full Text Available The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP, two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.

Jiancheng Zhu

2014-06-01

309

The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/SE-GNSS Attitude Determination  

Science.gov (United States)

The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472

Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

2014-01-01

310

Developing a Biology Attitude Scale  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a likert-style reliable and valid biology attitude scale. Before developing the biology attitude scale, the current scales had been carefully scrutinized, the views of experts taken, and the first draft of scale prepared by choosingstatements. The validity and reliability studies of the scale were carried out by applying the first draft on 168 students as a pilot study. The content validity of the scale was confirmed by the panel of judges. The factor analysis of the scale provided the construction validity of the scale. There are 36 statements as positive and negative statements. The value of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin is 0.91, Barlet’s value is 5415.115 and Cronbach alpha coefficient is 0.941 for the reliability.

Melih KOÇAKO?LU

2010-08-01

311

Obesity in show cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

Corbee, R J

2014-12-01

312

Attitude/attitude-rate estimation from GPS differential phase measurements using integrated-rate parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

A sequential filtering algorithm is presented for attitude and attitude-rate estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) differential carrier phase measurements. A third-order, minimal-parameter method for solving the attitude matrix kinematic equation is used to parameterize the filter's state, which renders the resulting estimator computationally efficient. Borrowing from tracking theory concepts, the angular acceleration is modeled as an exponentially autocorrelated stochastic process, thus avoiding the use of the uncertain spacecraft dynamic model. The new formulation facilitates the use of aiding vector observations in a unified filtering algorithm, which can enhance the method's robustness and accuracy. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the method.

Oshman, Yaakov; Markley, Landis

1998-01-01

313

The impact of Magic Johnson's HIV serostatus disclosure on unmarried college students' HIV knowledge, attitudes, risk perception, and sexual behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unmarried heterosexual college students' HIV knowledge, attitudes, risk perception, and sexual behavior were assessed before and after "Magic" Johnson revealed his HIV-positive serostatus. Students examined after the disclosure showed a small, though statistically significant, increase in scores on HIV knowledge. Analyses did not reveal any other differences between the pre- and postdisclosure samples. Several differences between men's and women's scores were found, however. In addition, participants in both groups demonstrated generally positive attitudes toward HIV and people with HIV disease; rated their risk of future HIV infection as none to minimal; and reported frequently engaging in vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse without the use of condoms. These results suggest that Magic's disclosure did not significantly affect these students' attitudes, risk perception, or sexual behavior and that such students continue to engage in behaviors that may put them at risk for HIV infection. PMID:7593993

Ehde, D M; Holm, J E; Robbins, G M

1995-09-01

314

Second Language Learners’ Attitudes towards the Methods of Learning Vocabulary  

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Full Text Available The paper aims at investigating students’ learning attitudes after they are exposed to three vocabulary learning methods, namely Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy and ComputerAssistedLanguageLearning (CALL. The study involves 123 undergraduates, who were surveyed to identify the factors that affect their attitudes in learning vocabulary using these methods. Findings from the study using ANOVA revealed that students who were exposed to CALL showed more positive attitudes in learning vocabulary compared to other methods. This is due to the tools matching their aptitude for learning. In fact, the tools are regarded as ‘part and parcel’ of the students’ lives. The results of the study also showed that the usefulnessand limitation of the respective methods depend on students’ approaches in using them to learn vocabulary. The implications for language teaching and learning of vocabulary demand practitioners to incorporate the use of computers in their lessons. Nonetheless, they may also integrate the use of Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy and CALL in their teaching to accelerate the expansion of students’ vocabulary.

Zuraina Ali

2012-03-01

315

Anaesthesiologists H attitude towards preoperative patients education needs in 2005  

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Full Text Available Background and purpose: lack of information about anaesthisia and fear of post operation contiousness, pain, nausea and vomiting increases the patientsH anxiety. There are various reports about patiensH desire for preoperation information in Iran and other countries. However, there is no study related to anaesthesiologistsH view about patientsH needs before anaesthesia and operation in the literature.Materials and Methods: This descriptive (cross- sectional study was done in 2005 on 110 anaesthesiologists working in hospitals of Mazandaran province. Questionnaire containing 4 questions about demographic and 18 questions related to anaesthesia was prepared. Attitude of the anaesthesiologists was divided into 5 categories based on Likert rating scale as follows: completely agreed, agreed, partially agreed, not agreed, completely not agreed. Chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of the data.Results: Results of this study showed that the most positive attitude of anaesthesiologists about patient teaching was related to the proper explanation about duration of N.P.O before operation (%97.3. %52.7 of anaes the siologists were against giving explanation of the duration of N.P.O and post operation possible problems. In this regard no significant difference was observed between educational and non educational hospitals (P<0.018. No significant difference in terms of attitude was observed between anaesthesiologists at different level of education (P<0.07.Conclusion: Considering the positive attitude of the anaesthesiologists towards education and preoperation of the patients, it is recommended that such education be implemented and the patients be charged for preoperation consultation in order to give explanation about anaesthesia at proper time, when needed.

R. Esmaeeli

2006-01-01

316

Show-Me Magazine  

Science.gov (United States)

Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.

2008-01-01

317

Reality, ficción o show  

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Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa ?Protagonistas de novela? y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión ?trash?, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

Sandra Ru\\u00EDz Moreno

2002-01-01

318

Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students  

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There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

2011-01-01

319

Nursing Home Nurses' Attitudes, Empathy, and Ideologic Orientation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assesses the empirical relationship of the psychosocial variables of empathy, attitudes, and ideological orientation toward treatment (custodial versus therapeutic). Data analysis indicates that a low level of empathy, negative attitudes toward the elderly, and a custodial orientation toward treatment were significantly positively correlated.…

Bagshaw, Margaret; Adams, Mary

1986-01-01

320

Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

White Racial Identity and Attitudes toward People with Disabilities  

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This empirical study investigated the relationship between racial identity and attitudes toward people with disabilities. Results indicate that higher statuses of racial identity correlate positively while lower and more racist-oriented statuses correlate negatively with attitudes toward people with disabilities. The study supports the notion that…

Sciarra, Daniel; Chang, Tai; McLean, Ron; Wong, Daniel

2005-01-01

322

Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding  

Science.gov (United States)

Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

2013-01-01

323

Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru  

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This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

Manley, Marilyn S.

