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Sample records for showed positive attitudes

  1. Developing positive worker attitudes toward radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teamwork, productivity, and reducing exposure are admirable goals presented to the workers in a nuclear power plant. A common thread to achievement in these areas resides in worker attitudes toward the tasks presented. A positive, alert, and cooperative attitude is an element in a worker's mind that must be created and maintained by good leadership and management practices. At the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, management has used certain strategies to foster good positive worker attitudes toward radiation protection and quality workmanship in all tasks. Strategies differ from management by objectives in that they have no deadlines or timetables in and of themselves. Rather, strategies are preplanned methods that can be called upon when the opportunity arises to improve worker attitudes. A series of five strategies for positive attitude development are described in the full paper. The strategies are identified with buzz words to allow the user a recall mechanism (as with the acronyms abounding in the nuclear industry). They cover the range of management techniques from example setting to reward/recognition. Although not unique to radiation exposure management, nor all inclusive, the strategies provide some though stimulation in creating productive worker attitudes

  2. Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-02-01

    Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

  3. Using Games to Promote Girls' Positive Attitudes toward Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Studies show that women make up only 35% of the IT workforce, and the schism between boys' and girls' interests in math and science is well documented. Richard Van Eck suggests that providing girls with more positive experiences with technology may impact their overall attitudes toward technology and perhaps even toward math and science. Van Eck…

  4. Position and attitude tracking control for a quadrotor UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui

    2014-05-01

    A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances. PMID:24534327

  5. Public attitudes toward nuclear generating facilities: positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public opposition and intervention in the siting and development of nuclear power plants has become more of a limiting factor than technological issues. Attitude surveys indicate that, while the majority of Americans support nuclear power, the utilities would do well to respond to the concerns and opinions of local residents when projects are in the planning stages. Recent polls are analyzed to identify the demographic and perceptive factors of opposition. Demographic studies indicate that the greatest opposition comes from women, young people, urban residents, farmers, low-income groups, and the unemployed. Perceptual opposition is associated with anticipated negative impacts in the form of hazards and social disruption. Since there appears to be a correlation between access to pertinent information and level of support, utility planners could develop educational programs to provide this information on the advantages of nuclear power. 10 references

  6. Single mothers raising children with "male-positive" attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J; Craft, Shonda M

    2011-03-01

    Among the challenges facing single mothers, a particularly difficult one is how to help children develop "male-positive" attitudes in situations when the parents have broken up and children have no active relationship with the father. Despite a large academic literature on single mothering, there is strikingly little discussion on this topic. Using symbolic interactionism and family systems theory, we offer psychoeducational messages for single mothers who want to raise their children with male-positive attitudes. We also call for a new cultural conversation on an issue ignored for too long. PMID:21361924

  7. Cubature Kalman filtering for relative spacecraft attitude and position estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Yang, Huabo; Lu, Heping; Zhang, Shifeng; Cai, Hong; Qian, Shan

    2014-12-01

    A novel relative spacecraft attitude and position estimation approach based on cubature Kalman filter is derived. The integrated sensor suit comprises the gyro sensors on each spacecraft and a vision-based navigation system on the deputy spacecraft. In the traditional algorithm, an assumption that the chief's body frame coincides with its Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH) frame is made to construct the line-of-sight observations for convenience. To solve this problem, two relative quaternions that map the chief's LVLH frame to the deputy and chief body frames are involved. The general relative equations of motion for eccentric orbits are used to describe the positional dynamics. The implementation equations for the cubature Kalman filter are derived. Simulation results indicate that the proposed filter provides more accurate estimates of relative attitude and position over than the extended Kalman filter.

  8. A vectorial bootstrapping approach for integrated GNSS-based relative positioning and attitude determination of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Peter J.; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Verhagen, Sandra; Giorgi, Gabriele

    2011-04-01

    Traditionally in multi-spacecraft missions (e.g. formation flying, rendezvous) the GNSS-based relative positioning and attitude determination problem are treated as independent. In this contribution we will investigate the possibility to use multi-antenna data from each spacecraft, not only for attitude determination, but also to improve the relative positioning between spacecraft. Both for ambiguity resolution and accuracy of the baseline solution, we will show the theoretical improvement achievable as a function of the number of antennas on each platform. We concentrate on ambiguity resolution as the key to precise relative positioning and attitude determination and will show the theoretical limit of this kind of approach. We will use mission parameters of the European Proba-3 satellites in a software-based algorithm verification and a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The software simulations indicated that this approach can improve single epoch ambiguity resolution up to 50% for relative positioning applying the typical antenna configurations for attitude determination. The hardware-in-the-loop simulations show that for the same antenna configurations, the accuracy of the relative positioning solution can improve up to 40%.

  9. Multi-platform Integrated Positioning and Attitude Determination using GNSS:

    OpenAIRE

    Buist, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    There is trend in spacecraft engineering toward distributed systems where a number of smaller spacecraft work as a larger satellite. However, in order to make the small satellites work together as a single large platform, the precise relative positions (baseline) and orientations (attitude) of the elements of the formation have to be estimated. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, the general term for systems as GPS and Galileo) receivers can be utilized to provide baseline estimates wit...

  10. Fostering a positive attitude towards science through college courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohic, Helene

    2015-01-01

    For non-science majors, a general education course in college is often the last science course they will ever take. General education courses are often regarded by students as a right of passage in which they have no interest. Thus strict coursework might aggravate students against the matter taught, and decrease their general interest in the subject. To test whether general education courses killed the students' interest in science, we administered a science attitude inventory at the beginning and at the end of an introductory astronomy course. We compared the gain/loss in science attitude with that experienced by students of a writing course as a baseline. Finally, we evaluated the gain/loss in science attitude for students enrolled in a general education course on science and society, where no formal science knowledge was taught, but where the students discussed the different aspects of the relation between science and society.This study (once tested on a larger scale) could serve as a guideline for educational policies aiming to foster a positive attitude in the population of college graduates.

  11. IMU/GPS System Provides Position and Attitude Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching Fang

    2006-01-01

    A special navigation system is being developed to provide high-quality information on the position and attitude of a moving platform (an aircraft or spacecraft), for use in pointing and stabilization of a hyperspectral remote-sensing system carried aboard the platform. The system also serves to enable synchronization and interpretation of readouts of all onboard sensors. The heart of the system is a commercially available unit, small enough to be held in one hand, that contains an integral combination of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, a differential GPS subsystem, and ancillary data-processing subsystems. The system utilizes GPS carrier-phase measurements to generate time data plus highly accurate and continuous data on the position, attitude, rotation, and acceleration of the platform. Relative to prior navigation systems based on IMU and GPS subsystems, this system is smaller, is less expensive, and performs better. Optionally, the system can easily be connected to a laptop computer for demonstration and evaluation. In addition to airborne and spaceborne remote-sensing applications, there are numerous potential terrestrial sensing, measurement, and navigation applications in diverse endeavors that include forestry, environmental monitoring, agriculture, mining, and robotics.

  12. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2013-08-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

  13. Inequality and union membership: the impact of relative earnings position and inequality attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Checchi, Daniele; Visser, Jelle; Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the connection between union membership and economic inequality. Using several surveys from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) covering the period 1985-2002, we initially examine the impact of relative earnings position on union membership and show that union membership is concentrated in the intermediate earnings groups. Next, we examine the impact of inequality attitudes on union membership. We show that union membership is not only affected by individ...

  14. Spacecraft Position and Attitude Formation Control using Line-of-Sight Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tse-huai; Lee, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies formation control of an arbitrary number of spacecraft based on a serial network structure. The leader controls its absolute position and absolute attitude with respect to an inertial frame, and the followers control its relative position and attitude with respect to another spacecraft assigned by the serial network. The unique feature is that both the absolute attitude and the relative attitude control systems are developed directly in terms of the line-o...

  15. Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IkuoKabashima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects’ self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

  16. Using Visual Odometry to Estimate Position and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry; Schoppers, Marcel; Olson, Clark

    2007-01-01

    A computer program in the guidance system of a mobile robot generates estimates of the position and attitude of the robot, using features of the terrain on which the robot is moving, by processing digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras mounted rigidly on the robot. Developed for use in localizing the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles on Martian terrain, the program can also be used for similar purposes on terrestrial robots moving in sufficiently visually textured environments: examples include low-flying robotic aircraft and wheeled robots moving on rocky terrain or inside buildings. In simplified terms, the program automatically detects visual features and tracks them across stereoscopic pairs of images acquired by the cameras. The 3D locations of the tracked features are then robustly processed into an estimate of overall vehicle motion. Testing has shown that by use of this software, the error in the estimate of the position of the robot can be limited to no more than 2 percent of the distance traveled, provided that the terrain is sufficiently rich in features. This software has proven extremely useful on the MER vehicles during driving on sandy and highly sloped terrains on Mars.

  17. A position and attitude vision measurement system for wind tunnel slender model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Yang, Yinong; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen; Bai, Xiangzhi

    2014-11-01

    A position and attitude vision measurement system for drop test slender model in wind tunnel is designed and developed. The system used two high speed cameras, one is put to the side of the model and another is put to the position where the camera can look up the model. Simple symbols are set on the model. The main idea of the system is based on image matching technique between the 3D-digital model projection image and the image captured by the camera. At first, we evaluate the pitch angles, the roll angles and the position of the centroid of a model through recognizing symbols in the images captured by the side camera. And then, based on the evaluated attitude info, giving a series of yaw angles, a series of projection images of the 3D-digital model are obtained. Finally, these projection images are matched with the image which captured by the looking up camera, and the best match's projection images corresponds to the yaw angle is the very yaw angle of the model. Simulation experiments are conducted and the results show that the maximal error of attitude measurement is less than 0.05°, which can meet the demand of test in wind tunnel.

  18. Children with positive attitudes towards mind-wandering provide invalid subjective reports of mind-wandering during an experimental task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Song, Xiaolan; Ye, Qun; Wang, Qinqin

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated mind-wandering (MW) in children during a laboratory task, and explored the influence of children's attitudes towards MW on the accuracy of their subjective reports. Children's MW experiences were probed during the adapted Sustained-Attention-to-Response-Task (SART), and their attitudes was measured by a questionnaire, according to which children were divided into positive or negative group. Results showed that (1) MW in children was basically identical to MW in adults which was associated with poor performance, increased behavioural variability, and a prospective bias; (2) reliable correlations between behavioural correlates and MW frequency were observed in negative group, but not in positive group; and (3) positive group reported more MW than negative group, while no behavioural correlate was significantly different between the two groups. We concluded that (1) overall, children could accurately introspect their MW experiences during SART; and (2) children with positive attitudes provided invalid subjective reports of MW. PMID:26021724

  19. Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    IkuoKabashima; KoujiTakano

    2009-01-01

    Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward oth...

  20. Implicit gambling attitudes in problem gamblers: positive but not negative implicit associations.

    OpenAIRE

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Hermant, Christine; Tibboel, Helen; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noe?l, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Implicit attitudes (associations) are involved in the generation of substance use behaviors. However, little is known about the role of this automatic cognitive processing in deregulated behaviors without substance use, such as abnormal gambling. This study examined whether problem gamblers exhibit both positive and negative implicit attitudes toward gambling-related stimuli.

  1. Supporting or Opposing Privatization in Education: Teachers' Attitudes and Positions of Power in Israeli Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addi-Raccah, Audray

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of neoliberal policies in education are controversial. Based on the micro-political approach, this study had two aims: (1) to examine teachers' attitudes toward the effect of privatization on inequality and educational improvement; and (2) to examine the link between teachers' positions of power in school and their attitudes

  2. Patterns of healthy lifestyle and positive health attitudes in older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlowska, Katarzyna; Szczecinka, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (i) the extent to which recommended lifestyle healthy behaviors are adopted and the existence of positive attitudes to health; (ii) the relative influence of socio-demographic variables on multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health; (iii) the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health. Design: two distinct healthy behavioral measures were developed: (i) healthy lifestyles based on physical activity, no cigarette smoking, no/moderate alcohol drinking, maintaining a "healthy" weight and having no sleeping problems and (ii) positive health attitudes based on having positive emotional attitudes, such as: self-perceived good health status, being calm, peaceful and happy for most of the time, not expecting health to get worse and regular health check-ups. A composite healthy lifestyle index, ranging from 0 (none of behaviors met) to 5 (all behaviors met) was calculated by summing up the individual's scores for the five healthylifestyle items. Afterwards, each individual's index was collapsed into three levels: 0-2 equivalent to 'level 1' (subjectively regarded as 'too low'), a score of 3 equivalent to 'level 2' ('fair') and 4-5 as 'level 3' satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' practices. The same procedure was applied to the positive health attitudes index. Multinomial logistic regression analyses by a forward selection procedure were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Participants: a multi-national sample consisting of 638 older Europeans from 8 countries, aged 65-74 and 75+, living alone or with others. Results and conclusions: maintaining a "healthy" weight was the most frequently cited factor in the healthy lifestyles index and therefore assumed to be the most important to the older Europeans in the study; positive attitudes to health were relatively low; participants achieved a 'satisfactory' level for healthy lifestyles index (level 3) more frequently than a satisfactory level for positive attitudes to health; having a satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' was directly related to having a satisfactory level of positive attitudes to health based on the positive health attitudes index; income and geographical location in Europe appeared to be key predictors for meeting both the recommended healthy lifestyle factors in the index and having positive health attitudes however, the composition and nature of the study sample should be taken into consideration when considering the impact of the location on healthy lifestyles and attitudes to health across Europe.

  3. IceBridge GPS/IMU L1B Primary Position and Attitude Solution

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge GPS/IMU L1B Primary Position and Attitude Solution (IPUTG1B) data set contains elevation, roll, pitch, heading, north-south acceleration,...

  4. Language Shift Co-occurs with Positive Attitudes toward the Heritage Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Fay; Lee, Bo

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that language shift among nonnative English speakers can co-occur with positive attitudes toward the heritage language. Discusses results of a study of Hmong-speaking children in California. (Author/VWL)

  5. IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude (IPAPP1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 POS AV system flown with the Digital...

  6. Attitude Estimation and Position Control of VTOL UAVs using IMU and GPS Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We address two fundamental problems associated with the control of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs): attitude estimation and position control. We propose two velocity-aided attitude observers which utilize a global-positioning system (GPS) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The `velocity-aided' class of observer uses an accelerometer to measure the system \\emph{apparent acceleration} (instead of the gravity vector), and is therefore better suited for applications where the rigid-body (aircraft) is subjected to significant linear accelerations (which is to be expected for VTOL UAVs). We also propose a position controller which utilizes the accelerometer in a similar fashion. More precisely, rather than using the system orientation (as is usually done in the existing position controllers), we use the vector measurements (accelerometer and magnetometer measurements) directly in the position control law. Consequently, the proposed position controller does not ...

  7. Positive Attitude: A Guarantee for Success in Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Aiqing Meng

    2010-01-01

    Faced with the current severe employment situation, college students have passive psychology, which influences their employment. In order to have better employment, college students should have positive psychological quality.

  8. Methods for enhancing carrier phase GNSS positioning and attitude determination performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guijin

    This thesis explores the methods for enhancing the performance of using low cost, single frequency Carrier phase Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (CDGNSS) in real-time, safety or liability critical applications. This is done by improving the integer ambiguity resolution performance and carrier phase error modeling. CDGNSS is considered for a broad range of real-time applications which require both a high precision relative positioning and attitude determination system. This is because of the drift-free nature of the GNSS measurement errors and the precise nature of the carrier phase measurement. The key to making full use of the precise nature of the carrier phase measurement is to fix the integer ambiguity quickly and reliably. This poses the biggest challenge for a low cost single frequency system. For the attitude determination problem, the precisely known baseline lengths can be used to improve the integer ambiguity resolution performance. Traditionally, the relative positioning problem was solved independently of the attitude determination problem and, thus could not leverage the precisely known baseline lengths of the attitude determination system. However, by integrating the two systems together, the precisely known baseline lengths can be used to improve the relative positioning system as well. The first part of the thesis develops an integration framework to improve the integer ambiguity resolution performance for the relative positioning system and the attitude determination system simultaneously. The second part of the thesis provides a GNSS antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV) error model development to improve the accuracy of the integrated system. It also examines the feasibility analysis of using the developed error model for a real-time dynamic application. The challenging of using this in the real time lies in the fact that PCV error magnitude is small (less than 2cm) and the developed error model is a function of unknown parameter such as attitude. A feasibility analysis of the developed model with a set of specific antennas is performed and assessed.

  9. Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Disabled People: Definition of, Rationale and Prospects for Anti-Disablist Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Angharad E.; Buckner, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This article outlines the findings of an Economic and Social Research Council-funded study exploring the role of English state primary schools in promoting positive attitudes towards disabled people. Data emerging from a survey of schools and interviews with teachers are presented. The article considers progress made by schools against particular…

  10. Student Teachers' Development of a Positive Attitude towards Research and Research Knowledge and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…

  11. Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumaran Nadarajah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0.8, matching the theoretical gain of 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.

  12. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  13. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Penelope Tom

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the practices, knowledge, attitudes, and the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV-positive patients with regard to the disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Windhoek, Namibia.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding the disclosure of HIV status at Betesda Clinic in Namibia, and to determine the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure.Methods: This was ...

  15. US women's attitudes to false-positive mammography results and detection of ductal carcinoma in situ: cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, LISA M.; Woloshin, Steven; Sox, Harold C.; Fischhoff, Baruch; Welch, H Gilbert

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine women's attitudes and knowledge of both false-positive mammography results and the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ after screening mammography. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting United States. Participants A total of 479 women aged 18 to 97 years who did not report a history of breast cancer. Main outcome measures Attitudes and knowledge about false-positive results and the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ after screening mammography. Results Women were ...

  16. The effect of external factors on medical librarians' attitudes toward their position in the future of profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazimirsaeed SJ.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The utilization of information and communication technologies in medical librarianship would put librarians in new created conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of external factors on medical librarians' attitudes toward their future professional situation.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All libraries and affiliated with ministry of health, and medical education were included in the study. The research consisted of all medical librarians working in the mentioned centers. Data was collected through questionnaires including two major parts and an additional section pertaining to personal information. From total of 1368 cases, 1001 answered to the questions. Statistical measurements consisted of frequency distribution, mean, percentage, measures of dispersion, correlation coefficient, and two tailed tests analyzed by SPSS software. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance.Results: The results  showed that the mean score of external factors and attitude, were 3.25 and 4.18 respectively, at the scale of 5. There was a positive and significant relationship between external factors and attitude. Medical librarians did not consider the presence informaticians as a threat to their job security, and they have been able to adapt themselves to modern situations. Also, they were aware of the fact that if they can not succeed to match themselves with technological revolution, they will loose their jobs.Conclusion: Structural changes in staff and educational establishments are necessary to satisfy future needs and is a priority to improve the influence of external factors on medical librarians' attitude toward the future of their profession.

  17. A Precise Position and Attitude Determination System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Wieland, M.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2013-08-01

    In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy ? < 5 cm and attitude accuracy ? < 0.5 deg). In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

  18. Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts

    OpenAIRE

    Julija Lapuh Bele; Matjaz Debevc; Irena Morel; David Rozman

    2008-01-01

    Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and constr...

  19. Intertextuality as a means of positioning in a talk-show.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?mejrková, Sv?tla; Hoffmannová, Jana

    Amsterdam : Benjamins, 2012 - (Lorda, C.; Zabalbeascoa, P.), s. 161-172 ISBN 978-90-272-1032-6. - (Dialogue Studies. 15) R&D Projects: GA ?R GA405/09/2028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : positioning * intertextuality * talk-show * reported speech Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  20. Nonlinear control of marine vehicles using only position and attitude measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, Marit Johanne

    1996-12-31

    This thesis presents new results on the design and analysis of nonlinear output feedback controllers for auto pilots and dynamic positioning systems for ships and underwater vehicles. Only position and attitude measurements of the vehicle are used in the control design. The underlying idea of the work is to use certain structural properties of the equations of motion in the controller design and analysis. New controllers for regulation and tracking have been developed and the stability of the resulting closed-loop systems has been rigorously established. The results are supported by simulations. The following problems have been investigated covering design of passive controller for regulation, comparison of two auto pilots, nonlinear damping compensation for tracking, tracking control for nonlinear ships, and output tracking control with wave filtering for multivariable models of possibly unstable vehicles. 97 refs., 32 figs.

  1. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what are the psychological processes through which consumers evaluate new objects (attitude formation), retrieve evaluations from memory (attitude activation), and update evaluations in response to new information (attitude change)? The purpose of this chapter is to familiarise the reader with classical and contemporary attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types of attitudes. This is the reason why a thorough understanding of attitudes is one of the most important skills a marketer can have. That same is true in related areas such as communications research: concepts like public opinion, corporate reputation, and corporate image are nothing more than particular types of attitudes. Even the utility concept in economics can simply be regarded as a synonym for attitudes.

  2. Risk factors influencing dentists' hepatitis B-related knowledge and attitudes and their willingness to treat hepatitis B positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravanifard, B; Rakhshan, V; Sherafat, S; Najafi-Salehi, L

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed factors that could predict dentists' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards hepatitis B virus (HBV). A total of 300 dentists in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran were surveyed and their demographic, educational and office characteristics were analysed in relation to their scores on knowledge about HBV, self-reported attitudes towards treating people infected with HBV and actual behaviour towards treating simulated HBV-positive patients. Having a Master's degree, faculty membership, taking ? 3 continuing education courses, wearing eye-shields, spending more time on preparing dental units and higher self-confidence about knowledge predicted better knowledge. A positive attitude was associated with having attended more courses and working in group practice. The number of courses and a shorter dental unit preparation time positively affected dentists' behaviour. PMID:25907193

  3. Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Lapuh Bele

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and constructivist approaches in e-learning, where efficient e-course and well-skilled mentors have an important role. This article describes the model of introducing e-learning in an organization, and its realization in praxis.

  4. Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention : The role of positive sensory experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2004-01-01

    European consumers are sceptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if actual sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence consumers' attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. An experiment was conducted in which subjects in the experimental group tasted cheeses, one of which was labelled as 'produced using GMOs.' The cheeses were selected in a way that ensured that the subject had a sensory preference for the GMO cheese. A control group tasted cheeses that were unlabelled. After the tasting, subjects completed a conjoint analysis task about cheese, in which the type of starter culture used (GMO/conventional) was one of the attributes. Subjects also were administered a set of items measuring attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. Results showed that for subjects in the experimental group (who believed that they had tasted a GMO cheese, with which they had a positive sensory experience) a) attitude towards GMO in food production was less negative, and b) type of starter culture used (GM/conventional) had less impact on their buying intentions with regard to cheese than for subjects in the control group.

  5. FOXP2 targets show evidence of positive selection in European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Qasim; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yali; Hu, Min; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2013-05-01

    Forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) is a highly conserved transcription factor that has been implicated in human speech and language disorders and plays important roles in the plasticity of the developing brain. The pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXP2 in modern populations suggests that it has been the target of positive (Darwinian) selection during recent human evolution. In our study, we searched for evidence of selection that might have followed FOXP2 adaptations in modern humans. We examined whether or not putative FOXP2 targets identified by chromatin-immunoprecipitation genomic screening show evidence of positive selection. We developed an algorithm that, for any given gene list, systematically generates matched lists of control genes from the Ensembl database, collates summary statistics for three frequency-spectrum-based neutrality tests from the low-coverage resequencing data of the 1000 Genomes Project, and determines whether these statistics are significantly different between the given gene targets and the set of controls. Overall, there was strong evidence of selection of FOXP2 targets in Europeans, but not in the Han Chinese, Japanese, or Yoruba populations. Significant outliers included several genes linked to cellular movement, reproduction, development, and immune cell trafficking, and 13 of these constituted a significant network associated with cardiac arteriopathy. Strong signals of selection were observed for CNTNAP2 and RBFOX1, key neurally expressed genes that have been consistently identified as direct FOXP2 targets in multiple studies and that have themselves been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders involving language dysfunction. PMID:23602712

  6. Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

  7. Bias in medicine: a survey of medical student attitudes towards HIV-positive and marginalized patients in Russia, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir A Bikmukhametov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Russia has a substantial HIV epidemic which is poised to escalate in the coming years. The increases in prevalence of HIV will result in increased healthcare needs by a medical system with limited experience with HIV. A healthcare provider's attitude towards a patient plays a significant role in determining the patient's health-related behaviours and medical outcomes. Previous studies have identified negative attitudes of medical students towards people living with HIV. Studying the prevalence of such attitudes is of particular interest, as medical students represent the future workforce and also as the schooling years present a unique opportunity to nurture bias-free healthcare providers. The study measures prevalence of prejudicial attitudes towards HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients who belong to marginalized subgroups. Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students of a Russian medical university. Of 500 students surveyed, 436 provided sufficient data to be included in the analysis. Prejudicial attitudes were defined as reluctance to provide medical care to a specified hypothetical patient. Nine hypothetical HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were proposed: physicians, injecting drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men and a patient HIV-positive due to blood transfusion. A log-binomial regression solved using generalized estimating equations was utilized to identify factors associated with reluctance to treat. Results: Prevalence of reluctance to provide medical care to HIV-positive patients in marginalized subgroups was high (ranging from 26.4% up to 71.9%, compared to a maximum of 7.5% if a patient was an HIV-negative physician. Students in their clinical years reported more negative attitudes than preclinical students. In general, female students were less willing to provide care than their male counterparts. Conclusions: Prejudicial attitudes about HIV-positive patients and those in marginalized subgroups of the population are prevalent among medical students in Russia. Given the increasing prevalence of HIV in the country, reasons for this hesitance to treat must be identified and addressed. Educational programs for healthcare providers are urgently needed to eliminate bias in the delivery of critically needed medical care. These targeted interventions should be coupled with other programs to eliminate structural barriers to care.

  8. Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

  9. Positive Attitude Change toward Psychiatry in Pharmacy Students Following an Active Learning Psychopharmacology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einat, Haim; George, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric care in many rural communities has been demonstrated to be less adequate compared with urban environments partially because of attitudes and stigmatization issues. Educated pharmacists with professional attitudes can have a major impact in helping mental health patients receive more accurate diagnostic assessments and safe…

  10. Positive Mood Risk Attitudes, and Investment Decisions : Field Evidence From Comedy Movie Attendance in the US.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepori, Gabriele

    Positive mood has been repeatedly shown to affect risk attitudes in laboratory settings, where subjects’ exposure to movie clips is among the most widely used and effective mood-induction procedures. Yet, conflicting lab results about the estimated sign of the mood effect have led researchers to formulate two alternative theories. The affect infusion model (AIM) argues that happy moods foster risk-prone behavior, whereas the mood-maintenance hypothesis (MMH) takes the opposite stance. In this paper I test the predictions of these two theories using real-world financial data and focusing on the same moodshifting mechanism commonly employed in lab studies. More specifically, I exploit the time-series variation in the domestic theatrical release of comedy movies as a natural experiment for testing the impact that happy mood (proxied by weekend comedy movie attendance) has on investment in risky assets (proxied by the performance of the U.S. stock market on the following Monday). My hypothesis rests upon the evidence that individual investors are more likely to ponder trading decisions during the weekend and trade on Mondays. To control for unobserved factors that may contemporaneously affect movie attendance and equity returns, I employ the percentage of theater screens dedicated to the comedy genre as an instrument. Using a sample of data from 1995 to 2010, I estimate that an increase in comedy attendance on a given weekend is followed by a decrease in equity returns on the subsequent Monday, which supports the MMH.

  11. Supervisor communication and motivation to learn as a predictor of positive individual attitudes and behaviors: A study in one city-based local authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development literature highlights that the ability of supervisor to use good communication styles in training programs may motivate positive individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., transfer of competency and job performance. Further, a careful observationof such relationships reveals that the effect of supervisor communication on individual attitudes and behaviors is indirectly affected by motivation to learn. The nature of thisrelationship is less emphasized in past research studies. Therefore, this study was conducted to gather data from 100 technical employees in one city-based local authority in East Malaysia (EMCBLAUTHORITY. Outcomes of stepwise regression analysis showed thatrelationship between motivation to learn and supervisor communication had been an important predictor of transfer of competency and job performance. This result confirms thatmotivation to learn does act as a full mediating role in the training model of the organizational sample. In addition, implications and limitations of the study, as well as directions of future research are discussed.

  12. FOXP2 Targets Show Evidence of Positive Selection in European Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ayub, Qasim; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yali; Hu, Min; Vernes, Sonja C.; Fisher, Simon E.; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) is a highly conserved transcription factor that has been implicated in human speech and language disorders and plays important roles in the plasticity of the developing brain. The pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXP2 in modern populations suggests that it has been the target of positive (Darwinian) selection during recent human evolution. In our study, we searched for evidence of selection that might have followed FOXP2 adaptations in modern humans. We examined...

  13. Suture Granuloma Showing False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Takahara; Hiroaki Kakinoki; Saya Ikoma; Kazuma Udo; Shohei Tobu; Yuji Satoh; Yuji Tokuda; Mitsuru Noguchi; Shigehisa Aoki; Jiro Uozumi

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 33-year-old male with a mixed germ-cell testicular tumor. Postoperative follow-up FDG-PET revealed concentration of FDG in the left inguinal area which is not tumor metastasis or local recurrence but suture reactivity granuloma. In this paper, we reviewed suture granulomas associated with false-positive findings on FDG-PET after surgery. If FDG-PET will be used more frequently in the future, it will be necessary to refrain from using silk thread in order to prevent any u...

  14. A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate

  15. The Role of Human Resources Development Climate in Building Positive Job Attitudes and Extra-Role Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Zaky Ewis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telecom companies working under a rapidly changing and highly competitive environment. These companies must encourage and motivate their employees to improve individual and organizational performance. Researchers and practitioners recognize the importance of organizational commitment, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behavior, especially, when available HRD climate. Using a sample of two hundred and forty-six employees from three Saudi telecom companies completed the survey with response rate 61.5%, this study examined the impacts of HRD climate on two positive work attitudes represented in organizational commitment and work engagement, and positive extra-role behaviors represented in organizational citizenship behavior. In the current study, HRD climate was found to significantly and positively influence organizational commitment, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behavior. The current study also provided a set of practical applications and future directions according to what has been discussed from the results. tter access to short-term debt consequently reducing agency problems and the risk of refinancing.

  16. FROM LOVING GRANDMA TO WORKING WITH OLDER ADULTS: PROMOTING POSITIVE ATTITUDES TOWARDS AGING

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, DC

    2009-01-01

    The steady increase of population aging requires not only more people working within the field of aging but also the creation of new services. However, current students from areas such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and social work frequently have low interest in working with older adults. The low interest relates to this task's lack of challenge, absence of social status, and lower incomes. Different variables explain pervasive negative attitudes and lack of interest to work with older co...

  17. IceBridge UAF GPS/IMU L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) positioning and orientation measurements for the University of Alaska...

  18. "Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

  19. Entrepreneurial Attitudes among Potential Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Ali (Corresponding author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores entrepreneurial attitudes among potential entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Multi-stage sampling maximized representation. Four hundred and eighty masters of business administration (MBA students (potential entrepreneurs from six public sector Pakistani universities returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: entrepreneurial acceptability, entrepreneurial intentions and personal factors. Moreover, the perceptions of the potential entrepreneurs on locus of control, self efficacy, subjective norms and instrumental readiness were also analyzed. The majority of students showed generally positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship at all six universities. Overall there was a significant difference between negative and positive attitudes (negative mean 184, positive mean 284. There was also some impact of demographic variables, such as university, parental income and profession. Both genders exhibited similar attitudes at most of the sample institutions. The implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  20. An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Miao, Lingjuan; Wang, Shunting; Shen, Jun

    2009-07-01

    During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions.

  1. An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions

  2. Determination of spacecraft attitude and source position using non-aligned detectors in spin-stabilized satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modulation of high-energy transients' (or steadily emitting sources') light curves due to the imperfect alignment of the detector's view axis with the spin axis in a spin-stabilized satellite is derived. It is shown how the orientation of the detector's view axis with respect to the satellite's spin axis may be estimated using observed light curves. The effects of statistical fluctuations are considered. Using the estimated value of the inclination of the detector's view axis, the modulated light curve is demodulated and compared with the original one. Conversely, it is shown how the attitude of a spin-axis stabilized satellite as well as the unknown position of a celestial source of high-energy photons may be determined using a detector whose view-axis is intentionally kept inclined and is known accurately beforehand. The case of three-axes stabilized satellites is also discussed.

  3. An examination of key experiences which contribute to a positive change in attitude toward science in two elementary education teacher candidates at the University of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Maggie A.

    This investigation utilized life history methodology (Armstrong, 1987; Bogdan & Biklen, 1998; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 1977; Marshall & Rossman, 1995; Patton, 1987; Taylor & Bogdan; 1984) to examine lifelong science experiences of two elementary education teacher candidates at a land grant institution with a large, undergraduate teacher education program. Purposive sampling techniques (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998) led to the selection of two teacher candidates who reported high science anxiety when they began university coursework. The investigation focused on five broad questions: (a) What were key experiences in the elementary teacher education program which contributed to a positive change in attitude toward science? (b) What science experiences, in and out of school, did the teacher candidates encounter while they were in elementary school, junior high school, high school, and college? (c) How did the elementary education program's science course structure, professors, and field experiences contribute to the change in attitude toward science? (d) How much time was involved in the change in attitude toward science? and (e) What were the effects of the change in attitude on the teaching of science in the elementary classroom? Each candidate completed approximately twenty hours of interviews yielding rich descriptions of their lifelong science experiences. Data also included interviews with science and science education professors, journaling, and observations of student teaching experiences. Data analysis revealed four over-arching themes with implications for teacher educators. First, data showed the importance of relationship building between professors and teacher candidates. Professors must know and work with teacher candidates, and provide a structure that encourages question asking. Second, course structure including hands-on teaching strategies and students working in small groups over an extended period of time was vital. Third, integrating language arts with science proved important because the generally high comfort level experienced by elementary teacher candidates toward language arts may be extended to the teaching of science. Teacher candidates realize the benefits for both teaching and learning when the two subjects are integrated. Last, the study revealed the powerful effects of field experiences which include teaching science in the public schools and demonstrated the drawbacks of field experiences which do not include teaching science.

  4. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods.

  5. Attitudes Toward Women in Management and Attributions for Their Success and Failure in a Managerial Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Howard; Price, Kenneth H.

    1977-01-01

    Women as Managers Scale scores were positively correlated with internal (ability and effort) attributions and negatively correlated with external (luck and easy job) attributions for subjects reading success descriptions. (Author)

  6. Positioning accuracy analysis of adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude is presented according to the characteristics of the target transport subsystem in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The mechanism consists of a tangent mechanism adjusting rotation angle and a set of orthogonal tangent mechanism adjusting two-dimensional deflection angles. The structural parameters of the adjusting target mechanism are analyzed according to principle errors, structure errors and motion errors of following. The analysis results indicate that the system error of the adjusting target mechanism is influenced by the displacement of the linear actuators, the actuator ball radius, the working radius of the tangent mechanism, the angle error of the inclined installation hole, the centralization error of the actuators, the orthogonal error of the two tangent mechanism, and the angle errors of the inclined target rod inclined rotation shaft. The errors of the inclined target rod and inclined rotation shaft are the two greatest impact factors, the spherical contact error is the next. By means of precise assembly and control system compensation, the accuracy of the adjusting target mechanism can be less than 0.1 mrad. (authors)

  7. The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kazempour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather? ?!"s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

  8. Thoughts, Attitudes, and Feelings of HIV-Positive MSM Associated with High Transmission-Risk Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinta, Matthew D.; Murphy, Jessie L.; Paul, Jay P.; Schwarcz, Sandra K.; Dilley, James W.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents survey data collected from a sample of HIV-positive men (N = 182) who had high transmission-risk sex, defined as unprotected anal intercourse with a man whose HIV-status was negative or unknown, in the previous 6 months. Despite the tremendous changes in HIV treatment and their impact on people living with HIV, little recent…

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B.; Reichard, Rebecca J.; Luthans, Fred; Mhatre, Ketan H.

    2011-01-01

    The positive core construct of psychological capital (or simply PsyCap), consisting of the psychological resources of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, has recently been demonstrated to be open to human resource development (HRD) and performance management. The research stream on PsyCap has now grown to the point that a quantitative…

  10. Staff Training in Positive Behaviour Support: Impact on Attitudes and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kathy; Jones, Edwin; Allen, David; Davies, Dee; James, Wendy; Doyle, Tony; Andrew, Jock; Kaye, Neil; Jones, Sian; Brophy, Sam; Moore, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Background: Positive behavioural support is increasingly viewed as the preferred service approach for people who challenge, but skills are insufficiently widespread. The need for effective staff training has been highlighted as a key factor in high quality service provision, with investigators recommending a multidimensional approach to increase…

  11. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Meyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide.

  12. Bias in medicine: a survey of medical student attitudes towards HIV-positive and marginalized patients in Russia, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bikmukhametov, Damir A.; Anokhin, Vladimir A.; Vinogradova, Anna N.; Triner, Wayne R.; Louise-Anne McNutt*

    2012-01-01

    Background: Russia has a substantial HIV epidemic which is poised to escalate in the coming years. The increases in prevalence of HIV will result in increased healthcare needs by a medical system with limited experience with HIV. A healthcare provider's attitude towards a patient plays a significant role in determining the patient's health-related behaviours and medical outcomes. Previous studies have identified negative attitudes of medical students towards people living with H...

  13. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents’ positive attitudes towards people with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tsiantis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents’ attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.

  14. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 cultured from Swedish sheep showing serologically false-positive reactions for Brucella melitensis

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Chenais; Elisabeth Bagge; Susanne Thisted Lambertz; Karin Artursson

    2012-01-01

    In a herd of 20 sheep in Sweden, a country where brucellosis has never been diagnosed in sheep or goats, a total of six sheep were found serologically positive to Brucella melitensis in two different rounds of sampling. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 could at the time of the second sampling be isolated from four sheep, one of them at the same time serologically positive for B. melitensis. The article describes the case and gives some background information on brucellosis and Y. enteroco...

  15. Cultivating a positive attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of quality control in Japanese industry and in particular in the Mitsubishi Group is described. Examples are given of the beneficial results of introducing quality assurance at all levels of the company. (U.K.)

