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Developing positive worker attitudes toward radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Teamwork, productivity, and reducing exposure are admirable goals presented to the workers in a nuclear power plant. A common thread to achievement in these areas resides in worker attitudes toward the tasks presented. A positive, alert, and cooperative attitude is an element in a worker's mind that must be created and maintained by good leadership and management practices. At the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, management has used certain strategies to foster good positive worker attitudes toward radiation protection and quality workmanship in all tasks. Strategies differ from management by objectives in that they have no deadlines or timetables in and of themselves. Rather, strategies are preplanned methods that can be called upon when the opportunity arises to improve worker attitudes. A series of five strategies for positive attitude development are described in the full paper. The strategies are identified with buzz words to allow the user a recall mechanism (as with the acronyms abounding in the nuclear industry). They cover the range of management techniques from example setting to reward/recognition. Although not unique to radiation exposure management, nor all inclusive, the strategies provide some though stimulation in creating productive worker attitudes

1987-09-03

2

Developing positive worker attitudes toward radiation protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Teamwork, productivity, and reducing exposure are admirable goals presented to the workers in a nuclear power plant. A common thread to achievement in these areas resides in worker attitudes toward the tasks presented. A positive, alert, and cooperative attitude is an element in a worker's mind that must be created and maintained by good leadership and management practices. At the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, management has used certain strategies to foster good positive worker attitudes toward radiation protection and quality workmanship in all tasks. Strategies differ from management by objectives in that they have no deadlines or timetables in and of themselves. Rather, strategies are preplanned methods that can be called upon when the opportunity arises to improve worker attitudes. A series of five strategies for positive attitude development are described in the full paper. The strategies are identified with buzz words to allow the user a recall mechanism (as with the acronyms abounding in the nuclear industry). They cover the range of management techniques from example setting to reward/recognition. Although not unique to radiation exposure management, nor all inclusive, the strategies provide some though stimulation in creating productive worker attitudes.

Millis, N.L.

1987-01-01

3

Accent Imitation Positively Affects Language Attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other’s speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else’s speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants. After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers’ perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.

PattiAdank

2013-05-01

4

Position and attitude tracking control for a quadrotor UAV.  

Science.gov (United States)

A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances. PMID:24534327

Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui

2014-05-01

5

Multi-platform Integrated Positioning and Attitude Determination using GNSS:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is trend in spacecraft engineering toward distributed systems where a number of smaller spacecraft work as a larger satellite. However, in order to make the small satellites work together as a single large platform, the precise relative positions (baseline) and orientations (attitude) of the elements of the formation have to be estimated. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, the general term for systems as GPS and Galileo) receivers can be utilized to provide baseline estimates wit...

Buist, P. J.

2013-01-01

6

A vectorial bootstrapping approach for integrated GNSS-based relative positioning and attitude determination of spacecraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally in multi-spacecraft missions (e.g. formation flying, rendezvous) the GNSS-based relative positioning and attitude determination problem are treated as independent. In this contribution we will investigate the possibility to use multi-antenna data from each spacecraft, not only for attitude determination, but also to improve the relative positioning between spacecraft. Both for ambiguity resolution and accuracy of the baseline solution, we will show the theoretical improvement achievable as a function of the number of antennas on each platform. We concentrate on ambiguity resolution as the key to precise relative positioning and attitude determination and will show the theoretical limit of this kind of approach. We will use mission parameters of the European Proba-3 satellites in a software-based algorithm verification and a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The software simulations indicated that this approach can improve single epoch ambiguity resolution up to 50% for relative positioning applying the typical antenna configurations for attitude determination. The hardware-in-the-loop simulations show that for the same antenna configurations, the accuracy of the relative positioning solution can improve up to 40%.

Buist, Peter J.; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Verhagen, Sandra; Giorgi, Gabriele

2011-04-01

7

Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

Fulmer, Gavin W.