2008-01-01

324

An Analysis of Social Factors Influencing Students’ Environmental Attitudes and Performance  

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Full Text Available Introduction Recent developments in theory and research give hope for building the understanding needed to effectively alter human behaviors that contribute to environmental problems. Behavior change strategies that are consistent with people’s knowledge and awareness of global environmental changes are therefore necessary in order for a sustainable policy to be developed. Environmental attitudes are conceptualized in terms of attitude theory as being composed of beliefs and affects toward an object .Because attitudes are viewed as hypothetical mental states underlying constructs which influence a variety of verbal statements, no single verbal statement yields a particularly good measure of attitude. Sociologists Dunlap and VanLiere(1978 have hypotheses sized a new environmental paradigm(NEP in contrast to what Pirages and Ehrlich(1974 call our society’s Dominant Social Paradigm(DSP, i.e., traditional values and beliefs such as economic growth, material progress and technological optimism. The NEP represents a constellation of values, attitudes, or beliefs which are ‘perhaps best captured by spaceship earth metaphor’. NEP scale (Dunlap et al., 2000 was used to measure environmental attitudes. The NEP addresses four aspects of an environmental worldview with three statements for each: the realization of limits to growth, anti – anthropocentrism, belief in the fragility of the balance of nature, rejection of human exceptionalism. Attitudes were measured with five – point, Likert type scales ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Among twelve statements, there are nine positively (pro – environmentally narrated statements and three negatively narrated statements. Sustainable development is a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are made consistent with future as well as present needs, to overcome environmental problems. Furthermore, sustainable environment requires manpower with compatible attitudes towards the environment and sustainability. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the environmental attitudes and behaviors of university students. Materials & Methods The present study utilized survey method and the main tool for data collection is questionnaire. Given that the focus of the study is to assess student’ environmental attitude and behaviors, the unit of analysis in this study is university student and level of analysis is micro. With calculations of Cochran formula, 406 of 10313 students were determined in seven state universities in Mazandaran province. A Survey method was applied and data-gathering tool was questionnaire, the validity of which was achieved by applying face validity. To this end, 406 students of different universities (including Mazandaran University, Babol Industrial Noshirvani University, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences, and Babol University of Medical Sciences were selected using stratified sampling. A total of 406 students were interviewed face to face, using questionnaire. Having examined the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, the main data sets were collected and analyzed. Four hypotheses were examined. Data entry, editing and final processing was performed by SPSS software. Discussion of Results & Conclusions The results of this research showed that 53 percent of the surveyed students used public media as the main source of environmental information. Urban student’ attitudes were more favorable to the environment. Environmental attitudes and behaviors of the sample students were not different in terms of gender. There was a weak relationship between environmental attitudes and behavior. Also, environmental attitudes and behaviors were different by the family ‘environmental performance, and informational resources related with environmental attitude and behavior. In conclusion, it can be said that based on the descriptive and inferential findings while students attitudes toward the en

Sadegh Salehi

2014-11-01

325

Spacecraft Attitude Tracking and Maneuver Using Combined Magnetic Actuators  

Science.gov (United States)

A paper describes attitude-control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) or other types of actuators such as thrusters. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for nadir-pointing, pitch, and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude- control accuracy is comparable with RWA-based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude-control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode, and the control accuracy can be maintained. The attitude-control algorithms of the combined actuators are derived, which can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded values precisely. Results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached, and the attitude-control accuracy is comparable with 3-axis wheel control.

Zhou, Zhiqiang

2012-01-01

326

Let the show begin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Major changes should occur in the European polyolefins industry this year. BASF's (Ludwigshafen) polypropylene (PP) deal with ICI is expected to be followed by that of Hoechst (Frankfurt) and Petrofina (Brussels). The two are engaged in feasibility studies for a possible joint venture in PP and are expected to make a decision in the second quarter of this year. Shell and Himont are on track to complete their feasibility study in the first quarter for a polyolefins joint venture. And Huels and PCD are still in talks. But two new possible deals, a polyolefins merger between Nests (Helsinki) and Statoil (Stavanger) and an alliance in PP involving Appryl, the Elf Atochem (51%)/BP Chemicals (49%) joint venture, and Solvay have been denied. The Hoechst/Fina venture would initially encompass only the two companies European plants - Hoechst's 550,000-m.t./year and Fina's 180,000 m.t./year. In addition, Fina would either build or acquire another PP plant. In the second stage, the partners could bring in their overseas plants. Fina has plants in the US, and Hoechst has a combined 100,000 m.t./year in south Africa and Australia. Neste's board member Jukka Viinanen says the only talks between Nests and Statoil center on renegotiations of ethylene supply contract at Stenungsund, Sweden. Nests wants a more flexible deal on quantity and price. It needs 400,000 m.t./year of ethylene for its downstream plants. Viinanen adds that he is worried about the European petrochemical industry and producers need to do everything to improve margins through pricing policies and obtaining a balance between supply and demand. On the possibility of a future link with Statoil he comments, One can never say never. It would take time. We don't feel in a very vulnerable position right now.

Alperowicz, N.

1993-01-27

327

Consumer attitude toward food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

328

Obesity in show dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

Corbee, R J

2012-08-11

329

Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.

Rustad Aase-Bente

2007-05-01

330

20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?  

Science.gov (United States)

...positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of leadership opportunities, often referred to as soft...Avoiding delinquency; (h) Postponed and responsible parenting; and (i) Positive job attitudes and work skills....

2010-04-01

331

Does Your Library Have an Attitude Problem towards "Marketing"? Revealing Inter-Relationship between Marketing Attitudes and Behaviour  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behaviour of librarians in thirty-three different libraries of Finland. Based on market-oriented behaviour, three kinds of libraries were found: "strong," "medium" and "weak." The findings indicate a positive relation between the marketing attitudes and…

Singh, Rajesh

2009-01-01

332

Solar Light Show  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

De Nie, Michael W.