  16. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 cultured from Swedish sheep showing serologically false-positive reactions for Brucella melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Chenais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a herd of 20 sheep in Sweden, a country where brucellosis has never been diagnosed in sheep or goats, a total of six sheep were found serologically positive to Brucella melitensis in two different rounds of sampling. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 could at the time of the second sampling be isolated from four sheep, one of them at the same time serologically positive for B. melitensis. The article describes the case and gives some background information on brucellosis and Y. enterocolitica in general as well as a more specific description of the Swedish surveillance program for B. melitensis and the test procedures used. The problem with false-positive reactions, in particular its implications for surveillance programs in low prevalence or officially brucellosis-free countries, is discussed.

  17. Attitudes to nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of risk perception and attitudes with regard to nuclear waste. Two data sets are reported. In the first set, data were obtained from a survey of the general population, using an extensive questionnaire. The second set constituted a follow-up 7 years later, with a limited number of questions. The data showed that people considered the topic of nuclear waste risks to be very important and that they were not convinced that the technological problems had been solved. Experts associated with government agencies were moderately trusted, while those employed by the nuclear industry were much distrusted by some respondents, and very much trusted by others. Moral obligations to future generations were stressed. A large portion (more than 50 per cent) of the variances in risk perception could be explained by attitude to nuclear power, general risk sensitivity and trust in expertise. Most background variables, except gender, had little influence on risk perception and attitudes. The follow-up study showed that the attitude to nuclear power had become more positive over time, but that people still doubted that the problems of nuclear waste disposal had been solved. 49 refs

  18. Embodied positioning/discourse analysis of a research based leadership development forum : Showing identity work as an in situ accomplishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The present article engages a discourse analysis of identity work as it is accomplished in a research and dialogue based leadership development forum in a university setting. It displays how different interactional setups in a positioning exercise prompt diverse spaces of possibilities that shape the identity work in situ. Through a micro-generic positioning analysis of the participants’ small story efforts (M. Bamberg, 2006; M. Bamberg & Georgakopoulou, 2008) combined with an analysis of dialogicality and other-orientation (Bakhtin, 1986; Linell, 2009) it is shown how counter and complicit discourses co-emerge in interaction giving space for certain lines of subjectification (Deleuze, 1992). The research contributes to a dawning field of scholars that study organizational (dialogical) practices up close and it questions the taken for granted assumptions of, for instance, staged dialogue as a natural positive phenomenon with attached emancipating consequences. It aspires to emphasize both the boarder (D) andthe local (d) dimensions of discourse, which is increasingly pursued and recommended within the field of interaction, dialogue and discourse studies. (Bager, 2013; Bager et al., forthcoming; Iedema, 2003; Linell, 2009; Phillips, 2011)

  19. Sultan Qaboos University's Student-Teacher Attitude Toward Instructional Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hmaisat, Hamad

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the effects of specific courses offered at the college of education of Sultan Qaboos University (Oman) on student-teacher attitudes toward instructional media in practice teaching. Results showed that female student-teachers have a more positive attitude than males; the students' majors (i.e., Arabic or English) did not have any…

  20. Gender Differences in Computer Attitude among Ninth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadijevich, Djordje

    2000-01-01

    Examines male and female high school students' attitudes toward computers in relation to gender and computer experience. Findings revealed: males showed a more positive attitude toward computers even when computer experience was controlled; females were less interested in computer science (CS) than males, however no gender differences were found…

  1. The Determinants of Consumers’ Attitude Towards Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Teck Chai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The advertising industry is a lucrative business in Malaysia. However, government intervention in the industry has to certain extent regulated the content of the advertisement messages. This in turn has impacted the formation of consumers’ attitude towards advertising. As such, it is crucial to identify the determinants of their attitude. The aim of this research is to investigate the determinants of consumers’ attitude towards advertising among tertiary students in a private higher education institution in Malaysia. A total of 263 undergraduate business students from a private university in Malaysia participated in this research. The outcome shows that credibility, informative, hedonic/ pleasure and good for economy positively relates to consumers’ attitude towards advertising.
    Keywords: attitude towards advertising; credibility; informative; hedonic/pleasure; good for economy.

  2. CD133-Positive Cells from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Show Distinct Sensitivity to Cisplatin and Afatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alama, Angela; Gangemi, Rosaria; Ferrini, Silvano; Barisione, Gaia; Orengo, Anna Maria; Truini, Mauro; Bello, Maria Giovanna Dal; Grossi, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    The standard of care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) consists in cisplatin-combination chemotherapy. In patients bearing tumors with activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the inhibition of the EGFR intracellular tyrosine kinase can induce up to 80 % response rates. However, both therapeutic strategies will eventually lead to recurrent disease due to the development of drug resistance. The identification of rare cancer stem-like cells able to repopulate the tumor, after failure to standard treatment modalities, has led to characterize these cells as potential therapeutic targets. This article will address the role of the CD133/EpCAM stem cell-related markers and explore cell sensitivity to cisplatin and to the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, afatinib. Three human NSCLC cell lines, one wild-type (A549) and two harboring EGFR mutations (H1650 and H1975), as well as 20 NSCLC primary cultures, were grown in non-differentiating culture conditions for stem cell enrichment. Flow-cytometry analyses of CD133 and EpCAM and cell sensitivity to cisplatin and afatinib were performed. Moreover, the expression of activated EGFR was assessed by Western blot. The cell lines and primary cultures grown in non-differentiating culture conditions were enriched with CD133/EpCAM-positive cells and were significantly more resistant to cisplatin and more sensitive to afatinib as compared to the differentiated counterpart. In addition, increased EGFR-phosphorylation in non-differentiated cultures was observed. The present findings suggest that afatinib might be beneficial for patients bearing tumors with constitutively activated EGFR, to target chemo-resistant CD133/EpCAM-positive cancer stem cells. PMID:25678473

  3. Determination of Spacecraft Attitude and Source Position Using Non-aligned Detectors in Spin-stabilized Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Srikanta

    2009-01-01

    The modulation of high-energy transients' (or steadily emitting sources') light curves due to the imperfect alignment of the detector's view axis with the spin axis in a spin-stabilized satellite is derived. It is shown how the orientation of the detector's view axis with respect to the satellite's spin axis may be estimated using observed light curves. The effects of statistical fluctuations are considered. Conversely, it is shown how the attitude of a spin-axis stabilized ...

  4. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. ?(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (P<0.001), more dietary fiber (P<0.001), fewer added sugars (P<0.001), fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.001), and less fat (P=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (P<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. PMID:23260729

  5. Cooking with Kids Positively Affects Fourth Graders' Vegetable Preferences and Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Food and Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cooking with Kids (CWK), an experiential school-based food education program, has demonstrated modest influence on fruit and vegetable preference, food and cooking attitudes (AT), and self-efficacy (SE) among fourth-grade, mostly low-income Hispanic students in a quasiexperimental study with an inconsistent baseline. Effect was notably strong for boys and those without previous cooking experience. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of CWK with a mostly non-Hispani...

  6. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondona Jesus M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common ancestor of all the Deuterostomia.

  7. Attitude and Trajectory Estimation Using Earth Magnetic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1996-01-01

    The magnetometer has long been a reliable, inexpensive sensor used in spacecraft momentum management and attitude estimation. Recent studies show an increased accuracy potential for magnetometer-only attitude estimation systems. Since the Earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computer and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors can be used to estimate both trajectory and attitude. Traditionally, satellite attitude and trajectory have been estimated with completely separate system, using different measurement data. Recently, trajectory estimation for low earth orbit satellites was successfully demonstrated in ground software using only magnetometer data. This work proposes a single augmented extended Kalman Filter to simultaneously and autonomously estimate both spacecraft trajectory and attitude with data from a magnetometer and either dynamically determined rates or gyro-measured body rates.

  8. Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carrera Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus vivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia.Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

  9. Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente / Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego, Carrera Martínez; Beatriz, Braña Marcos; Estefanía, Vegas Pardavila; Mónica de la, Villa Santoveña.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus v [...] ivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia. Abstract in english Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming [...] the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

  10. Sports Ideology, Attitudes toward Women, and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Tests the associations of sports ideology with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes in a sample of 304 college students. It was found that sports ideology is positively associated with sexist and antihomosexual attitudes but only among males. Reciprocal causal influences between sexist attitudes and sports ideology are discussed. (SLD)

  11. Attitudes towards wind power development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively with the experiences and level of exposure to the impacts of wind turbines.

  12. Attitude stability criteria of axisymmetric solar sail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosai; Gong, Shengping; Li, Junfeng

    2014-07-01

    Passive attitude stability criteria of a solar sail whose membrane surface is axisymmetric are studied in this paper under a general SRP model. This paper proves that arbitrary attitude equilibrium position can be designed through adjusting the deviation between the pressure center and the mass center of the sail. The linearized method is applied to inspect analytically the stability of the equilibrium point from two different points of views. The results show that the attitude stability depends on the membrane surface shape and area. The results of simulation with full dynamic equations confirm that the two stability criteria are effective in judging the attitude stability for axisymmetric solar sail. Several possible applications of the study are also mentioned.

  13. RURAL CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS KHADI PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs.Padmasani; Muruganandan, S.; Yazhini, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the consumers? attitude towards khadi products is reviewedthrough Fishbein?s attitude model. The influence of personal characteristics and purchasepreference factors on the attitude as well as the association between attitude andconsumer?s satisfaction are examined. This study shows that, overall, the consumers havepositive attitude towards khadi product and also that the consumers who have higherattitude get more satisfaction.

  14. Loss aversion and price volatility as determinants of attitude towards and preference for variable price in the Swedish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a survey of a random sample of 488 Swedish residents showed that a positive attitude towards and preference for a variable price agreement with the incumbent electricity supplier was negatively affected by loss aversion, and a positive attitude also negatively affected by beliefs about price volatility. Although correlated with attitude and preference, age, education, and current choice of a variable price agreement had no independent effects. Income and current electricity costs had no effects

  15. Loss aversion and price volatility as determinants of attitude towards and preference for variable price in the Swedish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a survey of a random sample of 488 Swedish residents showed that a positive attitude towards and preference for a variable price agreement with the incumbent electricity supplier was negatively affected by loss aversion, and a positive attitude also negatively affected by beliefs about price volatility. Although correlated with attitude and preference, age, education, and current choice of a variable price agreement had no independent effects. Income and current electricity costs had no effects. (author)

  16. Cooking with Kids Positively Affects Fourth Graders' Vegetable Preferences and Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Food and Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cooking with Kids (CWK), an experiential school-based food education program, has demonstrated modest influence on fruit and vegetable preference, food and cooking attitudes (AT), and self-efficacy (SE) among fourth-grade, mostly low-income Hispanic students in a quasiexperimental study with an inconsistent baseline. Effect was notably strong for boys and those without previous cooking experience. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of CWK with a mostly non-Hispanic white sample that assured no previous CWK exposure. Methods: The randomized, controlled assessment of CWK effect on fourth graders was conducted with 257 students in 12 classes in four public schools. CWK included a 1-hour introductory lesson, three 2-hour cooking classes, and three 1-hour fruit and vegetable tasting sessions led by trained food educators during the school day for one semester. Fruit preference, vegetable preference, and cooking AT and SE were assessed with a tested 35-item measure, shown to have test-retest reliability. Univariate analyses considered gender and previous cooking experience. Results: Intervention efficacy was confirmed in this mostly white sample (75%; 79% with previous cooking experience; 54% girls). Increases in vegetable preference, AT, and SE were all significantly greater in CWK students with ?p 2 of 0.03, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. CWK most strongly improved AT and SE for boys without previous cooking experience. Conclusions: CWK significantly improved fourth-grade students' vegetable preferences, AT, and SE toward food and cooking, which are factors important to healthful eating and obesity prevention. Noncookers, especially boys, benefitted from this intervention. PMID:24320723

  17. The Intergenerational Transmission of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Steven J.; CHASSIN, LAURIE; Presson, Clark; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jonathan T. Macy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking, as well as the role of these attitudes in adolescents’ smoking initiation. There was evidence of intergenerational transmission of implicit attitudes. Mothers who had more positive implicit attitudes had children with more positive implicit attitudes. In turn, these positive implicit attitudes of adolescents predicted their smoking initiation 18-months later. Moreover, these effects wer...

  18. A study ofthe attitudes of students -teacher majored in Languages and social sciences toward instructional media at S.Q.U.

    OpenAIRE

    El Hmaisat, Hamad

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the students-teacher attitude in the Languages and social sciences toword instructional media at S.Q.U. The results showed that. The students-teacher had positive attitude toward instructional media . ? There was a Significant difference between the male and female attitude toward instructional media at alpha = (0.05 ). ? The major had no effect on the attitude toward instructional media.

  19. GENERAL PRACTITIONERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS: A SURVEY OF JAIPUR CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ishwar Dayal; Gautam, Shiv; Kamal, Preet

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 40 randomly selected general practitioners was carried out to find out their attitudes towards psychiatric disorders and psychiatric patients by administering a specially designed proforma which recorded sociodemographic characteristics as well as attitudes. Majority of GPs were of the opinion that psychiatric disorders are inherited, can occur in any normal person living under stress, are treatable. They had positive attitude towards psychiatric illness but showed more social dis...

  20. Assessing medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills :which components of attitudes do we measure?

    OpenAIRE

    Anvik, Tor; Gude, Tore; Bærheim, Anders; Risberg, Terje; Fasmer, Ole B.; Hjortdahl, Per; Holen, Are; Vaglum, Per

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Communication Skills Attitudes Scale (CSAS) created by Rees, Sheard and Davies and published in 2002 has been a widely used instrument for measuring medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. Earlier studies have shown that the CSAS mainly tests two dimensions of attitudes towards communication; positive attitudes (PAS) and negative attitudes (NAS). The objectives of our study are to explore the attitudes of Norwegian medical students towards learning c...

  1. Assessing medical students’ attitudes towards learning communication skills – which components of attitudes do we measure?

    OpenAIRE

    Holen Are; Hjortdahl Per; Fasmer Ole B; Baerheim Anders; Grimstad Hilde; Gude Tore; Anvik Tor; Risberg Terje; Vaglum Per

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The Communication Skills Attitudes Scale (CSAS) created by Rees, Sheard and Davies and published in 2002 has been a widely used instrument for measuring medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. Earlier studies have shown that the CSAS mainly tests two dimensions of attitudes towards communication; positive attitudes (PAS) and negative attitudes (NAS). The objectives of our study are to explore the attitudes of Norwegian medical students towards le...

  2. Surveys Assessing Students' Attitudes toward Statistics: A Systematic Review of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Meaghan M.; Beran, Tanya; Hecker, Kent G.

    2012-01-01

    Students with positive attitudes toward statistics are likely to show strong academic performance in statistics courses. Multiple surveys measuring students' attitudes toward statistics exist; however, a comparison of the validity and reliability of interpretations based on their scores is needed. A systematic review of relevant electronic…

  3. Psychological determinants of attitude towards and willingness to pay for green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a mail survey of 855 Swedish household consumers showed that willingness to pay for green electricity increased with a positive attitude towards green electricity and decreased with electricity costs. Attitude towards green electricity was in turn related to awareness of consequences of environmental problems for oneself, others, and the biosphere, concerns for these consequences, and self-transcedent value types

  4. Young Men, Religion and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Zicklin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains attitudes towards gays and lesbians, and explores the complex relationship of religiosity, youth, masculinity and support for gay rights. Based on a large, reliable and nationally representative study (n=1405 from PEW Center carried out in 2006, we estimate three logistic regression models predicting approval for gay marriage, gay adoption and gays in the military, which helps us to observe the differences. We conclude that while religiosity and fundamentalism negatively affect support for all three issues, the relationship varies by age and gender. Generally, young men do not show differences in their views of gay marriage, but men, especially religious, young men do show more negative attitudes than their female counterparts in support for gay adoption. Finally, men show more positive attitudes towards gays in the military.

  5. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita M. Hogan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs, and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods: Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results: 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score. Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY levels. Conclusion: EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:511–517.

  6. Factors Influencing South African Attitudes toward Digital Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Kimi van der Byl; Jean-Paul Van Belle

    2008-01-01

    Digital piracy has become an important issue in today’s technology-driven world. This research looks at the factors that cause South Africans to choose digital piracy as a means of obtaining digital media. We tested a revised Digital Piracy Attitude Model incorporating individual and situational constructs using quantitative data. Constructs showing significant correlation to an individual’s attitude toward digital piracy were age, Machiavellianism, cognitive beliefs, positive affective b...

  7. NURSING STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS ALCOHOL, ALCOHOLISM AND ALCOHOLICS: A STUDY OF A BRAZILIAN SAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Various international studies have reported on negative attitudes of nurses and nursing students towards substance misusers and have found that this issue receives little attention in professional nursing education. This research examined attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics in a Brazilian nursing student sample and analyzed associations between these attitudes and participants’ socio-demographic characteristics.Methods: Study participants were 144 last-year undergraduate students from two private colleges. A scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics was used for data collection.Results: The results showed that most participants had positive attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts. In addition, gender, age and the number of hours participants spent in lectures on alcohol and other drugs during their education were associated with positive attitudes towards their work and interpersonal relationships with alcoholics. This association was stronger in females (OR = 3.42, younger participants (OR = 2.18 and students who received more lecture hours on alcohol and other drugs during their education (OR = 3.53.Conclusion: In conclusion, the authors suggest that education and preparation in coping with drug problems increase nurses’ abilities at work and support more positive attitudes towards clients with drug problems. In addition, this study demonstrated that a significant part of students had negative attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts, despite the fact that positive attitudes prevailed in their schools. These results reflect the lack of importance granted to drug issues in undergraduate nursing curricula in Brazil.

  8. Multidimensionality of EU attitudes in France: An issue for the understanding of the politicization of attitudes towards the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cautrès

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes if and how citizens' attitudes towards European Union (EU integration are correlated with their ideological and partisan positioning, using France as a case study. We challenge traditional measures of citizens' support for European integration, which are one-dimensional. We analyze the French samples of the European Election Study (EES 2009 and the European Values Study (EVS 2008 surveys and use multiple correspondence analysis to highlight the multidimensionality of French attitudes towards European integration. To avoid methodological problems typically encountered in correspondence analysis when the variables analyzed are ordinal, we have applied an original adaptation of multiple correspondence analysis proposed by French statisticians. The use of multiple correspondence analysis demonstrates the multidimensionality of attitudes of the French towards the EU. Our results show that the correlation of attitudes towards the EU with the left-right scale or partisan identification is not the same across different dimensions. The most general attitude towards the EU (first dimension has complex relationships with ideological and partisan positioning. However, concerns expressed with respect to the consequences of European integration in terms of loss of social benefits or those expressed in terms of loss of identity and national culture (second and third dimensions are clearly related to the left-right scale positioning. In the second and third dimensions identified in the EVS 2008 data, attitudes towards the EU rank the left-right positioning in the expected order. These results show that perception of EU integration by the French citizens is not simple.

  9. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China : A hierarchical value-attitude model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology. The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism and attitudes towards technology points towards the belief of Chinese people that technology is a positive determinant of food safety, and that interest in technology steams from altruistic predispositions.

  10. Resistance can be good or bad: how theories of resistance and dissonance affect attitude certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Hugenberg, Kurt; McConnell, Allen R

    2006-06-01

    This research investigated how lay theories about resisting persuasion can affect attitude certainty. Specifically, people who believed that resistance was negative (i.e., implies close-mindedness) showed different levels of attitude certainty after resisting persuasive messages than people who believed resistance was positive (i.e., implies intelligence). When people held positive lay theories of resistance and overcame ostensibly strong arguments, they showed increased attitude certainty (compared to those who overcame ostensibly weak arguments). However, individuals who believed that resistance was negative did not show increases in attitude certainty when overcoming strong arguments. Experiment 2 suggests that the effect of lay theories and perceived argument strength on attitude certainty was due to dissonance created by believing that resistance is undesirable but nonetheless resisting persuasion. PMID:16648199

  11. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms-The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identif as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.

  12. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms-The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladenburg, Jacob, E-mail: Jal@akf.d [Danish Institute of Governmental Research (AKF), Nyropsgade 37, 1602 Copenhagen V. (Denmark)

    2010-03-15

    Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.

  13. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms. The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladenburg, Jacob [Danish Institute of Governmental Research (AKF), Nyropsgade 37, 1602 Copenhagen V. (Denmark)

    2010-03-15

    Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular. (author)

  14. Combination of novel HER2-targeting antibody 1E11 with trastuzumab shows synergistic antitumor activity in HER2-positive gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bong-Kook; Lee, Sook-Yeon; Lee, Young-Ha; Hwang, In-Sik; Persson, Helena; Rockberg, Johan; Borrebaeck, Carl; Park, Dongeun; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Uhlen, Mathias; Lee, Jong-Seo

    2015-02-01

    The synergistic interaction of two antibodies targeting the same protein could be developed as an effective anti-cancer therapy. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-25% of breast and gastric cancer patients, and HER2-targeted antibody therapy using trastuzumab is effective in many of these patients. Nonetheless, improving therapeutic efficacy and patient survival is important, particularly in patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer. Here, we describe the development of 1E11, a HER2-targeted humanized monoclonal antibody showing increased efficacy in a highly synergistic manner in combination with trastuzumab in the HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines NCI-N87 and OE-19. The two antibodies bind to sub-domain IV of the receptor, but have non-overlapping epitopes, allowing them to simultaneously bind HER2. Treatment with 1E11 alone induced apoptosis in HER2-positive cancer cells, and this effect was enhanced by combination treatment with trastuzumab. Combination treatment with 1E11 and trastuzumab reduced the levels of total HER2 protein and those of aberrant HER2 signaling molecules including phosphorylated HER3 and EGFR. The synergistic antitumor activity of 1E11 in combination with trastuzumab indicates that it could be a novel potent therapeutic antibody for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing gastric cancers. PMID:25306393

  15. Social psychology and energy attitude consumer change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most issues in social Psychology is study of attitude. Attitudes are causes of human behavior. If we regard energy consumption as a behavior for changing behavior in field of energy we must to study attitude and attitude change.In social psychology attitude define as positive and negative affective state to a matter of object. In this paper try it describe approaches and theories about attitudes and attitude change such as classical conditioning operant conditioning, social learning and cognitive. We hope this paper will be useful for planners and expert that work in this field

  16. AN ANALYSIS ON IMPACT OF INTERPERSONAL SKILL ON ATTITUDE OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Thote

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available School leadership constitutes dynamic leaders who influence classroom teachers who are their immediate subordinates in school management system. The success or failure in school management mostly depends upon influence of school leadership on their subordinates .Effective communication with teachers, staff, students ,parents ,management and strong interpersonal relationship with all stakeholders are very important for school leadership has positive impact on attitude of school leadership therefore. Positive attitude is very important to perform an excellent professional development. Research in the field of impact of interpersonal skill on attitude development of the school leadership is very much limited. The total 76 senior secondary school Principals Participated in the study. In the present paper attempts made to study the relationship between interpersonal skill and attitude of teachers .Result of the analysis shows that good interpersonal skills has and positive attitude must be maintained for efficient school leadership It is essentials to have strong interpersonal relationship for school leadership.

  17. Gender differences in student attitudes toward science: A meta-analysis of the literature from 1970 to 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinburgh, Molly

    A meta-analysis covering the literature between 1970 and 1991 was conducted using an approach similar to that suggested by Glass, McGaw, and Smith (1981) and Hedges, Shymansky, and Woodworth (1989). This analysis examined gender differences in student attitudes toward science, and correlations between attitudes toward science and achievement in science. Thirty-one effect sizes and seven correlations representing the testing of 6,753 subjects were found in 18 studies. The mean of the unweighted effect sizes was .20 (SD = .50) and the mean of the weighted effect size was .16 (SD = .50), indicating that boys have more positive attitudes toward science than girls. The mean correlation between attitude and achievement was .50 for boys and .55 for girls, suggesting that the correlations are comparable. Results of the analysis of gender differences in attitude as a function of science type indicate that boys show a more positive attitude toward science than girls in all types of science. The correlation between attitude and achievement for boys and girls as a function of science type indicates that for biology and physics the correlation is positive for both, but stronger for girls than for boys. Gender differences and correlations between attitude and achievement by gender as a function of publication date show no pattern. The results for the analysis of gender differences as a function of the selectivity of the sample indicate that general level students reflect a greater positive attitude for boys, whereas the high-performance students indicate a greater positive attitude for girls. The correlation between attitude and achievement as a function of selectivity indicates that in all cases a positive attitude results in higher achievement. This is particularly true for low-performance girls. The implications of these finding are discussed and further research suggested.

  18. Gender differences in educational aspirations and attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Rampino, Tina; Taylor, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    We use data from the youth component of the British Household Panel Survey to examine gender differences in educational attitudes and aspirations among 11-15 year olds. While girls have more positive aspirations and attitudes than boys, the impacts of gender on children's attitudes and aspirations vary significantly with parental education level, parental attitudes to education, child's age and the indirect cost of education. Boys are more responsive than girls to positive parental characteri...

  19. Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus

    2013-04-01

    Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

  20. Attitudes and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding. PMID:16318599

  1. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  2. Social attitudes modulate automatic imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Leighton, J.; Bird, G; Orsini, C.; Heyes, C

    2009-01-01

    In naturalistic interpersonal settings, mimicry or "automatic imitation" generates liking, affiliation, cooperation and other positive social attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find out whether the relationship between social attitudes and mimicry is bidirectional: Do social attitudes have a direct and specific effect on mimicry? Participants were primed with pro-social, neutral or anti-social words in a scrambled sentence task. They were then tested for mimicry using a stimulus-resp...

  3. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10?11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  4. Two recombinant peptides, SpStrongylocins 1 and 2, from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, show antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Smith, L Courtney; Karp, Matti T; Stensvåg, Klara

    2010-03-01

    The cysteine-rich strongylocins were the first antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) discovered from the sea urchin species, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Homologous putative proteins (called SpStrongylocin) were found in the sister species, S. purpuratus. To demonstrate that they exhibit the same antibacterial activity as strongylocins, cDNAs encoding the 'mature' peptides (SpStrongylocins 1 and 2) were cloned into a direct expression system fusing a protease cleavage site and two purification tags to the recombinant peptide. Both recombinant fusion peptides were expressed in a soluble form in an Escherichia coli strain tolerant to toxic proteins. Enterokinase was used to remove the fusion tags and purified recombinant SpStrongylocins 1 and 2 showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The results of membrane integrity assays against cytoplasmic membranes of E. coli suggest that both recombinant SpStrongylocins 1 and 2 conduct their antibacterial activity by intracellular killing mechanisms because no increase in membrane permeability was detected. PMID:19852980

  5. Danish emergency nurses' attitudes towards self-harm - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PerbØll, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48%. Results show that the emergency nurses generally held positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. Nurses with longer ED experience held more positive attitudes, and women scored significantly higher than men on the whole scale. Only 19% of the respondents had received education on self-harm, and this education seems to produce more positive attitudes and a greater self-efficacy in relationto managing the patient group. CONCLUSION: Nurses working in the ED generally hold positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. It is suggested that education on self-harm is a worthwhile endeavor with the potential to strengthen and improve attitudes, for the benefit of both the nurses and the patients.

  6. Danish emergency nurses' attitudes towards self-harm : a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perboell, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, Nanna Maria

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48%. Results show that the emergency nurses generally held positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. Nurses with longer ED experience held more positive attitudes, and women scored significantly higher than men on the whole scale. Only 19% of the respondents had received education on self-harm, and this education seems to produce more positive attitudes and a greater self-efficacy in relation to managing the patient group. CONCLUSION: Nurses working in the ED generally hold positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. It is suggested that education on self-harm is a worthwhile endeavor with the potential to strengthen and improve attitudes, for the benefit of both the nurses and the patients.

  7. Nutrition label use mediates the positive relationship between nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating with dietary quality among university students in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Rachel; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating are predictors of nutrition label use (NLU) and dietary quality in a diverse sample of university students in the UK. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 among 500 students (mean age 24.9years; 75% females) in 37 UK universities. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, NLU and dietary quality were assessed using previously validated questionnaires. The majority of participants met dietary recommendations for fat, added sugar and fast food intake, and failed to meet recommendations for calcium, fibre, fruit and vegetable and dairy product intake, resulting in a median dietary quality score of 2.0 (score range?=?0-8). Nutrition knowledge differed according to gender, age, body mass index (BMI), nationality and NLU. Attitudes towards healthy eating differed according to BMI and NLU and dietary quality differed according to gender. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were significant predictors of NLU and dietary quality, with NLU mediating the latter relationship, whereas NLU, when controlled for knowledge and attitudes, negatively predicted dietary quality but did not have a significant independent relationship with diet. Future nutrition interventions to improve dietary quality in this sample of UK university students should focus on improving nutrition knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating. PMID:25218881

  8. Predicting Student Attitudes and Grades from Perceptions of Instructors' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Janie H.

    2006-01-01

    Psychological availability to students defines immediacy, a concept traditionally measured using ratings of instructor behaviors. However, students' perceptions of their professor's attitude toward them may serve as a more parsimonious measure of psychological availability. In fact, ratings of a professor's attitude toward students are positively

  9. Intergenerational transmission of gambling: links between young adult and perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrea M; Randall, Brandy A

    2013-09-01

    This study examined associations between the gambling attitudes and behavior of 213 young adults and their perceptions of the gambling attitudes and behavior of their closest grandparent. Regression analyses showed that young adult gambling attitudes mediated the relations between perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior and young adult gambling behavior. Grandparent-grandchild relationship quality experienced while growing up did not moderate the relations between young adult and perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior. Men experienced gambling at a younger age and reported more positive gambling attitudes, more frequent gambling activity, higher levels of gambling pathology, and higher levels of gambling affinity than women. Implications of results and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:22628170

  10. Neuroticism and attitudes toward action in 19 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Molly E; Hepler, Justin; Li, Hong; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-06-01

    Although individuals scoring high on Neuroticism tend to avoid taking action when faced with challenges, Neuroticism is also characterized by impulsivity. To explore cognitive biases related to this costly behavior pattern, we tested whether individuals who rated themselves as higher in Neuroticism would evaluate the general concepts of action and inaction as, respectively, more negative and positive. We further investigated whether anxiety and depression would mediate and individualism-collectivism would moderate these relations in a large international sample. Participants (N?=?3,827 college students; 69% female) from 19 countries completed surveys measuring Neuroticism, attitudes toward action and inaction, depression, anxiety, and individualism-collectivism. Hierarchical linear models tested the above predictions. Neuroticism negatively correlated with attitudes toward action and positively correlated with attitudes toward inaction. Furthermore, anxiety was primarily responsible for emotionally unstable individuals' less positive attitudes toward action, and individuals who endorsed more collectivistic than individualistic beliefs showed a stronger negative association between Neuroticism and attitudes toward action. Researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and remediating the negative consequences of Neuroticism should pay greater attention to attitudes toward action and inaction, particularly focusing on their links with anxiety and individualism-collectivism. PMID:24684688

  11. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

  12. Aging attitudes to home accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, John; Perry, Angela; Eiser, Richard

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-six people over the age of 65 living in Exeter and Seaton (Devon) were interviewed to determine their attitudes to prevention of home accidents. All had positive attitudes to accepting advice. The majority preferred a familiar person to give the advice.

  13. Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

  14. Taiwanese attitudes and affective reactions toward individuals and coworkers who have intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tsu-Hsuan; Huang, Ying-Ting; Liu, Yi-Hui; Ososkie, Joseph; Fried, Juliet; Bezyak, Jill

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of Taiwanese employees toward individuals and their supported coworkers with intellectual disabilities (ID). The findings indicated that the general attitudes of Taiwanese employees toward individuals with ID and their affective reactions toward their coworkers with ID were positive. These discoveries were contrary to previous beliefs that Taiwanese people tended to have societal stigma toward people and coworkers with ID. The outcomes also showed that the participants who had longer work contact with their coworkers with ID tended to have more positive attitudes toward them. Therefore, promoting supported employment trainings and opportunities for qualified people with ID was recommended. PMID:25715181

  15. Attitude determination from single camera vector observations

    OpenAIRE

    Tsourdos, A.; Zadovski, V.; Silson, P.

    2010-01-01

    Attitude determination is of major importance in Guidance and Control Systems of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (lIAV?s). Supplying wrong or imprecise attitude can very often be catastrophic for the UAV?s. Vision sensors are nowadays essential as they provide a rich source of information given as relative measurements between the vehicle navigation parameters (position, velocity and attitude) and the environment. This paper presents a framework for attitude determination from single camera ve...

  16. Students' attitudes towards science and science learning in an introductory undergraduate biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floro, Nicole

    Science education strives to cultivate individuals who understand scientific concepts as well as the nature of science and science learning. This study focused on the potential benefits of the flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning. Our study investigated changes in and effects of students' attitudes towards science and science learning in a flipped introductory biology course at the University of Massachusetts Boston. We used The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology to assess students' attitudes at pre and post-instruction. We investigated the effect of a flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning by measuring the impact of different teaching approaches (flipped vs. traditional lecture). Following the prior literature, we hypothesized that there would be a negative shift in students' attitudes over the semester in the traditional classroom and that this negative shift would not occur in the flipped. Our results showed there was no significant difference in the shift of students' attitudes between the traditional and flipped sections. We also examined the relationship between students' attitudes and academic performance. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between students' attitudes and their academic performance, as measured by exam average. In support of the prior literature, we found a significant positive correlation. Finally, we examined whether the relationship between students' attitudes and performance was mediated by learning behavior. Specifically, we considered if students with more favorable attitudes solved more on-line problems correctly and whether this aspect of problem solving was associated with greater achievement. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between attitudes and problem solving behavior as well as problem solving behavior and achievement. We did not find a significant correlation between attitudes and this aspect of problem solving behavior, however there was a correlation between problem solving behavior and achievement. Our results indicate attitudes towards science and science learning may play a role in undergraduate students' learning achievement. However, we were not able to show that those effects were mediated through problem solving behavior, nor did we show that the flipped classroom by itself was sufficient to enhance these attitudes.

  17. Recurrent Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in Treatment with Dasatinib in a Patient Showing SMAD4 Mutation with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Philadelphia Positive and Juvenile Polyposis Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Chiara; Papayannidis, Cristina; Chiara Abbenante, Maria; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Broccoli, Alessandro; Venturi, Claudia; Testoni, Nicoletta; Ferrari, Anna; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2013-06-28

    We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia. PMID:23888243

  18. Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletta Testoni; Anna Ferrari; Claudia Venturi; Alessandro Broccoli; Ilaria Iacobucci; Maria Chiara Abbenante; Chiara Sartor; Cristina Papayannidis; Giovanni Martinelli

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

  19. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  20. Unpacking attitude certainty: attitude clarity and attitude correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, John V; Tormala, Zakary L; Rucker, Derek D

    2007-01-01

    Attitude certainty has been the subject of considerable attention in the attitudes and persuasion literature. The present research identifies 2 aspects of attitude certainty and provides evidence for the distinctness of the constructs. Specifically, it is proposed that attitude certainty can be conceptualized, and empirically separated, in terms of attitude clarity (the subjective sense that one knows what one's attitude is) and attitude correctness (the subjective sense that one's attitude is correct or valid). Experiment 1 uses factor analysis and correlational data to provide evidence for viewing attitude clarity and attitude correctness as separate constructs. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that attitude clarity and attitude correctness can have distinct antecedents (repeated expression and consensus feedback, respectively). Experiment 4 reveals that these constructs each play an independent role in persuasion and resistance situations. As clarity and correctness increase, attitudes become more resistant to counterattitudinal persuasive messages. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing attitude strength literature. PMID:17201540

  1. An Examination of Democratic Attitudes of Primary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gulec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As democracy can develop better in a society of democratic people, democracy education can also get its intended goals better in a democratic school environment. As the most influential people in a school environment were teachers, this study, too, aimed to determine their levels of democratic attitudes. In the present study, 60 primary school teachers working in the schools attached to the Bursa Metropolitan Municipality were surveyed. The relationships between their attitudes and some variables were studied. These variables included school they work, age, gender, marital status, number of children they have, education level, teaching experience and number of broth-ers or sisters. The questionnaire used for this study was validated by Aydogan & Kukul (2003 based on previous studies made by Gomleksiz (1988, Yildirim (1994 and Atasoy (1997. For the validity of the questionnaire, Cronbach Alpha coefficient (0.829 was calculated. The results suggest that teachers show very positive attitude with a score of 103. When the items were examined individually, some significant relationships were found with the variables. Teachers should have positive democratic attitudes in order to give lessons of democracy to their students. An appropriate and encouraging environment should be prepared in order for students to gain desired democratic outcomes. In a democratic environment, teachers’ positive attitudes will help their students to gain critical thinking skills, effective discussion skills, capability for fighting against inequity, cooperation and collaboration skills, and showing empathy and respect for diversity.

  2. CAN LEARNING THEORETICAL APPROACHES ILLUMINATE THE WAYS IN WHICH ADVERTISING GAMES EFFECT ATTITUDE, RECALL, AND PURCHASE INTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Shin Huang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates how learning approaches (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and cognitive learning can be incorporated in the design of advergames to influence the attitudes, recall of brand, recall of product information, and purchase intention. The results show that cognitive learning results in the best recall of brand name and product information, followed by classical and then operant conditioning. The learning approaches adopted in the games have a significant effect on overall attitude, with the classical conditioning inducing the most positive attitude followed by operant conditioning and then cognitive learning. Finally, hedonic attitude is shown to be a more influential factor underlying purchase intention. Implications of the findings are addressed.

  3. The role of media and peer influences in Australian women's attitudes towards cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

    2014-09-01

    The study aimed to examine the influence of media and peers on attitudes towards cosmetic surgery using a sociocultural framework. A sample of 351 Australian women aged 18-69 years completed measures of media exposure, friend conversations, internalisation of appearance ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. Correlational analysis showed that almost all media and friend variables were significantly correlated with positive attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. A structural equation model based on the sociocultural model showed a good level of fit to the data. The effects of media exposure and friend conversations on body dissatisfaction and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery were mediated by internalisation. We concluded that media exposure and friend conversations affected attitudes towards cosmetic surgery both directly and indirectly. Our results contribute to the understanding of the sociocultural mechanisms underlying women's motivations for cosmetic surgery. PMID:25129686

  4. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth

    We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead to an ambiguous impact. Empirically, we consider immigrants’ high school attendance. On the macro-level, we confirm a signficant negative correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. On the individual level, we use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives and find no significant impact of negative attitudes.