2013-08-01

8

Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects’ self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

IkuoKabashima

2009-05-01

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Using Visual Odometry to Estimate Position and Attitude  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer program in the guidance system of a mobile robot generates estimates of the position and attitude of the robot, using features of the terrain on which the robot is moving, by processing digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras mounted rigidly on the robot. Developed for use in localizing the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles on Martian terrain, the program can also be used for similar purposes on terrestrial robots moving in sufficiently visually textured environments: examples include low-flying robotic aircraft and wheeled robots moving on rocky terrain or inside buildings. In simplified terms, the program automatically detects visual features and tracks them across stereoscopic pairs of images acquired by the cameras. The 3D locations of the tracked features are then robustly processed into an estimate of overall vehicle motion. Testing has shown that by use of this software, the error in the estimate of the position of the robot can be limited to no more than 2 percent of the distance traveled, provided that the terrain is sufficiently rich in features. This software has proven extremely useful on the MER vehicles during driving on sandy and highly sloped terrains on Mars.

Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry; Schoppers, Marcel; Olson, Clark

2007-01-01

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Developing Positive Attitudes and Strategic Reading Skills in Primary Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

A project developed a program for improving the attitudes of primary students toward reading and encouraging them to become strategic readers. The targeted population consisted of first-grade students in rural-suburban communities west of a large midwestern city. The problem of poor attitudes toward reading and lack of knowledge of reading…

Foss, Jeanette; Soper, Candice

11

An experimental study of the effect of green positioning on brand attitude  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reducing the environmental impact of a product or its manufacturing process not necessarily limits the company’s activities. In the context of a green branding strategy, it might as well open new business opportunities. Ecological positioning provides a strategic tool for the active implementation of green brands. The empirical study shows that more positive attitudes are developed towards a brand positioned by environmental attributes and that these effects vary as a result of the implementation of different types of ecological positioning strategies. Although most researchers in ecological marketing recommend rational persuasion strategies, in this study the effect of an ecological positioning by emotional brand benefits appears to be even stronger than effects of rational perceptions of functional benefits for the environment.

PATRIK HARTMANN

2004-06-01

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Promoting Children's Positive Intergroup Attitudes towards Stigmatized Groups: Extended Contact and Multiple Classification Skills Training  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies were conducted to evaluate interventions, based upon the extended contact hypothesis and multiple classification skills training, which aimed to promote children's positive intergroup attitudes towards two stigmatized groups. Study 1 tested whether extended contact and multiple classification skills training changed out-group attitudes

Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam; Brown, Rupert

2007-01-01

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Implicit gambling attitudes in problem gamblers: positive but not negative implicit associations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Implicit attitudes (associations) are involved in the generation of substance use behaviors. However, little is known about the role of this automatic cognitive processing in deregulated behaviors without substance use, such as abnormal gambling. This study examined whether problem gamblers exhibit both positive and negative implicit attitudes toward gambling-related stimuli.

2013-01-01

14

Patterns of healthy lifestyle and positive health attitudes in older Europeans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: To determine (i) the extent to which recommended lifestyle healthy behaviors are adopted and the existence of positive attitudes to health; (ii) the relative influence of socio-demographic variables on multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health; (iii) the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health. Design: two distinct healthy behavioral measures were developed: (i) healthy lifestyles based on physical activity, no cigarette smoking, no/moderate alcohol drinking, maintaining a "healthy" weight and having no sleeping problems and (ii) positive health attitudes based on having positive emotional attitudes, such as: self-perceived good health status, being calm, peaceful and happy for most of the time, not expecting health to get worse and regular health check-ups. A composite healthy lifestyle index, ranging from 0 (none of behaviors met) to 5 (all behaviors met) was calculated by summing up the individual's scores for the five healthylifestyle items. Afterwards, each individual's index was collapsed into three levels: 0-2 equivalent to 'level 1' (subjectively regarded as 'too low'), a score of 3 equivalent to 'level 2' ('fair') and 4-5 as 'level 3' satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' practices. The same procedure was applied to the positive health attitudes index. Multinomial logistic regression analyses by a forward selection procedure were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Participants: a multi-national sample consisting of 638 older Europeans from 8 countries, aged 65-74 and 75+, living alone or with others. Results and conclusions: maintaining a "healthy" weight was the most frequently cited factor in the healthy lifestyles index and therefore assumed to be the most important to the older Europeans in the study; positive attitudes to health were relatively low; participants achieved a 'satisfactory' level for healthy lifestyles index (level 3) more frequently than a satisfactory level for positive attitudes to health; having a satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' was directly related to having a satisfactory level of positive attitudes to health based on the positive health attitudes index; income and geographical location in Europe appeared to be key predictors for meeting both the recommended healthy lifestyle factors in the index and having positive health attitudes however, the composition and nature of the study sample should be taken into consideration when considering the impact of the location on healthy lifestyles and attitudes to health across Europe.