333

Attitudes toward menopause in HIV-infected and at-risk women  

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Full Text Available Diana Hartel1, Yungtai Lo1, Carolyn Bauer2, Nancy Budner1, Andrea A Howard1, Michelle Floris-Moore1, Julia H Arnsten1,2, Nanette Santoro3, Ellie E Schoenbaum1,2,31Departments of Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Medicine, and 3Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women’s Health, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAObjective: To study attitudes toward menopause in women with or at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV aged 35 to 60 in New York City, NY, USA.Design: Data were obtained at the baseline interview in a cohort study of menopause. Of 502 participating women, 92 were postmenopausal and 162 were perimenopausal.Results: Overall, 37.5% of women had a relatively favorable attitude toward menopause. African Americans had a 72% greater odds of a positive attitude (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.16–2.57 than all other groups after adjusting for covariates. Hispanic women had the least favorable view of menopause. Experience of >3 menopausal symptoms and negative life events—being a witness to a murder, and the death of a child—were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards menopause (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.42–0.93 and OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.93, respectively. Depressive symptoms, street drug use, and having a domestic partner, which is significant in single variable analyses, did not remain independent predictors in multivariate results. HIV status, menopause status, and age at interview were not associated with menopause attitudes.Conclusions: HIV-infected, drug-using, low-income women showed generally unfavorable attitudes towards menopause. High stress life events coupled with a high prevalence of depressive symptoms indicate this population has special needs marked by the menopause transition into older age.Keywords: menopause, attitudes, HIV, street drug users

Diana Hartel

2008-10-01

334

Associations among pain, pain attitudes, and pain behaviors in patients with metastatic breast cancer.  

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Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients often experience pain which can trigger pain behaviors, such as distorted ambulation. Psychological variables, such as individuals' attitudes toward pain, play a role in pain intervention. In this study, we used the cognitive-behavioral model of pain to examine the influence of patients' attitudes toward pain (as measured by the survey of pain attitudes or SOPA) on their pain behaviors (as measured by the pain behaviors checklist). Two hundred-one MBC patients completed surveys at treatment initiation and again 3 and 6 months later. Linear Mixed Model with repeated measures analyses showed that SOPA-solicitude, SOPA-emotions, SOPA-cure, SOPA-disability, and SOPA-medication pain attitudes were consistently significantly associated with pain behaviors at each assessment time point. Additionally, the belief that a medical cure for pain exists buffered the positive association between pain severity and pain behaviors. Our findings support and extend the cognitive-behavioral model of pain and suggest that it may be useful to target pain attitudes in pain management interventions for MBC patients. PMID:23943140

Shen, Megan Johnson; Redd, William H; Winkel, Gary; Badr, Hoda

2014-08-01

335

The Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction Based Constructivist Learning Approach on Students’ Attitudes and Achievements  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of computer assisted instruction based constructivist learning approach on students’ attitudes towards computers and science and technology lesson and their achievements at science and technology lesson. The study group is a group of 56 students who attend to fourth grade of a public primary school which were selected via convenient sampling method from Körfez (Kocaeli. The data were collected by means of Attitude Scale to Science and Technology Lesson, Attitude Scale to Computers and Achievement Test. In this research, a quasi-experiment design with pre test-post test control group was employed. The subjects was taught to the students using constructivist learning method which carried out at present syllabus in control group and computer assisted instruction based constructivist learning approach in experimental group. The findings from this study showed that there was a statistically significant difference between groups’ post-test attitudes towards computers and post-test scores obtained from achievement test in favour of experimental group (p0.05 despite the fact that there was a positive increase at experimental groups’ attitudes.

?eyda Gül

2011-06-01

336

Electroconvulsive therapy: Effect of an educational experience on nursing students’ knowledge and attitudes  

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Full Text Available Objective: Despite the proved effectiveness of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in the treatment of many psychiatric emergencies and disorders, there are many misconceptions and groundless negative attitudes about its prescription and utilization by many health professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational experience including a two hours lecture on ECT and viewing a video of the ECT procedure on nursing students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards ECT. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used to conduct the current study. A 28 – items (two constructs measuring students’ attitudes and knowledge self administered questionnaire was administered before and after exposure to the two – hour lecture and a movie representing the ECT procedure to a non probability convenience sample of ninety seven female nursing students. Informed written consent was obtained from all students who agreed to participate in the study. Results: Paired sample T. test showed significant differences in students’ scores before and after their educational experience in the psychiatric/mental health nursing course as following: attitude scores (t = 20.507, P t = 20.697, p t = 23.849, p Conclusion: Positive educational experiences would increase the knowledge of ECT, which might in turn contribute to more favorable attitudes towards ECT. Proper educational materials and mass media programs aiming to increase students and practitioners’ awareness about ECT are recommended.

Eman Dawood

2013-02-01

337

Current and future health care professionals attitudes toward and knowledge of statistics: How confidence influences learning  

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Full Text Available Background: Health care professionals require some understanding of statistics to successfully implement evidence based practice. Developing competency in statistical reasoning is necessary for students training in health care administration, research, and clinical care. Recently, the interest in healthcare professional’s attitudes toward statistics has increased substantially due to evidence that these attitudes can hinder professionalism developing an understanding of statistical concepts. Methods: In this study, we analyzed pre- and post-instruction attitudes towards and knowledge of statistics obtained from health science graduate students, including nurses and nurse practitioners, enrolled in an introductory graduate course in statistics (n = 165. Results and Conclusions: Results show that the students already held generally positive attitudes toward statistics at the beginning of course. However, these attitudes—along with the students’ statistical proficiency—improved after 10 weeks of instruction. The results have implications for curriculum design and delivery methods as well as for health professionals’ effective use of statistics in critically evaluating and utilizing research in their practices.

Heibatollah Baghi

2013-01-01

338

Effects of Attitude towards Language Learning and Risk-taking on EFL Student's Proficiency  

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Full Text Available This study was an endeavor to investigate effects of attitude towards language learning and risk-taking on EFL students' proficiency. To achieve the objectives of the study, three data gathering instruments were used: Attitude towards Language Learning Scale, Venturesomeness Subscale of Eysenck IVE Questionnaire, and Oxford Quick Placement Test (2005. The participants were 120 female and male college students majoring in English Translation at Marvdasht University. The results showed that the relationship between proficiency level –high, middle, and low –and attitude towards language learning was not significant and the middle proficient participants were higher risk-takers. The results demonstrated differences in risk-taking between high and intermediate levels. Moreover, there was no significant difference between high and low groups and low and middle groups. Correlational analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between attitude towards language learning and risk-taking (r=.20, p< 0.05. Besides, language proficiency and attitude towards language learning did not have a significant correlation (r= .06, p> 0.05.