  5. Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Testoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

  6. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention.

  7. Examining Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes towards Teaching Profession and Pupil Control Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru O?UZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of teachers towards teaching profession is as important as teaching knowledge. It is estimated that teachers who have positive attitudes towards teaching profession may show humanistic attitudes and behaviors to students. Therefore, this study examines correlation between attitudes towards teaching profession and pupil control ideology of teacher candidates. The participants of the study comprise 281 teacher candidates at Ondokuz May?s University’s Faculty of Education. In this study, two instruments were used for data gathering. “Teaching Profession Attitude Scale” was used to evaluate the attitudes towards teaching profession of the teacher candidates. “Pupil Control Ideology Inventory” was used for determining the level of pupil control ideology of teacher candidates on a humanistic-custodial dimension. The results of Pearson moment correlation analysis indicated that the pupil control ideology was negatively correlated with the attitude towards teaching profession of teacher candidates. According to simple regression analysis, the attitude towards teaching profession is a significant predictor for pupil control ideology on teacher candidates T-test analysis indicated that there was no significant difference according to gender in terms of pupil control ideology and the attitude towards teaching profession of teacher candidates.

  8. Effects of knowledge and persuasion on high-school students' attitudes toward nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.

    Researchers report finding correlational data to identify a positive relationship between nuclear knowledge and positive attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy. This study investigated the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. This quasi-experimental study tested the causal relationship between knowledge about nuclear power plants and attitudes toward their use in electrical generation. Subjects were presented with systematically designed communications developed to change either their knowledge about or attitude toward nuclear plants. The Standard Events of Instruction was the basis of the knowledge instruction, whereas the Learning Theory Approach and the Theory of Reasoned Action were the theoretical bases of the persuasive communication. The principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, this study shows no evidence of a cause-effect relationship.Received: 4 May 1994; Revised: 14 July 1994;

  9. THE EFFECTS OF ANIMATED AGENTS ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen UNAL-COLAK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Animated agents are electronic agents that interact with learners through voice, visuals or text and that carry human-like characteristics such as gestures and facial expressions with the purpose of creating a social learning environment, and provide information and guidance and when required feedback and motivation to students during their learning experience. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the use of pedagogical agents in learning materials designed in multimedia on the achievement and attitudes of students. A general evaluation of the research findings indicate that the use of multimedia software developed by using pedagogical agents positively affects student achievement and attitude. The achievement of the students who worked with the software significantly increased, but no significant difference in terms of different pedagogical agents was observed. The comparison of the student’s attitudes revealed no significant difference in terms of different pedagogical agents, yet the attitudes regarding “bearing human features” showed positively significant difference for the software with body shot of a real person. As it is seen in the unstructured interviews with the participants conducted during and after the experimental process, it should be stated that the students had positive attitudes towards the software and the use of pedagogical agent and expressed their liking.

  10. Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs

  11. A patient with acquired pure red cell aplasia showing a positive antiglobulin test and the presence of inhibitor against erythroid precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoshi, Yasushi; Imagawa, Shigehiko; Higuchi, Masato; Yoshida, Chikashi; Shimizu, Seiichi; Mukai, Harumi Y; Komeno, Takuya; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Ninomiya, Haruhiko; Kojima, Hiroshi; Nagasawa, Toshiro

    2002-07-01

    A 66-year-old Japanese man developed severe anemia and erythroid hypoplasia in bone marrow without any significant underlying disease. The results of an antiglobulin test were strongly positive, and serum erythropoietin (Epo) was high. The patient was diagnosed as having acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and was treated with steroids. Anemia was subsided by reticulocyte production in parallel with a decrease in the titer of antiglobulin test and the level of Epo. We studied the immunological mechanism directed against erythroid cells in vitro by using the patient's serum. In vitro analysis indicated the presence of an inhibitor of erythroid precursors at onset, and its disappearance at remission, suggesting the presence of inhibitor against erythroid precursors. PMID:12132531

  12. Computer experience and computer attitude: a model to predict the use of computerised information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaie, F; Jayasuriya, R; Rawstorne, P

    1998-01-01

    Computers are now essential technology in use by health workers. The literature shows that a number of factors effect the use of computers and many of them are related to attitude towards automation. Computer experience has been mostly used as a factor that effects computer attitude and its relationship with computer anxiety and computer use is not simple. Survey data from a study of 302 health workers, employed in a community setting was used to model the prediction of intention to use computers. The final model shows that 'positive computer experience' had a significant effect on computer attitude, computer anxiety and intention to use computers (both directly and indirectly). The model also confirms that those with a positive attitude towards computers had stronger intention to use computers. The value of these findings to health organisations in implementing automated systems is discussed. PMID:10384588

  13. Some correlates of individuals' attitudes toward lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between individuals' attitudes toward lesbians and other attitudes and personal characteristics was investigated. A total of 564 participants completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians (ATL) scale (Herek, 1988) along with items assessing interactions with lesbians. Additionally, smaller portions of the sample received some combination of other questionnaires. Most predictions were supported: attitudes were generally not related to respondent sex and gender role self-concept, and positive attitudes were associated with having positive contact with lesbians, lesbian friends, and contemporary attitudes toward women. Predictions involving the relationship between attitudes and social desirability, sexual permissiveness, and love style received mixed support. The two-fold purpose of the investigation, to provide information about correlates and to replicate past trends, was accomplished. PMID:7594410

  14. Attitudes without Objects: Evidence for a Dispositional Attitude, its Measurement, and its Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive versus negative attitudes, a trait termed the Dispositional Attitude. Across four studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and...

  15. Caribbean Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, Ella S.; Tan, P. Philip

    2002-01-01

    A survey indicated that Caribbean college students (n=201) had largely neutral attitudes toward older adults. Those who had close relationships with elders had more positive attitudes. Social work students were more positive than sociology, psychology, or English majors. Ethnicity was not a factor. (SK)

  16. Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Inês Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

  17. Deterministic and Recursive Approach in Attitude Determination for InnoSAT

    OpenAIRE

    Harijono Djojodihardjo; Md Azlin Md Said; Othman Sidek,; Fadly, M.; Adam Ain

    2011-01-01

    Attitude determination system (ADS) was indispensable in attitude control of satellite. Especially for InnoSAT due to the limitation of budget, weight, and power, the attitude was determined using onboard position sensors. Previous research has successfully implemented the attitude determination using only Earth's magnetic field sensors for small attitude angle, but the approach produced quite big error for large attitude angle. This paper presents attitude determination for InnoSAT using com...

  18. The impact of a gerontology course and a service-learning program on college students' attitudes toward people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kinney, Jennifer M; Lokon, Elizabeth J

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of a gerontology course and an intergenerational service-learning project for people with dementia (PWD) on three dimensions of students' attitudes including attitudes toward older people, community service for older people, and working with PWD. Data consisted of a combination of pretest/posttest survey and review of journals that students maintained during the service-learning project. Results indicated that students who completed the gerontology course, and those who completed both the course and the service-learning project, reported significantly more positive attitudes toward older adults, whereas students in the course only had significantly less positive attitudes about working with PWD, and those in the other courses (sociology) showed no change in their attitudes. Students' journals are replete with reports of the satisfaction they derived from their experiences. The findings highlight opportunities and challenges that should be considered in future intergenerational service-learning programs and gerontological education. PMID:25474214

  19. Social attitudes differentially modulate imitation in adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, J; Bird, G

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a bidirectional relationship between social attitudes and imitation in adults: pro-social attitudes promote imitation, and imitation further increases positive social attitudes. Social attitudes and the social brain are developing throughout the adolescent years. Thus, the aim of this study was to test whether pro-social attitudes promote imitation in an Adolescent Group to the same extent as in an Adult Group. Participants were primed with pro-social or non...

  20. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r?=?0.701, p?behaviour (Pearson's r?=?0.593, p?attitudes (Pearson's r?=?0.413, p?

  1. The effects of dysphoria and personality on negative self-referent attitudes and perceptions of the attitudes of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Prentice, Jennifer L; Swan, Jennifer L; Dobson, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    The cognitive model of depression posits that depressed individuals harbor more dysfunctional self-referent attitudes, but little is known about how depressed individuals perceive the attitudes and perceptions of others in their social arena. This study examined whether dysphoric individuals perceive others to hold equally negative attitudes about themselves, and whether such perceptions depend on sociotropic (i.e., highly invested in social approval and relationship success) and autonomous (i.e., highly invested in vocational or academic achievement and goal attainment) personality styles. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 197) was recruited, and after the assessment of their depression symptoms and personality style, participants read vignettes that described negative scenarios, and imagined that these scenarios occurred to themselves or the general university student. After reading each vignette, participants also rated their agreement with a number of statements that assessed dysfunctional attitudes. Results indicated that elevated dysphoria (i.e., showing signs of depression) scores were positively associated with dysfunctional self-referent attitudes. Further, moderational analyses examining the interaction of sociotropy and dysphoria did not support the hypothesis that individuals higher on dysphoria and sociotropy were less likely to perceive others as harboring negative attitudes about themselves in comparison to those with elevated dysphoria and lower levels of sociotropy. Last, individuals showing elevated dysphoria and higher scores on subdomains of autonomy were more likely to perceive others as exhibiting negative attitudes about themselves than those with low levels of the trait. These findings, their implications, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are further discussed. PMID:25975576

  2. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p < .01). However, the direction of the effect contradicted Adlerian theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  3. Managerial attitude toward quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will present what relationships exist between the attitude toward quality assurance and the variables of training and experience on the part of managers within the nuclear power industry. Managerial attitude toward quality assurance was measured via questionnaires submitted to managers within architect-engineering, nuclear steam supplier, and constructor firms throughout the United States. The data from the completed questionnaires were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and conclusions were drawn. Additional study results related to major factors for positive and negative attitudes toward quality assurance will be presented

  4. Attitudes of Turkish Veterinary Educators to Problem-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Mentes Gurler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the attitude of veterinary educators to problem-based learning and to examine influential parameters. In this study, veterinary educators from the Ankara, Uludag, Selcuk, Harran and Ondokuz Mayis Veterinary Schools were surveyed. Data were collected from 254 educators by a paper questionnaire. The participants showed intermediate level positive attitude to problem-based learning. In conclusion, it can be said that veterinary educators in Turkey are sensitive to problem-based learning at an intermediate level and that differences in influential factors do not affect the level of sensitivity significantly (p<0.05.

  5. Factors Influencing South African Attitudes toward Digital Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimi van der Byl

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital piracy has become an important issue in today’s technology-driven world. This research looks at the factors that cause South Africans to choose digital piracy as a means of obtaining digital media. We tested a revised Digital Piracy Attitude Model incorporating individual and situational constructs using quantitative data. Constructs showing significant correlation to an individual’s attitude toward digital piracy were age, Machiavellianism, cognitive beliefs, positive affective beliefs and perceived importance. Interestingly, no gender influence was found. The paper concludes with practical suggestions for South African educational, government and business institutions to reduce digital piracy based on our findings.

  6. Attitude change toward food irradiation among conventional and alternative consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A US survey assessed the extent of attitude change toward food irradiation when consumers were given the opportunity to read about and discuss food irradiation. Consumers showed a higher level of concern for preservatives and chemical sprays than for the use of food irradiation for ensuring food safety. The study further revealed that consumer attitudes toward food irradiation can be positively influenced by an educational effort, and that this influence is most effective when the consumer can interact with someone knowledgeable about food irradiation. Willingness to buy irradiated foods was based on the safety of the process rather than on the advantages of any specific food product

  7. Fulltime employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordi? Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore the employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia in order to contribute to the efforts for positive changes in the Serbian economy. Qualitative survey of attitudes was realized through the use of focus groups. Participants were fulltime employees from five developed and underdeveloped locations in Serbia. The results showed that the main obstacle to improving the working culture of employees is massive failure of the labour inspections and unfavorable political environment. Until the state does not ensure effective implementation of ratified ILO Conventions and labour related adopted legislative, there are no conditions for developing quality working culture and economic progress in Serbia.

  8. Nonlinear Robust Control for Spacecraft Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lina; Li Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear robust control of the spacecraft attitude with the existence of external disturbances is considered. A robust attitude controller is designed based on the passivity approach the quaternion representation, which introduces the suppression vector of external disturbance into the control law and does not need angular velocity measurement. Stability conditions of the robust attitude controller are given. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the attitude control...

  9. Nonlinear Robust Control for Spacecraft Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear robust control of the spacecraft attitude with the existence of external disturbances is considered. A robust attitude controller is designed based on the passivity approach the quaternion representation, which introduces the suppression vector of external disturbance into the control law and does not need angular velocity measurement. Stability conditions of the robust attitude controller are given. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the attitude controller.

  10. Metacognition, study habits and attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    O?zsoy, Gokhan; Memi?s?, Aysel; Temur, Turan

    2009-01-01

    This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between fifth grade students’ metacognition levels, and their study habits and attitudes. Participants of the study consist of 221 students, 125 female and 96 male, enrolling to six public primary schools in Turkey. The results revealed that there is a medium positive relationship between metacognitive knowledge and skills and study habits (r = .351, p < .05), study attitudes (r = .415, p < .05) and study orientation (r = .434, p < .05...

  11. Analysis of Consumer Attitude Using Fishbein Multi-Attributes Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ramdhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of today's economy growing rapidly, accompanied by increasingly sophisticated technological advances that led to the emergence of competition among firms.Increasing number of motorcycle brand in circulation led to a very tight competition in the motorcycle market, particularly in the type of motorcycle. This makes the consumer faced with various choices of brands, so the motorcycle manufacturers need to know the tastes and desires of consumers to create and sell a motorcycle can be favored by consumers. The purpose of this study were to determine what attributes are considered important by consumers to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, and to assess consumer attitudes toward product attributes motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, The model used is multi-attribute attitude model of Fishbein Attitude Toward To Object Model and the Theory Of Reasoned Action. The results of this study indicate that (1 that are considered important attributes are attached to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki is the attribute Price has the highest positive score compared * with a score of other attributes for each of the Honda brand motorcycle , Yamaha, and Suzuki. (2 consumer attitudes showed a positive attitude in which the score for the Honda is +60.03, +56.14 Yamaha, and Suzuki is +55.00. (3 the dominant factor influencing purchasing decisions motorcycle products for the Honda brand is a member of the family, while for the brand Yamaha, and Suzuki are the others

  12. A study on knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among medical students in Puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowsalya, V; Vijayakumar, R; Chidambaram, R; Srikumar, R; Reddy, E Prabhakar; Latha, S; Fathima, I Gayathri; Kumar, C Kishor

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%). About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77%) showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%). In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%), in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student's showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis. PMID:24498809

  13. A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Voluntary Blood Donation among Medical Students in Puducherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Latha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%. About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77% showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%. In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%, in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student’s showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis.

  14. Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Kunz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN. Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001 and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004, has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.

  15. F-SAT attitude stabilization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, James S.; Rodden, Jack J.; Bone, Jeffery W.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the design of a stabilization system for control of a spacecraft designed to be launched on a medium-sized launch vehicle. The system is required to provide accurate attitude control and determination for a nominally nadir-pointed spacecraft with moderate attitude maneuver capability. The spacecraft uses reaction wheels as the primary actuators and an effective magnetic momentum desaturation system. Attitude determination is based on stellar position measurements and gyroscope bias estimations to maintain attitude knowledge. A significant design problem involves the stabilization of maneuverable flexible solar arrays with low natural frequency. The attitude determination and control system is composed of sensors, actuators and an integrated electronics unit. A propulsion system allows for incremental velocity adjust capability and actuation during back-up attitude control. This paper provides a description of the attitude determination and control system configuration and functional operation. In addition the component characteristics are presented.

  16. Landowner attitudes toward natural gas and wind farm development in northern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US has undergone a recent boom in the development of onshore wind farm and natural gas energy projects and contentious debates over the construction of these projects are common in communities across the US. A survey of landowners in a region of Northern Pennsylvania (N=1028) undergoing simultaneous development of both wind and natural gas development shows that landowners are generally much more polarized and negative towards gas development than wind farm development, and that attitudes toward natural gas development is highly dependent on environmental attitudes and industry leasing, development, or employment experience. Landowner proximity to the development explains a small amount of the variation in attitudes towards wind energy. Recommendations for energy policy and future research are discussed. - Highlight: ? A Pennsylvania survey reveals attitudes toward natural gas and wind development. ? Gas drilling attitudes became more negative; wind farm attitudes more positive. ? Environmental concern and industry experience influence attitudes toward energy. ? Proximity to wind is weakly related to attitudes; proximity to gas is not related.

  17. Values of Catholic science educators: Their impact on attitudes of science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMizio, Joanne Greenwald

    This quantitative study examined the associations between the values held by middle school science teachers in Catholic schools and their attitudes towards science teaching. A total of six value types were studied---theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. Teachers can have negative, positive, or neutral attitudes towards their teaching that are linked to their teaching practices and student learning. These teachers' attitudes may affect their competence and have a subsequent impact on their students' attitudes and dispositions towards science. Of particular interest was the relationship between science teaching attitudes and religious values. A non-experimental research design was used to obtain responses from 54 teachers with two survey instruments, the Science Teaching Attitude Scale II and the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that political values were negatively associated with attitudes towards science teaching. Data collected were inconsistent with the existence of any measurable association between religious values and attitudes towards science teaching. This study implies that science teacher preparation programs should adopt a more contextual perspective on science that seeks to develop the valuation of science within a cultural context, as well as programs that enable teachers to identify the influence of their beliefs on instructional actions to optimize the impact of learning new teaching practices that may enhance student learning.

  18. Do medical students like communication? Validation of the German CSAS (Communication Skills Attitude Scale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Anne-Kathrin; Rockenbauch, Katrin; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Attitudes towards communication skills of medical undergraduates can be gathered using the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). We aimed to develop a German version of the CSAS (CSAS-G) in order to explore attitudes towards communication skills in a German cohort. Additionally the potential influence of demographic factors was examined. Methods: We realized the CSAS-G and conducted a survey with 529 participants from 3 different years of study. We then carried out an explorative as well as confirmatory factor analysis and compared the attitudinal scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed. Results: The confirmatory analysis confirmed the two-subscale system revealed by the explorative factor analysis. Students indicate low levels of negative attitudes and moderate levels of positive attitudes. Attitudinal scores differ significantly in relation to gender. Conclusion: The CSAS-G can be used in German cohorts to evaluate attitudes towards communication skills. Medical students in our study show basically a positive approach. Further investigation is necessary to explore and understand attitudes towards communication skills of German medical students. PMID:25699103

  19. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

  20. Examining Life Satisfaction Levels of High School Student in term of Parental Attitude and Some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedef Ünsal Seydoo?ullar?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the correlation between life satisfaction levels of high school students with parental attitude. Life satisfaction levels of high school students was also investigated in terms of perceived academic achievement, perceived economic status, grade level, grown place, age, gender and parents’ education level. The participants of study consist of 245 students, 107 girls, 138 boys, between ages 15 and 19. The data were collected through the Satisfaction with Life Scale developed by Diener, Emmons, Laresen ve Griffin (1985 and adopted in Turkish by Köker (1991; Parentel Attitude Scale developed by Kuzgun and Eldeleklio?lu (1996 and Personal Information Form developed by researcher. Correlation analysis, regression analysis and t- test were used to analyze data. Results show that there were positive medium level correlation between democratic mother attitude and democratic father attitude with life satisfaction. There were also negative level correlation authoritarian and protective mother and father attitude and grade level with level of life satisfaction. In the direction of these relational findings; in regression analysis used method of enter mothers’ democratic attitude determined that perceived high academic achievement and perceived high socio-economic status are positively predictive whereas mother’s authoritarian attitude and grade level are negatively predictive of life satisfaction (F(1, 245= 12.002, p.05.© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

  1. Adolescents’ Attitudes toward Ecstasy Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Seyedfatemi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Using illicit drugs such as Ecstasy is a deviant behavior in adolescents. Attitude toward using illicit drugs can predict its usage. This study was carried out in order to determine the adolescents' attitude toward using Ecstasy in 2006. Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, eight hundred adolescents aged 16-18 years who lived in the west of Tehran recruited from public regions of municipality. Data was gathered using authors-structured questionnaire. After filling in informed consents, the questionnaires were completed by the respondents. Results: Findings revealed that 78.9 % of the adolescents had negative attitudes and 17.5% had positive attitudes toward using Ecstasy. Boys and girls attitudes were not significantly different. Conclusion: Regarding relatively high negative attitudes among the adolescents toward Ecstasy using, it seems that investments in health promoting programs were appropriate. Nevertheless, along with these programs, parents and teachers should pay more attention to the issue.   Key words: adolescent, attitude, drug abuse, Ecstasy

  2. Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brimble1

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

  3. SDRE Based Attitude Control Using Modified Rodriguez Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Doruk, R Ozgur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an application of the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) method to satellite attitude control where the satellite kinematics is modeled by Modified Rodriguez Parameters (MRP). The SDRE methodology is applicable on special forms of nonlinear systems where satellite model is one of the candidates. It is not easy to find an analytical solution from the SDRE. Thus point wise solutions are interpolated with respect to the operating conditions. The point wise solutions are obtained from the MATLAB algorithms which are derived from the positive definite solutions of the SDRE. The global stability analysis is difficult due to the nature of the methodology. The resultant attitude controllers outside the breakpoints (the selected operating conditions for interpolation) are suboptimal. The performance of the designs is examined by simulations on MATLAB - Simulink environment. The simulation results show that, the designed attitude controllers are working satisfactorily even i...

  4. Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: revisiting the relationship in nonexperimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil M

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether nonexperimental studies revealed an association between men's pornography consumption and their attitudes supporting violence against women. The meta-analysis corrected problems with a previously published meta-analysis and added more recent findings. In contrast to the earlier meta-analysis, the current results showed an overall significant positive association between pornography use and attitudes supporting violence against women in nonexperimental studies. In addition, such attitudes were found to correlate significantly higher with the use of sexually violent pornography than with the use of nonviolent pornography, although the latter relationship was also found to be significant. The study resolves what appeared to be a troubling discordance in the literature on pornography and aggressive attitudes by showing that the conclusions from nonexperimental studies in the area are in fact fully consistent with those of their counterpart experimental studies. This finding has important implications for the overall literature on pornography and aggression.

  5. Analysis of Consumer Attitudes to Purchase Intentions of Counterfeiting Bag Product in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fashion handbags are products that occupy the third position of the 11 types of products most often hijacked. According to the United States Customs and Border Protection and European Commission, Indonesia is a country that ranked the 8th largest country after Hong Kong with the highest levels of product piracy in Asia in 2006. This study investigate the effect of product cues factors, including extrinsic cues and intrinsic cues, Attitudes towards counterfeits, religiosity, lawfulness attitudes, status of consumption on purchase intentions. This study aims to explain the process of forming an intention to buy pirated bag products that rest on the primary relationship of independent variables like attitudes towards counterfeit, lawfulness attitudes and consumption status of the intention to buy pirated products as well as test patterns bag relationship between variables. The data was collected by using a questionnaire enclosed with the statement that based on the Likert scale. The respondents were all employed women who are in the area of Yogyakarta with 200 respondents. These results show that intrinsic factors had positive influence on consumer attitudes towards pirated handbags addition, a more positive attitude of consumers towards pirated bags will further strengthen the purchasing intentions and conversely the higher the status of a consumer's consumption will only further weaken the intention of purchasing the product bag pirated.

  6. Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, JØrgen

    2001-01-01

    In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term of the lambda calculus possibly containing lexical and/or logical constants. Such combinators seem promising from both a cognitive and computational point of view. There is approximately one lexical combinator for each word, but just eleven logical combinators for the present fragment. The partiality is only used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive polarity; only the first truth value is designated, i.e. yields the logical truths).

  7. Promising Practices for Improving Reading Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas N.; Alexander, J. Estill

    The research on the effect of attitudes on reading is reviewed in this paper to support the position that the affective part of learning is as important to learning to read well as are the cognitive skills. Suggestions for improving reading attitudes are given. Activities are suggested for five forms of creative reading: (1) model imitations, in…

  8. Development and validation of the attitudes about sadomasochism scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Megan R

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a new measure, the Attitudes about Sadomasochism Scale (ASMS). Exploratory factor analysis with 213 participants yielded four subscales (Socially Wrong, Violence, Lack of Tolerance, and Real Life). Confirmatory factor analysis with a different sample (n = 258) indicated that this four-factor model fit the data well. Validation analyses using all 471 participants showed that the ASMS positively correlated with other measures of social and sexual conservatism (right-wing authoritarianism, attitudes about lesbians and gay men, sexual conservatism, rape myth acceptance). However, a multiple regression analysis showed that the majority of the variance in the ASMS was not explained by the four measures of conservatism, indicating that the ASMS measures a unique attitudinal construct. Further validation analyses revealed that participants who had prior knowledge about sadomasochism (SM), participants who have engaged in SM, and participants who knew a friend involved in SM all endorsed more positive attitudes on the ASMS. Thus, this study presents a reliable and valid measure of stereotypical and prejudicial attitudes about individuals involved in these nontraditional sexual practices. PMID:19499457

  9. Factors that influence dental students' attitudes about older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochajski, Thomas H; Waldrop, Deborah P; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J

    2009-01-01

    Our study considered dental students' general attitudes towards older persons using the Aging Semantic Differential. The influence of age, gender, cohort, education, and academic exposure on general attitudes towards older adults was evaluated using a total of 328 dental students across all four years of academic standing. Students were assessed in the fall and spring semesters. The results showed differential responding on the four subscales, with slight positive ratings on the autonomy, acceptability, and integrity subscales and a slight negative rating for instrumentality. Females expressed more negative attitudes than their male counterparts, with no age differences. There was also no significant impact from a specific, didactic educational component offered to the fourth-year students. However, the fourth-year students were the only group to show positive changes across the full academic year. The results suggest that general attitudes can be changed, but didactic (classroom) forms of education alone are insufficient to meaningfully modify students' perceptions of the elderly. Exposure to older adults in a clinical setting appears to be a critical element, as the fourth-year students received much greater exposure to older patients and more intensified interface with their mentors. PMID:19126770

  10. Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes; Attityd till slutfoervar av anvaent kaernbraensle. Struktur och orsaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart (Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research)

    2008-09-15

    This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

  11. The Effects Of Grade Level, Gender, And Ethnicity On Attitude And Learning Environment In Mathematics In High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thienhuong N. Hoang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate different factors (grade level, gender, and ethnicity that might affect the attitudes and learning environment perceptions of high school mathematics students in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The study involved the administration of the administration of the What Is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC questionnaire and an attitude questionnaire based on the Test of Mathematics-Related Attitude (TOMRA to 600 Grades 9 and 10 mathematics students in 30 classes in one high school. Quantitative research method was used in collecting information from the sample. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results showed that male consistently reported slightly more positive perceptions of classroom environment and attitudes than did females. Anglo students’ scores consistently are a little higher than Hispanic students’ scores. There is strong evidence of associations between students’ attitudes and the learning environment.

  12. Attitudes without objects: evidence for a dispositional attitude, its measurement, and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-06-01

    We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PMID:23586409

  13. Attitudes toward the Effectiveness of Communicative and Educational Language Games and Fun Activities in Teaching and Learning English

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Sobhani; Mohammad Sadegh Bagheri

    2014-01-01

    This research intended to investigate the attitudes of learners and teachers about the effectiveness of using games and fun activities regarding learning English. To do so, a modified questionnaire with 25 items was conducted. The participants were 40 students and 40 teachers from one of Shiraz language institutes. The results showed that both learners’ and teachers’ attitudes were positive toward language games and they considered games as learning lubricants. Also, games and fun...

  14. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  15. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermoere, Frederic, E-mail: Frederic_Vandermoere@hks.harvard.ed [Program on Science, Technology and Society, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Blanchemanche, Sandrine [INRA Paris, Metarisk Department (France); Bieberstein, Andrea [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany); Marette, Stephan [INRA, UMR Economie publique (France); Roosen, Jutta [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer BWL - Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  16. Individual and Community Perspectives, Attitudes, and Practices to Mother-to-Child-Transmission and Infant Feeding among HIV-Positive Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Suuk Laar, MPH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: International guidelines on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers promote Exclusive Replacement Feeding (ERF (infant formula or animal milk or exclusive breastfeeding (with no supplements of any kind. A mixed feeding pattern, where breastfeeding is combined with other milks, liquid foods or solids, has been shown to increase the risk of transmission of HIV and is strongly discouraged. However, little is known about the ability of women to adhere to recommended feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV from breast milk. The objective of this study was to assess the individual and community-level factors that affect perspectives, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive mothers on MTCT and infant feeding in sub-Saharan Africa as documented in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Methods: This work is based on an extensive review of peer-reviewed articles and grey literature from the period 2000-2012. The literature search was carried out using electronic databases like, Medline Ovid, Google scholar, Pubmed and EBSCOhost. Both quantitative and qualitative studies written in English language on HIV and infant feeding with particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa were included. Results: The review found low adherence to the chosen infant feeding method by HIV-positive mothers. The following factors emerged as influencing infant feeding decisions: cultural and social norms; economic conditions; inadequate counselling; and mother’s level of education. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Unless local beliefs and customs surrounding infant feeding is understood by policy makers and program implementers, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT programs will only be partially successful in influencing feeding practices of HIV-positive women. Hence programs should provide affordable, acceptable, feasible, safe and sustainable feeding recommendations that do not erode strong cultural practices. Advice to HIV-positive mothers should be based on local conditions that are acceptable to the community.

  17. Study of the effects of informational and persuasive messages on the attitudes of high school students toward the use of nuclear energy for electrical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation assessed the relationship between knowledge about and attitudes toward nuclear energy. The study's purpose was accomplished by attempting to manipulate knowledge about and attitude toward nuclear energy independently. Over two thousand high school students participated in the study. A Non-Equivalent Control Group quasi-experimental design was used involving random assignment by intact groups to treatments. A knowledge treatment was designed to increase student knowledge without affecting attitudes. An attitude treatment was designed to change attitudes without changing knowledge, and a control treatment was employed for comparison to the experimental treatments. Each treatment consisted of a videotape with a viewing guide and a homework assignment. The Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery was used as a pretest, post-test, and retention test. Males scored significantly higher in knowledge and positive attitudes, but no interaction between gender and treatment was found. The study concluded that (1) there is a correlation between nuclear knowledge and attitudes, (2) knowledge about nuclear energy can be changed without affecting attitude and attitude can be changed without affecting knowledge, and (3) students show differences and attitude based on gender

  18. ATTITUDES TOWARD ONLINE COMMUNICATIONS IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem ERDEM AYDIN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intended to reveal the results of a survey study in which the students’ attitudes toward online communication in open and distance learning were investigated. In the study, affects of the students’ gender and computer experience on their attitudes were also examined. A total of 626 subjects participated in the study and ‘Online Communication Attitude Scale’, developed by Ledbetter, was adapted as the data collection instrument. Mean, standard deviation, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests were used to analyze the data gathered. The results of the study indicated that students have in general positive attitudes toward online communication in ODL. Also, it showed that there is a significant difference in ‘miscommunication’, ‘social connection’ and ‘ease’ dimensions of online communication between the males and the female students. The female students see online environments as open to communication errors. On the other hand, the study supported the literature about the affect of the students’ computer experience and their attitudes toward online communication in ODL.

  19. Evaluation of relationship between metacognition components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metacognitive components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II. Methods: Thirty-six young adult outpatients with current diagnoses of BMD II(20 females and 16 males were recruited from Esfahan Counseling Center. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder-Clinical Version(SCID-CV. A battery of questionnaires including Metacognition Questionnaire and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale(DAS were self-assessed by patients before medical therapy. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the components of metacognition and its relationship with dysfunctional attitudes is positive and significant(r= 28/0, p<0/05. Multiple regression analysis showed that two of the metacognitive components emerged as potentially useful in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes(negative beliefs about uncontrollability, danger and thoughts control. Also, results indicated that those two components have a significant positive relationship with vulnerability, perfectionism and effectivenessR²= 0/29, 0/35; p<0/05. Components of positive beliefs about worry and beliefs about cognitive self-consciousness related to cognitive confidence in predicting the criterion variable and its components showed no significant contribution. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that DSM-IV BMD II outpatients with metacognitive distortions have shown higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes.

  20. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  1. Help-Seeking Attitudes and Perceptions of Counselor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Fischer-Turner Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help inventory was evaluated. Subjects reporting prior professional assistance for psychological problems espoused more favorable attitudes than individuals without such professional contact. Help-seeking attitudes were found to represent a significant positive influence on the…

  2. Attitudes towards telework for continuity planning in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, Bourna; Hitoshi, Mitomo

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the suitability of telework for business continuity planning (BCP) in Japan by looking at how views on telework are shaped by demographic characteristics, organizational culture, and individuals' use of technology. The study surveyed regular employees with experience of the 2011 T¯ohoku earthquake (n=39) and their responses were analyzed using cross-tabulation analysis. The results showed generally positive attitudes towards telework, overwhelmingly so with respect to BCP-...

  3. Sharing or gambling? On risk attitudes in social contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Krawczyk, Michal; Le Lec, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates experimentally whether risk attitudes are stable across social contexts. In particular, it focuses on situations where some resource (for instance, a position, decision power, a bonus) has to be allocated between two parties: the decision maker can either opt for sharing the resource or for using a random device that allocates the entire prize to one of the two parties. By varying the relative situation of the decision maker with respect to the other party, we show tha...

  4. Danish University lecturers’ attitudes towards English as the medium of instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jensen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of English in research and higher education has been the subject of heated debate in Denmark and other European countries over the last years. This paper sets out the various positions in the national debate in Denmark, and then examines the attitudes towards these positions among the teaching staff at the country’s largest university. Four topics are extracted from the debate – one which expresses a positive attitude towards English and three independent but interrelated topics which express more negative attitudes. The responses from the university lecturers show that a majority agree with all positions, negative as well as positive. This finding indicates that the attitude may not form a simple one-dimensional dichotomy. The responses are broken down according to lecturer age and the proportion of teaching the lecturer conducts in English. The results show that younger lecturers and lecturers with a higher teaching load in English are more positive towards the increase in English medium instruction.

  5. [Attitude of hemophilic adult individuals towards their disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruyo-Vizcaíno, Cecilia; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Carrizo, Edgardo; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Sarmiento, Sandra; Vizcaíno-Carruyo, Jennifer

    2004-09-01

    The mental health of hemophilic individuals and their families play an important role on the integral treatment of the disease. The knowledge of the beliefs and attitudes perceived by the patients toward their disease will make possible a positive influence in their clinical improvement, their response to the treatment, as well as their quality of life. On the basis of the Azjen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action, a questionnaire was applied to 43 adult hemophilics to determine the salient beliefs about their disease. These beliefs permitted to elaborate a main structured questionnaire named Attitude Model in Patients with Hemophilia (Modelo de Actitud en Pacientes con Hemofilia, MAPACHE, in spanish), which was administered to the individuals and thus, the attitude toward their disease was obtained. Seventy two percent (72%) gave a major importance to the clinical aspects of the disease (hemorrhage, joint discomfort and trauma), 40% knew the general concepts of hemophilia (heredity, care and seriousness of the disease), 20% mentioned the implications of the psychosocial factors and only 18% had knowledge concerning the coagulation factors deficiency and the appropriate treatment. The MAPACHE showed a slightly positive score attitude (4.44 +/- 1.12 SEM) towards the disease in the majority of the groups (74.5%); with 26% of the hemophilics with a negative attitude. There were no significant differences between attitude and clinical parameters. It is recommended that a multidisciplinary team of caregivers should focus their efforts toward education and preventive measures in order to avoid the complications and consequences of the disease, to make possible a better quality of life in individuals with hemophilia. PMID:15469070

  6. Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichaelJ.Tarr

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or “IAT” revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or “ALPS” and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

  7. ATTITUDES OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS THE GREEN PLASTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Elnecave Kruter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The demands regarding sustainable production and consumption are growing increasingly, the market is opening doors for companies to innovate in products and processes that present themselves as a solution to social and environmental problems facing society today. To this end, in2010, aBrazilian company began producing the "green" polyethylene, or green plastic, which differs from conventional polyethylene because it is produced from the ethanol from cane sugar and not from naphtha oil. Because it is a new product on the market and little known, this study aims to understand consumer attitudes towards green plastic. Environmental concerns, ecologically conscious consumer behavior, purchase intention and previous knowledge of green plastic were also assessed. Were conducted initially in-depth interviews, which helped quantitative stage, an online survey, applied to a sample of 300 individuals. Results indicate that surveyed consumers have positive attitudes towards green plastic and intention to purchase products made with this material. Despite exhibiting a high degree of environmental awareness, they show only moderate attitudes in relation to sustainable consumption in practice. We can conclude that there is still much to be done by companies and society so that a greater degree of maturity and respect for the environment can be achieved.

  8. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men. PMID:18689194

  9. Factors Influencing Attitudes and Intention to Purchase Counterfeit Luxury Brands among Indonesian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Hidayat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research study is to examine the influence of antecedents of attitudes towardscounterfeiting products of Indonesian consumers and its relationship to purchase intention of counterfeitproducts. The research mainly discussed the effect of social factors and personality factors towards consumerattitudes to buy counterfeit product, in this context is handbags. Approximately 250 respondents aged from16-40 participated to give response for the survey gathered from questionnaire distribution. The analysis usingpath coefficient analysis show that social and personality factors has mostly significant impact towards attitudes.The study concluded that the more positive attitude of consumers towards counterfeit products will furtherstrengthen the purchasing intentions while the higher the status of a consumers’ consumption will not affect anychange to both their attitude and willingness to purchase counterfeit products.

  10. Consumer attitudes towards electricity conservation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, G.; Zaltzman, C.; Leonelli, P.A.; Principe, C.A.; Geller, H.; Souza, R.C.