Kozlowska, Katarzyna; Szczecinka, A.

2008-01-01

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Attitudes toward Women in Managerial Position in Pakistan: A Comparative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken in order to investigate the difference in attitude towards women in managerial position between male and female employees. It is a comparative study in which 50 employees including 25 male and 25 female participated as a sample. The minimum educational qualification was graduation. After taking their consent they were individually requested to fill in the demographic data sheet, followed by Attitudes toward Women as Managers (ATWAM Scale. For statistical analysis t’test was applied, which indicates that there is no significant difference between males and females in their attitude towards women managers in Pakistan. Supplementary findings reveal that males residing in joint families have significantly negative sex-role stereotypes towards women as managers whereas males residing in nuclear families possess a neutral attitude towards women as managers. Further males having working mothers as well has significant positive attitude towards woman managers as compared to males having mothers who are housewives.

Uzma Ali

2013-06-01

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A new model for yaw attitude of Global Positioning System satellites  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper modeling of the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite yaw attitude is important in high-precision applications. A new model for the GPS satellite yaw attitude is introduced that constitutes a significant improvement over the previously available model in terms of efficiency, flexibility, and portability. The model is described in detail, and implementation issues, including the proper estimation strategy, are addressed. The performance of the new model is analyzed, and an error budget is presented. This is the first self-contained description of the GPS yaw attitude model.

Bar-Sever, Y. E.

1995-01-01

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Facilitating positive attitudes towards an innovative programme for baccalaureate nursing education:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey of nurse ward leaders understanding of, and their attitude to, community/ problem based learning (CPBL) approach adopted for the education of nursing students in the degree programme of the University of Natal in Durban (UND) was conducted. This was with a view to intervening, if necessary, to ensure positive understanding and attitude among the nurse leaders towards the non-traditional CPBL of UND nursing students. It was hypothesised that focused discussions, between facilitators a...

Adejumo, O.; Ganga-limando, M.

2000-01-01

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Positive versus Negative. A cognitive perspective on wording effects for contrastive questions in attitude surveys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Standardized surveys are used in many contexts to measure people’s opinions and attitudes. Although it is widely assumed that survey answers represent the ‘true values’ of the concepts measured, a large body of research has shown that seemingly irrelevant question characteristics influence how respondents report their attitudes. The research presented in this dissertation revolved around on one of these characteristics: whether the question is worded positively (This is an interesting b...

Kamoen, N.

2012-01-01

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Positive Attitude: A Guarantee for Success in Employment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faced with the current severe employment situation, college students have passive psychology, which influences their employment. In order to have better employment, college students should have positive psychological quality.

Aiqing Meng

2010-04-01

20

Community attitudes towards childbearing and abortion among HIV-positive women in Nigeria and Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcomes of an HIV-positive woman's pregnancy - induced abortion or birth - to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper. PMID:23173695

Kavanaugh, Megan L; Moore, Ann M; Akinyemi, Odunayo; Adewole, Isaac; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Awolude, Olutosin; Arulogun, Oyedunni

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets?  

Science.gov (United States)

Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality.

Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

2014-01-01

22

Developing positive attitudes toward geriatric nursing among Millennials and Generation Xers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the increase of the older adult population, there exists a shortage of health care professionals trained to help this population remain independent as long as possible. Ageism, common among younger adults, affects the capacity building of health care for older adults. Research has indicated that increased knowledge about older adults, as well as exposure to the elderly, may alter nursing students' attitudes regarding careers in gerontological nursing. However, questions remain as to what are the most effective ways to provide gerontological content in nursing programs and enhance attitudes toward older adults.With the understanding that younger adults see a need to balance work and play, a baccalaureate nursing program provides examples of ways to accomplish this through integration of courses, simulations, positive images of aging, and learning activities that enhance empathy for both frail and healthy older adults. PMID:22860477

Heise, Barbara A; Johnsen, Vickie; Himes, Deborah; Wing, Debra

2012-01-01

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US women's attitudes to false-positive mammography results and detection of ductal carcinoma in situ: cross-sectional survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective To determine women's attitudes and knowledge of both false-positive mammography results and the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ after screening mammography. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting United States. Participants A total of 479 women aged 18 to 97 years who did not report a history of breast cancer. Main outcome measures Attitudes and knowledge about false-positive results and the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ after screening mammography. Results Women were ...

2000-01-01

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Pose Versus State: are Sensor Position and Attitude Sufficient for Modern Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing?  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the advantages of using what we call sensor state parameters or sensor state to describe the geometrical relationship between a sensor and the 3D space or the 4D time-space that extend the traditional image pose or orientation (position and attitude) to the image state. In our concept, at some point in time t, the sensor state is a 12-dimensional vector composed of four 3-dimensional subvectors p(t), v(t), ?(t) and ?(t). Roughly speaking, p(t) is the sensor's position, v(t) its linear velocity, ?(t) its attitude and ?(t) its angular velocity. It is clear that the state concept extends the pose or orientation ones and attempts to describe both a sensor's statics (p(t), ?(t)) and dynamics (v(t), ?(t)). It is also clear that if p(t), ?(t) are known for all t within some time interval of interest, then v(t) and ?(t) can be derived from the former. We present three methods to compute the state parameters, two for the continuous case and one for the discrete case. The first two methods rely on the availability of inertial measurements and their derived time-Position-Velocity-Attitude (tPVA) trajectories. The first method extends the INS mechanization equations and the second method derives the IMU angular velocities from INS mechanization equations' output data. The third method derives lineal and angular velocities from relative orientation parameters. We illustrate how sensor states can be applied to solve practical problems. For this purpose we have selected three cases: multi-sensor synchronization calibration, correction of image motion blur (translational and rotational) and accurate orientation of images acquired with focal-plane shutters.

Colomina, I.; Blázquez, M.

2014-03-01

25

Computing the Attitude of Fixed-Wing Aircraft from Position Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes ANGLE, a computer program which computes the attitude of fixed wing aircraft, given flight-path data, several aircraft characteristics, and a negligible side force. Determination of attitude was identified by the HITVAL Project as nec...

J. R. Transue

1973-01-01

26

Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and constructivist approaches in e-learning, where efficient e-course and well-skilled mentors have an important role. This article describes the model of introducing e-learning in an organization, and its realization in praxis.

Julija Lapuh Bele

2008-08-01

27

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 positive glioblastoma cells show brain tumor stem cell capacity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and is resistant to all therapeutic regimens. Relapse occurs regularly and might be caused by a poorly characterized tumor stem cell (TSC) subpopulation escaping therapy. We suggest aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) as a novel stem cell marker in human GBM. Using the neurosphere formation assay as a functional method to identify brain TSCs, we show that high protein levels of ALDH1 facilitate neurosphere formation in established GBM cell lines. Even single ALDH1 positive cells give rise to colonies and neurospheres. Consequently, the inhibition of ALDH1 in vitro decreases both the number of neurospheres and their size. Cell lines without expression of ALDH1 do not form tumor spheroids under the same culturing conditions. High levels of ALDH1 seem to keep tumor cells in an undifferentiated, stem cell-like state indicated by the low expression of beta-III-tubulin. In contrast, ALDH1 inhibition induces premature cellular differentiation and reduces clonogenic capacity. Primary cell cultures obtained from fresh tumor samples approve the established GBM cell line results. PMID:20627895