Elham Dehbozorgi

2012-03-01

339

Are Attitudes Toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study With Primary Grade Children.  

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This study examined whether or not attitude towards writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude towards reading for young, beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). Each child was individually administered a 24 item attitude measure, which contained 12 items assessing attitude towards writing and 12 parallel items for reading. Students also wrote a narrative about a personal event in their life. A factor analysis of the 24 item attitude measure provided evidence that generally support the contention that writing and reading attitudes are separable constructs for young beginning writers, as it yielded three factors: a writing attitude factor with 9 items, a reading attitude factor with 9 parallel items, and an attitude about literacy interactions with others factor containing 4 items (2 items in writing and 2 parallel items in reading). Further validation that attitude towards writing is a separable construct from attitude towards reading was obtained at the third-grade level, where writing attitude made a unique and significant contribution, beyond the other two attitude measures, to the prediction of three measures of writing: quality, length, and longest correct word sequence. At the first-grade level, none of the 3 attitude measures predicted students' writing performance. Finally, girls had more positive attitudes concerning reading and writing than boys. PMID:22736933

Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

2012-01-01

340

Are Attitudes Toward Writing and Reading Separable Constructs? A Study With Primary Grade Children  

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This study examined whether or not attitude towards writing is a unique and separable construct from attitude towards reading for young, beginning writers. Participants were 128 first-grade children (70 girls and 58 boys) and 113 third-grade students (57 girls and 56 boys). Each child was individually administered a 24 item attitude measure, which contained 12 items assessing attitude towards writing and 12 parallel items for reading. Students also wrote a narrative about a personal event in their life. A factor analysis of the 24 item attitude measure provided evidence that generally support the contention that writing and reading attitudes are separable constructs for young beginning writers, as it yielded three factors: a writing attitude factor with 9 items, a reading attitude factor with 9 parallel items, and an attitude about literacy interactions with others factor containing 4 items (2 items in writing and 2 parallel items in reading). Further validation that attitude towards writing is a separable construct from attitude towards reading was obtained at the third-grade level, where writing attitude made a unique and significant contribution, beyond the other two attitude measures, to the prediction of three measures of writing: quality, length, and longest correct word sequence. At the first-grade level, none of the 3 attitude measures predicted students’ writing performance. Finally, girls had more positive attitudes concerning reading and writing than boys. PMID:22736933

Graham, Steve; Berninger, Virginia; Abbott, Robert

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Best practices for measuring students' attitudes toward learning science.  

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Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students' learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students' attitudes influence their learning. Students' science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students' attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students' attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data. PMID:24297288

Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy

2013-01-01

342

Regular Primary Schoolteachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education: A Review of the Literature  

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Teachers are seen as key persons to implement inclusive education. Positive attitudes are therefore argued as playing a considerable role in implementing this educational change successfully. The aim of this study is to examine what attitudes teachers hold towards inclusive education, which variables are related to their attitudes and if these…

de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander

2011-01-01

343

Attitudes toward Information Technology of Teachers of the Gifted: Implications for Gifted Education  

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This statewide study of teachers of intellectually gifted students examined teachers' attitudes toward information technology. Participants were 418 teachers of the intellectually gifted in a southeastern state who voluntarily responded to a survey about technology attitudes. Results indicated positive attitudes toward technology, with training in…

Shaunessy, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

344

Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.  

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Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

Slezak, Michael E.

1982-01-01

345

Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles  

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Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

2014-01-01

346

Case Managers' Attitudes toward the Use of Homework for People Diagnosed with a Severe Psychiatric Disability  

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The study examined mental health case managers' attitudes toward the use of homework and explored the relationship between clinician attitudes and systematic homework administration practices. A survey examining attitudes toward the use of homework was completed by 122 Australian mental health case managers. Case managers who held more positive

Kelly, Peter J.; Deane, Frank P.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Crowe, Trevor P.

2007-01-01

347

Attitudes toward Personal Aging and Older Adults in Adult Education Courses.  

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Attitudes toward adults aged 40-59 and 60-79 were measured for graduate students in adult education (31 men, 61 women). Attitudes toward older adults were positive but became less so as the age of referents increased. Gender bias toward women over 60 was apparent. Males' attitudes toward both groups of older females and the 60-79 group of males…

Robson-Funk, Bridget; Yopp, Martha C.; McMurtry, Jerry C.; Phillips-Miller, Dianne; Young, Margaret H.

2000-01-01

348

Attitudes toward Older Workers among Undergraduates: Does Status Make a Difference?  

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Most research on attitudes toward older adults does not address subgroups of older adults. This study evaluated whether attitudes among undergraduates towards older professionals were more positive than those toward older adults in general. A 2 x 2 factorial design with the covariate of knowledge of aging was used with measures from two attitude

Helmes, Edward

2012-01-01

349

VALIDITY OF THE EATING ATTITUDE TEST AMONG EXERCISERS  

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Full Text Available Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items, oral control (7-items, and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10, the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09 showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06. Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10 and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08 showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06. Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients among exercise participants, and that future research is needed to investigate eating attitudes among samples of exercisers.

Hilary Matheson

2004-12-01

350

Satellite attitude control with decomposed controller  

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A concept is presented to solve the gyroscopic coupling problem of satellite attitude control. Control theory is used in the problem formulation and solution. Optimal decoupling control, wheel momentum tracking, and stochastic correction control and estimation are features of the concept. The systems structure of the concept is recommended for various attitude control and estimation problems. The performance obtained from computer simulation showed potential for practical application.

Shao-Hua, Y.

1981-07-01

351

ATTITUDE OF STUDENT TEACHERS TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION  

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Full Text Available Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers’ proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect on learning of the students. Attitude being a social construct is influenced by many factors like gender social strata ,age, stream of education and previous experience of the job .what bearing the gender and stream of education has on the attitude of student teachers towards teaching profession to throw light on this a study was conducted using a readymade tool. Study of different categories like Non-tribal male and female science stream, nontribal male and female social science stream, Tribal male and female science stream, Tribal male and female social science stream was undertaken. In a sample of hundred students ninety six students responded. The mean scores were considered and ‘ t’ value was calculated to find the difference in the attitude of different categories towards teaching profession.