    1998-07-01

    From the second half of 1996 until October 1997 the Brazilian Program to Combat the Waste of Electric Energy (PROCEL) carried out various market research studies, covering 2/3 of the country. These researches include six qualitative inquiries (focus groups), fifteen quantitative surveys and a weekly Tracking Waves to monitor an energy conservation campaign launched by PROCEL in September 1997. These studies showed contradictory positions among the Brazilian consumers regarding the efficient use of electricity. Even though the need to save was recognized by most of the interviewed households, this recognition was rarely converted into positive actions. This paper discusses the main results of these studies with a focus on a better understanding of some of the contradictions detected, in order to show how the traditional market segmentation made by the utilities, based on income groups and level of electricity consumption, is no longer sufficient to explain consumers' attitudes regarding energy conservation.

  11. A quantitative research of consumer’s attitude towards food products advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Voicu Mirela-Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the consumers' attitude towards television/radio/press advertising is especially important, a fact which is highlighted by national and international speciality literature. The attitude of the consumer towards a television commercial influences the attitude towards the promoted product or brand. Thus, a positive attitude towards the commercial for a brand determines a positive attitude towards the respective brand and, eventually, may result in the formulation of the purchase inte...

  12. Attitude Differentiates The Brand Selection (From the view of Generation Y people)

    OpenAIRE

    Alvi, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Attitude makes perception about anything, yes it cannot be neglected that in order to make some attitude towards specific brand; previous performance, good word of mouth or suggestion from other, attractive advertising and highly spend on promotional tools are play a vital role. Positive attitude and negative attitude influence a consumer in brand selection but a problem arises, some people also have a positive attitude but they do not buy brand. It was observed that some of people ...

  13. Food Sanitation Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior for the University Restaurants Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hwa Ko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discuss the food sanitation knowledge, attitude, and behavior for the employees of university restaurants, and furthermore, to explain the interrelations of these various were occurring at school. A questionnaire survey procedure was used. Each two constructs of food sanitation attitude and behavior were analyzed by factor analysis. Data was analyzed by description, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. The correctness rate toward the whole sanitation knowledge of trials was 70%. The overall attitude toward food sanitation was prone to positive and the attitude of employee self-responsibility was superior to the attitude of food sanitation practice. The sanitary guiding behavior was better than the sanitary habit behavior; and there was a significant relationship indicated through Pearson correlation analysis among three various. The sanitation knowledge and sanitation attitude showed a 42.6% predictive power to behavior, the attitude was mediated between knowledge and behavior. The university restaurant employees shared a more pessimistic view toward the benefits of training and the institutions could establish a committee for monitoring food nutrition and sanitation. It provides valuable information for development employees training while seeking to raise school restaurant food safety levels.

  14. Vision-Based Attitude and Formation Determination System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To determine pointing and position vectors in both local and inertial coordinate frames, multi-spacecraft missions typically utilize separate attitude determination...

  15. Elementary school pupils knowledge and attitudes toward butterflies and mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Fakin, Tine

    2012-01-01

    To avoid further loss of biodiversity we should radicly change our antropocentric attitude toward environment. The best way to do this is to instill positive attitudes toward nature to children in school. One of the factors that influences attitude toward nature/organisms is knowledge. The main aim of this study is to find out, whether there are differences in knowledge about, and attitudes toward the “unpopular” mosquito and “popular” butterfly among elementary school students. We focused on...

  16. Attitude toward Plagiarism among Iranian Medical Faculty Members

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi; Kiarash Aramesh; Kiana Hassanpour; Abbas Norouzi-Javidan; Mahsa Ghajarzadeh

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members ofTehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. E...

  17. "Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2013-04-01

    Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification. Participants were randomly assigned to either the reread independently or the reread plus discussion group. Results showed that students in both groups experienced attitude change and that change was sustained over time. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions at pretest. Emotions, which became more positive after intervention, were predictive of students' attitudes and attitude change. Implications for the role of emotions when learning about controversial topics are discussed.

  18. Language and Intergroup Contact: Investigating the Impact of Bilingual Instruction on Children's Intergroup Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Stephen C.; Tropp, Linda R.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the impact of bilingual versus English-only instruction on the intergroup attitudes of White, English-speaking children in kindergarten through second grade. Replicating prior research, White children generally showed a clear preference toward the ingroup in terms of positive evaluations, friendship preference, and perceived similarity to the self. However, all three effects wer...

  19. Attitudes, social representations and social attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This paper plays the role of the devil's advocate in relation to Colin Fraser's paper "attitudes, social representations and widespread beliefs". It argues for the alternative perspective which Colin identifies that social representations and social attitudes are epistemologically incompatible theories.

  20. Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics: Factor Structure Invariance by Gender and by Administration Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Sterling C.; Schau, Candace; Olsen, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    In addition to student learning, positive student attitudes have become an important course outcome for many introductory statistics instructors. To adequately assess changes in mean attitudes across introductory statistics courses, the attitude instruments used should be invariant by administration time. Attitudes toward statistics from 4,910…

  1. Attitude to the Study of Chemistry and Its Relationship with Achievement in an Introductory Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen J.; White, Sue; Sharma, Bibhya; Wakeling, Lara; Naiker, Mani; Chandra, Shaneel; Gopalan, Romila; Bilimoria, Veena

    2015-01-01

    A positive attitude to a subject may be congruent with higher achievement; however, limited evidence supports this for students in undergraduate chemistry--this may result from difficulties in quantifying attitude. Therefore, in this study, the Attitude to the Study of Chemistry Inventory (ASCI)--a validated instrument to quantify attitude, was…

  2. Meta-analysis of attitudes toward damage-causing mammalian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Ruth; Kidd, Martin; Knight, Andrew T

    2014-08-01

    Many populations of threatened mammals persist outside formally protected areas, and their survival depends on the willingness of communities to coexist with them. An understanding of the attitudes, and specifically the tolerance, of individuals and communities and the factors that determine these is therefore fundamental to designing strategies to alleviate human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify factors that affected attitudes toward 4 groups of terrestrial mammals. Elephants (65%) elicited the most positive attitudes, followed by primates (55%), ungulates (53%), and carnivores (44%). Urban residents presented the most positive attitudes (80%), followed by commercial farmers (51%) and communal farmers (26%). A tolerance to damage index showed that human tolerance of ungulates and primates was proportional to the probability of experiencing damage while elephants elicited tolerance levels higher than anticipated and carnivores elicited tolerance levels lower than anticipated. Contrary to conventional wisdom, experiencing damage was not always the dominant factor determining attitudes. Communal farmers had a lower probability of being positive toward carnivores irrespective of probability of experiencing damage, while commercial farmers and urban residents were more likely to be positive toward carnivores irrespective of damage. Urban residents were more likely to be positive toward ungulates, elephants, and primates when probability of damage was low, but not when it was high. Commercial and communal farmers had a higher probability of being positive toward ungulates, primates, and elephants irrespective of probability of experiencing damage. Taxonomic bias may therefore be important. Identifying the distinct factors explaining these attitudes and the specific contexts in which they operate, inclusive of the species causing damage, will be essential for prioritizing conservation investments. PMID:24661270

  3. Exploratory Study on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Attitude and Firm’s Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kum-Lung Choe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an increased emphasis on entrepreneurship research around the globe. The Census of Establishments and Enterprises 2006 shows that 99.2% or 518,996 of business establishments in Malaysia were small and medium enterprises (SMEs. A critical question remains – what factors affect entrepreneurial performance? Not all business start-ups were successful and managed to survive into the future. This study aims to understand how entrepreneurial attitude affects the performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to owner managers and data were analyzed using regression model. Results show that all five dimensions of entrepreneurial attitude are positively related to firm performance.

  4. Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

  5. Sex roles and attitudes toward gender roles of people with higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanovi? Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of relation of sex and gender roles, more precisely, how much the degree of egalitarianism in attitudes toward gender roles depends on the category and the level of adopted sex role. The sample included 236 subjects of both sexes with high education between the ages of 25 to 65, in central and south Serbia. For the evaluation of gender role BSRI (Bem was used and for egalitarianism in attitudes SRES (Raboteg-Šari?, Ravli?. The results show that egalitarianism of attitudes is positively correlated with femininity (p<0.01 and negatively with masculinity (p<0.05. The adoption of androgyne sex role is evident in men (p<0.01 and the adoption of feminine but also of masculine role in women which correlates positively with egalitarianism in attitudes (p<0.05. Younger respondents show more femininity and more egalitarianism, but also androgyny which correlates negatively with egalitarianism (p<0.05. Considering the location of respondents we found that those who grew up in urban areas show greater egalitarianism in attitudes (p<0.01, but greater masculinity as well (p<0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  6. Usos y tendencias adictivas de una muestra de estudiantes universitarios españoles a la red social Tuenti: la actitud positiva hacia la presencia de la madre en la red como factor protector / Spanish university students' uses of the social network Tuenti and their addiction levels: the protective role of the positive attitude toward mothers' presence as contact

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mercedes, Durán; José M., Guerra.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar, desde el paradigma de usos y gratificaciones, el uso que los estudiantes universitarios españoles (N = 221) hacen de la red social Tuenti, y en qué medida estos usos se asocian con sus niveles de adicción a dicha red social. Además se analizó el papel que lo [...] s progenitores tienen como facilitadores o inhibidores de dichas tendencias adictivas y el impacto del género. Los resultados muestran cuatro categorías de usos de la red Tuenti: entretenimiento, comunicación a través del muro, comunicación a nivel privado e información social. Además, la actitud positiva hacia la presencia de la madre en la red Tuenti se muestra como un factor de protección de las tendencias adictivas a la red. Por último, se han encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género, tanto en los usos que realizan chicos y chicas, como en sus patrones de adicción a la red Tuenti, de tal manera que los chicos informan de niveles de adicción superiores a los informados por las chicas en el uso de esta red social. Abstract in english The present work aimed to study, from the uses and gratifications paradigm, the uses that Spanish university students (N = 221) do of the social networking site Tuenti, and the relationship between these uses and young's self-reported levels of addiction towards Tuenti. Also, the students' attitudes [...] towards the presence of their parents as contacts in Tuenti, and the impact of gender were analyzed. The results showed four different categories of uses: entertainment, public communication, private communication and social information. Also, young's positive attitude toward the presence of the mother in Tuenti played a protective role in their addition levels towards this social networking site. Finally, statistically significant gender differences in the uses of Tuenti and also in their addiction levels toward Tuenti were found.

  7. Greek Nurses Attitudes towards Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliarou Maria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies explore the attitudes of nurses caring for dying patients but this is the first oneexploring Greek nurses’ attitude toward death.Purpose/Objectives: To assess how Greek nurses feel about death and examine any relationships between theirattitudes and demographic factors.Design: Descriptive quantitative. The sample comprised of 150 hospital nurses (response rate 64%.Method: Voluntary and anonymous completion of the Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R, and ademographic questionnaire. The Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R (Wong, Reker, & Gesser, 1994 is a32-item scale that uses a seven-point Likert scale to measure respondents' attitudes toward death. Demographicdata, including gender, age, previous experience working with terminally ill patients, work setting (inpatientversus outpatient, years practising as an RN were collected. No identifying information was collected from theparticipants, ensuring the results were anonymous.Results: 82% of respondents were female with a mean age of 35.54 years (19 min 48 max. The mean nursingexperience was 12.1 years. Average scores on the DAP-R sub-scales ranged from 2.90 (escape sub-scale to 5.63(neutral sub-scale. Statistically significant relationships were noted among gender, and scores on the DAP-R.Nursing experience and age were the variables most likely to predict nurses' attitudes toward death. Nurses withspecific education on palliative care had less difficulty talking about death and dying. The existence ofHospital-based teams (known as palliative care teams, supportive care teams, or symptom assessment teams hadstatistically significant relationship with fear of death and neutral acceptance scoresConclusions: In Greek hospitals nurses with more work experience tended to have more positive attitudes towarddeath and caring for dying patients.

  8. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years) in 2007 and 2010 in the Capital Region of Denmark (n=36,472/42,504, response rate = 52.3) was linked with data on sex, age and educational attainment from central registers. Age-standardised prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans was estimated. Temporal changes in supportive attitude were explored in workplaces, restaurants and bars using logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans increased significantly in all arenas from 2007 to 2010. Positive temporal changes in supportive attitude towards smoking bans were seen across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit smoking in restaurants and across smoking status for smoking bans in workplaces and bars. Conclusions: The results of this study show that the public's attitude towards smoking in public arenas has changed after the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban. This change in attitude can support implementation of future legislation on smoking and may lead to positive changes in smoking norms.

  9. CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOBILE MARKETING AND MOBILE COMMERCE IN CONSUMER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman BARUTÇU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in information and communication technologies are not only offering new marketing channels to companies but also significantly influencing the ways in which companies conduct their businesses and marketing activities. This paper analyses the possible significant impacts of mobile phone technology developments on marketing, and offers insights into mobile commerce and mobile marketing, which have not previously been investigated in Turkey. In the survey, mobile phone users’ attitudes towards mobile commerce and mobile marketing and their intentions to benefit from mobile phones are searched. The empirical results show that the mobile phone users’ adoption of mobile shopping is low, and apart from mobile shopping, mobile phone users have positive attitudes towards mobile advertising, entertainment, discount coupons and mobile marketing. Moreover, the demographics characteristics (age, income, occupation and employment of mobile phone users who have more positive attitudes towards mobile marketing tools are determined and managerial implications and recommendations are also given to increase mobile commerce and marketing adoption rates.

  10. Energy attitudes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy issues are at present heavily debated in Finland. Public discussion is very emotional and biased against nuclear power. The undetermined situation together with the need for a decision on increasing the nuclear capacity led Imatran Voima Oy (Imatra Power Company) to measure the prevailing attitudes. The paper discusses the energy opinion surveys recently made in Finland. The general results give evidence of the changes occurring in the values of life. Environmental issues and the purity of energy production are seen as the most important factors of energy policy. Low price or availability and reliability are considered less important. The results of the surveys show, however, that people think that more electricity will be needed in the future. Natural gas, peat and hydroelectric power are most favoured. The attitude towards the use of coal and nuclear power is clearly more diffuse. In the survey, 21% want to increase the share of nuclear power, 32% want to keep its use at the present level and 35% want to reduce it. This 35% includes the one-fifth of the population that would like to abandon nuclear power altogether. Nuclear wastes and accidents are considered the most important factors contributing to the formation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. The other main factors are discussed in the paper. A great desire for information on energy policy together with personal decision making interests reflect the general attitude in Finland also. Totally incorrectttitude in Finland also. Totally incorrect information on nuclear energy is, however, surprisingly prevalent, which makes opposition to nuclear power understandable. All these factors make taking a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland difficult. (author)

  11. Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

  12. Employee’s Job Performance: The Effect of Attitude toward Works, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Susanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job and job experiences. The happier the individual, the higher is level of job satisfaction. It is assumed that positive attitude towards work and greater organizational commit­ment increases job satisfaction which in return enhances performance of the individual. Based on this phenomenon, this study is aimed to explain and empirically test the effect of attitude toward work, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment to the employee’s job performance at PT. Intech Anugrah Indonesia (PT. Intech. Data used in this study was primary data which were collected through closed questionnaires with 1-5 Likert scale. A sample of this study was 200 managerial and non-managerial staff of PT. Intech. Research carried out by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM which was run by AMOS 20.0 program. The results of this study showed that attitude towards work have positive but not significant effect to job satis­faction and employee performance. Different with attitude towards work, the organization's commitment has positive and significant effect on job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech. It means every improvement in organization’s commitment has a positive effect toward job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech.

  13. Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M?=?31.42, SD?=?16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically to different types of meat. PMID:25312749

  14. Is Biology Boring? Student Attitudes toward Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Prokop, Matel; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the interests and attitudes of school students toward biology: through their interest in out-of-school activities and their attitude towards lessons as measured by interest, importance and difficulty. Biology lessons were relatively popular with the greatest preference found among students learning zoology. Girls showed

  15. An Investigation of Students’ Attitudes and Motivations Toward Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Kerkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ attitudes and motivations toward online learning. Students in the online course, Introduction to the Visual Arts, were asked to complete questionnaires administered during the first and last week of the online course. A group of questions on Attitude was asked on both surveys. Questions on Interest, Self-management, and Locus of Control were asked only at the beginning of the course. The end of class survey included questions on Study Process Approach. Students in the study were found to have a strong internal Locus of Control. A significant correlation was found between a more internal locus of control and relying on surface strategies for learning. Another significant result was found on the Attitude pre- and post-course comparison regarding missing interaction with other students and getting more information through an online course. Generally, students’ attitude toward online learning was more positive during the last week of the course than in the first week. The study showed that this online course provided a sufficient amount of student to instructor interaction, a high amount of student to material interaction, and a low amount of student to student interaction.

  16. Attitude toward money modulates outcome processing: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shiwei; Zhang, Wenxin; Li, Peng; Feng, Tingyong; Li, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Love of money (LOM) is concerned with the attitude toward money, which can be measured by the LOM scale through affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Research has observed that monetary attitude was tightly related to reward processing and could affect economic behavior. This study examined how monetary attitude modulated risky behavior and the underlying neural mechanisms of reward processing using event-related potential (ERP) technique. We compared both the risk level and brain responses of a high-level LOM (HLOM) group to a low-level LOM (LLOM) group using a simple gambling task. The behavioral results showed that the HLOM group was more risky than the LLOM group, particularly after loss. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) was measured as the difference wave (gain-related ERP was subtracted from loss-related ERP). The FRN difference wave was larger in the HLOM group than that in the LLOM group. The P3 in the HLOM group was more positive than that in the LLOM group. These results suggest that monetary attitude can modulate both the underlying neural mechanisms and behavioral performance in a reward-related task. The HLOM participants are more sensitive to gain/loss than the LLOM participants. PMID:22856426

  17. Learning Chemistry at the University level : Student attitudes, motivation, and design of the learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, C. Anders R.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the research this thesis is based upon was to study students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry at university level and their motivation from three perspectives. How can students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry be assessed? How can these attitudes be changed? How are learning situations experienced by students with different attitude positions? An attitude questionnaire, assessing views of knowledge, learning assessments, laboratory activities, and perceived r...

  18. Semi-Physical Simulation of RR/S Attitude Algorithm Based on Non-Holonomic IMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong. Su

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rolling Rocket/Shell (RR/S can effectively overcome the impact point error caused by the asymmetry of aerodynamic appearance and mass eccentricity .etc. The spatial attitude of RR/S in the process of flight must be studied for that RR/S realizes the guidance control and improves the falling point precision. This paper introduces a semi physical simulation of RR/S attitude algorithm based on non-holonomic Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU which is composed of 3 orthogonal import rate gyroscopes. It adopts the 902E-1 two-axis turntable to simulate the spatial attitude of RR/S, and uses the non-holonomic IMU, which is fixed on the turntable by ensuring the axes of them to be aimed, to measure the 3-axis angular rate motion of the turntable. By setting the motion condition of the turntable, we can get the 3-axis angular rate data of the IMU and the 3-axis angular position data of the turntable. The attitude algorithm simulation of IMU adopts the four-sample rotation vector algorithm based on MTLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the semi-physical simulation method can model the spatial attitude of RR/S truly and provide exact and real-time attitude information of RR/S which is rolling in the two-axis complex movement condition.

  19. Assessment of the attitude of nursing students about obesity in the Semnan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Raees Dana

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anecdotes abound about obesity and obese person being ridiculed and society attitudes about obese persons are clearly negative and many of health care workers, also believes these myths. This study was performed to determine the attitudes of nursing students of Semnan University of medical sciences about obesity myths. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive-analytic study and was performed on 115 of the nursing students of the Semnan University of Medical Sciences in May 2006. Data was collected with researcher-made questionnaire, which it was composed of demographic data and 25 common myths about obesity. The myths were selected from the internet using key word "Obesity myths". We used 5-point Likert scale for the assessment of nursing student's attitude. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS program using chi-square and spearman correlation test. Results: The result of study showed that nursing students have anti-fat bias towards obese individuals and some of their attitudes need corrections, however, 59/1% of the students have positive attitudes about obesity myths (disagreement with obesity myths. Conclusion: Nurses are at first line of confrontation with clients and patients. Beliefs and attitudes of nurses can contribute to providing care of obese individuals. More education about obesity concept is necessary.

  20. STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTITUDE TOWARDS EDUCATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SECONDARY LEVEL MINORITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit Kumar Das

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Attitude is the belief that one has towards people and surroundings. In case of education, students’ positive attitude may influence their academic achievement. From the present study, the researchers also highlight that there are some prime factors like anxiety, socio-economical status etc. which may create barrier for academic achievement. In the present investigation, the researchers made an attempt to study the difference, if any, between boys and girls students of minority community in respect to their attitude towards education and academic achievement. The researchers also made an attempt to find out the correlation between attitude towards education and academic achievement. A sample of 257 (127 boys and 130 girls of secondary level minority students of class-X were selected randomly. Analyzing the data, the result shows that there is no significant difference between boys and girls students in attitude towards education and academic achievement scores. It was also found that attitude towards education and academic achievement have very low negative relation (-0.10 which is not statistically significant.

  1. A Study on Attitude of Urban and Rural College Student Teachers Towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Prakash; Xavier, Amaladoss

    2014-01-01

    There is a great need to identify and develop positive attitude towards science subject of student teachers. The time has come to increase our efforts to develop positive attitude towards science subject among teachers, student teachers and school children. This is an immediate requirement of the present day. This paper reports on attitude of…

  2. Attitude control with active actuator saturation prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, James Richard

    2015-02-01

    Spacecraft attitude control in the presence of actuator saturation is considered. The attitude controller developed has two components: a proportional component and an angular velocity component. The proportional control has a special form that depends on the attitude parameterization. The angular velocity control is realized by a strictly positive real system with its own input nonlinearity. The strictly positive real system can filter noise in the angular velocity measurement. With this control architecture the torques applied to the body are guaranteed to be below a predetermined value, thus preventing saturation of the actuators. The closed-loop equilibrium point corresponding to the desired attitude is shown to be asymptotically stable. Additionally, the control law does not require specific knowledge of the body's inertia properties, and is therefore robust to such modelling errors.

  3. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANDIPALLI RAMAKRISHNARAO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing Quality Education for All children in inclusive setting has beenidentified as the most challenging, yet the most important issue in education across theworld Inclusive Education is the practice of educating students with disabilitiesalongside children without disabilities in general classrooms. Right to Education (RTEAct, 2009 attempts to provide an enabling environment for all disabled children to enterschool, attend and complete elementary education on par with other children. Successfuland effective implementation of Inclusive Education depends upon teachers' knowledgeand positive attitudes towards it. The main aim of this study was to find out the attitudesof elementary school teachers towards Inclusive Education. The Attitude TowardsInclusive Education Scale (ATIES was administered to 78 teachers working inelementary schools in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. It was found thatelementary school teachers had a positive attitude towards Inclusive Education.Significant differences were found in the scores of attitude towards Inclusive Educationwith respect to gender, locality ,age, educational qualification and teaching experienceetc.

  4. Gender differences in tenth-grade students' attitudes toward science: The effect of school type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndakwah, Ernestine Ajame

    The focus of this mixed methods study was on 10th grade students' attitudes towards science. Its purpose was to examine the effect of gender and school-type on attitudes toward science. Research on attitudes toward science has focused on gender, school level, and classroom environment. Relatively little has been done on the effect of school type. In the present study, school type refers to the following variables; private vs. public, single-sex vs. coeducational and high vs. low-achieving schools. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there are gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the school type variables being investigated. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was the instrument used to provide quantitative data for this aspect of the study. TOSRA is a Likert scale consisting of seven subscales measuring different aspects of science attitudes. The qualitative component, on the other hand, explored students' perspectives on the factors, which were influential in the development of the attitudes that they hold. The events and experiences of their lives in and out-of-school, with respect to science, and the meanings that they make of these provided the data from which their attitudes toward science could be gleaned. Data for this component of the study was gathered by means of in-depth focus group interviews. The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. Statistical treatment of the questionnaire data involved the use of t tests and ANOVA. Findings did not reveal any gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were some differences on some of the subscales. School type did not appear to be a significant variable in students' attitudes to science. The results of both quantitative and qualitative components show that instructional strategy and teacher characteristics, both of which are components of the classroom environment are important factors shaping students' attitudes to science. These findings suggest that efforts to foster positive attitudes to science among high school students should focus on the enhancement of the high school science classroom environment.

  5. Performance Information, Blame Avoidance, and Politicians’ Attitudes to Spending and Reform: Evidence From an Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Bækgaard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Performance information has been argued to assist politicians in decision making on budgeting and reform, but research on how political decision makers respond to performance information is sparse. Building on blame-avoidance theory, we develop novel hypotheses concerning the impact of performance information on politicians’ attitudes to spending and reform. To isolate the causal effect of performance information, we conducted a randomized survey experiment among 844 Danish city councilors. Information treatments showing high and low performance had a positive effect on attitudes to spending, whereas information on average performance had a negative effect on spending attitudes. Moreover, information showing high performance rendered politicians less willing to pursue reform. We discuss the implications of these findings for the role of performance information in public administration.

  6. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a maisupplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified

  7. ROMANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS TV COMMERCIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Ba?but?, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    As advertisements are broadcast on a daily basis, Romanian consumers are subject to an intensive media bombardment designed to influence them, trigger certain emotions, and make them develop an attitude to a particular brand or product. When designing the advertisement, great care must be taken so that it conveys positive feelings and emotions and fosters favourable attitudes to a brand. The object of the current research is to determine how consumers are able to assess the advertisement phen...

  8. Counter-conditioning as an intervention to modify anti-fat attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart W. Flint

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of anti-fat attitude counter-conditioning using positive images of obese individuals participants completed implicit and explicit measures of attitudes towards fatness on three occasions: no intervention; following exposure to positive images of obese members of the general public; and to images of obese celebrities. Contrary to expectations, positive images of obese individuals did not result in more positive attitudes towards fatness as expected and, in some cases, indices of these attitudes worsened. Results suggest that attitudes towards obesity and fatness may be somewhat robust and resistant to change, possibly suggesting a central and not peripheral processing route for their formation.

  9. Assessing medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills – which components of attitudes do we measure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holen Are

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Communication Skills Attitudes Scale (CSAS created by Rees, Sheard and Davies and published in 2002 has been a widely used instrument for measuring medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. Earlier studies have shown that the CSAS mainly tests two dimensions of attitudes towards communication; positive attitudes (PAS and negative attitudes (NAS. The objectives of our study are to explore the attitudes of Norwegian medical students towards learning communication skills, and to compare our findings with reports from other countries. Methods The CSAS questionnaire was mailed simultaneously to all students (n = 3055 of the four medical schools in Norway in the spring of 2003. Response from 1833 students (60.0% were analysed by use of SPSS ver.12. Results A Principal component analysis yielded findings that differ in many respects from those of earlier papers. We found the CSAS to measure three factors. The first factor describes students' feelings about the way communication skills are taught, whereas the second factor describes more fundamental attitudes and values connected to the importance of having communication skills for doctors. The third factor explores whether students feel that good communication skills may help them respecting patients and colleagues. Conclusion Our findings indicate that in this sample the CSAS measures broader aspects of attitudes towards learning communication skills than the formerly described two-factor model with PAS and NAS. This may turn out to be helpful for monitoring the effect of different teaching strategies on students' attitudes during medical school.

  10. Neuroscientists’ Classroom Visits Positively Impact Student Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzakerley, Janet L.; Michlin, Michael L.; Paton, John; Dubinsky, Janet M

    2013-01-01

    The primary recommendation of the 2010 President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology report on K-12 education was to inspire more students so that they are motivated to study science. Scientists’ visits to classrooms are intended to inspire learners and increase their interest in science, but verifications of this impact are largely qualitative. Our primary goal was to evaluate the impact of a longstanding Brain Awareness classroom visit program focused on increasing learners ...

  11. Attitude, Parental Encouragement and Perception of the Importance of English in English Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishnan Sekharan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the students’ perception of the importance of English language amongst a sample of 150 Upper Six students from a population of 755 students from six schools in the district of Marang, Terengganu. Also studied was whether their attitude towards learning English language is positive and whether they receive sufficient parental encouragement and support in their English language learning. It was found that the students were well aware of the importance of English language and also had a very positive attitude towards English Language learning. The parental encouragement and support scores also recorded a high total mean. In all three instances the sample means were well above the mid-point means indicating that the sample means fell in the higher halves of the mean scores. This implies that students are well aware of the importance of English language, are very positive about learning English language and receive more than adequate parental encouragement and support in their English language learning. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant and positive relationship between the students’ perception of the importance of English language and their attitude towards learning the language. Since the students’ attitude and parental encouragement and support seem to be satisfactory, future researchers should investigate whether the curriculum offered is suitable for rural students.

  12. Attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS among medical practitioners and nonmedical specialists in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabenko, Nataliya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: AIDS is the disease that has been stigmatized since its development; stigmatization of people living with HIV is an important barrier to using HIV testing and treatment. It is well known, that stigma is associated with mental disorders including depression and anxiety. Ukraine is a country with one of the highest number of annual HIV infection cases. GOALS: The goal of this study was to evaluate medical practitioners’ (surgeons, psychiatrists, therapists and students and nonmedical specialists’ attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS.METHODS: A total of 180 individuals participated in the study. Acceptance of people who have AIDS or are infected with HIV was assessed with the help of the “Attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS”. Total scores range from 50 to 10, higher scores indicate high acceptance of persons with HIV/AIDS.RESULTS: Younger participants reported higher acceptance of persons with HIV or AIDS (p.05. Medical practitioners showed greater total score, compare to nonmedical specialists (38.0 ± 6.0 vs. 34.0 ± 5.5, respectively, p<.05. A one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of medical specialty on levels of positive attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS. The actual difference in mean scores between the 4 groups was moderate (.06. Students and psychiatrists reported more positive attitudes (higher acceptance toward people with HIV and AIDS, but analyses showed, that there was not a statistically significant difference at the level in total score for the groups.CONCLUSION: In this study we evaluated the level of attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS in Ukraine. Young age and medical education were significantly associated with the positive attitudes toward people with HIV and AIDS. Our findings are important for the programs reducing the stigma and discrimination that should be addressed to the wide layers of the society.

  13. An investigation of the English Language Needs, Motivations, and Attitudes of Saudi Police Cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasser Alhuqbani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the English language needs, motivations and attitudes of a random sample of 223 police cadets studying at King Fahd Security College in Saudi Arabia. The analysis of the questionnaire results showed that only cadets with degrees in humanities received English instructions. The cadets selected speaking and listening as the most important skills and studying English for security purposes. As regards their motivations, the significant correlation between almost all the instrumental and integrative variables provided evidence to the integration of the two types of motivations which substantiates the importance of both types in English learning.  Statements describing negative attitudes toward the English culture did not statistically correlate with the other statements that constitute the cadets’ positive attitudes toward English learning, which confirmed their positive attitudes toward both English learning and its culture. The significant correlations between the cadets’ English perceived needs and their instrumental motivations supported the argument that ESP learners study English for utilitarian purposes.   Keywords: ESP, needs analysis, attitudes, motivation, Saudi police cadets

  14. Team climate and attitudes toward information and communication technology among nurses on acute psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, Marita; Anttila, Minna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the association of team climate with attitudes toward information and communication technology among nursing staff working on acute psychiatric wards. Background: Implementation of ICT applications in nursing practice brings new operating models to work environments, which may affect experienced team climate on hospital wards. Method: Descriptive survey was used as a study design. Team climate was measured by the Finnish modification of the Team Climate Inventory, and attitudes toward ICT by Burkes' questionnaire. The nursing staff (N?=?181, n?=?146) on nine acute psychiatric wards participated in the study. Results: It is not self-evident that experienced team climate associates with attitudes toward ICT, but there are some positive relationships between perceived team climate and ICT attitudes. The study showed that nurses' motivation to use ICT had statistically significant connections with experienced team climate, participative safety (p?=?0.021), support for innovation (p?=?0.042) and task orientation (p?=?0.042). Conclusion: The results suggest that asserting team climate and supporting innovative operations may lead to more positive attitudes toward ICT. It is, in particular, possible to influence nurses' motivation to use ICT. More attention should be paid to psychosocial factors such as group education and co-operation at work when ICT applications are implemented in nursing. PMID:24393065

  15. Transmission of social attitudes.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A. C.; JARDINE, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance.

  16. Association of Group Learning with Mathematics Achievement and Mathematics Attitude among Eighth-Grade Students in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.; McKenna, Cornelius M.; Hines, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a large, nationally-representative sample of eighth-grade students in the US to assess how the frequency of group learning activity in mathematics classrooms was associated with mathematics achievement and three measures of attitudes toward mathematics. Results showed that moderate amounts of group work in class had positive

  17. Targeting Information to Market Segments: An Action Oriented Study of Attitudes Toward Vocational Education Among Target Populations. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Linda A.; And Others

    Research was conducted to show how segments of the population of minority and disadvantaged youth might be positively influenced by selective information campaigns to participate in vocational education programs. The first-year effort (stage 1) undertook to measure student attitudes and to develop recommendations for using this information in…

  18. The Impact of a Palliative Care Educational Component on Attitudes toward Care of the Dying in Undergraduate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Judy L.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-week experiential course based on a model of death education and transformative learning prepared nursing students to care for dying patients. Pretest/posttest scores for 45 who received the intervention and 59 controls showed the intervention contributed to a significant positive increase in attitudes toward care of the dying. (Contains 27…

  19. Relationships of Attitudes toward Homework and Time Spent on Homework to Course Outcomes: The Case of Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charles B.; Wall, Daniel; Tare, Medha; Golonka, Ewa; Vatz, Karen

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies of homework in core academic subjects, positive student attitudes toward homework were linked to higher achievement, whereas time spent on homework showed an inconsistent relationship with achievement. This study examined the generalizability of these findings to foreign language learning by analyzing 2,342 adult students'…

  20. Classmate Characteristics and Student Achievement in 33 Countries: Classmates' Past Achievement, Family Socioeconomic Status, Educational Resources, and Attitudes toward Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Classmates can influence a student's academic achievement through immediate interactions (e.g., academic help, positive attitudes toward reading) or by sharing tangible or intangible family resources (books, stories of foreign travel). Multilevel analysis of 141,019 fourth-grade students' reading achievements in 33 countries showed that…

  1. Experiments with small helicopter automated landings at unusual attitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bayraktar, S

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments involving small helicopters landing automated landing at unusual attitudes. By leveraging the increased agility of small air vehicles, we show that it is possible to automatically land a small helicopter on surfaces pitched at angles up to 60 degrees. Such maneuvers require considerable agility from the vehicle and its avionics system, and they pose significant technical and safety challenges. Our work builds upon previous activities in human-inspired, high-agility flight for small rotorcraft. However, it was not possible to leverage manual flight test data to extract landing maneuvers due to stringent attitude and position control requirements. Availability of low-cost, local navigation systems requiring no on-board instrumentation has proven particularly important for these experiments to be successful.

  2. Image Positioning Accuracy Analysis for the Super Low Altitude Remote Sensing Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Super low altitude remote sensing satellites maintain lower flight altitudes by means of ion propulsion in order to improve image resolution and positioning accuracy. The use of engineering data in design for achieving image positioning accuracy is discussed in this paper based on the principles of the photogrammetry theory. The exact line?of?sight rebuilding of each detection element and this direction precisely intersecting with the Earth’s elliptical when the camera on the satellite is imaging are both ensured by the combined design of key parameters. These parameters include: orbit determination accuracy, attitude determination accuracy, camera exposure time, accurately synchronizing the reception of ephemeris with attitude data, geometric calibration and precise orbit verification. Precise simulation calculations show that image positioning accuracy of super low altitude remote sensing satellites is not obviously improved. The attitude determination error of a satellite still restricts its positioning accuracy.

  3. The impact of party on nuclar power attitudes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass attitudes to nuclear power in general and to the more specific problems having to do with the management of nuclear waste are related to each other. People with anti-nuclear attitudes tend to view many of the nuclear waste problems differently than persons who are positive to the use of nuclear power. Hence, the study of mass attitudes to nuclear power is of relevance for the study of attitudes to nuclear waste. The present study analyse attitudes to nuclear power as well as attitudes to nuclear waste. The emphasis, however, is on the development of mass attitudes to nuclear power. The setting is Sweden and the time-frame the last 20 years. (author)

  4. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV. PMID:20485857

  5. PSYCHOSOCIAL SPORT MARKETING ATTITUDES OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas E. Boye

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategy implementations in the achievement of the Nigeria Sport policy development is effective sport marketing (Onifade, 1999. The Nigerian government has been said to be solely responsible for funding and marketing sports hence, achieving the sports developmental goal is at its lowest ebb (Esuku, 2003.This study examined the socio- psychological sports marketing attitudes of the stakeholders in the achievement of sports goal by 2020. It also determined attitudes of stakeholders towards sports marketing. The participants for the study consisted 1,200 Nigerian sampled from twelve States and from the various professions, who are stakeholders to sports marketing (corporate and private organizations, sports Journalists, sports psychologists, sports councils, ministry of sports, coaches, labour unions, University and athletes. They were purposively sampled. The main research tool was the questionnaire that was used to obtain information on the different variables. The descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages were used for the analysis of the demographic information, while inferential statistics of one way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance. The results confirmed that Nigerian government is solely responsible for marketing sports which ought not to be if effective sports marketing must be realized toward the attainment of the millennium goals. Also revealed are fair positive socio- psychological attitudes of few corporate organizations, and negative socio- psychological attitudes from individuals of most corporate organizations. Suggestions were advanced towards the improvement of achieving the sports developmental goals.

  6. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan?ovi?ová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-10-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.

  7. Do Online Comments Influence the Public's Attitudes Toward an Organization? Effects of Online Comments Based on Individuals' Prior Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J

    2015-05-19

    The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes. PMID:25901633

  8. Euthanasia Attitude; A Comparison of two Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hatami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term "euthanasia" influences people's support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors.In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared.197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS or Wasserman's Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the The HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised.Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness.It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it.

  9. Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term "euthanasia" influences people's support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman's Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term "euthanasia", the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it. PMID:23908751

  10. Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time: a comparison between 1996 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Judith D

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although medical specialists traditionally hold negative views towards working part-time, the practice of medicine has evolved. Given the trend towards more part-time work and that there is no evidence that it compromises the quality of care, attitudes towards part-time work may have changed as well in recent years. The aim of this paper was to examine the possible changes in attitudes towards part-time work among specialists in internal medicine between 1996 and 2004. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these attitudes were associated with individual characteristics (age, gender, investments in work and whether attitudes of specialists within a partnership showed more resemblance than specialists' attitudes from different partnerships. Methods Two samples were used in this study: data of a survey conducted in 1996 and in 2004. After selecting internal medicine specialists working in general hospitals in The Netherlands, the sample consisted of 219 specialists in 1996 and 363 specialists in 2004. They were sent a questionnaire, including topics on the attitudes towards part-time work. Results Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time became slightly more positive between 1996 and 2004. Full-time working specialists in 2004 still expressed concerns regarding the investments of part-timers in overhead tasks, the flexibility of task division, efficiency, communication and continuity of care. In 1996 gender was the only predictor of the attitude, in 2004 being a full- or a part-timer, age and the time invested in work were associated with this attitude. Furthermore, specialists' attitudes were not found to cluster much within partnerships. Conclusion In spite of the increasing number of specialists working or preferring to work part-time, part-time practice among internal medicine specialists seems not to be fully accepted. The results indicate that the attitudes are no longer gender based, but are associated with age and work aspects such as the number of hours worked. Though there is little evidence to support them, negative ideas about the consequences of part-time work for the quality of care still exist. Policy should be aimed at removing the organisational difficulties related to part-time work and create a system in which part-time practice is fully integrated and accepted.

  11. FAMILY INFLUENCE ON FORMATION OF CHILDREN'S MANIPULATIVE ATTITUDES

    OpenAIRE

    Liubov Ivanovna Ryumshina

    2013-01-01

    The article raises the issue of children's manipulation, and examines the conditions contributing to the formation of the manipulative attitudes. As such are analyzed: importance of these attitudes for the child, existence of manipulative attitudes in parents, family microclimate and position to the manipulations in society.According to the results of an empirical study, the characteristics of the family, provoking the development of manipulative behavior in children, are described. The membe...

  12. EFFECTS OF CONSUMERS’ TRUST AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ONLINE SHOPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Al-Nasser; Rushami Zien Yusoff; Rabiul Islam; Abdullah ALNasser

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of consumers’ trust and attitude toward online shopping. Attitude is referred to as a positive or negative evaluation of people, activities, ideas, objects, event, or just about anything in the environment. Different facets of the e-shopping behavior of consumers have been investigated in previous literature. These facets can generally be divided into three namely, behavioral intention, actual behavior and attitude toward behavior. The ai...

  13. EFL for Palestinian Security Personnel in Workplace: Exploring Officers’ Motivation and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam Qaddomi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at exploring the Palestinian security personnel motivation and attitudes towards English as a Foreign Language in workplace. In addition, the study sought to reveal the relationship between motivation and attitudes and some variables such as:  English language level and time in service. The study was conducted on a random sample of 381. The findings showed that Palestinian security personnel integrative motivation is very high, and their instrumental motivation is high. Results revealed that their personnel attitudes towards EFL learning and its culture are positive. Results also indicated that there were no significant differences in motivation; whereas there were significant differences on the EFL culture domain in favor of who had less than 5 years time in service.  Finally, results showed that there were significant differences in Palestinian security personnel motivation, attitudes toward learning EFL and native speakers’ culture due to level in English. Concerning the motivation domain, the significance was in favor of the intermediates; whereas, attitudes toward learning EFL, native speakers’ culture and the total score was in favor of beginners.

  14. Relação entre atitudes sexuais, conhecimentos e atitudes sobre VIH/Sida na orientação sexual / Relation between sexual attitudes, knowledge and HIV/AIDS attitudes in sexual orientation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta, Reis; Lúcia, Ramiro; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz; Celeste, Simões.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As atitudes e os conhecimentos face à sexualidade não se têm mantido constantes ao longo do tempo. Neste sentido, investigou-se que relação existe entre conhecimentos sobre a transmissão do VIH/Sida, as atitudes sexuais e as face aos portadores do VIH/Sida, em estudantes universitários. Pretende-se [...] ainda avaliar como os conhecimentos e atitudes se relacionam com a orientação sexual. Administraram-se 3278 questionários a 993 homens e 2285 mulheres. Os resultados demonstram que a maioria é sexualmente ativa, teve a primeira relação sexual aos 16 anos. Encontraram-se diferenças estatisticamente signficativas entre a orientação sexual: os homossexuais iniciam a vida sexual antes dos heterossexuais, estes apresentam uma atitude sexual mais positiva do que os bissexuais e por sua vez os homossexuais apresentam uma atitude menos discriminatória face aos portadores do VIH/Sida do que os bissexuais. Para a vivência da sexualidade ser positiva é crucial apostar na educação sexual como estratégia da saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Abstract in english The attitudes and knowledge concerning sexuality haven’t remained constant over time. In this sense, we investigated the relationship between knowledge about HIV / AIDS transmission, sexual attitudes and attitudes towards those living with HIV / AIDS in university students. We also intend to assess [...] how knowledge and attitudes relate to sexual orientation. 3278 questionnaires were administered to 993 men and 2285 women. The results show that most are sexually active, had their first sexual intercourse at 16. We found statistically significative differences as for sexual orientation: homosexuals begin their sexual lives before heterosexuals and these present a more positive sexual attitude than bisexuals. Homossexuals have a less discriminatory attitude towards people infected with the HIV / AIDS than bisexuals. To experience sexuality positively it’s crucial to invest in sexual education as a strategy of sexual and reproductive health.

  15. Danish consumers' attitudes towards functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    1. "Functional foods" is a relatively new term used to describe food products which have been enriched with natural substances/components with a specific physiological preventive and/or health-promoting effect. As yet, there are few actual functional foods in the Danish market, but in Japan and the USA, where these products are relatively common, sales are enjoying growth rates far above those for conventional products. 2. The aim of this study is to examine Danish consumers' attitudes to functional foods, including: whether enrichment with health-promoting substances results in a higher value perception among consumers; the relative importance consumers attach to enrichment compared with other product attributes; which beliefs consumers associate with enrichment; and, which beliefs influence and determine consumers' purchasing intentions and the relative importance of these beliefs. 3. The study consists of three analyses: focus-group interviews, the aim of which is to get an overview of the issue and generate input for the quantitative analyses. The quantitative analyses consist of a conjoint analysis and a survey based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. These analyses are based on concrete, non-existent examples of functional foods, a dairy product and a bread product, each of which has been enriched with three different substances: a) soluble food fibre, b) omega-3, and c) calcium and vitamin D. 4. The focus-group interviews show that the main beliefs which consumers associate with functional foods are the convenience of enrichment through daily diet, (un)naturalness, apprehension about changes in taste, higher price, uncertainty about belief in the effect of enrichment, dosage (when is there enough/ too much of the enrichment substance), own ignorance and uncertainty about manufacturers' knowledge of the health effects of eating enriched products. The respondents have very little knowledge of functional foods and were fairly sceptical. However, attitudes to concrete examples of functional foods were much morepositive than attitudes to the concept of functional foods. 5. The conjoint analyses show that, in general, consumers preferred the non-enriched variety, though with the exception of bread enriched with fibre, since the benefit of this is greater than for the conventional product. About 75% of consumers attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. For about 30% of consumers in the case of the dairy product and 50% in the case of the bread product, enrichment in one of the three forms resulted in a higher value perception, while about 25% and 40% respectively attached a lot of importance to the products not being enriched. 6. The cluster analysis identified several segments with a preference for the various enriched products. Two relatively large segments (25% and 20% of respondents respectively) had a higher value perception for the enriched than for the conventional product, especially as regards the calcium and vitamin D-enriched dairy product and the fibre-enriched bread product, and these segments also attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. The analysis also identified a large segment with a preference for the calcium and vitamin D-enriched bread product, about 30% of respondents saying they preferred this product variety and 35% saying they attached relatively great importance to enrichment. Only very few respondents preferred enrichment with omega-3, which was also the case for enrichment with fibre in the dairy product. 7. In general, attitudes to enrichment are more positive as regards the bread product and product varieties enriched with substances already present in the conventional product. However, attitudes are generally more negative as regards enrichment with omega-3 than with the two other substances. On the whole, consumers' attitudes to functional foods depend on both the type of product enriched, the enrichment substance and the combination of these. 8. The questionnaire survey shows that consumers' purchasing int

  16. Increased ephemeris accuracy using attitude-dependent aerodynamic force coefficients for inertially stabilized spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David C.; Baker, David F.

    1991-01-01

    The FREEMAC program used to generate the aerodynamic coefficients, as well as associated routines that allow the results to be used in other software is described. These capabilities are applied in two numerical examples to the short-term orbit prediction of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spacecraft. Predictions using attitude-dependent aerodynamic coefficients were made on a modified version of the PC-based Ephemeris Generation Program (EPHGEN) and were compared to definitive orbit solutions obtained from actual tracking data. The numerical results show improvement in the predicted semi-major axis and along-track positions that would seem to be worth the added computational effort. Finally, other orbit and attitude analysis applications are noted that could profit from using FREEMAC-calculated aerodynamic coefficients, including orbital lifetime studies, orbit determination methods, attitude dynamics simulators, and spacecraft control system component sizing.

  17. Factors Influencing Students' Attitude towards HIV/AIDS in a Public University, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Rahnama

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome has remained one of the priority global public health challenges. Theaim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among students in a publicuniversity in Malaysia. The students were selected based on a two-stage probability proportionate to size randomsampling method. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Out of the 1773 respondents, 57.3 % were femaleand the mean age was 22.5 years. The results showed that only 19.5 % stated that they will inform their partnersor family if diagnosed positive for HIV infection and 43 % were willing to care for an HIV infected person intheir own house. The overall mean attitude score was 24.1. Knowledge was significantly associated with theattitude towards HIV/AIDS among students. However, age, educational level, marital status, place of residencewas not associated with the attitude towards HIV/AIDS among students.

  18. The attitudes of medical students to research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, Nel; R J, Burman; R, Hoffman; S, Randera-Rees.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The workforce of 'physician-scientists' is ageing and decreasing in numbers. The responsibility to combat this trend rests on future generations of healthcare professionals and it is therefore valuable to evaluate medical students' attitudes towards research. OBJECTIVE: To establish the [...] attitudes of University of Cape Town (UCT) medical students towards research and to investigate the factors influencing these attitudes. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire was administered to medical students from years 1 to 6 studying medicine at UCT in 2011. Questions were primarily closed-ended and consisted of Likert scales. RESULTS: Out of a population of 1 195 medical students, 733 were sampled (63%); 65% were female, 53% were preclinical students (years 1 - 3) and 47% were in their clinical years (year 4 - 6). Overall, 61% of students had a positive attitude towards research and 74% felt that participation in research was important to their medical school education; 22% had been involved in voluntarily extracurricular research, 4% had presented at a scientific meeting and 3% had published in peer-reviewed journals. A number of perceived barriers to student research were identified including a lack of adequate training, time and research opportunities. CONCLUSION: Students believed that research was important and had a positive attitude towards it. However, few had been involved in voluntary research and produced work worthy of presentation and/or publication. Addressing identified barriers and improving students' attitudes may begin to reverse the trend in declining numbers of physician-scientists.

  19. Anaesthetists' attitudes to teamwork and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flin, R; Fletcher, G; McGeorge, P; Sutherland, A; Patey, R

    2003-03-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted with 222 anaesthetists from 11 Scottish hospitals to measure their attitudes towards human and organisational factors that can have an impact on effective team performance and consequently on patient safety. A customised version of the Operating Room Management Attitude Questionnaire (ORMAQ) was used. This measures attitudes to leadership, communication, teamwork, stress and fatigue, work values, human error and organisational climate. The respondents generally demonstrated positive attitudes towards the interpersonal aspects of their work, such as team behaviours and they recognised the importance of communication skills, such as assertiveness. However, the results suggest that some anaesthetists do not fully appreciate the debilitating effects of stress and fatigue on performance. Their responses were comparable with (and slightly more favourable than) those reported in previous ORMAQ surveys of anaesthetists and surgeons in other countries. PMID:12603453

  20. Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Marilyn S.

    2008-01-01

    This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

  1. Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

  2. Changing Millennials' Attitude toward Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Anne Y.; Sciaraffa, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    The members of the Millennial Generation (born between 1981-1999) are now graduating from college and obtaining their first post-graduate positions. For many Millennials, this will be the first professional interaction they have with mature adults. This study surveyed the attitudes of the Millennial Generation using the Multidimensional Attitudes

  3. Student Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Inclusion and Inclusive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion…

  4. Gerontological Knowledge and Attitudes of Students of Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Abraham; Kaye, Lenard W.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the perceptions, expectations, and attitudes toward aging among students of religion and their graduate counterparts by means of structured interviews. Results revealed students had more positive attitudes toward young than old people, relatively low gerontological knowledge, and negative biases toward the aged. (RC)

  5. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  6. Spacecraft Attitude Tracking and Maneuver Using Combined Magnetic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes attitude-control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) or other types of actuators such as thrusters. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for nadir-pointing, pitch, and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude- control accuracy is comparable with RWA-based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude-control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode, and the control accuracy can be maintained. The attitude-control algorithms of the combined actuators are derived, which can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded values precisely. Results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached, and the attitude-control accuracy is comparable with 3-axis wheel control.

  7. Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustad Aase-Bente

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.

  8. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  9. [Students' attitudes to active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schioldborg, P

    1999-06-30

    Attitude surveys in the Norwegian population show that an increasing majority support active euthanasia for patients with terminal disease. Among physicians, only a minority supports active euthanasia. Attitudes towards euthanasia were surveyed among students of medicine, law and psychology (n = 588, response rate 66%) with regard to a patient suffering from a painful, incurable and deadly or non-deadly disease, asking the doctor for help to die. To assess the strength of the students' attitude, the questions were presented either in a Christian context disapproving of euthanasia, in a humanistic context in favour, or in a neutral context-free form. 125 of 176 law students (71%), 134 of 216 psychology students (62%) and 71 of 196 medical students (36%) supported active euthanasia in cases of terminal disease. In cases of non-terminal disease, the corresponding percentages were 45%, 29% and 11%. 38% of the students with a Christian belief supported euthanasia in terminal disease while 79% of the humanists, 70% of those of another faith, and 65% of those without a definable faith did so. No significant gender difference was observed. 17% of the students stated that they were willing to perform euthanasia. No effect of context was observed. The results indicate stable and differentiated attitudes to the question of active euthanasia. One third of the medical students supported active euthanasia, which is twice as many as for physicians in general. Two thirds of the law and psychology students did so, which is similar to comparable age groups in the population. PMID:10425907

  10. Does Your Library Have an Attitude Problem towards "Marketing"? Revealing Inter-Relationship between Marketing Attitudes and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behaviour of librarians in thirty-three different libraries of Finland. Based on market-oriented behaviour, three kinds of libraries were found: "strong," "medium" and "weak." The findings indicate a positive relation between the marketing attitudes and…

  11. Gender Role Attitude and Food Insecurity among Women in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a gendered colouration of food insecurity with more women than men being adversely affected. Yet, social norms regarding the roles of men and women appear to be traditionalistic and unfavourable to economic advancement among women thereby limiting their chances of being food secure. This study was therefore designed to examine gender role attitudes as it affects food insecurity while controlling the role of financial status among women in Ibadan metropolis. The work is a cross-sectional survey which featured the administration of 650 copies of a largely structured questionnaire among randomly and systematically selected women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Variables were measured with multi-item scales. Pearson r was used to assess relationships between pairs of gender role attitude, education, age and food insecurity. Partial r was further used to assess the relationship between gender role attitude and food insecurity while controlling for financial status. One way ANOVA was used to assess significant differences in means across sub-groups of marital status while post hoc test (LSD was used to identify homogenous sub-groups. Simple percentile analysis shows that 39.1% of respondents arbitrarily held traditional attitude towards gender roles while only 12.2% were non food insecure. Gender role attitude was significantly and positively related to food insecurity (p 0.05. The pattern of gender role attitude is quasi-traditional. Egalitarian disposition to gender role is yet to be firmly rooted and food insecurity is still a plague among women in the study area. Gender role attitude is consequential for food insecurity regardless of financial status among women. Being unmarried or married as opposed to being divorced or widowed and increasing education serves protective roles against food insecurity but age does not.

  12. Current and future health care professionals attitudes toward and knowledge of statistics: How confidence influences learning

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    Heibatollah Baghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care professionals require some understanding of statistics to successfully implement evidence based practice. Developing competency in statistical reasoning is necessary for students training in health care administration, research, and clinical care. Recently, the interest in healthcare professional’s attitudes toward statistics has increased substantially due to evidence that these attitudes can hinder professionalism developing an understanding of statistical concepts. Methods: In this study, we analyzed pre- and post-instruction attitudes towards and knowledge of statistics obtained from health science graduate students, including nurses and nurse practitioners, enrolled in an introductory graduate course in statistics (n = 165. Results and Conclusions: Results show that the students already held generally positive attitudes toward statistics at the beginning of course. However, these attitudes—along with the students’ statistical proficiency—improved after 10 weeks of instruction. The results have implications for curriculum design and delivery methods as well as for health professionals’ effective use of statistics in critically evaluating and utilizing research in their practices.

  13. Obesity in the news: do photographic images of obese persons influence antifat attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kimberly J; Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2011-04-01

    News coverage of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years, and research shows that media content may contribute to negative public attitudes toward obese people. However, no work has assessed whether photographic portrayals of obese people that accompany news stories affect attitudes. In the present study, the authors used a randomized experimental design to test whether viewing photographic portrayals of an obese person in a stereotypical or unflattering way (versus a nonstereotypical or flattering portrayal) could increase negative attitudes about obesity, even when the content of an accompanying news story is neutral. The authors randomly assigned 188 adult participants to read a neutral news story about the prevalence of obesity that was paired with 1 of 4 photographic portrayals of an obese adult (or no photograph). The authors subsequently assessed attitudes toward obese people using the Fat Phobia Scale. Participants in all conditions expressed a moderate level of fat phobia (M = 3.83, SD = 0.58). Results indicated that participants who viewed the negative photographs expressed more negative attitudes toward obese people than did those who viewed the positive photographs. Implications of these findings for the media are discussed, with emphasis on increasing awareness of weight bias in health communication and journalistic news reporting. PMID:21181601

  14. The Correlation between Parental Attitude and Susceptibility to Drug Addiction among Students

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    Elena A. Cheverikina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to drug addiction affects the formation of the students personality. One of the reasons of its appearance is the socialization defects within the family, regrettable attitude of parents to children. The purpose of this article is to identify and investigate the particularities of the parental attitude to the students of the secondary vocational and higher education institutions who have different levels of susceptibility to drug addiction. To analyze the parental attitude two criteria are used in the research: the degree of emotional bond, parents’ attachment to the child (love, acceptance, warmth or emotional rejection and coldness and the degree of control over his behavior (high—with lots of restrictions and prohibitions; low—the minimum prohibitive tones. They represent three main factors: positive interest vs. hostility, directivity vs. autonomy and inconsistency as a sharp transition from one extreme to another. The research shows that the formation of susceptibility to addiction among the students of the secondary vocational schools is influenced by the particular attitudes of both parents, while university students are mostly affected by their mothers’ attitude. It is found that the particularities of the child-parent relationships in forming susceptibility to addiction affect more the students of the secondary vocational schools than the higher education students. The research data allow to improve the psycho-pedagogical programs aimed at reducing drug addiction susceptibility among students.

  15. Effects of Attitude towards Language Learning and Risk-taking on EFL Student's Proficiency

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    Elham Dehbozorgi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was an endeavor to investigate effects of attitude towards language learning and risk-taking on EFL students' proficiency. To achieve the objectives of the study, three data gathering instruments were used: Attitude towards Language Learning Scale, Venturesomeness Subscale of Eysenck IVE Questionnaire, and Oxford Quick Placement Test (2005. The participants were 120 female and male college students majoring in English Translation at Marvdasht University. The results showed that the relationship between proficiency level –high, middle, and low –and attitude towards language learning was not significant and the middle proficient participants were higher risk-takers. The results demonstrated differences in risk-taking between high and intermediate levels. Moreover, there was no significant difference between high and low groups and low and middle groups. Correlational analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between attitude towards language learning and risk-taking (r=.20, p< 0.05. Besides, language proficiency and attitude towards language learning did not have a significant correlation (r= .06, p> 0.05.

  16. Electroconvulsive therapy: Effect of an educational experience on nursing students’ knowledge and attitudes

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    Eman Dawood

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite the proved effectiveness of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in the treatment of many psychiatric emergencies and disorders, there are many misconceptions and groundless negative attitudes about its prescription and utilization by many health professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational experience including a two hours lecture on ECT and viewing a video of the ECT procedure on nursing students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards ECT. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used to conduct the current study. A 28 – items (two constructs measuring students’ attitudes and knowledge self administered questionnaire was administered before and after exposure to the two – hour lecture and a movie representing the ECT procedure to a non probability convenience sample of ninety seven female nursing students. Informed written consent was obtained from all students who agreed to participate in the study. Results: Paired sample T. test showed significant differences in students’ scores before and after their educational experience in the psychiatric/mental health nursing course as following: attitude scores (t = 20.507, P t = 20.697, p t = 23.849, p Conclusion: Positive educational experiences would increase the knowledge of ECT, which might in turn contribute to more favorable attitudes towards ECT. Proper educational materials and mass media programs aiming to increase students and practitioners’ awareness about ECT are recommended.

  17. Cockpit management attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  18. Verbs with an Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Colonna Dahlman, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate some semantic and syntactical properties of verbs of propositional attitude, using data from English, German, Swedish, Italian and Gallipolino (a dialect from South Italy). The work is based on the distinction between situational and actional attitude as proposed by Ray Jackendoff (Jackendoff, Language, Consciousness and Culture, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2007). Within this theoretical framework, two types of propositional attitude verbs will be distinguish...

  19. Sociodemographic, Psychological and Politicocultural Correlates in Flemish Students' Attitudes towards French and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of 100 Flemish high-school students' attitudes towards French and English (both "foreign" languages) revealed complex links between personality factors, gender, politicocultural identity, communicative behaviour and foreign language attitudes. Attitudes towards English were found to be much more positive than those towards French,…

  20. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  1. Case Managers' Attitudes toward the Use of Homework for People Diagnosed with a Severe Psychiatric Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J.; Deane, Frank P.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Crowe, Trevor P.

    2007-01-01

    The study examined mental health case managers' attitudes toward the use of homework and explored the relationship between clinician attitudes and systematic homework administration practices. A survey examining attitudes toward the use of homework was completed by 122 Australian mental health case managers. Case managers who held more positive

  2. Attitudes toward Information Technology of Teachers of the Gifted: Implications for Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This statewide study of teachers of intellectually gifted students examined teachers' attitudes toward information technology. Participants were 418 teachers of the intellectually gifted in a southeastern state who voluntarily responded to a survey about technology attitudes. Results indicated positive attitudes toward technology, with training in…

  3. Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2014-01-01

    Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

  4. MEDICAL STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARDS PSYCHIATRY: EFFECT OF A TWO WEEK POSTING

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopalan, Mani; Kuruvilla, K.

    1994-01-01

    The attitudes towards psychiatry of thirty, fourth year medical students were studied before and after a two week clinical posting, using an attitudes questionnaire. The results indicated that a two week posting in the specialty was not sufficient to significantly influence students' attitudes in a positive direction. The implications of these findings for undergraduate psychiatric education are discussed.

  5. TEACHER'S ATTITUDES TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION -AS A DETERMINANT OF THEIR SUCCESS AND COMMITMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu A. Keshwan

    2014-01-01

    Good teacher is always loyal and truthful to their profession and to those they serve. A teacher's perception towards teaching directly affects the student. A teacher's attitude remarkably effects the achievement of a student. Some teachers see teaching as just their source of income and show no dedication and loyalty towards their profession. teacher occupies a pivotal position in the system of education. The teacher is the backbone of the educational system, maker of the...

  6. Overcoming cop culture? Organizational justice and police officers' attitudes toward the public

    OpenAIRE

    Myhill, A.; Bradford, B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test theories of organizational justice in the context of a police agency. Design/methodology/approach: Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyze data from a survey of officers in a police force in England. Findings: The SEM showed that organizational justice was associated with positive attitudes towards serving members of the public. This relationship was mediated by commitment to elements of community policing and, for community police...

  7. Impact of health education on knowledge and attitudes of Saudi paramedical students toward HIV/AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Mohammad S. Abouzeid; Al-Jeffri, Mohammad H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the impact of health education on the knowledge and attitudes of paramedical students in Saudi Arabia toward HIV/AIDS. METHODS We carried out an interventional study on a sample selected from students of health institutes and health colleges in Saudi Arabia during the calendar year 2002-2003. RESULTS The intervention shows a positive effect on students' knowledge regarding means of transmission of HIV and means of protection from HIV/AIDS. Furthermore,...

  8. Examining The Impact Of Mobile Marketing On Consumers' Attitudes and Purchase Intentions.

    OpenAIRE

    Basheer Abbass Al-alak; Ibrahim Akram Alnawas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the impact of mobile marketing on consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions. More specifically the research intended to measure Jordanian consumers' acceptance of SMS advertising. A number of hypotheses were formulated for this purpose. The findings of the study show that there existed positive relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived entertainment and intention to participate and purchase intention. Whereas there existed negative relationshi...

  9. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    OpenAIRE

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people ha...

  10. Farmer’s Attitude on Sustainable Agriculture and its Determinants: A Case Study in Behbahan County of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abolhasan Sadati

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive survey to study the attitudes and perceptions of Iranian farmers on the concepts and thoughts of sustainable agriculture and identifying effective factors on their attitude. The target population of this study consisted of 7314 Behbahan farmers of Khuzestan province of Iran. A sample consisting of 208 respondents was selected through Stratified Sampling. The instrument used for assessing the attitude of respondents on the concepts of sustainable agriculture was a questionnaire by reliability 0.78. Responses were grouped based on the differences in standard deviation of mean, which revealed that 73.4% of respondents had moderate attitude towards concepts of sustainable agriculture. The results of study showed that there is positive correlation between literacy, participation in extension courses, off-farm income, farmer's knowledge about sustainable agriculture, level of use of sustainable agriculture methods, extension contacts and job satisfaction and negative correlation between age, experience in agricultural activities, family size and agrarian land with attitude toward sustainable agriculture. According to result of regression the ‘extension contacts’, ‘Farmers knowledge about sustainable agriculture’, ‘Job satisfaction’ and ‘literacy’ are effective factors on farmers attitude toward sustainable agriculture and explained 52.6% of this scale.

  11. The knowledge and attitude of general dentists toward denture adhesives in Tehran

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    Fakhri Hamidreza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? Materials and Methods: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge. Results: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The ?2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.

  12. A Theory of Rational Attitude Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Benoît, Jean-Pierre; Dubra, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated the possibility of attitude polarization. For instance, Lord, Ross & Lepper (1979) partitioned subjects into two groups, according to whether or not they believed the death penalty had a deterrent effect, and presented them with a set of studies on the issue. Believers and skeptics both become more convinced of their initial views; that is, the population polarized. Many scholars have concluded that attitude polarization shows that people process informa...

  13. CAVL: Does it develop learner’s attitude?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat MALEKI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual’s response to anything related to the immediate context can form attitudes concerning the learning situation where the language is taught. As an attempt to shed new light on the issues relevant to attitude, this study investigated the extent to which a Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Learning (CAVL, Mandegar, can improve learners’ perceptions about the program. To fulfill the aim, eighty first-grade high school learners, divided as control and experimental groups, were randomly selected. Two questionnaires, in the first and last session adopted from Altiner (2011 and Bulut & Farhan (2007 respectively, were administered to the participants to investigate their perception to use CAVL in the future. The results, obtained using Paired Samples T-Test (p=0.002 < .05, revealed a significant difference between CAVL users and nonusers in favor of the experimental group. Students in the experimental group showed a positive attitude toward CAVL and perceived its utility for helping them speed up vocabulary learning. The present finding might have important implications for decision makers and teachers to further involve Computer-Assisted based programs to increase Language learning.

  14. Using a Smartphone Camera for Nanosatellite Attitude Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmin, R.

    2014-09-01

    The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center has repeatedly flown a commercial cellphone in space. As this project continues, additional utility is being extracted from the cell phone hardware to enable more complex missions. The camera in particular shows great potential as an instrument for position and attitude determination, but this requires complex image processing. This paper outlines progress towards that image processing capability. Initial tests on a small collection of sample images have demonstrated the determination of a Moon vector from an image by automatic thresholding and centroiding, allowing the calibration of existing attitude control systems. Work has been undertaken on a further set of sample images towards horizon detection using a variety of techniques including thresholding, edge detection, applying a Hough transform, and circle fitting. Ultimately it is hoped this will allow calculation of an Earth vector for attitude determination and an approximate altitude. A quick discussion of work towards using the camera as a star tracker is then presented, followed by an introduction to further applications of the camera on space missions.

  15. Elementary Teachers' Attitudes toward Mainstreaming Educable Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Bill J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    There were no significant overall differences in responses based on teacher age, academic training, teaching experience, grade level, and prior teaching experience with mainstreamed EMR students. However, individual responses indicated positive attitudes toward and acceptance of mainstreaming EMR children. (CL)

  16. Diversity experiences predict changes in attitudes toward affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, Christopher L

    2007-10-01

    The current study examined the role of diversity experiences in promoting changes in attitudes toward affirmative action (AA). Using longitudinal data from a survey of over 1000 college students at admission and in their fourth year, results demonstrated that participation in diversity-related campus activities related to positive changes in attitudes toward affirmative action. This result was consistent across samples of White, African American, and Asian American students. Positive changes in attitudes persisted despite statistical controls for established predictors of attitudes toward AA such as merit and prevalence of discrimination beliefs, and individual-level characteristics such as experiences of discrimination and political liberalism. I discuss the relevance of this finding to the AA literature and to changing attitudes toward AA. PMID:17967096

  17. A Study of Iranian Students’ Attitude towards Science and Technology, School Science and Environment, Based on the ROSE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizollah Arbabi Sarjou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study has investigated attitudes towards science and technology, school science and environmental issues among middle school students. The population included all 3rd grade students in Isfahan and a total of 250 students (120 female and 130 male were selected through stratified random sampling method. Research instrument was the Persian translation of the Relevance of Science Education (ROSE Questionnaire. After pilot study, data were analyzed by SPSS. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for this scale was set to be .94. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and one sample t-test and independent t-test were used. Results indicated that there is a positive attitude towards science and technology, school science and environmental issues among students in three components of study. However, there was not a positive attitude towards some items of these components. The results also showed that in three components of the study, only there is a meaningful difference between males and females points of views in attitude towards environmental issues. According to this result, males have higher averages than the females. The results of this research provide important information about Iranian students’ attitude towards science and could be used by science educators to development of science curricula and science text books.

  18. Elaborating on the attitude–behaviour gap regarding organic products : young Danish consumers and in-store food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Aagaard, Emilie Marie Niebuhr

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Even though most consumers hold positive attitudes towards organic food, attitudes appear to translate into respective behaviour to the same extent. It has been found that the high and availability are major reasons for this attitude–behaviour gap, especially among young consumers. In Denmark, supermarkets offer a comparatively broad organic foodrange at relatively small price premiums; however, even in Denmark, market growth ratesare moderate. To explore in detail young consumer’s barriers to act upon their attitudes, we aimed at researching their thoughts and product associations at the point of sale. Qualitative accompanied shopping interviews with 10 young consumers holding positive attitudes towards organic were conducted. The analysis resulted in a model of the point-of-sale thoughts concerning organic food, showing that the conditions (expected quality, price premium) met in the store and the personal context (moral beliefs, household member influence) impact the argumentations, which lead toa choice decision and subsequent elaboration of the consequences of this choice. Price is discussed as a main barrier, but a temporary one: young consumers argue that they postpone organic purchases until a later stage in life.We conclude that to increase young Danish consumers’ choice of organic, the high price premium image needs to be lessened and the differentiation from conventional food improved. Furthermore, communication might trigger young consumers to consider acting now upon ethical values, instead of postponing it.

  19. Near-Death Experiences and Antisuicidal Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyson, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    One hundred-fifty near death experiencers (NDErs) and 43 individuals who had come close to death without having NDEs (nonNDErs) rated 12 antisuicidal attitudes. NDErs endorsed significantly more statements than did nonNDErs, and, among NDErs, number of statements endorsed was positively associated with depth of experience. Findings support…

  20. Influence of 'soft' versus 'scientific' health information framing and contradictory information on consumers' health inferences and attitudes towards a food supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    It is a requirement that health claims be scientifically founded. However, their phrasing is criticised for being unappealing and cumbersome to communicate to consumers. Instead, it has been found that consumers respond favourably to non-scientifically phrased ‘soft’ health information. We aimed to explore to what extent health claims presented in the context of (thus framed) scientific phrasing of health information impacts health inferences and attitudes towards a product when compared to ‘soft’ health-related information framing. Different versions of mock resveratrol food supplement descriptions were presented in a between subjects experimental design conducted in the US and Denmark. Furthermore, respondents were shown mock-up media reports contradicting the earlier information and asked to repeat their assessment of health inferences and their attitude. This was done to assess how robust consumers’ health inferences and attitudes are in an environment of contradictory information. Results show that the soft information positively influences health inferences and attitudes in Denmark, while in the US, scientific information positively influences health inferences but not attitudes. Faced with contradictory information, US consumers reduce their favourable attitude towards the product to a lesser extent in the presence of scientific information. The findings underline the crucial role of the informational context as well as the country background for consumer perception of health claims. Non-scientific information can be potentially more powerful in communication, but a product assessment based on scientific information might be more robust to the detrimental impact of contradictory information.

  1. The Effects of Speech Training, Guidebook and Simultaneous Method, on the Knowledge and Attitude of Students about HIV/AIDS

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    Rahim Vakili

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A great percentage of AIDS infections occure in adolescence and youth. since that,studing and finding the most efficient teaching methods in order to improve their information ( knowledge and attitude also to create o positive one and to creat preventive measures in the young and adolescent,is of great significance and priority. Materials and Methods: 7 school were picked randomy among different Mashhad educational districts.From these schools,650 students were  randomy  selected and divided into 4 groups:1-education with lecture, 2-education with guidebook, 3-education with lecture and guidebook,  4-without any education. Firstly ,  basic knowledge and attitude of students on AIDS were evaluated. Then their educational needs and curriculum were designed. Then 2 weeeks after cinducting the  education,student's knowledge ( study groups and attitude were evaluated. Results: Average Points for knowledge and attitude before education were 25.86 and 23.70 that were elevated to 27.68  and 25.27 after  aducation. There was no  statistical difference between average points of all 4 groups' knowledge and attitude before education. After education, average point of knowledge was 28.33+5.6 in  lecture group,28.19+6.26 in guidebook group, 29.77+4.49 in lecture and guidebook group and 26.90+4.95 in control group. After  education, average  points of attitude  was 25.77+3.7 in lecture group, 25.62+3.47 in guidebook group, 25.27+3.87 in lecture and guidebook  group  and 23.98+3.56 in  control group. Statistical analyses  showed that there is significant difference between points before and after education in the 3 study groups ( PConclusion:  To improve  student's  knowledge,  education by both lecture and guidebook, and to improve their attitude or to create a positive one, lecture method are preferred.

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Medication Use among Health Care Students in King Saud University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah T. Eissa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health sciences students are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward medication use. However, literary evidence of such expertise among health sciences students of King Saud University is unknown. This study was completed to assess the knowledge about medicines and behavior of health science students towards safe use of medications. It also aims to assess the health knowledge, attitude and practices of the students. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire consisting of 24 questions. This was administered by the researcher between October and December 2009 in the colleges of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, applied medical science and nursing of the King Saud University. The survey consisted of three parts: Ten questions assessed the students’ knowledge on drug safety (Part 1. Four questions assessed student attitude toward medication consultations by the pharmacist (Part 2 and ten questions involved medication use practices and consultation with pharmacists (Part 3. A stratified sampling method was used to select participants. Results: Pharmacy students had better medication knowledge compared to other health sciences students especially regarding antihypertensive drugs, antibiotics, paracetamol and antacids (p<0.05. Pharmacy students showed a positive attitude regarding the trustworthiness of a pharmacist to give a consultation. Nearly all other health science students showed a negative attitude about dispensing and consultation concerning nutritional supplements by a pharmacist. All health sciences students had a similar perception toward medication use and practice. Conclusion Pharmacy students had better knowledge about medication practice compared to other health sciences students. All other health sciences students lacked the appropriate attitude and practice related to the safe use of medications.

  3. Public and private attitudes towards 'green' electricity: the case of Swedish wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for 'green' electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled

  4. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassan, Suha; Takash, Hanan

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes in Jordan. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 112 families. RESULTS: There were no significant main effects of gender on any of the constructs of interest. Mothers and fathers reported similar levels of attributions regarding uncontrollable success, adult-controlled failure, and child-controlled failure in the same family. Regarding attitudes, mothers and fathers reported greater progressive attitudes than authoritarian attitudes. Large, significant correlations were found for concordance between parents in the same family on all seven attributions and attitudes examined; all remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding uncontrollable success, adult-controlled failure, child-controlled failure, perceived control over failure, progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that in Jordan mothers and fathers hold similar levels of attributions and attitudes. PMID:21927587

  5. Study of Family Planning Service Providers Knowledge about and Attitude toward Pregnancy Prevention Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amiri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: These days family planning is considered a fundamental principle in human life. This study aimed to investigate family planning service providers knowledge about and attitude toward pregnancy prevention methods in shahrood in 2008. Methods: This research was a cross-sectional and applied one. In this study a questionnaire including 8 general items and 52 specialized ones was administered to service providers. The studied population (162 people were all service providers working in health houses and urban and rural health centers in shahrood. The correlation between variables was calculated through Pearson correlation coefficient and the means of groups were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results have been show in the form of tables and diagrams. Results: 152 people the majority of whom (73.7% were women participated in the study. 74.3% of participants had high school diploma and below degrees. 7.9 % had associative and 2.6% had BS degrees in family health. 15.1% had BS degrees in midwifery. The Knowledge mean score was 17.9±2.7 out of 25 which indicates average knowledge of service providers. The attitude mean score was 71±10.3 out of 108 that indicates the positive attitude of family planning service providers. The results showed a significant relationship between knowledge and sex job level of education unit of service providing work experience and type of prevention used by the service providers (P=0.001. However there was no significant relationship between attitude and sex service unit and work experience. Conclusion: Noting the average knowledge and the positive attitudes of the family planning service providers and noting the unreliable prevention methods about one-third of them use providing all ranks of service providers with educational classes about family planning seems to be a considerable help for planning and promotion of mothers health plans.