Anupama BHARGAVA

2014-07-01

352

Climate change and changing attitudes. Effect of negative emotion on information processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chapter 2 describes our first study of the relations between negative emotion, information processing, and attitudes within the field of environmental communication. This study examined how the level of fear with regard to climate change influenced the processing of information about energy-efficient lighting. The consequences for the relations between attitudes, intentions, and behaviour were also assessed. A moderate fear level merely seemed to have an effect on attitudes by stimulating systematic information processing. Provided that strong arguments were presented this resulted in more favourable attitudes. Although there were indications that a high fear level also increased systematic information processing, this effect seemed to be dominated by a direct positive effect on attitudes. Though the relation between attitudes and behavioural intentions was fairly strong regardless of fear level, actual behaviour could only be reliably predicted from behavioural intentions when the level of fear was high. Chapter 3 describes a study aimed at replicating the findings of the first study. In addition this study took into account the effect of pre-existing differences in concern about climate change. The consequences for attitude stability were also examined. Again some indications were found that a moderate fear level increased systematic processing. Regarding the effect of level of pre-existing concern, we mainly found a direct positive effect on attitudes. No evidence was found that the level of fear or concern through stimulating systematic processing resulted in more persistent attitudes. Chapter 4 describes a study examining the effects of induced fear level and the level of pre-existing concern on the processing of information about the implementation of a European energy tax. No evidence was found that the induced fear level influenced,the elaboration of this information. However, the level of pre-existing concern did appear to have an impact: Elaboration was higher at high rather than low levels of concern. The purpose of the final experiment presented in Chapter 5 was to examine whether the impact of the level of fear on the extent of systematic processing depends on the relevance of the information within the given context. Although this experiment provided no evidence that fear increased the elaboration of relevant information, it did show that fear decreased the extent to which irrelevant information was processed. Chapter 6 summarizes the results of the four experiments. Conclusions are drawn and explanations of unexpected findings and inconsistencies are suggested. Theoretical, pragmatic, and methodological implications are also outlined, and suggestions for a future research agenda are given. refs.

Meijnders, A.L.

1998-12-17

353

The Great Cometary Show  

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The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

354

The knowledge and attitude of general dentists toward denture adhesives in Tehran  

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Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? Materials and Methods: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge. Results: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The ?2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.

Fakhri Hamidreza

2009-01-01

355

Convergent and discriminant validity of time attitude scores on the adolescent time perspective inventory  

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"In this study, we report on the validity of time attitude scores on the Adolescent Time Perspective Inventory-Time Attitudes (ATPI-TA; Mello/ Worrell 2007) Scales. The ATPI-TA has six subscales: Past Positive, Past Negative, Present Positive, Present Negative, Future Positive, and Future Negative. Participants consisted of 300 adolescents from rural, urban, and suburban schools and a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. All time attitude subscales were interrelated, with correlations in the a...

Worrel, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

2009-01-01

356

Exploring the Relationship between Teaching Staff' Age and Their Attitude towards Information and Communications Technologies (ICT)  

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Current research seeks to understand the relationship between teaching staff' age and their attitude toward ICT. Survey methodology is facilitated through the use of the questionnaires. The survey domain is a random sampling of teaching staff in Egyptian HEI. The population for this study was 500 full-time Faculty staff, and only 412 returned and completed questionnaires are considered as the study sample. The results showed that there is a moderate and positive relationship between the age o...

Mohamed Abdelaziz Elsaadani

2013-01-01

357

Consumers’ Attitude towards Advertising  

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Advertising is a growing business and with advances in the Internet technology, the dynamics and landscape ofthe business has changed as well. Prior findings on consumers’ attitude towards advertising are mixed. Thispaper is an attempt to examine young adults’ attitude towards advertising. We conceptualized a framework toexamine the influence of six independent variables namely consumer manipulation, product information,hedonic/pleasure, economic condition, soci...

Uchenna Cyril Eze; Chai Har Lee

2012-01-01

358

Religious attitude of students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2007 .  

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Full Text Available (Received 12 Feb, 2008 ; Accepted 24 Sep, 2008 Abstract Back ground and purpose: Available evidence shows that religious attitude have noticeable effects on psychological aspects of human life. The purpose of this study was to determine the present situation of religious attitude of Students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Student’s attitude towards theoretical basis of Islam and Some other subsidiary rules of religion and moral values were studied in this investigation.Materials and methods: In this research descriptive field study on all the students of the university, stratified sampling method was employed and 384 students were recruited.A questionnaire consisting of 38 questions was used to collect the data. Attitude rates were quantified on the scale of –5 to +5. Results: The mean rates of attitude of associated to art students (2.53 ± 1.63 and B.S.C students (3.06±1.45 were statistically significant (p<0.01.Likewise, the mean rate of attitude of male and female students (2.94±1.7 and (2.97±1.4 were statistically significant (p<0.01.The attitude rate of the majority of students was between 2.5 to 4.5 (s. p 1.63. The top mark of 4.5 was gained by 57% of the students.Conclusion: The students have positive religious attitude. The lack of adequate religious practice among the subjects must not be interpreted as the low religious attitude. However it is necessary to study other factor that effects students practice. . Religious attitude of students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2007 . Ali Aasghar Zakavi* , Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini* , Mohammad Azadbakht **, Reza Ali Mohammadpour *** , Hossein Jalahi *** * Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran** Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran *** Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran(Received 12 Feb, 2008 ; Accepted 24 Sep, 2008 Abstract Back ground and purpose: Available evidence shows that religious attitude have noticeable effects on psychological aspects of human life. The purpose of this study was to determine the present situation of religious attitude of Students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Student’s attitude towards theoretical basis of Islam and Some other subsidiary rules of religion and moral values were studied in this investigation.Materials and methods: In this research descriptive field study on all the students of the university, stratified sampling method was employed and 384 students were recruited.A questionnaire consisting of 38 questions was used to collect the data. Attitude rates were quantified on the scale of –5 to +5. Results: The mean rates of attitude of associated to art students (2.53 ± 1.63 and B.S.C students (3.06±1.45 were statistically significant (p<0.01.Likewise, the mean rate of attitude of male and female students (2.94±1.7 and (2.97±1.4 were statistically significant (p<0.01.The attitude rate of the majority of students was between 2.5 to 4.5 (s. p 1.63. The top mark of 4.5 was gained by 57% of the students.Conclusion: The students have positive religious attitude. The lack of adequate religious practice among the subjects must not be interpreted as the low religious attitude. However it is necessary to study other factor that effects students practice. Keywords: Religious, attitude, student. Religious attitude of students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2007 . Ali Aasghar Zakavi* , Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini* , Mohammad Azadbakht **, Reza Ali Mohammadpour *** , Hossein Jalahi *** * Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran** Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran *** Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran(Received 12 Feb, 2008 ; Accepted 24 Sep, 2008 Abstract Back ground and purpose: Available evidence shows that religious attitude have noticeable effects on psychological aspects of human life. The purpose of this study was to deter