  6. Relationship among Iranian EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy in Writing, Attitude towards Writing, Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Sarkhoush

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension,  and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT, a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS, and a questionnaire on attitude towards writing (WAQ. In order to make the questionnaires more comprehensible, they were adapted to Iranian context. This study conducted in two phases. First, the questionnaires were administered in the fist hour. In the second phase participants were given 45 minutes to write an argumentative essay on a given topic. The compositions were scored according to IELTS Writing Band Descriptive for public version by two raters. The obtained marks were taken to indicate the students’ overall writing performance. The findings of the study suggested that, self-efficacy in writing and writing apprehension was negatively correlated. Moreover there was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and attitude towards writing. Besides, the results showed that self-efficacy and writing performance were positively correlated. The correlation between writing apprehension and attitude towards writing was negative. Finally there was a negative correlation between writing apprehension and writing performance. The results of a three-way ANOVA revealed that those learners with positive attitudes performed significantly better than those with negative attitudes on writing task. In terms of self-efficacy and apprehension levels no significant differences were found.  

  7. Professionals' Attitudes towards Using e-Learning Implementation with Children with Disabilities

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    Ahmed Farouk Mohamed Saleh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored e-learning attitudes reported by (98 professionals working in the field of children with disabilities, (60 teachers, (18 tutors working in diverse areas, (11 shadow teachers and (9 social workers, current study belongs to the pattern of descriptive analytical studies, a study Applied in ad hoc learning disabilities institution at Fayoum governorate south Egypt, The final results of Friedman technique confirmed that the attitudes of e-learning consists of three components Affective, Behavior and Cognitive components according (A,B,C MODEL, cognitive Component has achieved the first rank in terms of the importance at (2.29, the next is Affective component at mean rank (2.02, the third and final rank is behavioral or skills component at (1.69. in the other hand result shows that E-learning implementation barriers consisted of five items, the test confirmed that the rank of items (1 to (5, Content-Suitability barriers is the first by mean rank (4.10, the last rank is the Instructional barriers by mean rank (1.66, results enable us to accept the null hypothesis: there is no significance difference in the professionals attitudes towards e-learning courseVary according to (educational level, position, in the other hand result showed accepts the alternative hypothesis: there is a statistically significant association at a level (0.05 between e learning implementation barriers and staff attitudes towards e learning.

  8. Behavioral immune system and ingroup derogation: the effects of infectious diseases on ingroup derogation attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Tan, Chuan; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    From evolutionary reasoning, we derived a novel hypothesis that ingroup derogation is an evolved response of behavioral immune system which follows the smoke detector principle and the functional flexibility principle. This hypothesis was tested and supported across three experiments. In Experiment 1, participants' group membership was manipulated by using a minimal group paradigm. The results indicated that mere social categorization alone - a heuristic cue that implies the differentiation between "us" and "them" - was sufficient to elicit ingroup derogation among Chinese participants, and, such an intergroup bias was positively associated with the perceived vulnerability to diseases, which was also more consistently associated with ingroup attitudes. Experiment 2 extended and partially replicated Experiment 1 by showing that when there were cues of diseases in the immediate physical environment, Chinese participants exaggerated their attitudes of ingroup derogation. The results also showed that this effect was mainly driven by outgroup attraction. Experiment 3 changed the method of disease manipulation, and found that Chinese participants responded more strongly to disease cues originating from ingroup members and that they endorsed more ingroup derogation attitudes even when the ingroup and outgroup members were both displaying cues of diseases. Taken together, these results reveal the previously unexplored effects of infectious diseases on ingroup derogation attitudes, and suggest an interesting linkage between the evolved behavioral immune system and the ingroup derogation. PMID:25816247

  9. Attitude towards the Environment and Green Products:Consumers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Booi Chen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The current rapid growth in the economy and the patterns of consumers’ consumption and behavior worldwide are the main cause of environmental deterioration. As the environment continues to worsen, it has become a persistent public concern in the developed countries and has recently awakens developing countries to the green movement. This paper is essentially exploratory in nature and has two objectives. The first objective is to compare gender with attitudes towards the environment and green products. The second objective is to investigate the relationship between attitude towards the environment and green products. Result from the independent sample t-test shows that there were no significant differences between gender in their environmental attitudes and attitudes on green products. The rotated factor matrix validated the underlying dimensions of environmental attitudes into three major dimensions (environmental protection, government’s role, and personal norm. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis revealed that consumer attitudes on the government’s role and their personal norm towards the environment contributed significantly to their attitude on green product. Further investigation revealed that personal norm was the most important contributor to the attitude towards green product. However, environmental protection did not contribute significantly to consumers’ attitudes on green product.Keywords: Environmental attitude; green products; consumer behaviour; Malaysia

  10. Agricultural Specialists\\' Attitude toward and Intention for Application of VRT-Spraying Technologies Using Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rezaee Moghadam

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Variable rate technology-spraying technologies are new aspect of sustainable agriculture. In these technologies, the chemical is applied in the needed level of farm where there is a high intensity of pests and weeds. The purpose of this paper was to study the agricultural specialists' attitude toward and intention to use variable rate technology-spraying technologies in Jihad-e-Keshavarzi organization of Fars and Khuzestan provinces. A survey was conducted using a stratified random sampling to collect data from 249 agricultural specialists. The results showed that the specialists of Fars and Khuzestan provinces have intentions to use the variable rate technology-spraying technologies. The variables including attitude toward application, trialing, perceived usefulness, compatibility, and attitude of confidence all influence the intentions to use the variable rate technology-spraying technologies. Based on high positive intention of agricultural specialists, we recommend the use of these technologies in agricultural practices of the two provinces.

  11. ROMANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS TV COMMERCIALS

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    Raluca B?BU? (COMIATI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As advertisements are broadcast on a daily basis, Romanian consumers are subject to an intensive media bombardment designed to influence them, trigger certain emotions, and make them develop an attitude to a particular brand or product. When designing the advertisement, great care must be taken so that it conveys positive feelings and emotions and fosters favourable attitudes to a brand. The object of the current research is to determine how consumers are able to assess the advertisement phenomenon in general and the TV commercials in particular. Based on a representative sample of 550 Romanian consumers from the urban population, the study highlights the Romanian consumers’ attitude to various types of advertisements, endorsers and creative strategies used to design and execute the advertisements. The managerial as well as the scientific implications are considered by means of the correlations made according to the respondents’ social and demographic characteristics.

  12. Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

  13. Generational cohorts and their attitudes toward advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Cyril de Run

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, 48 interviews were conducted and data were content-analyzed. The findings were then incorporated into the second phase of study to investigate cohorts’ views about advertising, using theory of reasoned action. A quantitative approach via questionnaire-based survey was administered, and 1,410 copies were collected for analysis. Five distinct cohorts are proposed in the initial findings. They are labeled as Neoteric Inheritors, Prospective Pursuers, Social Strivers, Idealistic Strugglers and Battling Lifers on the basis of their respective engagement with events during the coming-of-age years. The subsequent findings show that beliefs about advertising are significant predictors of the attitudes to advertising, and so are the attitudes with regard to the intention of every cohort. However, their beliefs and attitudes to advertising are found to differ significantly, especially in the older cohort. The study thus highlights the implication of generational differences on the attitudes to advertising.

  14. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis / Potenciais evocados visuais mostram correlação positiva forte com a pressão intracraniana em pacientes com meningite criptocócica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva, Vieira; Maria do Amparo Salmito, Cavalcanti; Dorcas Lamounier, Costa; Kelsen Dantas, Eulálio; Otoni Cardoso do, Vale; Chrystiany Placido de Brito, Vieira; Carlos Henrique Nery, Costa.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo : Verificar a relação entre pressão intracraniana e potencial evocado visual por flash (PEV-F) em pacientes com meningite criptocócica. Método A amostra incluiu pacientes admitidos em um hospital de referência para doenças infecciosas. Realizou-se PEV-F antes de cada punção lombar. Calculo [...] u-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e a equação de regressão linear entre as variáveis latência N2 e pressão intracraniana inferida através de raquimanometria. Resultados Dezoito pacientes foram submetidos a um total de 69 punções lombares. A latência N2 mostrou correlação positiva forte com a pressão de abertura verificada na primeira punção lombar a que cada paciente foi submetido (r = 0,83; IC = 0,60 ? 0,94; p Abstract in english Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP) in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients w [...] ere subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson?s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p

  15. The Predictive Role of Self-efficacy, Outcome Expectancies, Past Behavior and Attitudes on Condom Use in a Sample of Female College Students

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    Daniele Artistico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of self-efficacy in relation to condom use. A sample of 87 female college students completed self-report measures related to their sexual history, attitudes towards condoms and past condom use, as well as their outcome expectancy and intention to use condoms in the future. The results showed a positive correlation between self-efficacy and positive attitudes towards condom use, as well as correlations between past behavior, self-efficacy and intention to use condoms in the future. Multiple linear regression models were used to further explore the relationship between self-efficacy, past condom use, outcome expectancy and attitudes toward condoms, with the intention to use condoms in the future. The results demonstrated that both self-efficacy and past condom use are significant predictors of an individual’s intention to use condoms in the future.

  16. Student Attitudes toward Technology Enhanced History Education: Comparison between Turkish and American Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Turan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Teacher and student attitudes towards the technology enhanced instruction plays a critical role in determining its effectiveness. The purpose of the study is to examine Turkish and American students’ attitudes and thoughts toward the use of educational technologies in history courses, and to compare the results to determine whether there are any differences between the attitudes of Turkish and American student. This study was conducted with 197 American students from Upper Saint Claire High school in Pittsburgh, PA, and 214 Turkish students from Konya High school who volutered for this study. The required data for this study were gathered by a 26-item technology questionnaire, which included 7 multiple-choice questions and 19 Likert scale questions. This questionnaire was developed to gather data on five different areas of interest: (1 demographic information, (2 participants’ computer- and Internet-usage skills, (3 the level of technology used in history classrooms, (4 participants’ attitudes toward technology-enhanced history education, and (5 participants’ attitudes toward history. Most of the Turkish and American students rated themselves as being very well experienced on the eight computer- and Internet-usage skills targeted in this study. But the comparison of the data indicated that American students have higher computer- and Internet-usage skills than Turkish students do, and this difference is statistically significant (p = 0.001. Most of the Turkish and American students showed positive attitudes on using educational technologies in history classrooms. A majority of the Turkish and American students stated that they would be able to focus and learn better if more technological materials were used in classroom activities, and this, in turn, would increase their academic achievements.

  17. Measuring consumer attitudes towards gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. L. Venter

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to measure consumer attitudes towards gambling amongst various sociodemographic groups in Port Elizabeth. The study was based on past research and used a modified version of a questionnaire developed by various authors. The sample (N=355 was drawn, using a non-probability sampling technique from English, Afrikaans and Xhosa speaking respondents in the Port Elizabeth Uitenhage area. Fieldwork was carried out by students of Industrial Psychology at the University of Port Elizabeth. Results showed significant differences between socio-demographic groups regarding attitudes towards gambling. Cultural influences deduced from home language and religion seems to influence gambling attitudes in particular. These results have important implications for the gaming industry and welfare organisations.

    Opsomming
    Die hoof doelstelling van hierdie studie was om verbruikerhoudings ten opsigte van dobbel onder verskeie sosiodemografiese groepe in Port Elizabeth te ondersoek. Die studie is gegrond op vorige navorsing in die veld en maak gebruik van n aangepaste vraelys, ontwikkel deur verskeie outeurs. ‘n Nie-ewekansige steekproef (N=355 is getrek uit Engels, Afrikaans en Xhosa-sprekende respondente in die Port Elizabeth Uitenhage gebied. Veldwerk is uitgevoer deur Bedryfsielkunde studente van die Universiteit van Port Elizabeth. Bevindinge toon beduidende verskille tussen sosio-demografiese groepe ten opsigte van houdings oor dobbel. Kultuurinvloede afgelei uit taal en godsdiens blyk om dobbelhoudings te beinvloed. Die resultate het belangrike implikasies vir die dobbelspelbedryf en welsynsorganisasies.

  18. A Survey of Attitudes toward Mediation among Chinese High School EFL Teachers and Their Classroom Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Xiongyong Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper raises concerns about Chinese high school EFL teachers’ attitudes toward mediation and their classroom constraints. From the data gathered in the survey of 152 EFL teachers, the findings indicate that most teachers fail to mediate students’ learning due to situational constraints that they encounter though they hold positive attitudes toward mediation. Statistically, teachers with higher educational qualifications have more positive attitudes toward the mediator role th...

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PATIENT'S ATTITUDE TOWARDS YOGA AND THE TREATMENT OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Poonam; Varma, V K; S. K. Verma; Pershad, Dwaraka

    1987-01-01

    Correlations were obtained between scores on the P.G.I. Yoga Attitude Scale and improvement in a group of 20 psychoneurotic patients undertaking yoga therapy of 4-6 weeks duration. A significant positive correlation was found between the improvement in social and vocational disability and scores on the P.G.I Yoga Attitude Scale at intake. However, during treatment and followup, there was a significant change in the attitude towards yoga - it became more positive. Correlations were also perfor...

  20. Attitudes toward Counterfeit Products and Generation Differentia

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    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given growth in international trade in counterfeit products and whereas Consumers are the actual forces behind this counterfeiting trade, so, the study focuses on the demand side of counterfeiting, identifying and examining factors influencing on attitude of consumers of non-deceptive counterfeiting in terms of differences generations in Iran, second most populous country among the countries of Middle East. In this study, based on the four generation and the revolution in Iran, the generations are divided into two generations: combination generation and Y generation and also,Conceptual framework of the study emphasizes that Perceived Risk, Risk Averseness, Price-Quality preference, Subjective Norm, Integrity, Personal Gratification could affect on attitudes toward counterfeit products. Results of SEM from samples of combination generation (52.43% and Y generation (47.57 indicate that perceived risk and risk averseness have negative impact on attitudes toward counterfeit products and Personal Gratification no impact on it under both of generations but other variables have differences impacts on attitudes. Also in both of generations, the results indicated that attitudes toward counterfeit products are positively related to behavior intentions. Drawing on the results of the research, the researchers suggest that it may be necessary for the marketing practices for these two generations differ.

  1. The GLONASS-M satellite yaw-attitude model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilssner, F.; Springer, T.; Gienger, G.; Dow, J.

    2011-01-01

    The proper modeling of the satellites’ yaw-attitude is a prerequisite for high-precision Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning and poses a particular challenge during periods when the satellite orbital planes are partially eclipsed. Whereas a lot of effort has been put in to examine the yaw-attitude control of GPS satellites that are in eclipsing orbits, hardly anything is known about the yaw-attitude behavior of eclipsing GLONASS-M satellites. However, systematic variations of the carrier phase observation residuals in the vicinity of the orbit’s noon and midnight points of up to ±27 cm indicate significant attitude-related modeling issues. In order to explore the GLONASS-M attitude laws during eclipse seasons, we have studied the evolution of the horizontal satellite antenna offset estimates during orbit noon and orbit midnight using a technique that we refer to as “reverse kinematic precise point positioning”. In this approach, we keep all relevant global geodetic parameters fixed and estimate the satellite clock and antenna phase center positions epoch-by-epoch using 30-second observation and clock data from a global multi-GNSS ground station network. The estimated horizontal antenna phase center offsets implicitly provide the spacecraft’s yaw-attitude. The insights gained from studying the yaw angle behavior have led to the development of the very first yaw-attitude model for eclipsing GLONASS-M satellites. The derived yaw-attitude model proves to be much better than the nominal yaw-attitude model commonly being used by today’s GLONASS-capable GNSS software packages as it reduces the observation residuals of eclipsing satellites down to the normal level of non-eclipsing satellites and thereby prevents a multitude of measurements from being incorrectly identified as outliers. It facilitates continuous satellite clock estimation during eclipse and improves in particular the results of kinematic precise point positioning of ground-based receivers.

  2. Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbaco, K. S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even he/she did not learned values in his/her mathematics class.

  3. Language Learners’ Acculturation Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafieyan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian undergraduate students of English as a Foreign Language, following a one-semester academic sojourn in the United States. The data of the study were collected through a 29-item 5-point Likert scale acculturation attitude questionnaire. Findings indicated that sojourners tended to have close contact with the people of the target society while maintaining their original culture, adopting Integration and Assimilation strategies as their acculturation attitudes. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested providing opportunities for students of English as a Foreign Language to immerse in the target language culture through organizing academic exchange programs.

  4. Attitudes, Mathematics, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    This paper comments on three concepts in mathematics that need harmonizing: attitudes, mathematics, and evaluation. Some ways of evaluating achievement are suggested. Discusses portfolios as an evaluation process and provides information about additional assessment procedures. (ASK)

  5. Attitudes to audit

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Jo

    1983-01-01

    An exercise in audit was arranged jointly by the Local Medical Committee and the Royal College of General Practitioners in the Doncaster area. This was followed up by a questionnaire enquiring about attitudes to the audit.

  6. A quantitative research of consumer’s attitude towards food products advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu Mirela-Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the consumers' attitude towards television/radio/press advertising is especially important, a fact which is highlighted by national and international speciality literature. The attitude of the consumer towards a television commercial influences the attitude towards the promoted product or brand. Thus, a positive attitude towards the commercial for a brand determines a positive attitude towards the respective brand and, eventually, may result in the formulation of the purchase intent. It is hard to say which aspects of advertising have the greatest influence on the formation of consumer attitudes and purchase intent formulation, but not impossible to find out. In this context, through this study, we aim at contributing to the determination of the consumers' attitude towards televised advertising aimed at promoting food products.

  7. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms : The influence of travel time and wind farm attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Generally people are more positive towards offshore wind farms compared to on-land wind farms. However, the attitudes are commonly assumed to be independent of experience with wind farms. Important relations between attitude and experience might therefore be disregarded. The present paper gives a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more positive attitudes compared to wind farms with fewer turbines.

  8. Language Learners’ Acculturation Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Rafieyan; Maryam Orang; Maryam Bijami; Maryam Sharafi Nejad; Lin Siew Eng

    2013-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian undergraduate students of English as a Foreign Language, following a one-semester academic sojourn in the United States. The data of the study were collected ...

  9. Consumers’ Attitude towards Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Uchenna Cyril. Eze; Chai Har Lee

    2012-01-01

    Advertising is a growing business and with advances in the Internet technology, the dynamics and landscape ofthe business has changed as well. Prior findings on consumers’ attitude towards advertising are mixed. Thispaper is an attempt to examine young adults’ attitude towards advertising. We conceptualized a framework toexamine the influence of six independent variables namely consumer manipulation, product information,hedonic/pleasure, economic condition, social integration, and materia...

  10. Anesthesiologist`s Attitude Towards Preoperative Patients` Education Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake of information about anaesthesia and fear of post operation consciousness, pain, nausea and vomiting increases patient`s anxiety. There are various reports about patient`s desire for preoperational information in Iran and other countries, but we don`t find any study related to anesthesiologist`s view about patient`s needs before anaesthesia and operation. This descriptive (cross- sectional study was done in 2005 on 110 anesthesiologists working in hospitals of Mazandaran province. Questionnaire containing 4 questions about demographic and 18 questions related to anaesthesia was prepared. Attitude of the anesthesiologists was studied by dividing in 4 categories based on Likert rating scale as follow: strongly agree, agree, particularly agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The obtained data were shown in table; chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results of this study showed that the most positive attitude of anesthesiologists about patient teaching was related to the proper explanation about duration of N.P.O before operation (97.3% and 52.7% were against about giving explanation of the during and post operation possible problems. In this regard no significant difference was observed between educational and non educational hospitals (p<0.018. No significant view point difference was observed between anesthesiologists at different level of education (p<0.07. Considering the positive attitude of the anesthesiologists towards education to preoperational patients, it is recommended that such education be implemented and the patients be charged for preoperational consultation. In order to give explanation about anaesthesia at proper time, when needed.

  11. Utilization of attitude maps in evaluating teachers' attitudes towards assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feral OGAN-BEKIROGLU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Various methods have been performed to identify teachers’ attitudes towards assessment. Recognizing the idea that mapping is one of the most efficient tools, this study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of attitude maps in the evaluation of teachers’ attitudes towards assessment. The instrument, composed of open-ended questions, was utilized during the semi-structured interview protocol and used as the study’s data collection tool. Attitude maps were constructed during the evaluation process to represent the pre-service teachers’ attitudes’ towards assessment. The participants’ attitudes were determined and categorized as traditional, close to traditional, transitional, close to constructivist, and constructivist. Criterion validity of the results was achieved by comparing the categories drawn from the attitude maps with the categories derived by the survey. Results indicate that attitude mapping is a useful way to evaluate teachers’ attitudes towards assessment.

  12. Teaching with Sponsored Instructional Materials: Attitudes of Teachers in Uganda

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    Ndawula Stephen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the teachers’ attitudes towards using sponsored instructional materials provided by the Aga Khan Education Service (AES to primary schools in Uganda. The objectives of the study were: to establish teachers’ attitudes towards the AES materials in relation to the level of class taught, size of classes and the nature of subject (s taught. Data was gathered from twenty five class teachers, using interview schedules. Majority of the teachers (93% expressed positive attitude, while only 7% had negative attitudes over using the AES materials. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations focused on: sensitization of teachers on importance AES; improving on close work relationship between primary schools and AES; extending AES materials to non-project schools and; further research on other variables rather than teachers’ attitudes.

  13. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  14. Effects of Pre-Purchase Search Motivation on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising: A Case of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran A Mir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years, social media have profoundly changed the ways of social and business communication. Particularly, social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and number of users globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, businesses of various types use SNSs for commercial communication. Banner advertising is one of the common methods of commercial communication on SNSs. Advertising is a key source of revenue for many SNSs firms such as Facebook. In fact, the existence of many SNSs owners and advertisers is contingent upon the success of social network advertising (SNA. Users demand free SNS services which makes SNA crucial for SNSs firms. SNA can be effective only if it is aligned with user motivations. Marketing literature identifies pre-purchase search as a primary consumer motivation for using media. The current study aims to identify the effects of pre-purchase search motivation (PSM on user attitudes toward SNA. It also assesses the association between the attitudes toward SNA and users’ banner ad-clicking behavior on SNSs. Data was gathered from 200 university students in Islamabad using offline survey. Results show positive effects of PSM on user attitudes toward SNA. They also show positive association between user attitudes toward SNA and their SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. The firms which promote their products through SNSs to the young South Asian consumers may benefit from the findings of the current study.

  15. Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive

  16. Boosting Students' Attitudes & Knowledge about Evolution Sets Them up for College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…

  17. Mapping the Interrelationships of Reading Enjoyment, Attitudes, Behaviour and Attainment: An Exploratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina; De Zoysa, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    It is frequently said or implicitly assumed that there is a positive relationship between enjoyment, attitudes, behaviour and attainment, with pupils who enjoy reading or writing having more positive attitudes towards it, doing it more and thereby getting better at it. This paper explores to what extent this is an assumption or to what extent it…

  18. Who's Challenging Who? Changing Attitudes towards Those Whose Behaviour Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, L. M.; Hastings, R. P.; Hunt, P. H.; Bowler, C. L.; Banks, M. E.; Totsika, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although staff attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disability (ID) whose behaviour challenges may be an important part of a positive support culture, very little research has focused on the development of training specifically designed to change staff attitudes. Positive contact is hypothesised to be an effective way to…

  19. Catholic High School Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Snapshot of Incoming College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This study is a survey of incoming freshmen at a Midwestern Catholic university on their agreement with Church teachings on homosexuality. In general, females had more homo-positive attitudes than males, graduates of catholic high schools had more homo-positive attitudes than graduates from non-Catholic high schools, and graduates from…

  20. Atitudes linguísticas e r-forte em Carambeí = Linguistics attitudes and strong-R in Carambeí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Fraga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que o município de Carambeí é bastante complexo cultural e linguisticamente, este estudo pretende, de acordo com o método etnográfico: a fazer um levantamento das atitudes linguísticas que os ‘holandeses’ manifestam em relação às línguas holandesa e portuguesa; b analisar a variedade de português falada pelos‘holandeses’ de Carambeí no que diz respeito ao uso do r-forte; e c estabelecer que tipo de relação se dá entre atitudes linguísticas e uso de determinada variante de r-forte no português. No que diz respeito às atitudes em relação ao holandês, os Grupos 1M, 1F e2Fa manifestam atitudes positivas, ao passo que os Grupos 2M e 2Fb têm atitudes negativas, assim como os Grupos 3M e 3F. Já em relação ao português, a comunidade como um todo manifesta atitudes positivas. No que diz respeito ao uso de r-forte, os grupos 1M e 1F usam vibrante múltipla e tepe; o Grupo 2M também usa a vibrante e otepe; já o Grupo 2Fa usa somente vibrante e tepe e o Grupo 2Fb usa fricativa e vibrante. Os Grupos 3M e 3F usam somente fricativa. Enfim, pode-se dizer que determinadas atitudes contribuem para o uso de determinada variedade de r-forte.Considering that Carambeí Township is fairly complex, both culturally and linguistically, this study intends to: a survey the linguistic attitudes that the ‘Dutch’ reveal concerning the Dutch and Portuguese languages; b analyze the variety of Portuguese spoken by the ‘Dutch’ of Carambeí regarding the use of strong-R; c establish what sort of relationship takes place between linguistic attitudes and use of certain varieties of the strong-R in Portuguese. About the attitudes regarding the Dutch language, Groups 1M, 1F and 2Fa show positive attitudes, while Groups 2M, 2Fb, 3M and 3F show negative attitudes.Portuguese, on the other hand, elicits positive attitudes in the community as a whole. Regarding the use of strong-R, groups 1M and 1F use trill and tap; group 2M also uses trill and tap; Group 2Fa uses trill and tap and Group 2Fb uses fricative and trill. Groups 3M and 3F use only fricative. Finally, we can assume that specific attitudes contribute to the use of certain varieties of the strong-R.

  1. The attitudes toward psychiatry of physicians and medical students in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, T; Pérez, C S; Méndez, L; Esqueda, L

    1993-07-01

    Attitudes toward psychiatry were assessed in 490 medical students and 362 physicians from two universities in Venezuela: Universidad de Los Andes (ULA) and Universidad Centro-Occidental Lisandro Alvarado (UCLA). A modified version of the Attitude Toward Psychiatry-30 scale was used. The attitude toward psychiatry of all the students and physicians was moderately positive. Students from ULA displayed a more positive attitude than UCLA students, whereas physicians from UCLA displayed a more positive attitude than ULA physicians. The most negative attitude toward psychiatry was observed in students planning to select obstetrics and gynecology (ULA + UCLA), in physicians working in Surgery, obstetrics and gynecology (ULA + UCLA) and in basic sciences (ULA). Female students tended to display a more positive attitude than male students. The attitude toward psychiatry was similar in students with low and high academic achievement in the courses in psychiatry. A large number of years in the profession did not modify the attitude of the physicians. It is recommended to improve teaching and communication with the students and physicians that displayed the most negative attitudes toward psychiatry. PMID:8372696

  2. Personal Need for Structure and Attitudes toward Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael R.; Gordon, Randall A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the need to cognitively structure reality through the use of stereotypes as a predictor of individual attitudes toward homosexuality. Shows that responses were slightly, yet significantly, related to attitudes toward homosexuality and that the gender of the respondent did not significantly alter the impact. Suggests additional future…

  3. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Focusing on measurement of attitude intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to 1) examine the differences of the perception between nuclear power generation (NPG) and electric power generation by nuclear fusion, 2) find the structural characteristics of the attitude toward NPG, 3) shed light on the characteristics of knowledge about NPG, and 4) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N = 1,582) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and were asked to answer a questionnaire including public attitudes toward NPG and related matters. The results were as follows: 1) the perception of electric power generation by nuclear fusion was less favorable than that of NPG; 2) Items which correlated with attitudes toward NPG were: 'sense of anxiety,' sensitivity to risk,' 'trust in science and technology,' 'evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy', 'evaluation of electric power companies,' and interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a better knowledge of NPG; 3) The evaluation of the amount of subjective knowledge concerning nuclear power and electric power generation was reliable as a measure of objective knowledge; 4) The measurement method used in this study was characterized by the use of biased questions(ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. An attempt was made to measure the attitude and its intensity taking into consideration gender, possity taking into consideration gender, positive or negative attitude toward NPG, level of knowledge about NPG, age, and occupation. As a result, differences in intensity between different attributes were found. (author)

  4. Undergraduate student attitudes and perceptions toward low- and high-level inquiry exercise physiology teaching laboratory experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henige, Kim

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare student attitudes toward two different science laboratory learning experiences, specifically, traditional, cookbook-style, low-inquiry level (LL) activities and a high-inquiry level (HL) investigative project. In addition, we sought to measure and compare students' science-related attitudes and attitudes toward science. Students participated in 5 wk of LL activities followed by a 5-wk HL project. An open-ended survey administered at the end of the semester and analyzed by a ?(2)-test revealed that 1) students enjoyed the HL project more than the LL activities, 2) high-level inquiry did not have a negative effect on student motivation in the laboratory, and 3) students perceived that they learned more about physiology principles with the LL activities. Most students liked the HL project, particularly the independence, responsibility, freedom, and personal relevance. Of the students who did not like the HL project, many reported being uncomfortable with the lack of structure and guidance. Many students gained a more positive and realistic view about scientific research, often reporting an increased respect for science. Likert scale surveys administered before and after each 5-wk period showed no significant changes in student attitudes to scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, enjoyment of science lessons, or motivation toward science when the three time points were compared. The findings in this study have helped to provide suggestions for better implementation of HL projects in the future. PMID:21652505

  5. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  6. Punitive attitudes against pedophiles or persons with sexual interest in children: does the label matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Roland

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, we addressed the question of whether people harbor punitive attitudes against individuals sexually interested in children even if no sexual offense is mentioned and whether this effect is amplified by the clinical label pedophilia. In two online studies (total N = 345), participants rated the extent to which they saw individuals sexually interested in children as necessarily committing child sexual abuse (dangerousness), responsible for their sexual interest (intentionality), and clinically disordered (deviance) before judging their endorsement of means of punishment (punitive attitudes). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which either the "pedophilia" label or the descriptive term "sexual interest in (prepubescent) children" was included in all items. Across both studies, results showed high degrees of punitive attitudes against sexually deviant men, an effect that was particularly pronounced if the pedophilia label was present. Whereas this was only latently observable in Study 1 (concealed by a suppression effect of reduced ascriptions of intentionality), in Study 2 no such suppression was observed. Unlike any other stigma we know of, punitive attitudes against pedophiles were associated positively with social desirability, suggesting that participants saw it as particularly socially desirable to condemn someone based on their deviant sexual interest. PMID:25501864

  7. Attitudes and Perceptions of Students to Open and Distance Learning in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Olugbenga Ojo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the West African Region of Africa, the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN is the first full fledged university that operates in an exclusively open and distance learning (ODL mode of education. NOUN focuses mainly on open and distance teaching and learning system, and delivers its courses materials via print in conjunction with information and communication technology (ICT, when applicable. This ‘single mode’ of open education is different from the integration of distance learning system into the face- to- face teaching and learning system, which is more typical of conventional Universities in Nigeria and other parts of the world. Thus, NOUN reflects a novel development in the provision of higher education in Nigeria. This study assesses the attitudes and perceptions of distance teaching and learning by students enrolled in the NOUN and of the National Teachers’ Institute (NTI compared to their experiences at conventional universities. One hundred and twenty (n = 120 randomly selected NOUN and NTI students of NOUN were the subjects of the study. The Students’ Attitude and Perception Rating of Open and Distance Learning Institutions Inventory (SAPRODLII, developed by the researchers, was administered to the subjects to measure their attitudes and experiences. Results of the study showed that students generally have a positive perception and attitude towards ODL, compared to traditional forms of higher education.

  8. TEACHER'S ATTITUDES TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION -AS A DETERMINANT OF THEIR SUCCESS AND COMMITMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu A Keshwan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good teacher is always loyal and truthful to their profession and to those they serve. A teacher's perception towards teaching directly affects the student. A teacher's attitude remarkably effects the achievement of a student. Some teachers see teaching as just their source of income and show no dedication and loyalty towards their profession. teacher occupies a pivotal position in the system of education. The teacher is the backbone of the educational system, maker of the mankind and architect of the nation. Teaching is a scared profession. The society places high hopes on a teacher. Keeping the importance of Teaching Profession an attempt has made through this study by the investigators to know the attitude of school teachers towards Teaching Profession.. The present study was based on, the normative survey research method. It was found that, the attitude of secondary school teachers of is neither more favourable nor unfavourable towards Teaching Profession i.e., satisfactory or average in attitude towards Teaching Profession. Teaching is a profession that creates contributors to the future, or put another way, the future lies in the hands of teachers

  9. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin Selçuk, Gamze; Sahin, Mehmet; Aç?kgöz, Kamile Ün

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers ( n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course participated in the study. In the experimental group, questioning, summarizing, and graphic organizers were taught. The control group did not receive any presentation on strategy learning. Data were collected via the pre- and post-administration of the Physics Course Achievement Test, the Scale of Attitudes towards Physics, and the Achievement Motivation Scale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance on the data revealed no significant differences in the attitude and achievement motivation between the strategy and control groups. However, the strategy group students were observed to have a tendency of more positive attitude and motivation than the control group students. Results also showed that explicit learning strategy instruction was more effective than traditional instruction in improving physics achievement of the participating students. The implications of these results for physics education are discussed.

  10. RAPE SUPPORTIVE ATTITUDE SCALE: FIRST EVIDENCE ON ITS RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN THE SALVADORIAN SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sierra

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The tolerant attitudes towards sexual violence on women are important risk factor which should be considered whileexplaining this type of aggressive behaviour. One of the instruments to evaluate these attitudes is Rape SupportiveAttitude Scale (RSAS by Lottes. The scale has showed good indexes of reliability and validity in both American andSpanish university students. The purpose of the study is to explore the psychometric characteristics in El Salvador asit has been applied together with the Double Standard Scale by Caron, Davis, Haltelman and Stickle (1993 and Crowneand Marlowe (1960 Social Desirability Scale in two samples which consisted of 505 and 1499 students, respectively.The results indicate that the one-dimensional structure of the scale stays stable in the two samples reaching thecoefficients of internal consistence higher than .80, although it includes two items which requires to be reviewed infuture studies. Concerning the validity, the RSAS differentiates men and women in these types of attitudes and showssignificant positive correlation with double sexual standard.

  11. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems : A study from mainland China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies on Western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about the level of Chinese consumers' attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 472 participants in six Chinese cities. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where traditional pig breeds are raised, over large-scale and small family farms. Farms with maximum attention to food safety which furthermore can provide lean meat with consistent quality are also preferred. Imported pig breeds and tasty, but variable meat were rejected. A 3-cluster solution found that consumers from Cluster 1 focus almost exclusively on the food safety aspect (food safety focused). Consumers from cluster 2 (indifferent) show generally weak attitudes to pig production systems in general. Cluster 3 (industrial production oriented) stands out by being very positive about industrial, large size farms and consistent quality. From a Chinese consumer's perspective, the industrial approach seems to represent values such as achievement, evolution, quality and safety, since pig production is moving away from low-cost, low-quality and low-safety family scale systems. A complex set of rural and environmental development, quality aspects and food safety measures are challenges that must be met by the stakeholders of pig production systems in China.

  12. An Investigation of Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Disinfection Procedures in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albano Luciana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisepsis/disinfection procedures; and sources of information. Results Only 29% acknowledged that urinary and respiratory tract infections were the two most common HAIs and this knowledge was significantly higher in those with a higher level of education. Attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols for disinfection procedures showed a mean score of 9.1. The results of the linear regression model indicated a more positive attitude in female nurses, in those with a lower number of years of activity, and in those needing additional information about disinfection procedures. Nurses with higher educational level and with a higher perception of risk of transmitting an infectious disease while working were more likely to perform appropriate antisepsis of the surgical wound and handwashing before and after medication. Conclusions Plan of successful prevention activities about HAIs and provide pointers to help optimize disinfection procedures and infection prophylaxis and management are needed.

  13. Recognition of shared past sufferings, trust and improving intergroup attitudes in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Alarcón-Henríquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of intergroup trust and recognition of past sufferings on intergroup attitudes. We conducted an experiment among Dutch-speaking students in which we manipulated the degree of importance that French-speakers gave to historical episodes of past victimizations in order to test its impact on the attitudes towards the French-speakers. Results show that intergroup attitudes were most favorable among the high-trusting Dutch-speaking participants when they were led to believe that the French speakers judged important the events where both communities were considered as victims, compared to the conditions where only French-speaking or only Dutch-speaking sufferings were considered important. This suggests some level of intergroup trust is a condition for the positive effect of shared memories of victimization on attitudes.---Este artículo examina el rol de la confianza intergrupal y el reconocimiento del sufrimiento pasado en las relaciones intergrupales. Un experimento con estudiantes belgas flamencos manipuló la importancia que belgas francófonos otorgaban a episodios del pasado de victimización para contrastar su impacto en las actitudes hacia los francófonos. Los resultado smostraron que las actitudes intergrupales eran más favorables en los belgas flamencos con alta confianza intergrupal cuando se les presentaba información que los francófonos juzgaban como importantes los sufrimientos de ambos comunidades, en comparación cuando la información solo enfatizaba el sufrimiento de los flamencos o de los francófonos. Estosugiere que un nivel de confianza intergrupo es necesario para que memorias compartidas de sufrimiento mejoren las actitudes.

  14. Influence of a multidimensional measure of attitudes on motives to use social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Archana; Hunt, Daniel Scot

    2015-03-01

    Positive attitudes toward a new communication technology tend to be a significant motivator in subsequent adoption and use. The recent spurt in the adoption of social media tools such as social networking sites (SNSs) demands the examination of attitudinal variables on motives to use these Web sites. This study explicated a multidimensional measure of attitudes toward SNSs and tested a theoretical model to examine the effect of attitudes on motives to use SNSs and SNS activity. Participants (N=674) completed a cross-sectional survey consisting of measures of attitudes toward SNSs, motives of SNS use, and level of activity. Results showed support for a revised model in which attitudinal variables-ease of use, self-disclosure, and social connection-strongly predicted motives of SNS use such as passing time, information/entertainment, social conformity, and, most importantly, socialization. The motive of using SNSs as a social tool superseded the direct effect of other motives on SNS activity, suggesting that users' primary activity on SNSs was for socialization and for relational development and maintenance. PMID:25751048

  15. What Do Librarians Think about Marketing? A Survey of Public Librarians' Attitudes toward the Marketing of Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shontz, Marilyn L.; Parker, Jon C.; Parker, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes of public librarians toward the marketing of library services and relate these attitudes to selected independent variables. A questionnaire was mailed to individual members of the New Jersey Library Association. Although most of the respondents had generally positive attitudes toward library…

  16. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Children's Attitudes toward Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Catherine S.; Sinicrope, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Prospective elementary teachers hold preconceived ideas about elementary school students' attitudes toward mathematics. We found that there exists a gender bias with prospective teachers expecting girls to have negative attitudes toward mathematics and boys more likely to have positive attitudes toward mathematics. We found that these…

  17. Students' Attitudes and Motivation for Learning English at Dokuz Eylul University School of Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Kadim

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes and motivation are two of the key factors in second language learning since positive attitudes and high levels of motivation are considered as the predictors of a successful learning process. This study aims to reveal the relation between university preparatory students' attitudes towards learning English and their language learning…

  18. OPTIMISTIC ATTITUDE, EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ANXIETY AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbhar Rajendra Ramdas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at studying the differences in optimistic attitude, Emotional Intelligence and anxiety among Male and Female college students. Asample consists of 100 ( 50 male and 50 female was collected from Ahmednagar city. The age group of Sample was 19 to 25years. Optimistic-pessimistic attitude scale by Parashar (1992,Emotional intelligence Scale by Hyde, Pethe&Dhar(1991, and Anxiety scale by Sinha(2007 were used for data collection. Personal datasheet was also used for controlling the demographic variable of the respondents. For studying the differences in optimistic attitude, Emotional Intelligence and anxiety among Male and Female college students parametrictest ‘t’ test was used. The ‘t’ value for optimistic attitude,emotional intelligence and anxiety was 3.41, 8.73, and 4.61 respectively. These values were significant at 0.01 level. The mean difference in optimistic attitude, Emotional Intelligence and anxiety among Male and Female college students was significant. The correlation between optimistic attitude and emotional intelligencewas found positive whereas for optimistic attitude and anxiety it was found negative. (0.46,-0.28,-0.61, 0.36,-0.33, -0.49.The association between Anxiety and emotional intelligence was found negative. The correlation between optimistic attitude, emotional intelligence, and anxiety was found to be significant. The results were discussed in the light of relevant research.

  19. Attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of special needs children in general education classroom: the case of teachers in some selected schools in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olufemi ADENIYI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes about inclusion are extremely complex and vary from teacher to teacher and schoolto school. This article explores the attitudes of teachers about inclusion of special needschildren in their secondary schools in general education. This study adopted a descriptivesurvey research design, with 60 teachers as participants from selected secondary schools inOyo State, Nigeria. Four hypotheses were postulated at the significant level of .05. Theinstrument, a questionnaire with question items on demographic information like gender,marital status, professionalism and teaching experience has a general reliability coefficientalpha of .83. A t-test method of analysis was the main statistical method used to test the 4generated hypotheses. The findings revealed that the attitude of male teachers is 39.4, whilethat of female teacher is 43.3, thus, the t-test analysis shows that the calculated t-test is2.107, which is greater than the critical t (t=1.960. This implies that female teachers havemore positive attitude towards the inclusion of special needs students than their malecounterparts. Furthermore, the results reveal that significant difference exists betweenmarried and single teachers in their attitude towards special need students. And thatprofessionally qualified teacher tends to have a more favourable attitude towards theinclusion of special need students than their non-professional qualified teachers. It wasrecommended that teachers should attend seminars and conferences to improve theirknowledge about ways of practicing and accepting inclusion for a better tomorrow for ourspecial needs children in Nigeria.

  20. Homemade Laser Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Museum of Houston

    2011-01-01

    With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.

  1. Physicians' attitudes towards interaction with the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, F D; Al Kaabba, A; Qadi, M; Albahlal, A; Alabdulkarim, Y; Alabduljabbar, M; Alqahtani, F

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry has ethical implications for patient care. This study examined knowledge and attitudes towards the pharmaceutical industry, and associations with actual behaviour, among physicians working in Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study in 2012, a 100-point score was created from 17 5-point Likert-scale questions to assess knowledge and attitudes. The overall score of 659 participants was 63.1 (SD 8.5), with a majority holding a generally positive attitude. Higher (i.e. better) scores were significantly associated with a lack of interactions with the pharmaceutical industry and with refusal of gifts but not with education about ethics. In multivariate analysis, refusing gifts, additional income and Saudi nationality remained independently associated with higher scores. Overall, there was suboptimal knowledge and a generally positive attitude towards the pharmaceutical industry among the sample of physicians in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25664520

  2. Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

  3. Practicing Parenting? Effects of Computerized Infant Simulators on Teenage Attitudes toward Early Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallery, Janet G.

    2002-01-01

    Computerized infant simulators may deter early parenthood. A survey of 1,285 teenagers before and after simulation showed a significant change in some attitudes toward parenting. Males reported the strongest attitude change, while females began with more realistic understandings of parenting. Further study is needed to determine whether attitude

  4. The Effect of Media on Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Astronomy and Achievement in Astronomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that it is hard to change students' attitudes toward science. This study specifically explored if media affect preservice science teachers' attitudes toward astronomy and their astronomy achievement. The sample for the pilot study consisted of 196 preservice science and mathematics teachers for attitude assessment and 230 preservice…

  5. Chinese-Inspired Products: Value-Attitude-Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This studyemployed a value-attitude-behavior model to investigate whether global anddomain-specific values affect US consumers’ attitudes and purchase behaviorstoward a Chinese-Inspired Product, with theperceived level of cultural design influence as a moderator between culturalopenness and domain-specific values. The results indicated that global values (i.e., cultural openness and need todifferentiate positively influenced domain-specific values (i.e., esthetic andemotional values and attitudes, which in turn affected US consumers’ behaviors(i.e., word of mouth and purchase intention; and theeffect of cultural openness on emotional value perception was greater forconsumers who had stronger perceptions of cultural design influence.

  6. Consumers' values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, M.D; Perin, Marcelo G.

    2012-01-01

    Consumers' attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain

  7. Consumers’ values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Consumers’ attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain.

  8. Attitude Sensor Pseudonoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Lennox, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    Even assuming perfect attitude sensors and gyros, sensor measurements on a vibrating spacecraft have apparent errors. These apparent sensor errors, referred to as pseudonoise, arise because gyro and sensor measurements are performed at discrete times. This paper explains the concept of pseudonoise, quantifies its behavior, and discusses the effect of vibrations that are nearly commensurate with measurement periods. Although pseudonoise does not usually affect attitude determination it does affect sensor performance evaluation. Attitude rates are usually computed from differences between pairs of accumulated angle measurements at different times and are considered constant in the periods between measurements. Propagation using these rates does not reproduce exact instantaneous spacecraft attitudes except at the gyro measurement times. Exact sensor measurements will therefore be inconsistent with estimates based on the propagated attitude. This inconsistency produces pseudonoise. The characteristics of pseudonoise were determined using a simple, one-dimensional model of spacecraft vibration. The statistical properties of the deviations of measurements from model truth were determined using this model and a range of different periods of sensor and rate measurements. This analysis indicates that the magnitude of pseudonoise depends on the ratio of the spacecraft vibration period to the time between gyro measurements and can be as much as twice the amplitude of the vibration. In cases where the vibration period and gyro or sensor measurement period are nearly commensurate, unexpected changes in pseudonoise occur.

  9. Test-taking skills of secondary students: the relationship with motivation, attitudes, anxiety and attitudes towards tests

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hamzeh M, Dodeen; Faisal, Abdelfattah; Saleh, Alshumrani.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Test-taking skills are cognitive skills that enable students to undergo any test-taking situation in an appropriate manner. This study is aimed at assessing the relationship between students' test-taking skills and each of the following variables: motivation to learn mathematics; mathematics anxiety [...] ; attitudes towards mathematics; and attitudes towards tests. The study was conducted on a random sample of 626 (372 males and 254 females) secondary school students. The following instruments were used in the data collection: the Test-taking Skills Scale (TSS); the Mathematics Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MMSLQ); the Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R); the Mathematics Attitude Inventory (MAI); and the Attitude towards Tests Scale (ATS). A positive and significant relationship was reported between students' test-taking skills and each student's motivation to learn mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics, and attitudes towards tests; while mathematics anxiety was shown to have a significant negative relationship with test-taking skills. Test-taking skills account for more than 30% of the variation in motivation to learn mathematics, 25% in attitudes towards mathematics, 17% in mathematics anxiety, and more than 40% in attitude toward tests. The study concluded the improvement of secondary students' testing skills to be significantly correlated with variables that play a substantial role in a student's level of achievement in mathematics.

  10. Geometric Tracking Control of the Attitude Dynamics of a Rigid Body on SO(3)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Taeyoung

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides new results for a tracking control of the attitude dynamics of a rigid body. Both of the attitude dynamics and the proposed control system are globally expressed on the special orthogonal group, to avoid complexities and ambiguities associated with other attitude representations such as Euler angles or quaternions. By selecting an attitude error function carefully, we show that the proposed control system guarantees a desirable tracking performance unifor...

  11. Impact of work experience placements on school students’ attitude towards mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Vanathi; Belgamwar, Ravindra B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method Research shows that 16- to 19-year-olds express the greatest level of negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of work experience placements in influencing secondary-school students’ attitudes towards mental illness and career choices. The Adolescent Attitude Towards Mental Illness questionnaire measured and assessed the adolescents’ attitude changes. Pre- and post-evaluation questionnaires assessed changes in their car...

  12. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

  13. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Preliminary study focusing on characteristics of the attitudes of men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to approach the public attitudes toward nuclear power generation and related matters by focusing on the viewpoint of differences between men and women. More specifically, it was attempted to determine what types of lifestyles and ways of thinking are associated with persons indicating the respective attitudes, what types of anxiety these people have with respect to nuclear power generation, as well as the nature of the inflexibility of those attitudes. As a result, well-defined characteristics were found to be associated with each attitude. In addition, the types of anxiety with respect to nuclear power generation were able to be broadly classified into emotional anxiety and logical anxiety. Regarding the inflexibility of these attitudes, although men tended to exhibit little change concerning positive attitudes, they tended to easily change in the negative direction as a result of negative information. In the case of women, conversely, although their attitudes tended to change easily toward the affirmative direction when presented with positive information, it was determined that women tend to change very little toward the negative direction. (author)

  14. Social worker's attitudes to poverty and the poor

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Saul

    1987-01-01

    Field social workers are in daily working contact with the poor and deprived. In Britain as many as nine out of ten users of social work services are claimants of social security; over half are dependent on means tested social assistance. Most referrals to social workers are for benefit and housing problems. Social work trainers, managers, and agencies expect social workers to have positive attitudes to clients. Professional training is increasingly confronting racist and sexist attitude...

  15. Language attitudes and language shift among ethnic migrants in Khartoum

    OpenAIRE

    Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim Hamid

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates language attitudes among ethnic migrant groups in Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on language preference, language parents prefer their children to learn, and reasons for language preference. Results suggest that while positive attitude played a significant role in learning Arabic among some of the groups under investigation, it proved to be of no help in maintaining the groups’ ethnic languages. Arabic was reported ...

  16. Chinese-Inspired Products: Value-Attitude-Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Fu; Wanmo Koo; Youn-Kyung Kim

    2014-01-01

    This studyemployed a value-attitude-behavior model to investigate whether global anddomain-specific values affect US consumers’ attitudes and purchase behaviorstoward a Chinese-Inspired Product, with theperceived level of cultural design influence as a moderator between culturalopenness and domain-specific values. The results indicated that global values (i.e., cultural openness and need todifferentiate) positively influenced domain-specific values (i.e., esthetic andemotional values) and a...

  17. The Diane Rehm Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

  18. A Holographic Road Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  19. Attitude stability of spinning satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Some problems of attitude stability of spinning satellites are treated in a rigorous manner. With certain restrictions, linearized stability analysis correctly predicts the attitude stability of spinning satellites, even in the critical cases of the Liapunov-Poincare stability theory.

  20. The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on children's food attitudes and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen G; Scully, Maree L; Wakefield, Melanie A; White, Victoria M; Crawford, David A

    2007-10-01

    Television (TV) food advertising has attracted criticism for its potential role in promoting unhealthy dietary practices among children. Content analyses indicate junk food advertising is prevalent on Australian children's TV; healthy eating is rarely promoted. This paper presents (a) a cross-sectional survey examining associations between children's regular TV viewing habits and their food-related attitudes and behaviour; and (b) an experiment assessing the impact of varying combinations of TV advertisements (ads) for unhealthy and healthy foods on children's dietary knowledge, attitudes and intentions. The experimental conditions simulated possible models for regulating food ads on children's TV. Participants were 919 grade five and six students from schools in Melbourne, Australia. The survey showed that heavier TV use and more frequent commercial TV viewing were independently associated with more positive attitudes toward junk food; heavier TV use was also independently associated with higher reported junk food consumption. The experiment found that ads for nutritious foods promote selected positive attitudes and beliefs concerning these foods. Findings are discussed in light of methodological issues in media effects research and their implications for policy and practice. It is concluded that changing the food advertising environment on children's TV to one where nutritious foods are promoted and junk foods are relatively unrepresented would help to normalize and reinforce healthy eating. PMID:17587474

  1. Attitude and Willingness towards Tissue Donation in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sanavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue donation has been promising in prolonging the lives of people with life-threateningdiseases.Objective: To assess the attitude and willingness of high school students towards bone marrow (BM andblood (as tissue donation for maintaining a safe and adequate pool.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the high school girls, aged 15–18 years, whostudied in natural sciences, mathematics and humanities. All participants filled a questionnaire consistingof age, religion, education levels and study branch, attitude and willingness towards BM and blooddonation according to a Likert scale.Results: Out of 416 students, with the mean±SD age of 16.3±1.2 years, 31% studied in grade I, 27% ingrade II (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics, and 48% humanities, 26% in grade III (30% naturalsciences, 34% mathematics, and 36% humanities, and 16% in pre-university level (college (32% naturalsciences, 42% mathematics, and 6% humanities. The students had highly positive attitudes towardBM and blood donation (mean±SD score of 4.2±0.54. The willingness for BM and blood donation wasdeclared respectively, in 87% and 71% of respondents. Moreover, 16% of students wanted to donate onlyto their relatives and 84% to all persons in need of therapy. There was no significant correlation betweenthe donation willingness and educational levels and study branch; however, these variables significantlycorrelated with attitude towards tissue donation (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively.Conclusion: Despite positive attitude towards BM and blood donation, willingness for BM donation is lesserthan blood which may be attributed to insufficient information about this type of tissue donation. An organizededucational program for high school students in all aspects of tissue donation seems necessary.

  2. Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

  3. Instructor Attitudes toward Students: Job Satisfaction and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Janie H.

    2008-01-01

    The relational teaching approach suggests that instructors should develop positive relationships with students, with benefits including greater job satisfaction. One way to build positive relationships with students involves exhibiting immediacy behaviors. The author examined relationships among professors' attitudes toward students, immediacy…

  4. Star trackers for attitude determination

    OpenAIRE

    Liebe, Carl Christian

    1995-01-01

    One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tr...

  5. GPS-based attitude determination

    OpenAIRE

    Bejeryd, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Inertial sensors and magnetometers are often used for attitude determination of moving platforms. This thesis treats an alternative method; GPS-based attitude determination. By using several GPS-antennas, and with carrier phase measurements determining the relative distance between them, the attitude can be calculated. Algorithms have been implemented in Matlab and tested on real data. Two commercial GPS-based attitude determination systems have also been tested on a mobile platform and compa...

  6. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age.

  7. A Cultural Program for Changing Racial Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, M. Ahmed; Ijaz, I. Helene

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties in changing negative racial attitudes in students and describes a Canadian, elementary-level cultural program which succeeded in improving them. The program used folk dances, music, crafts and role playing to show how cultural differences in East Indian, Canadian and other cultures were manifestations of essentially…

  8. Survey Result for the Safety Culture Attitude of HANARO in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important aims of a nuclear management system is to foster a strong safety culture. The safety culture activities for HANARO have been implemented and the importance of safety management in nuclear activities has also been emphasized since its first operation. HANARO developed its own safety culture indicators by referring to the IAEA's documents for the purpose of the evaluation of the safety culture attitude. In June 2008 a survey on the safety culture was conducted based on the new safety culture indicators. The result of the survey shows that the safety culture activities contribute positively to its safe operation. But it is necessary to encourage some activities like training, resources and organizational culture. The survey was helpful to understand the general trends of the safety attitudes and to set the safety culture activities necessary for the improvement of its safe operation

  9. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND RESIDENTS’ ATTITUDE: A CASE STUDY OF YAZD, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rastegar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Yazd residents look at tourism development with a promising future to bring more income to the area that can be shared. Investors search to find new attractive business and middle and low classes in the community look to find better job opportunities. This paper assesses the attitude and perception of local residents toward this fast growing industry and also their expectation of authority regarding tourism development in Yazd city. A questionnaire was designed based on five point Likert scale and total 320 usable questionnaires were collected from local residents. Though the result shows positive attitude of local people towards tourism development but they are not totally satisfied with tourism management in the area.

  10. Abnormal eating attitudes and sexual abuse experiences in Turkish university women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elal, G; Sabol, E; Slade, P

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between abnormal eating attitudes and sexual abuse. The subject sample comprised 532 female Turkish undergraduate and nursing students in Istanbul. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Sexual Abuse Questionnaire, the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale, the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale and the Need for Control Scale (NCS) were the instruments of the study. The results showed that sexual abuse has a direct effect on EAT-Bulimia but not on EAT-Dieting. It also has some indirect effects on both of these through its effects on family functioning. Perfectionism, on the other hand, was independently linked with both EAT-Dieting and EAT-Bulimia but was not associated with sexual abuse. PMID:15656010

  11. Attitudes and attitudinal ambivalence change towards nanotechnology applied to food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arnout R H; van Dijk, Heleen; de Jonge, Janneke; Rowe, Gene; Frewer, Lynn J

    2013-10-01

    The strategic development of novel nanotechnologies will be determined by their public acceptance, which in turn may be influenced by public perceptions of the risks and benefits associated with the specific applications. At the present time, public opinions towards nanotechnologies remain largely inchoate, although this is likely to change with increasing public exposure to relevant information. In two experiments, a total of 618 participants, from the UK population, were provided with different risk-benefit information on nanotechnology application in food. The results show that the provision of both risk and benefit information does not influence average attitude, but results in some individuals becoming more positive and less ambivalent and others more negative and less ambivalent towards nanotechnologies. A third group maintained a neutral attitude and became more ambivalent. It is concluded that to understand public opinion formation about nanotechnology keeping track of polarization and ambivalence is important. PMID:23825237

  12. The effects of an anti-bullying intervention programme on peers' attitudes and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, V; Van Oost, P; De Bourdeaudhuij, I

    2000-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an anti-bullying intervention programme on peers' attitudes towards bullying and their attempts to solve bully/victim conflicts. An experimental pre-test/post-test design with a control group was used. For secondary school students, positive outcomes were observed at post-test 1 on attitudes and on actual rates of intervention. However, the effects had disappeared at post-test 2. For primary school students, significant differences were found at post-test 2, showing a smaller decline in seeking teacher's help and in heightening students' support for victims. Students' competence to solve bully/victim problems in relation to their general pro-social development is discussed. PMID:10700369

  13. Predictors of Attitudes Towards the Rights of Ethnic Minorities of Student Teenagers in a Romanian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Hatos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article will endeavor to build a causal model of ethnic attitudes of students in grades 8 to 12 from a great Transylvanian city with a large Hungarian population. The theoretical model built at the beginning of the study was tested applying multivariate statistical techniques to data of a survey of about 2500 teenagers. My results show that attitudes about the rights of members of minorities are attributable to both individual and contextual factors. On the one hand, gender, cognitive constraints and selfesteem play an important role in this attitudinal make up. On the other hand, the relative positions on in-group and out-group in the special context of interaction – in my case the classroom – are playing important parts in determining how strong the biases will be.

  14. Attitudes Towards Same-Sex Marriage in Portugal: Predictors and Scale Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, João Manuel; Lopes, Diniz; Cameira, Miguel; Nogueira, Conceição

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present research was to validate a Portuguese version of Pearl and Galupo's (2007) Attitudes toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM). Participants were 1,402 heterosexual men and women that completed an on-line questionnaire. The final 15-item scale formed a single factor showing high internal consistency (? = .95). This one factor structure was backed-up by a confirmatory factorial analysis. In a general way, the results indicate a clearly positive attitude toward same-sex marriage (overall mean was 63.79, SD = 12.66, above the scale mid-point, t(1401) = 55.55, p gay discrimination (? = .30, p marriage. On the whole, these results indicate that the Portuguese ATSM version is a reliable instrument for carrying out scientific research and measuring and monitoring public opinion on this subject. PMID:26054409

  15. Motor Control of Two Flywheels Enabling Combined Attitude Control and Bus Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discussed the flywheel technology development work that is ongoing at NASA GRC with a particular emphasis on the flywheel system control. The "field orientation" motor/generator control algorithm was discussed and explained. The position-sensorless angle and speed estimation algorithm was presented. The motor current response to a step change in command at low (10 kRPM) and high (60 kRPM) was discussed. The flywheel DC bus regulation control was explained and experimental results presented. Finally, the combined attitude control and energy storage algorithm that controls two flywheels simultaneously was presented. Experimental results were shown that verified the operational capability of the algorithm. shows high speed flywheel energy storage (60,000 RPM) and the successful implementation of an algorithm to simultaneously control both energy storage and a single axis of attitude with two flywheels. Overall, the presentation demonstrated that GRC has an operational facility that

  16. Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an out group hand on implicit attitudes towards that outgroup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HarryFarmer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin colour and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes towards black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of different skin colour affected the participants’ implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin colour as shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes towards black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude towards black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes towards black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes.

  17. Demonstration Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-06

    The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

  18. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  19. Blue Ribbon Art Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Judy Domeny

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting judges for a Blue Ribbon Art Show (Springfield, Missouri). Used adults (teachers, custodians, professional artists, parents, and principals) chosen by the Willard South Elementary School art teacher to judge student artwork. States that nominated students received blue ribbons. (CMK)

  20. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  1. PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL: ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS' ATTITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASHANT THOTE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Study investigated the attitude of students towards Problem Solving Assessment. Descriptive research design of the survey type was used. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A total of 200 secondary school students were selected through stratified random sampling technique. Avalidated questionnaire vetted by experts in measurement and research was used as an instrument for data collection. Independent t-test statistic was used for data analysis. The study revealed that students' attitude towards Attitude of Problem Solving Assessment were significantly positive; that gender and school location significantly influenced students' attitude towards Attitude of Problem Solving Assessment . The results further revealed that there are significant differences between attitude of male and female students in rural and urban schools towards Attitude of Problem Solving Assessment Based on these findings, the researchers recommended that school education board should open well equipped teaching with problem solving assessment in both urban and rural schools .

  2. Die verandering van houdings teenoor persone met fisieke gestremdhede: 'n Vernuwende intervensie vir die werksplek / Changing attitudes towards people with physical disabilities: An innovative workplace intervention

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronel, Kleynhans; Martina, Kotzé.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be a worldwide tendency for people of working age with disabilities to remain unemployed. The employment of people with disabilities remains a development issue as they are deprived of social, political and basic human needs when unemployed. Reasons for this exclusion include a lack o [...] f information and awareness about the abilities of people with disabilities, as well as the perceived financial, operational, and productivity related costs of hiring people with disabilities. Other reasons include bias and stereotyping towards people with disabilities. These factors, together with a general fear of the unknown and ignorance of how to respond to different individuals, increase the negative attitudes towards people with disabilities. This has a concomitant negative effect on all parties involved: People without disabilities keep their distance from people with disabilities, which often results in a lack of employment, placement, training and promotional opportunities for people with disabilities. The organisation, in turn, often fails to maximise the potential of people with disabilities, who are usually appointed in stereotypical positions, such as switchboard operators, where their qualifications tend to be overlooked.. Consequently, employers need a heightened awareness of, and an attitudinal change towards, the benefits ofincluding disabled people in the workplace. The forming and changing of an attitude is a complex process because it consists of cognitive, emotional and behavioural components. All three components of an attitude need to be addressed. In addition, both external and internal strategies must be applied to foster change in attitudes. However, interventions based on innovative attitude-changing learning strategies are hard to find in the literature. Therefore, a learning intervention based on attitude change theories and principles, as well as on experiential learning principles (including interactive drama), was developed and implemented in order to change employees ' attitudes towards people with physical disabilities in the workplace. The intervention was implemented by means of a programme comprising various units. People with different disabilities (i.e. hearing, sight and physical) took part in each of the interactive dramas, and also formed part of the facilitation sessions in each unit. At the end of each session, the participants completed an evaluation form. The research population consisted of adult learners without physical disabilities enrolled in a leadership programme at a business school in South Africa. The participants were selected by means of non-probability sampling, and were assigned to the experimental and control groups respectively based on courses they enrolled for in the leadership programme. The participants (people without physical disabilities) in both the experimental and the control group completed a biographical questionnaire and an attitude questionnaire, after which the experimental group was exposed to the intervention. At the end of the intervention, both groups completed the attitude questionnaire again in order to determine whether the attitude of the experimental group showed a statistically significant positive attitude change towards people with physical disabilities. The results of the quasi-experimental design indicated a positive attitude change after the implementation of the programme. Moreover, the results suggested that the attitudes of employees without disability, towards employees with physical disabilities, are influenced by contact with people with disabilities and knowledge about disability. The implementation of attitude-changing programmes could facilitate changes in attitude which would, hopefully, lead to the increased integration of people with disabilities into the work environment and general community and, ultimately, to the restoration of dignity.

  3. The Graphing Game Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This lesson plan assesses student interpretation of graphs utilizing cooperative learning to further students understanding. Types of graphs used are horizontal and vertical bar graphs, picture graphs, and pictographs. In the lesson students play a game called the Graphing Game Show, in which they must work as a team to answer questions about specific graphs. The lesson includes four student resource worksheets and suggestions for extension and differentiation.

  4. Suicide-Bereaved Individuals' Attitudes Toward Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F; Wielgus, Madeline D; Jones, Connor B

    2014-12-01

    Background: Suicide-bereaved individuals represent an important group impacted by suicide. Understanding their experiences following the suicide of a loved one is an important research domain, despite receiving limited attention. Although suicide-bereaved individuals may benefit from mental health treatment, their attitudes toward therapy and therapists are poorly understood. Aims: The present study aimed to understand the extent to which bereaved individuals' attitudes toward therapy and therapists are impacted by whether their loved one was in therapy at the time of death. Method: Suicide-bereaved individuals (N = 243) from the United States were recruited to complete an online survey about their experience with and attitudes toward therapy and therapists following the suicide of a loved one. Results: Bereaved individuals whose loved one was in therapy at the time of death (N = 48, 19.8%) reported more negative and less positive attitudes toward the treating therapist than those whose loved one was not in therapy at the time of death (N = 81, 33.3%) or whose loved one was never in therapy/the deceased's therapy status was unknown (N = 114, 46.9%). Conclusion: The deceased's involvement with a therapist appears to be an important factor impacting the experience of bereaved individuals and should be considered when attempting to engage these individuals in postvention. PMID:25467045

  5. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ru\\u00EDz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa ?Protagonistas de novela? y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión ?trash?, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  6. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing : "To conduct research on animals is, I suppose, a necessary evil"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members of the Swedish Rheumatism Association (n=1195) and to all scientific experts serving on Ethical Review Boards in Sweden (n=364), with response rates of 65 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively. Results show that patients hold a positive stance towards animal testing, but with many caveats, and the level of support is comparable to those held by the general public found in national surveys. A clear majority of researchers werepositive towards animal testing, and large statistical differences between patients and researchers were found regarding their attitudes towards testing animals commonly held as pets (P<0.001). Women were more critical than men regarding which species are used for what purposes (P<0.001). Researchers need to be aware that their more positive attitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical research. The moral basis for using animals in research needs to be further discussed by all stakeholders.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERACTIVITY ON CONSUMER ATTITUDE OF ADVERTISING IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina SZUZ?POP (GHIRVU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Progress of new digital technologies has led to a new type of consumer, more dynamic and difficult to satisfy, which made the efficiency of the old promotion methods to decrease. Marketers who are looking for new ways to reach their audience found in online video games a reliable ally. Previous studies that have been conducted internationally showed that advertising through online games and delivering promotional messages in the virtual space mediated by Internet technology has a high degree of acceptance from the public. In Romania such studies are lacking , and this gap in the literature led to the need to study the potential that promoting in video game has on consumers from this market . In this paper we present some of the results of a larger quantitative research, which has investigated several aspects that influence consumer attitudes towards video games with advertising content, focusing on the factor with the most strongly impact - interactivity . The study used self-administered online questionnaire method to collect primary data that were further analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and factor analysis . The results revealed that in general the consummers from Romania have a positive attitude towards advertising presented in video games and the interactivity given by the game construction that allows the manipulation of branded objects during a play session has a direct and positive influence on the attitude.

  8. Knowledge of and attitudes towards periodontal health among adults in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, M; Pakdaman, A; Jafari, A; Virtanen, J I

    2014-03-01

    Determining what people know and believe about periodontal health and disease is important in order to establish prevention practices. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards periodontal health among adults in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey in 2011 of 791 adults aged 18-50 years using a stratified, multistage sampling method. We recorded demographic characteristics including age, sex, education, marital status, employment and economic status (housing density). The lowest percentage of correct answers was related to the definition of dental plaque (11.6%) and the highest was for the role of the dental visit in prevention (92.8%). Female sex, university education and higher economic status were significantly associated with a higher mean score on periodontal health knowledge. The regression analysis showed that positive attitudes were associated with higher periodontal health knowledge and having university education. In this study positive attitudes towards prevention were related to better knowledge. PMID:24950078

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfouzan, Najd

    2014-01-01

    Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31-50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended. PMID:25431668

  10. Are they just lazy? Student teachers' attitudes about dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwernan-Jones, Ruth; Burden, Robert L

    2010-02-01

    It is highly likely that teachers' abilities in dealing with different forms of learning difficulties will be affected by their knowledge about and attitudes towards those difficulties. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provides a useful framework within which to explore such attitudes and was used as the starting point for investigating trainee teachers' attitudes towards aspects of dyslexia. It is assumed that new teachers will enter the profession with a set of intentions according to personal beliefs, normative views within the teaching profession and the sense of competence and power they feel in dealing with dyslexic difficulties. The purpose of this study was to probe student teachers' attitudes at a prestigious School of Education in the Southwest of England. Four hundred and eight primary and secondary Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) students responded to a survey asking about their attitudes toward dyslexia. The student teachers expressed strongly positive attitudes toward the construct of dyslexia, with the majority expressing confidence in their ability to support dyslexic pupils. Females held significantly more positive attitudes toward dyslexia than males, but there were no significant differences according to PGCE course subject. Students who took the survey before and after teaching practice demonstrated some small but significant changes in attitude scores over that time. It is proposed that a new breed of teachers may be entering the teaching profession with positive beliefs about their ability to help dyslexic pupils, but who remain unclear as to how this can be accomplished. Some implications for action and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:19557824

  11. Contribution of parents' adult attachment and separation attitudes to parent-adolescent conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences. PMID:24117437

  12. Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy Dietz

    This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

  13. Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.

  14. Sexual attitudes and behaviors among medical students in Dokuz Eylul university, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, S; Aras, S; Semin, S; Orcin, E

    2005-09-01

    Gaining a healthy sexual attitude and behavior and being able to show appropriate approaches to patients in terms of sexual issues are important acquisitions for medical students. The aim of the present study was to determine, compare, and evaluate the sexual attitudes and behaviors of Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine students. An anonymous questionnaire was filled in by first- and sixth-year students in order to determine their sexual attitudes and behaviors. While information sources in the adolescence period for both genders were friends in the first place, these sources were mostly mothers, books, newspapers--magazines for females, and newspapers--magazines and television for males. The opinion of males about having sexual intercourse before marriage for males was positive, and females were more tolerant about males having this experience before marriage as compared to females having sexual experience before marriage. Rates of expression of having sexual intercourse and masturbation were found to be higher for male students. The first sexual experience with a sex worker or sentimentally insignificant partner was high among males. In general, the rate of condom use was lower, and the rate of coitus interruptus was found to be higher than in foreign studies. All the students declared 'my own will and values' as the most frequent factor affecting their sexual attitudes and behaviors, and high rates for 'social factors', 'religious requirements', 'the expectations of families', and 'protection from sexually transmitted diseases' were observed. The findings lead to the conclusions that gender differences exist in the sexual attitudes and behaviors of medical students; the enhancing effect of the traditional structure on gender discrimination is still continuing; students are not provided with sufficient scientific approach or training prior to the university education; and beyond biomedical training, they should receive more support in those fields during their medical education. PMID:16318965

  15. Obesity in show dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2012-08-11

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  16. Ambivalence, Modernisation and Language Attitudes: French and Arabic in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Paul B.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the ambivalent attitude toward the major speech varieties used in Tunisia (French, Classical Arabic, and Tunisian Arabic) and seeks to show the effects of that ambivalence on language policy, especially with regard to Arabization and bilingualism. (EKN)

  17. The aspect of personnel metal attitude in the production safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of an accident could always be traced to component/system failures and/or human error. The two factors are closely related to competency of the personnel's involved, in which mental attitude is a decisive factor. Furthermore mental attitude could be viewed as an element of Safety (S) Culture. Consequently, S. Culture could might created or at lea ts, be enhanced by the introduction of appropriate values, norms, as well as attitudes. The ABC and TBC of safety norm have been discussed briefly. Whereas mental attitude has been defined and discussed in detail and graded into six levels, namely: attending, responding, complying, accepting, preferring, and integrating. To assure highest level of safety, personnel must achieve integrating level of attitude, in the sense that he would merely do an action on the basis of safety values and/or norms prevailing in the system, not due to external pressure. Furthermore, considering the work as a physical and an emotional activity resulting in stress and strain on the body, Karate exercises have been promoted as an alternative for enhancing mental attitude by means of reducing personnel vulnerability to strain and stress. This method is accomplished by exploiting Roux's Low of conditioning effect and by implementation of an in-depth understanding on the spiritual aspect of Karate. It is concluded that in the field of production safety, there is a positive correlation between Karate, mental attitude, competence, performance, quality, and safety

  18. Belief Dimensions and Viewer’s Attitude towards TV Advertising in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn; Md Aminul Islam; Orachot Thooksoon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TVadvertising. Earlier research was mainly explored in the west with some finding were positive and some beingnegative on certain aspects of viewers perception. Whilst this study is exploratory in nature in understanding therelationship between Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TV advertising. Generally the Thai TVviewers tend to have a more negative attitude towards TV adve...

  19. Support, Inclusion, and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes toward the Education of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel R. Rodríguez; David Saldaña; F. Javier Moreno

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing special education teachers' attitudes toward teaching pupils with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and at determining the role of variables associated with a positive attitude towards the children and their education. Sixty-nine special education teachers were interviewed. The interview included two multiple-choice Likert-type questionnaires, one about teachers' attitude, and another about teachers' perceived needs in relation to the specific education of the ...

  20. A linkage of knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality: not necessarily a uniform relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, J L; Stricker, G

    1994-04-01

    A critical review of the literature regarding individuals' knowledge and their attitudes toward elderly sexuality is presented. A generally positive relationship was discovered between various age cohorts' depth of knowledge and their permissiveness of attitudes. However, some health care providers demonstrated a negative relationship between their knowledge and attitudes. In future studies, the use of a moderator methodology, rather than seeking a uniform relationship, appears essential in order to understand discrepant findings. PMID:8005500

  1. Low risk and high return: Affective attitudes and stock market expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Alexander; Merkle, Christoph; Niessen-ruenzi, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the impact of affective attitudes on risk and return estimates of stocks. Participants rate well-known blue-chip firms on an affective scale and forecast risk and return of the firms' stock. We find that positive affective attitudes lead to a prediction of high return and low risk, while negative attitudes lead to a prediction of low return and high risk. This bias increases with participants' confidence in their ratings and decreases with financial litera...

  2. Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working ...

  3. Predicting Return of Fear Following Exposure Therapy With an Implicit Measure of Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Vasey, Michael W.; Harbaugh, Casaundra N.; Buffington, Adam G.; Jones, Christopher R.; Fazio, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to advance understanding of the processes underlying the efficacy of exposure therapy and particularly the phenomenon of return of fear (ROF) following treatment by drawing on a social psychological view of phobias as attitudes. Specifically, a dual process theory of attitude-related behavior predicts that a positive response to exposure therapy may reflect change in either the automatic (the attitude representation itself) or controlled (skills and confidence at coping with the fea...

  4. Egg: the Arts Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Egg is a new TV show about people making art across America" from PBS. This accompanying Website presents excerpts from sixteen episodes of the series, with three more "hatching soon," such as Close to Home, profiling three photographers: Jeanine Pohlhaus, whose pictures document her father's struggle with mental illness; Gregory Crewdson's photos of Lee, Massachusetts; and Joseph Rodriguez's photos of Hispanics in New York City. Excerpts include video clips, gallery listings where the artists' work can be seen, and short interviews with artists. Some episodes also offer "peeps," glimpses of material not shown on TV, such as the Space episode's peep, Shooting Stars, that provides directions for astrophotography, taking photographs of star trails. Other sections of the site are airdates, for local listings; see and do usa, where vacationers can search for art events at their destinations; and egg on the arts, a discussion forum.