Ali Aasghar Zakavi

2008-01-01

359

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of male community health workers in Mako township, Iran about beast self-examination  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the cause of about 18% of all malignancies in females. By breast self-examination (BSE it is possible to diagnose a breast tumor in the preliminary stages and treat it. Basic changes in the knowledge, attitude and practice of women as regards regular BES and follow-up will lead to considerable success in campaigns against breast cancer. Considering the role and responsibilities of community health workers (CHWs in the health services delivery system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, this study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of female CHWs as regards BSE in 2006. "nMethods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 89 female CHWs in the Iranian Mako township health houses. The data was collected through interviews using a questionnaire consisting of 4 sections, the first section containing 10 demographic questions, and the second to fourth sections containing 33 questions on knowledge, attitude, and practice. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed using the repeat testing with r=85%. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 11."nResults: The data showed that the BSE knowledge of 50.6% and 49.4% of the subjects was good and moderate, respectively; 76.4% of them had a positive attitude towards BSE. The reasons for not self-examination were as follows: inability to do it alone (12.4%; fear of a positive result, i.e., existence of a tumor (1.1%; having no time (2.2%; fear of increased anxiety (5.6%; not believing in BSE, even if it was likely to have a tumor (11.2%. Further analysis of the data showed the practice of the subjects to be good, moderate, and weak in 9%, 61.8%, and 29.2% of the cases, respectively. "nThere were significant associations between knowledge and a positive attitude (p=0.038, between attitude of the unmarried subjects towards performing BSE as compared to the married subjects (p=0.00, and between attitude and practice (p=0.045."nConclusion: This study showed a moderate to good knowledge, a relatively good attitude, and a moderate practice among female CHWs in the Makoo Township, Iran, with regard to BSE. Considering the role of CHWs, improving their knowledge, attitude , and practice of BSE is essential.

2009-07-01

360

Attitudes toward Specific Advertising Media (AM: Informative or Manipulative?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attitudes toward advertising in general (AG is a concept which often raises ethical, social and cultural concerns, and yet in the context of specific media, consumers are often more positive, and find advertising entertaining, thought-provoking, amusing and informative. This paper focuses on attitudes toward advertising in three specific media (AM (print, television and online advertising and aims to provide input into the design decisions of an advertising campaign. The survey is based on a sample of 425 Malaysian and international tourists, and one key finding is the positive view that respondents have about advertising in print, online and on television. In terms of attitudes to print advertising, social role and image makes the strongest unique contribution to AP; for television advertising product information makes the strongest unique contribution to explaining attitudes to ATV; and in terms of online advertising, hedonic pleasure makes the strongest unique contribution to explaining attitudes to AO.

Azizul Yaakop

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Expressed attitudes of adolescents toward marriage and family life.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the U.S., modifications in family structure and in attitudes concerning marriage and family life have been numerous. Areas such as sexual behavior and alternative living arrangements have become highly varied and nontraditional compared to past generations. This study examined the attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority of adolescents expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While only about a third of the adolescents expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage in sexual intercourse before marriage, or already have. Interestingly, about half of the adolescents held positive attitudes toward cohabitation. Lastly, the adolescents demonstrated a growing acceptance of premarital counseling and psychoeducational interventions regarding marriage and family life. PMID:14560887

Martin, Paige D; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

2003-01-01

362

Participation in Adult Education: Attitudes and Barriers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we control the intention theory of Fishbein and Ajzen (1980) for the participation in an adult education course. Based on the Flemish Eurostat Adult Education Survey, we reveal that participants in adult education have a more positive attitude towards learning and that within the group of non-participants, those who formulate an…

Boeren, Ellen

2011-01-01

363

A General Multivariate Formulation of the Multi-Antenna GNSS Attitude Determination Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) carrier phase ambiguity resolution is the key to high precision positioning, navigation and attitude determination. In this contribution the author presents a general formulation for the multi-antenna GNSS attitude determination problem. This multivariate formulation provides a general framework for solving various GNSS attitude determination problems. With the use of this formulation it is shown how the constrained integer least-squares carrier phase ambiguities and corresponding attitude matrix can be solved.

Teunissen, P. J. G.

364

HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Assessment of Chinese Students: A Questionnaire Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes tow...

Chaojun Xie; Chunhong Wang; Dong Zhou; Jingju Pan; Xiaodong Tan

2007-01-01

365

Implicit attitudes and self-concepts towards transgression and aggression: differences between male community and offender adolescents, and associations with psychopathic traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that implicit attitudes play a key role in the occurrence of antisocial behaviours. This study assessed implicit attitudes and self-concepts related to aggression and transgression in community and offender adolescents, using a new set of Implicit Association Tests (IATs), and examined their association with of psychopathic traits. Thirty-six offenders and 66 community adolescents performed 4 IATs assessing 1) implicit attitudes about a) aggression and b) transgression as good, and 2) implicit self-concepts about a) aggression and b) transgression as self-descriptive. They filled in self-report questionnaires: the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory, the Child Behaviour Checklist, and explicit measures of their attitudes and self-concepts towards transgression and aggression. Results showed few differences between community and offender adolescents on implicit attitudes and self-concepts, and unexpected negative associations between some implicit attitudes and psychopathic traits, while the association was positive for the corresponding explicit attitudes. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed. PMID:24679466

Suter, Maya; Pihet, Sandrine; de Ridder, Jill; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Stephan, Philippe

2014-07-01

366

Experiments with the KITE attitude control simulator  

Science.gov (United States)

Simulation experiments are conducted to test an attitude control technique for tethered satellites using the tether tension force to generate control torques by moving the tether attach point relative to the satellite center of mass. A scaled, one-dimensional, air-bearing supported laboratory simulation of the Kinetic Isolation Tether Experiment shows that the attitude of the simulator can be regulated to within 0.75 arcsec with a bandwidth of about 0.1 Hz. The control design includes a state estimator to calculate the vehicle mass center and to calculate the effect of the stepper motor dynamics on the state estimate. Results are presented from closed-loop attitude control experiments to verify the attitude control technique.