  5. Can participation in a school science fair improve middle school students' attitudes toward science and interest in science careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Valerie

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participation in a school-based science fair affects middle school students' attitudes toward science and interest in science and engineering careers. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare students' pre- and posttest attitudes toward and interest in science. Forty-eight of the 258 participants completed a school-based science fair during the study. In addition, twelve middle school science teachers completed an online survey. Both the Survey of Science Attitudes and Interest I and II (SSAI-I and II) measured students' attitudes toward and interest in science and science and mathematics self-efficacy, asked about classroom inquiry experiences and gathered demographic information. An online survey gathered qualitative data about science teachers' perceptions of school science fairs. The results showed no significant interactions among completion of a science fair project and attitudes toward and interest in science, science and mathematics self-efficacy or gender. There were significant differences at both pre- and posttest in attitudes between the students who did and did not complete a science fair project. All participating teachers believed that participation in science fairs could have a positive effect on students' attitudes and interest, but cited lack of time as a major impediment. There was significant interaction between level of classroom inquiry and attitudes and interest in science; students who reported more experiences had higher scores on these measures. Classroom inquiry also interacted with the effects of a science fair and participants' pre- and posttest attitude scores. Finally, the amount and source of assistance on a science fair project had a significant impact on students' posttest measures. Major limitations which affect the generalization of these findings include the timing of the administration of the pretest, the number of participants in the experimental group and differences in the science fair procedures at the participating schools. Embedded in a curriculum that includes the teaching of inquiry practices, science fairs may play a role in the inspiration of future scientists, but more research needs to be done on the quality of students' experiences, including amount and type of classroom instruction before and during the science fair process.

  6. Outcomes of three different models for sex education and citizenship programs concerning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Márcia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls. Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.

  7. Predictors of Hands-On Learning: Students’ Problem Approach Attitude, Problem Solving Confidence, and Problem Solving Style Relevant to Parental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ruei Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicopter parents prevail in this current society, their monitoring practice was assumed to take their children away from many hands-on engagements and affect children’s problem solving skills. Accordingly, this study conducted a questionnaire survey to those vocational high school students who had ever experienced project making, and there were 456 effective questionnaires collected for confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The results showed that: 1 parental monitoring was negatively correlated to problem solving confidence, problem solving style, and problem approaching attitude. 2 Students’ problem solving confidence, problem solving style, and problem approach attitude were positively associated with hands-on learning attitude. The results implied that parents ought to give children more opportunities to behave themselves, so children would have higher foci of hands-on practice which special needed in vocational high school.

  8. La innovación educativa desde la metodología: Mejora de las actitudes y competencias científicas de los alumnos (Educational innovation in research methodology: Improving students' scientific skills and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Pascual

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A programme of educational innovation was implemented to improve the attitude toward research methods for psychology students. Students used real data to test their own hypotheses using different statistical methods. Specifically, they implemented two key methodological principles in research methods: sample size and ordinal claims (Frick, 1996. Students had to work in teams, using Internet data bases for developing the theoretical background of the study, the definition of the objectives, the definition of variables, data analysis, and discussion of results. We assessed the attitudes towards research methods before and after the study. Results showed that: 1 the students improved their skills in research methods, and 2 the attitudes towards methodology were more positive.

  9. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  10. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  11. Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, 'openness' and 'conscientiousness' were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with 'negative affectivity' showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there is a relationship between the BF dimensions of personality traits and anxiety towards the dissection room experience (at the start of the course, 'negative emotionality' was related to an increased level of anxiety). We conclude that medical students agree on the importance to their studies of both science in general and gross anatomy in particular, and that some personality traits relate to their attitudes that could affect clinical competence. PMID:23594196

  12. Danish University lecturers’ attitudes towards English as the medium of instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Jensen; Jacob Thøgersen

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of English in research and higher education has been the subject of heated debate in Denmark and other European countries over the last years. This paper sets out the various positions in the national debate in Denmark, and then examines the attitudes towards these positions among the teaching staff at the country’s largest university. Four topics are extracted from the debate – one which expresses a positive attitude towards English and three independent but interrelat...

  13. The role of family communication in individual health attitudes and behaviors concerning diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi-Wagner, Elizabeth A; Talley, Amelia E

    2013-01-01

    This study explored associations among family communication patterns (conversation and conformity orientations), health-specific communication variables, health attitudes, and health behaviors in a sample of 433 family dyads (N?=?866). As expected, results of multilevel models revealed that individuals' health attitudes were strongly associated with their self-reported health behaviors. Findings also suggested that perceived confirmation from a family member during health-specific conversations (a) directly influenced health attitudes, (b) partially accounted for the positive relationship between family conversation orientation and health attitudes, and (c) partially accounted for the inverse relationship between family conformity orientation and health attitudes. Similarly, frequency of health-specific communication (a) directly influenced health attitudes, (b) partially accounted for the positive relationship between family conversation orientation and health attitudes, and (c) directly associated with health behaviors. Results from an actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) supported the aforementioned within-person association between a person's own health attitudes and health behaviors, as well as a positive relationship between young adults' health attitudes and their influential family member's health behaviors. Implications of these findings are discussed as they relate to theory and obesity prevention. PMID:22582714

  14. Body-tanning attitudes among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Hur, Won-Moo

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of body-tanning behaviors: suntanning, tanning bed, tanning spray, and sunless tanning product use. Data collected from 208 female college students (M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 2.0; M weight = 63.3 kg, SD = 2.0; M height = 165.9 cm, SD = 8.1) online. The questionnaire comprised four constructs: appearance-based, health-based, and emotion-based tanning attitudes, and body-tanning behaviors. Both appearance-based and emotion-based pro-tanning attitudes were associated with significantly higher body-tanning behaviors. However, health-based pro-tanning attitudes did not significantly affect body-tanning behaviors. The results from both UV- and non-UV exposure-related tanning behaviors provide future intervention strategies, such as establishing a positive body image without a tan and identifying negative emotional consequences as a result of tanning. PMID:24897909

  15. ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTION IN CONSUMER’S INSURANCE DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Andreea Stroe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers attitudes are both an obstacle and an advantage in the decision proccess. Choosing to discount or ignore consumers’ attitudes of a particular product or service, while developing a marketing strategy,guarantees limited success of a campaign.Differences in attitudes dependes also by the gender of decidents.the different features between men and women in the perception of risk and decisional process of making an insurance. Women are more risk averse than men. Over an initial range, women require no further compensation for the introduction of ambiguity but men do.Differences appear also in which concerns risk taking, overconfidence and information processing.Perhaps the attitude s formed as the result of a positive or negative personal experience and by other psychological factors outside the common market manipulation.

  16. ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTION IN CONSUMER’S INSURANCE DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumers attitudes are both an obstacle and an advantage in the decision proccess. Choosing to discount or ignore consumers’ attitudes of a particular product or service, while developing a marketing strategy,guarantees limited success of a campaign.Differences in attitudes dependes also by the gender of decidents. the different features between men and women in the perception of risk and decisional process of making an insurance. Women are more risk averse than men. Over an initial range, women require no further compensation for the introduction of ambiguity but men do. Differences appear also in which concerns risk taking, overconfidence and information processing. Perhaps the attitude s formed as the result of a positive or negative personal experience and by other psychological factors outside the common market manipulation.

  17. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE AND TEST ANXIETY AMONG 8TH STD. STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopashree. B. J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was meant to study the influence of scientific attitude on test anxiety of viii std. students. The study comprised 200 students from three different types of schools of Tumkur City. The tools used for data collection were scientific attitude scale by Avinash grewal and test anxiety scale by L.N.K.Simha. The obtained data were analysed by using pearson product moment correlation and by using student‘t’ test .The results revealed that a significant positive influence of scientific attitude on test anxiety of 8th std. students of Tumkur City and significant difference was found between high, moderate and low level scientific attitude students with respect to their test anxiety

  18. Attitudes towards chemistry among engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo Delgado, Carlos J.

    The attitudes towards chemistry of the engineering students enrolled in an introductory course at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico were explored (n = 115). A mixed methodology was used in an exploratory-oriented research approach. The first stage consisted of the administration of a Likert scale attitudinal survey which was validated during the study's design process. The survey allowed collecting information about the participant's attitudes towards their personal opinion, their perspectives about peer's or relatives' opinion, relevant aspects of the discipline, and difficulty-increasing factors in the chemistry course. The scale internal reliability was measured in a pilot study with a convenience simple, obtaining an acceptable coefficient (Cronbach alpha = 0.731). Survey results evidenced a mainly neutral attitude towards the chemistry course, not highly negative or highly positive, in contrast with other studies in this field. On the other hand, the normality hypothesis was tested for the scores obtained by participants in the survey. Although the pilot study sample had an approximately normal distribution, the scores in obtained by the participants in the survey failed the normality test criteria. The second stage of the study was accomplished using a case study. Among the survey participants, some students were invited to in-depth interviews to elucidate the reasons why they have certain attitudes towards chemistry. Study time, instructor, motivation, term of study, and course schedule are the factors that interviewees agreed as contributors to success or failure in the chemistry course. Interview's participants emphasized that study time is determinant to pass the class. This methodological approach, quantitative followed by qualitative, was useful in describing the attitudes towards chemistry among university students of engineering.

  19. The influence of female social models in corporate STEM initiatives on girls' math and science attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task value. Male attitudes towards women's role in STEM fields may also require attention. Increasing attitudes seems best achieved through ensuring a highly satisfying experience with the program and their mentor. Study results suggest this requires more considerations than simply matching mentor and mentee race or gender. Reliability results of attitudinal scales provided guidance on assessment strategies.

  20. Evaluating Students' Attitudes in Introductory Geoscience Courses as a Function of Pedagogy and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayon, A. K.; Eyssautier, C.

    2008-12-01

    Introductory geoscience courses at large urban institutions have the potential to increase the scientific literacy of the general population. Therefore, engaging all students in the classroom is critical. As instructors of these courses for non-majors, we have all observed students disengaging from the class for a number of reasons. One hypothesis is students feel out of their element in a large, academic institution. This is particularly true for underrepresented minority, low-income first generation, and immigrant college students - the students on one side of the postsecondary science enrollment gap. This research addresses how, through pedagogy and content, we can engage a more diverse population of students by changing their attitudes towards science. We administered the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) instrument, modified for geology, to students enrolled in introductory geology courses (GEO1001 and PsTL1171) at the University of Minnesota - Twin Cities. This survey consists of 42 questions that measure students" pre- and post-course attitudes towards geology and physical sciences. GEO1001 is a large lecture course where the laboratory content is independent from lecture content. PSTL1171 is offered through the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning; this course has smaller class sizes, and lecture and laboratory content are fully integrated. Demographically, students of color comprise 23% of the student population in GEO1001, in contrast to 73% in PsTL1171. Overall, responses from all students surveyed show a positive shift in attitudes and confidence. However, in comparing responses from only students of color, those enrolled in PsTL1171 demonstrated greater favorable shifts in the categories of personal interests and problem solving confidence. The pre-course responses also indicate that students of color in PsTL1171 started the course with more favorable attitudes towards real world connections than those students in GEO1001. These preliminary survey results reinforce the connection between attitude, confidence, and pedagogy, particularly for underrepresented minority students. Furthermore, the knowledge of increased attitude towards real world connections among students of color can be used in course content development in order to engage a more diverse student population. Future research will address the role of pedagogy on the acquisition and retention of knowledge in these introductory courses.

  1. Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AgustinIbanez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Implicit Association Test (IAT is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs in response to face- and word- processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members and words (positive and negative valence as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face-words implicitly associated in the task had an influence on the N170 amplitude modulation. On the one hand, in face categorization, right N170 showed differences according to the association between social categories of faces and affective valence of words. On the other, in word categorization, left N170 presented a similar modulation when the task implied a negative valence associated with ingroup faces. Only indigenous participants showed a significant IAT effect and N170 differences. Our results demonstrate an early ERP blending of stimuli processing with both intergroup and evaluative contexts, suggesting an integration of contextual information related to intergroup attitudes during the early stages of word and face processing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of early ERPs during an ethnicity IAT, opening a new branch of exchange between social neuroscience and social psychology of attitudes.

  2. Evaluation of an educational, theater-based intervention on attitudes toward organ donation in Risaralda, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buitrago, Juliana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The shortage of organs for transplantation is a worldwide problem and the main cause is the refusal of family members to donate. Consent to donate is influenced by many factors and educational interventions are strongly recommended. Objective: To evaluate the impact of an educational, theater-based strategy on the attitudes toward organ donation. Methodology: This study employed an intervention using theater as the central tool. The impact of this intervention on the intention to donate was assessed through a controlled, prospective, nonrandomized designed study. The sample consisted of 1,038 people. All the participants answered a survey that asked about sex, age and intent to donate. Afterward, one portion of the sample was exposed to the play, The Gift of Life, and a subsequent discussion forum that was guided by experts. The same survey was administered again after the intervention.Results: Before the intervention, donation attitudes were positive in 68.3% of the responses, negative in 6.8% and uncertain in 24.9%. Females showed a greater intent to donate while age had no apparent influence on the donation decision. Those exposed to the intervention were found to be more likely to donate and show a favorable change in attitude toward donation than those who were not exposed to the intervention. Conclusion: An educational intervention using theater is an effective tool to generate a short-term change in the intent to donate. Educational strategies should be employed to increase the rates of organ donation.

  3. [Perception and attitude toward pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péoc'h, Nadia

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, the pain sends back to the infringement of the flesh and the suffering on the infringement of the psyche. The relation of care and the accompanying are due to nature a social fact of relation. In the right line of a first study (Péoc'h et al., 2007) concerning professional representations of health care professionals with respect to the care of the pain, we studied in the context of the theoretical model of the "social thought" (Rouquette, 1973), attitudes, perceptions and the ideological positions of patients about their pain's living. 244 patients hospitalized within the Hospitals of Toulouse have completed a questionnaire included free associations tasks, attitude answers, and answers concerning the ideological dimension of pain (beliefs, religious or anthropological orientation), in fine, a fourth party entered into a phenomenological perspective. The object "pain" will be suspected under the angle of the consciousness and the lived of the patient by using the protocol of the "narrative story of life" (Le Grand, 1989), with a praxeological design. Results indicate that the conceptions of the pain proposed by the patient make references to two different areas: that of the body (evil, handicap) and that of the psyche (evil-being, suffering). The term suffering reveal the social face of the pain in a double constituent: existential (solitude, incomprehension) and ideological (" it is necessary to take its evil in patience ", P = 73,3 %; chi2 = 39,83, p. < .05). The representation universe of the pain comes along with a certain indecision between these two events of the disease : pain versus suffering. PMID:23091918

  4. Change in student beliefs about attitudes toward science in grades 6-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan AKCAY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study reports on an investigation of the impact of a Science-Technology-Society (STS approach in promoting more positive student attitudes toward science that are recommended by current reform documents. A total of 609 students from grades six through nine were selected for a survey of attitudes in two class sections assigned as either experimental (STS oriented class or control group (textbook oriented class. The results indicate that students in classes taught with an STS approach develop more positive attitudes toward science when compared to students in classes taught with a textbook-oriented approach. The STS approach to science teaching works equally well for male and female students regarding student attitudes toward science. Significant differences were not found between male and female students in terms of improving positive attitudes concerning science study.

  5. The Effect of Initial Brand Image on Category Fitness and Brand-Extension Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarepour Nasirabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of products with a similar brand name can function as a lever on the brand image, brand awareness and in general in reaching the brand equity in the established markets, the relation or connection of an existing brand with a new product can affect the relations and connections of the existing brand image as well as the loyalty to the brand. This effect can be positive or negative. Through investigating this image the researcher tried to help the company to guaranty a fit image, compete in the global scene and stabilize its position. The study in this research took place on Tehran districts. As the sample, the researcher chose 500 of Faloodeh-ice-cream consumers of Mihan Company through simple cluster sampling and gained the required data about the consumers’ views and ideas through questionnaire. The data has been analyzed by using Lisrel software. The research findings showed that the brand image has positive and direct influence on the perceived category fitness, the perceived category fitness on the brand-extension attitude and the initial brand image on the brand -extension attitude respectively. Companies had better avoid ruining the original brand position in the consumers’ mind by maintaining the appropriateness of their new products which were produced in proportion with the consumers’ ideas and needs.

  6. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the article is to analyse the Danish policies used to promote entrepreneurship during the last 30 years. The initiatives to promote entrepreneurship have been implemented as part of Danish industrial policy. The initiatives are presented and ordered according to a model of planned social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether the target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action.

  7. Examining The Impact Of Mobile Marketing On Consumers' Attitudes and Purchase Intentions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer Abbass Al-alak

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the impact of mobile marketing on consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions. More specifically the research intended to measure Jordanian consumers' acceptance of SMS advertising. A number of hypotheses were formulated for this purpose. The findings of the study show that there existed positive relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived entertainment and intention to participate and purchase intention. Whereas there existed negative relationship between personal use, extensive advertising, privacy concern and intention to participate and purchase intention. Based on the results a number of recommendations were proposed, and suggestions for future studies were made.

  8. Disturbing effects of attitude control maneuvers on the orbital motion of the Helios spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgevic, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The position of the spin axis of the Helios A spacecraft has been maintained and updated by a series of attitude control maneuvers, by means of a sequence of unbalanced jet forces which produce an additional disturbed motion of the spacecraft's center of mass. The character of this motion, its magnitude and direction was studied. For practical purposes of the orbit determination of the spacecraft, a computer program is given which shows how the components of the disturbing acceleration in the spacecraft-fixed reference frame can be easily computed.

  9. A Study of Students and Teachers' Preferences and Attitudes towards Correction of Classroom Written Errors in Saudi EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Hamouda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt that teacher written feedback plays an essential role in teaching writing skill. The present study, by use of questionnaire, investigates Saudi EFL students' and teachers' preferences and attitudes towards written error corrections. The study also aims at identifying the difficulties encountered by teachers and students during the feedback process. The questionnaire findings reveal that both teachers and students have positive attitudes towards written error correction. The study also shows that while teachers and students share such common preferences as the importance of error correction and the types of errors, there are considerable discrepancies as to the techniques of error correction. For instance, students favor the overall correction, whereas most teachers do not. However, the results show that students prefer teacher correction to peer and self-correction. Moreover, both the teachers and students have encountered a number of difficulties, so suggestions have been investigated so as to deal with the problems.

  10. Mothers’ Attitudes and Self-Esteem among Deaf Children in Iranian High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Hamed Sardar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between mothers’ attitude and self-esteem among deaf children who are currently enrolled in deaf high schools in Iran. While family system theory is typically used in trying counseling and therapy, much can be learned from examining it by studying the relationship between deaf children and their mothers. Family systems theory has been used in trying to understand problems of communication between children and their families (Widerman, 1995. In general, attention with some significant findings has been focused on environmental factors such as parenting, communication at home, and type of schooling as potential contributors to self-esteem (Crocker, 2008. However, the role of other variables such as family’s attitude has not been systematically explored. This implies that the picture is far from complete. It is also not clear what kind of factors effect on deaf children’s self-esteem. Henceforth, the findings of this study may be helpful in the development of curriculum goals for increasing self-esteem in deaf children. Counselors and social workers can do much to promote positive family relationships as well as acceptance of disabilities in deaf children. The sample consisted of 200 deaf children (100 boys and 100 girls and 200 normal-hearing mothers. The study was conducted at deaf high schools in Iran. Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, Parental Attitudes towards Deafness and interviews Scale were used. The results showed that a relationship existed between mothers’ attitude and deaf children’s self-esteem. Additionally, according to the Pearson correlation test, there is a relationship between the mothers’ attitudes and self-esteem in deaf children. Children whose mothers ably communicated had higher self-esteem scores than their counterparts whose mothers could not ably communicate. The findings of this study may be helpful in the development of curriculum goals for increase of self-esteem in deaf children. Counselors can do much to promote positive family relationships as well as acceptance of disabilities in deaf children. Also, these findings may expand our understanding of the characteristics of deaf children’s self-esteem and their families’ attitudes. In terms of practical value, it is hoped that these findings provide information that may help determine efficacy of self-esteem, for deaf children and their families.

  11. Attitudes towards sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Olkinuora, Veera

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to offer up to date information on the international students’ knowledge and attitude towards sustainable development in Oulu University of Applied Sciences. This thesis was commissioned by the Oulu University of Applied Sciences Sustainable Development Team. Similar study was conducted with the Finnish students in 2011. The research task was done in two parts. First the survey questions were translated to English and a few questions were added to gather m...

  12. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    2006-09-15

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to some extent unexplained as well. The reasons for the development towards more positive attitudes cannot be determined with any certainty at this point. However, it should be mentioned that attitude to nuclear power per se became more positive during the studied period, both in the two municipalities and in the nation as a whole. Nuclear power attitude was strongly correlated with policy intention in the present data (0.67). Yet, adding nuclear power attitude to the analysis of covariance model mentioned above did not result in a substantially weaker effect of the time factor (or of gender). This result suggests that whatever factor accounts for the changes observed, beyond the ones measured and investigated here, probably are area specific and possibly connected with the SKB program of information - a question for future research to answer.

  13. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to some extent unexplained as well. The reasons for the development towards more positive attitudes cannot be determined with any certainty at this point. However, it should be mentioned that attitude to nuclear power per se became more positive during the studied period, both in the two municipalities and in the nation as a whole. Nuclear power attitude was strongly correlated with policy intention in the present data (0.67). Yet, adding nuclear power attitude to the analysis of covariance model mentioned above did not result in a substantially weaker effect of the time factor (or of gender). This result suggests that whatever factor accounts for the changes observed, beyond the ones measured and investigated here, probably are area specific and possibly connected with the SKB program of information - a question for future research to answer

  14. LEARNERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS ONLINE LANGUAGE LEARNING; AND CORRESPONDING SUCCESS RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah CINKARA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Online teaching has long been a key area of interest recently in every field of education as well as English language teaching. Numerous hardware tools, such as, mp3 players, mobile devices, and so on; and software applications, such as, podcasts, wikis, learning management systems, and so on, have been used in distance and online instruction and they have proved to be useful in facilitating learning individually (Finger, Sun, & Jamieson-Proctor, 2010. Learning management systems (LMS provide a virtual environment and various tools to support learning. The current institution where the researchers work deliver two 2-credit online English courses for a specific group of learners at a state university in south-eastern Turkey by using Modular Object Oriented Distance Learning Environment (MOODLE. Moodle is an open code LMS which provides teachers and course developers with numerous online tools to enhance distance learning/teaching environment. The course has both a synchronous and asynchronous instruction. Synchronous and asynchronous instructions are associated with the delivery of content in campus-based environments; however, their role differs in off the campus environments as they solve the problems of distance learners. Universities, colleges, and other education institutions are integrating online learning into every aspect of higher education. Many teachers and faculty members at higher education institutions who already run face-to-face courses have a website to post lecture notes or slide presentations as well as other course material. There is no doubt that these are effective strategies to expand teaching efforts. Still, there are other educators who design and teach totally online classes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate learners’ attitudes towards these online language courses, and there are two objectives of this research. The first one is to discover learners’ attitudes towards the online English course; and the second purpose is to evaluate and correlate learners’ attitudes with their success determined with their end-of-the-year grades. For the unique purpose of this study, an Online Language Learning Attitude Test (OLLAT has been constructed and distributed to about 7000 learners who were invited to complete this task online. 3516 of these learners took the OLLAT voluntarily and 1783 were successfully completed the test and were included in this study. The findings showed that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between learners’ OLLAT scores and their course success.

  15. Pew Global Attitudes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most social scientists will tell you that it is fairly hard to get any type of meaningful sense of public opinion on any number of important issues, so it is with great interest that the Scout Report has found the website of the Pew Global Attitudes Project. With principal funding from The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Global Attitudes Project was created with the intent to gauge public attitudes toward globalization, democracy, and a number of other crucial issues. To accomplish this task, they have conducted over 90,000 interviews in 50 countries over the past few years. So far, their work has yielded a number of intriguing reports which deal with subjects such as Islamic extremism, the war in Iraq, and prosperity in China. Visitors can view all of these reports on the site, and also take a look at the datasets used to craft each report. Finally, visitors can elect to sign up to receive email updates when new reports are released.

  16. Attitudes towards wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning permission for the construction of a small 'farm' of wind turbines at Delabole (Deli windfarm) had been obtained and it was intended to use this source of renewable energy by generating electricity and selling it to the electrical power companies for distribution through the National Grid. It was important, therefore, to establish just what the attitudes of local residents were to the proposed development. A programme of research was discussed with the developer and it was agreed that an attitude survey would be conducted in the local area in the summer of 1990, before the turbines were erected, and before the tourist season was completely spent in order to obtain the views of visitors as well. A similar survey would then be done one year later, when the Deli windfarm was established and running. In addition, control samples would be taken at these two times in Exeter to give baseline information on attitudes toward this topic. This proposal was put to the developer and agreement was reached with him and the UK Department of Energy who were providing financial support for the research. The results of the research are reported. (author)

  17. Consumers’ Attitude towards Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna Cyril Eze

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a growing business and with advances in the Internet technology, the dynamics and landscape ofthe business has changed as well. Prior findings on consumers’ attitude towards advertising are mixed. Thispaper is an attempt to examine young adults’ attitude towards advertising. We conceptualized a framework toexamine the influence of six independent variables namely consumer manipulation, product information,hedonic/pleasure, economic condition, social integration, and materialism on consumers’ attitude towardsadvertising. Participants were selected from the southern region of Malaysia. The data were collected throughpersonal administration, and had 217 valid responses. The analysis reveals that four of the six hypotheses weresupported. Consumer manipulation emerged negative, which is consistent with past findings. These findingswould enable practitioners to be more consumer-sensitive to ensure that the advertising campaigns are properlyconceived to avoid adverse effects on a firm’s performance. The findings would also benefit consumers ingaining additional understanding on the roles of social networks in persuading specific purchase. This paper alsocontributes contextual literature on the perspectives of consumers’ in Malaysia.

  18. Friendship and Attitudes toward School among Children of Two Muslim Communities in Marseille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles-Jardel, Monique; Schneider, Barry H.; Boutry, Virginie

    2002-01-01

    Compared Comorian and Algerian 10- and 11-year-old immigrants' attitudes toward school, friendship nominations, and friendship quality. Found that ethnic origin was a factor in choosing friends; positive friendship quality associated with better attitudes toward school; and in-group friendships were more common and of higher quality than those…

  19. The Impact of Paralympic School Day on Student Attitudes toward Inclusion in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Paralympic School Day (PSD) is a disability awareness program that provides a platform for attitude change by raising awareness about disability and disability sport. The purpose of this study was to determine if PSD would have a positive impact on the attitudes of students without disabilities toward the inclusion of students with disabilities in…

  20. Attitude towards Dreams and MMPI Measures of Psychopathology in Male Chronic Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernovsky, Zack Zdenek

    1987-01-01

    Tested 86 male chronic alcoholics admitted to treatment. Found that attitude towards dreams as measured by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) item on understanding dreams was unrelated to scores on MMPI scales of psychopathology and to incidence of nightmares. Failed to confirm clinical expectations that positive attitude to dreams…

  1. Agricultural Science Teachers' Attitudes about and Use of Reading in Secondary Agricultural Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Travis D.; Osborne, Ed

    2007-01-01

    A national survey of 216 agriscience teachers investigated the attitudes and practices related to reading. Knowledge of strategies, total time of text use, confidence in strategy use, and the general approach to reading explained 67% of the variance in frequency of content area reading strategy use. Teachers held positive attitudes about reading…

  2. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  3. The Persuasive Power of Emotions: Effects of Emotional Expressions on Attitude Formation and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, Gerben A; van den Berg, Helma; Heerdink, Marc W

    2014-11-17

    Despite a long-standing interest in the intrapersonal role of affect in persuasion, the interpersonal effects of emotions on persuasion remain poorly understood-how do one person's emotional expressions shape others' attitudes? Drawing on emotions as social information (EASI) theory (Van Kleef, 2009), we hypothesized that people use the emotional expressions of others to inform their own attitudes, but only when they are sufficiently motivated and able to process those expressions. Five experiments support these ideas. Participants reported more positive attitudes about various topics after seeing a source's sad (rather than happy) expressions when topics were negatively framed (e.g., abandoning bobsleighing from the Olympics). Conversely, participants reported more positive attitudes after seeing happy (rather than sad) expressions when topics were positively framed (e.g., introducing kite surfing at the Olympics). This suggests that participants used the source's emotional expressions as information when forming their own attitudes. Supporting this interpretation, effects were mitigated when participants' information processing was undermined by cognitive load or was chronically low. Moreover, a source's anger expressions engendered negative attitude change when directed at the attitude object and positive change when directed at the recipient's attitude. Effects occurred regardless of whether emotional expressions were manipulated through written words, pictures of facial expressions, film clips containing both facial and vocal emotional expressions, or emoticons. The findings support EASI theory and indicate that emotional expressions are a powerful source of social influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402955

  4. The Attitudes of Primary School Teachers toward Inclusive Education in Rural and Urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of primary school teachers from the selected rural and urban areas in China toward inclusive education. The results indicated that, (1) teachers' attitudes are composed of three dimensions: positive and negative effects of inclusion, and benefits of segregated special education; (2) most surveyed teachers…

  5. Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

  6. An Empirical Study of Hospitality Management Student Attitudes toward Group Projects: Instructional Factors and Team Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung

    2012-01-01

    The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…

  7. Understanding the Attitude-Action Gap: Functional Integration of Environmental Aspects in Car Purchase Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Olivier; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Turcksin, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at understanding how a general positive attitude toward the environment results in a limited purchase of environmentally friendlier cars, often referred to as the attitude-action gap. In a first experiment 27 volunteers performed a judgment task on car purchase intention. Participants were asked to evaluate the probability of…

  8. Industrial psychology students' attitudes towards statistics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sanet, Coetzee; Pieter van der, Merwe.

    Full Text Available ORIENTATION: The attitude of students toward statistics may influence their enrolment, achievement and motivation in the subject of research and Industrial Psychology. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of the survey of attitudes toward statistics [...] (SATS-36) for a South African sample and to determine whether biographical variables influence students' attitudes. MOTIVATION FOR STUDY: Students could be better prepared for, and guided through, a course in statistics if more is known about their attitudes towards statistics. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used and the SATS36 was administered to a sample of convenience consisting of 235 students enrolled in Industrial and Organisational Psychology at a large tertiary institution in South Africa. MAIN FINDINGS: Results revealed that even though students perceive statistics to be technical, complicated and difficult to master, they are interested in the subject and believe statistics to be of value. The degree to which students perceived themselves to be competent in mathematics was related to the degree to which they felt confident in their own ability to master statistics. Males displayed slightly more positive feelings toward statistics than females. Older students perceived statistics to be less difficult than younger students and also displayed slightly more positive feelings concerning statistics. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: It seems that in preparing students for statistics, their perception regarding their mathematical competence could be managed as well. CONTRIBUTION: This study provides the first preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the SATS-36 for a sample of South African students.

  9. Using response-time latencies to measure athletes’ doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes’ real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). Methods We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping–dislike/like–[health food]). Results Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges’s g?=?-0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95?=?-0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. Conclusion This study demonstrates that athletes’ attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports, perhaps as a complementary measure in evaluations of the effectiveness of doping prevention interventions. PMID:25209168

  10. Attitudes to cadaveric organ donation in Irish preclinical medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Kevin C

    2011-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.

  11. VALORES Y ACTITUDES SOCIALMENTE RESPONSABLES EN UNIVERSITARIOS CHILENOS / SOCIALLY-RESPONSIBLE VALUES AND ATTITUDES IN CHILEAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gracia, Navarro; Paula, Boero; Gladys, Jiménez; Liliana, Tapia; Reinier, Hollander; Arturo, Escobar; Margarita, Baeza; Álvaro, Espina.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Como aporte a la comprensión del comportamiento socialmente responsable en estudiantes universitarios, el estudio pretende identificar sus valores y actitudes hacia la responsabilidad social; determinar diferencias según sexo, promoción y área de pertenencia de la carrera e identificar la relación e [...] ntre valores, actitudes hacia esta y el comportamiento socialmente responsable. Se encuestó a 2.876 estudiantes de seis universidades chilenas con CAVSR y CACSR (Proyecto MECESUP UCO0303, 2004-2008). Los resultados muestran una relación positiva muy significativa entre valores, actitudes y comportamiento socialmente responsable; compromiso con valores y actitudes vinculados a las vivencias próximas a los universitarios y menor compromiso con aquellos vinculados al bienestar social, la ciudadanía, democracia y participación. Se observan, además, diferencias significativas según sexo, promoción y área de pertenencia de la carrera. Como conclusión, se observa la necesidad de impulsar prácticas educativas que activen valores menos preponderantes y promuevan actitudes positivas hacia ellos a fin de lograr un ejercicio pleno de la responsabilidad social. Abstract in english As a contribution to comprehension of the socially responsible behaviour in college students, this study tries to identify their values and attitudes towards social responsibility; to determine differences according to gender, promotion and career areas and to identify the relationship among values, [...] attitudes towards social responsibility and a socially responsible behaviour. It surveyed 2.876 students from six Chilean universities by CAVSR and CACSR (Project MECESUP UCO0303, 2004-2008). Results show a very positive and significant relation among values, attitudes and socially responsible behaviour, commitment with values and attitudes that are closer to college student experiences and less commitment with those linked to social wellbeing, citizenship, democracy and participation. There are significant differences according to gender, promotion and career areas. As a conclusion, there is a need to stimulate educational practices that activate less preponderant values and promote positive attitudes towards them in order to achieve a social responsibility full exercise.

  12. The Impact of School Supervision of Work and Job Quality on Adolescent Work Attitudes and Job Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James R., III; Josiam, Bharath

    2000-01-01

    In a sample of nearly 1,800 adolescents in work experience programs, job quality had the greatest positive impact on work attitudes and job satisfaction and was associated with negative job behaviors. Good supervisory relationships were linked to positive attitudes and behaviors. However, school supervision of work did not appear to influence…

  13. Medical student attitudes toward the medically underserved: the USU perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mark B; Landers, Grace; Davis, Stephen W; Durning, Steven J; Crandall, Sonia J

    2015-04-01

    This study examined a cohort of students attending the Uniformed Services University regarding their attitudes toward medical care in underserved populations. Using the previously validated Medical Student Attitudes Toward the Underserved (MSATU), repeated measures analysis of variance showed that student attitudes toward care in underserved populations was less favorable than limited national data at entry and declined over time (Mean MSATU total score Year 1: 46.2 [SD 10.95]; Year 4: 41.7 [SD 12.3] p student exposure to underserved populations and strengthen the social contract between community and institution. PMID:25850128

  14. The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma

    2012-01-01

    People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

  15. GPR antenna position and orientation estimation using strapdown inertial navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Friedrich; Olhoeft, Gary R.

    2000-04-01

    This paper discusses the possible use of strapdown inertial navigation for real-time ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna position and orientation estimation along arbitrary three-dimensional acquisition lines. Strapdown inertial navigation theory has been studied extensively in the literature for aircraft, missile and space navigation. Here, we give an overview of the theory as it applies to the antenna position and orientation problem. This includes the definition of the relevant coordinate frames and attitude parameters, a discussion of the measured acceleration and angular velocity, and a description of the four primary computational tasks pertinent to strapdown inertial navigation. These are the initial alignment of the system, the integration of angular velocity into attitude (attitude updating), the acceleration transformation and integration into velocity (velocity updating) and the integration of velocity into position (position updating). The key elements of using a low-grade versus a high-grade inertial measurement unit (IMU) are pointed out. The actual performance of a commercially available low-grade IMU is evaluated based on a series of navigation experiments. The experimental results show that the tested IMU is far from being accurate enough for completely self-contained antenna positioning and that the precise calibration for scale factors, biases and axis misalignments is vital. The observed orientation accuracy (error of less than 1 degree after 60 seconds) suggests the integration of the tested IMU with odometry, extending the applicability of the latter to environments with topography or where changing of the profile direction due to obstacles is necessary. Another possible use of low-grade IMUs might be for more sophisticated 'rubber sheeting' techniques.

  16. Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehwan; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S

    2015-05-25

    Objective. To examine pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt. Methods. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students' debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Results. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. Conclusion. These 3 themes in students' attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt. PMID:26089561

  17. Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant in Mashhad-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

  18. Attitudes towards child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to develop a measurement instrument aimed to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse, and to measure attitudes and associating personal, social and cultural factors among three different samples of Norwegian adults. Additional aims were to explore the relation between participants’ knowledge-seeking on the one hand, their experiences, attitudes and actual knowledge about abuse on the other hand. Three studies are presented based on the same dat...

  19. Greek Nurses Attitudes towards Death

    OpenAIRE

    Malliarou Maria; Sarafis Pavlos; Sotiriadou Kiriaki; Serafeim Tatiana; Karathanasi Kostantinia; Moustaka Eleni; Theodosopoulou Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies explore the attitudes of nurses caring for dying patients but this is the first oneexploring Greek nurses’ attitude toward death.Purpose/Objectives: To assess how Greek nurses feel about death and examine any relationships between theirattitudes and demographic factors.Design: Descriptive quantitative. The sample comprised of 150 hospital nurses (response rate 64%).Method: Voluntary and anonymous completion of the Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R), and a...

  20. ACTITUDES SOCIALES HACIA EX RECLUSOS: UN ESTUDIO EXPLORATORIO / SOCIAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS EX-CONVICTS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ignacio, Ruiz.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar algunos factores sociales relacionados con la reinserción social de las personas que salen de prisión. Para ello, se midieron las actitudes hacia la contratación laboral de ex reclusos en una muestra no aleatoria de estudiantes universitarios (n=180). Se encon [...] tró que las actitudes fueron menos favorables hacia ex convictos condenados por delitos sexuales, contra las personas, por robo y reincidentes, y fueron más favorables para los delincuentes primarios, jóvenes y mujeres. Haber tenido un familiar o amigo cercanos detenidos se asoció con algunas actitudes más favorables hacia ex reclusos. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to study social factors related to social reinsertion for ex-inmates. Attitudes towards the hiring of released inmates were measured in a non-randomized sample of university students (n=180). Results showed less favorable attitudes for hiring sexual, physic or property o [...] ffenders, and more favorable attitudes towards first offense, young or women inmates. Knowing a relative or friend prisoner was associated with some positive attitudes towards ex-convicts.