Powell, J. David; Kline-Schoder, Robert

1989-01-01

367

Elaborating on the attitude-behaviour gap regarding organic products : Young Danish consumers and in-store food choice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Even though most consumers hold positive attitudes towards organic food, attitudes appear not to translate into respective behaviour to the same extent. It has been found that the high price and availability are major reasons for this attitude-behaviour gap, especially among young consumers. In Denmark, supermarkets offer a comparatively broad range of organic at relatively small price premiums; however, even in Denmark market growth rates are moderate. To explore young consumer´s barriers to act upon their attitudes more in detail, we aimed at researching their thoughts and product associations at the point of sale. Qualitative accompanied shopping interviews with young consumers holding positive attitudes towards organic were conducted. The analysis resulted in a model of the point-of-sale thoughts concerning organic food, showing that the conditions (expected quality, price premium) met in the store and the personal context (moral beliefs, household member influence) impact the argumentations, which lead to a choice decision and subsequent elaboration of the consequences of this choice. Price is discussed as a main barrier, but a temporary one: young consumers argue that they postpone organic purchase unto a later stage in life. We conclude that to increase young Danish consumers' choice of organic, the high price premium image needs to be lessened. Furthermore, communication might trigger young consumers to consider acting upon ethical values already now, instead of postponing it.

Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Aagaard, Emilie Marie Niebuhr

2014-01-01

368

A Study of Iranian Students’ Attitude towards Science and Technology, School Science and Environment, Based on the ROSE Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study has investigated attitudes towards science and technology, school science and environmental issues among middle school students. The population included all 3rd grade students in Isfahan and a total of 250 students (120 female and 130 male were selected through stratified random sampling method. Research instrument was the Persian translation of the Relevance of Science Education (ROSE Questionnaire. After pilot study, data were analyzed by SPSS. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for this scale was set to be .94. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and one sample t-test and independent t-test were used. Results indicated that there is a positive attitude towards science and technology, school science and environmental issues among students in three components of study. However, there was not a positive attitude towards some items of these components. The results also showed that in three components of the study, only there is a meaningful difference between males and females points of views in attitude towards environmental issues. According to this result, males have higher averages than the females. The results of this research provide important information about Iranian students’ attitude towards science and could be used by science educators to development of science curricula and science text books.

Azizollah Arbabi Sarjou

2011-12-01

369

Elaborating on the attitude–behaviour gap regarding organic products : young Danish consumers and in-store food choice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Even though most consumers hold positive attitudes towards organic food, attitudes appear to translate into respective behaviour to the same extent. It has been found that the high and availability are major reasons for this attitude–behaviour gap, especially among young consumers. In Denmark, supermarkets offer a comparatively broad organic foodrange at relatively small price premiums; however, even in Denmark, market growth ratesare moderate. To explore in detail young consumer’s barriers to act upon their attitudes, we aimed at researching their thoughts and product associations at the point of sale. Qualitative accompanied shopping interviews with 10 young consumers holding positive attitudes towards organic were conducted. The analysis resulted in a model of the point-of-sale thoughts concerning organic food, showing that the conditions (expected quality, price premium) met in the store and the personal context (moral beliefs, household member influence) impact the argumentations, which lead toa choice decision and subsequent elaboration of the consequences of this choice. Price is discussed as a main barrier, but a temporary one: young consumers argue that they postpone organic purchases until a later stage in life.We conclude that to increase young Danish consumers’ choice of organic, the high price premium image needs to be lessened and the differentiation from conventional food improved. Furthermore, communication might trigger young consumers to consider acting now upon ethical values, instead of postponing it.

Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Aagaard, Emilie Marie Niebuhr

2014-01-01

370

Implicit and explicit attitudes toward gay males and lesbians among heterosexual males and females.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we examined explicit and implicit attitudes toward gay males and lesbians using the Single Category IAT (SC-IAT). In Study 1, we examined attitudes toward gay people in general. Participants reported positive explicit attitudes and neutral implicit attitudes toward gay people. In Study 2, we examined implicit and explicit attitudes toward gay men and lesbians separately. Participants rated gay men and lesbians positively on explicit attitude measures. Analysis of SC-IAT scores revealed neutral associations with gay men and positive associations with lesbians. As a secondary goal, we also tested the Balanced Identity Theory in both studies and did not find evidence of balance between implicit sexual orientation attitudes, implicit sexual identity, and implicit self-esteem using the SC-IAT. PMID:23724704

Breen, Amanda B; Karpinski, Andrew

2013-01-01

371

Personality and attitudes as predictors of risky driving among older drivers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there are several studies on the effects of personality and attitudes on risky driving among young drivers, related research in older drivers is scarce. The present study assessed a model of personality-attitudes-risky driving in a large sample of active older drivers. A cross-sectional design was used, and structured and anonymous questionnaires were completed by 485 older Italian drivers (Mean age=68.1, SD=6.2, 61.2% males). The measures included personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, risky driving (errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and self-reported crash involvement and number of issued traffic tickets in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling showed that personality traits predicted both directly and indirectly traffic violations, errors, and lapses. More positive attitudes toward traffic safety negatively predicted risky driving. In turn, risky driving was positively related to self-reported crash involvement and higher number of issued traffic tickets. Our findings suggest that theoretical models developed to account for risky driving of younger drivers may also apply in the older drivers, and accordingly be used to inform safe driving interventions for this age group. PMID:25108900

Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano

2014-11-01

372

Dental student attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated dental students' attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application and explored the impact of a one-semester course and year in school on students' attitudes, measured by the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Demographic characteristics and self-assessment of communication skills were also analyzed. The study employed a pretest-posttest survey design combined with cross-sectional data. Participants were first- and fourth-year students at a U.S. dental school. Out of a possible 120 students, 106 (fifty-seven D1 and forty-nine D4) participated in the pretest, an 88 percent response rate; out of a possible 121 students, 115 (fifty-seven D1 and fifty-eight D4) participated in the posttest, a 95 percent response rate. In the results, D4 students consistently demonstrated less positive attitudes towards communication skills instruction and more negative attitudes regarding the importance of interpersonal skills in clinical encounters than did their D1 counterparts. A single communications course had no discernible effect on attitudes or self-assessments for either cohort. Females reported more positive attitudes towards clinical application of interpersonal skills than did males. Gender significantly interacted with two demographic variables: primary language and parent as health care professional. Female children of health care professionals reported poorer attitudes towards clinical communication skills training and application than did their male counterparts. Generally, parental occupation in health care moderated the decrease in positive attitudes over time towards clinical usefulness of communication skills. The D4 students rated their communication skills higher than did the D1 students. Students who demonstrated more positive attitudes towards communication skills training and application were more likely to say their own skills needed improvement. PMID:25281672

McKenzie, Carly T

2014-10-01

373

Attitude Operation Results of Solar Sail Demonstrator IKAROS  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper shows the attitude operation results of Japanese interplanetary solar sail demonstration spacecraft IKAROS. IKAROS was launched on 21 May 2010(JST) aboard an H-IIA rocket, together with the AKATSUKI Venus climate orbiter. As IKAROS is the secondary payload, the development cost and period were restricted and the onboard attitude system is very simple. This paper introduces the attitude determination and control system. And as IKAROS is spin type spacecraft and it has the large membrane, the attitude control is not easy and it is very important to determine the long-term attitude plan in advance. This paper also shows the outline of the IKAROS attitude operation plan and its operation results.

Saiki, Takanao; Tsuda, Yuichi; Funase, Ryu; Mimasu, Yuya; Shirasawa, Yoji; Ikaros Demonstration Team,

374

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Medication Use among Health Care Students in King Saud University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Health sciences students are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward medication use. However, literary evidence of such expertise among health sciences students of King Saud University is unknown. This study was completed to assess the knowledge about medicines and behavior of health science students towards safe use of medications. It also aims to assess the health knowledge, attitude and practices of the students. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire consisting of 24 questions. This was administered by the researcher between October and December 2009 in the colleges of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, applied medical science and nursing of the King Saud University. The survey consisted of three parts: Ten questions assessed the students’ knowledge on drug safety (Part 1. Four questions assessed student attitude toward medication consultations by the pharmacist (Part 2 and ten questions involved medication use practices and consultation with pharmacists (Part 3. A stratified sampling method was used to select participants. Results: Pharmacy students had better medication knowledge compared to other health sciences students especially regarding antihypertensive drugs, antibiotics, paracetamol and antacids (p<0.05. Pharmacy students showed a positive attitude regarding the trustworthiness of a pharmacist to give a consultation. Nearly all other health science students showed a negative attitude about dispensing and consultation concerning nutritional supplements by a pharmacist. All health sciences students had a similar perception toward medication use and practice. Conclusion Pharmacy students had better knowledge about medication practice compared to other health sciences students. All other health sciences students lacked the appropriate attitude and practice related to the safe use of medications.

Abdullah T. Eissa

2013-11-01

375

Online grief support groups: facilitators' attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although bereaved individuals report positive experiences from participating in online support groups, little is known from a facilitator perspective. Using a web-based survey, data was collected from a national sample of grief facilitators (N = 64). Respondents reported more favorable attitudes toward in-person groups over online and indicated a low likelihood of facilitating an online group in the next year. However, 62% of the sample (n = 37) reported willingness to refer to online groups. This attitude may reflect facilitator acknowledgment of the need to increase the presence and availability of grief services; a need that bereaved individuals' express, as shown in previous research. PMID:24738742

Lubas, Margaret; De Leo, Gianluca

2014-09-01

376

Public and private attitudes towards 'green' electricity: the case of Swedish wind power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for 'green' electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled

377

Medical Students' Attitudes toward Cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study to determine whether attitudes of medical students toward cancer patients are as negative as their attitudes toward the chronically ill found significant difference between attitudes toward cancer patients and patients in general. Support was also found for the existence of negative attitudes in the treatment of cancer patients.…

Cooper, Sloan; And Others

1980-01-01

378

Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

379

Generational cohorts and their attitudes toward advertising  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, 48 interviews were conducted and data were content-analyzed. The findings were then incorporated into the second phase of study to investigate cohorts’ views about advertising, using theory of reasoned action. A quantitative approach via questionnaire-based survey was administered, and 1,410 copies were collected for analysis. Five distinct cohorts are proposed in the initial findings. They are labeled as Neoteric Inheritors, Prospective Pursuers, Social Strivers, Idealistic Strugglers and Battling Lifers on the basis of their respective engagement with events during the coming-of-age years. The subsequent findings show that beliefs about advertising are significant predictors of the attitudes to advertising, and so are the attitudes with regard to the intention of every cohort. However, their beliefs and attitudes to advertising are found to differ significantly, especially in the older cohort. The study thus highlights the implication of generational differences on the attitudes to advertising.

Ernest Cyril de Run

2013-12-01

380

Attitudes of health workers toward old people.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Tuckman-Lorge Questionnaire was used to study the attitudes of three groups of health workers toward old people and to test their acceptance of geriatric stereotypes. The health workers tested were medical students, housestaff members, and members of a mobile psychogeriatric screening team. Many significant differences were found between and within the groups tested, as well as between male and female subjects. The female housestaff had extremely high and significantly different scores from all other groups. The geriatric staff adhered least to the stereotypes. The results are discussed in the framework that the attitudes of care givers are directly related to the quality of the care provided. It is hypothesized that female housestaff members have special difficulties with role conflicts that cause them to adhere to stereotypes of the aged. The milieu of geriatric treatment, rather than knowledge of statistics about old people, is the most effective background for positive changes in attitudes toward the elderly. PMID:429739

Solomon, K; Vickers, R

1979-04-01

 
 
 
 
381