Rasper, Michael; Schäfer, Andrea; Piontek, Guido; Teufel, Julian; Brockhoff, Gero; Ringel, Florian; Heindl, Stefan; Zimmer, Claus; Schlegel, Jürgen

2010-10-01

28

Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention : The role of positive sensory experience  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

European consumers are sceptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if actual sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence consumers' attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. An experiment was conducted in which subjects in the experimental group tasted cheeses, one of which was labelled as 'produced using GMOs.' The cheeses were selected in a way that ensured that the subject had a sensory preference for the GMO cheese. A control group tasted cheeses that were unlabelled. After the tasting, subjects completed a conjoint analysis task about cheese, in which the type of starter culture used (GMO/conventional) was one of the attributes. Subjects also were administered a set of items measuring attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. Results showed that for subjects in the experimental group (who believed that they had tasted a GMO cheese, with which they had a positive sensory experience) a) attitude towards GMO in food production was less negative, and b) type of starter culture used (GM/conventional) had less impact on their buying intentions with regard to cheese than for subjects in the control group.

Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

2004-01-01

29

Positive Attitude Change toward Psychiatry in Pharmacy Students Following an Active Learning Psychopharmacology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Psychiatric care in many rural communities has been demonstrated to be less adequate compared with urban environments partially because of attitudes and stigmatization issues. Educated pharmacists with professional attitudes can have a major impact in helping mental health patients receive more accurate diagnostic assessments and safe…

Einat, Haim; George, Angela

2008-01-01

30

Bias in medicine: a survey of medical student attitudes towards HIV-positive and marginalized patients in Russia, 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Russia has a substantial HIV epidemic which is poised to escalate in the coming years. The increases in prevalence of HIV will result in increased healthcare needs by a medical system with limited experience with HIV. A healthcare provider's attitude towards a patient plays a significant role in determining the patient's health-related behaviours and medical outcomes. Previous studies have identified negative attitudes of medical students towards people living with HIV. Studying the prevalence of such attitudes is of particular interest, as medical students represent the future workforce and also as the schooling years present a unique opportunity to nurture bias-free healthcare providers. The study measures prevalence of prejudicial attitudes towards HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients who belong to marginalized subgroups. Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students of a Russian medical university. Of 500 students surveyed, 436 provided sufficient data to be included in the analysis. Prejudicial attitudes were defined as reluctance to provide medical care to a specified hypothetical patient. Nine hypothetical HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were proposed: physicians, injecting drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men and a patient HIV-positive due to blood transfusion. A log-binomial regression solved using generalized estimating equations was utilized to identify factors associated with reluctance to treat. Results: Prevalence of reluctance to provide medical care to HIV-positive patients in marginalized subgroups was high (ranging from 26.4% up to 71.9%, compared to a maximum of 7.5% if a patient was an HIV-negative physician. Students in their clinical years reported more negative attitudes than preclinical students. In general, female students were less willing to provide care than their male counterparts. Conclusions: Prejudicial attitudes about HIV-positive patients and those in marginalized subgroups of the population are prevalent among medical students in Russia. Given the increasing prevalence of HIV in the country, reasons for this hesitance to treat must be identified and addressed. Educational programs for healthcare providers are urgently needed to eliminate bias in the delivery of critically needed medical care. These targeted interventions should be coupled with other programs to eliminate structural barriers to care.

Damir A Bikmukhametov

2012-09-01

31

Few Girls with Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Show Positive Adjustment during Adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

Employing data from 140 prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 88 age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls, we adopted a person-centered analytic approach to assess rates of adolescent positive adjustment (PA) across six domains: ADHD symptoms, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, social…

Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Lee, Steve S.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

32

Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions. M.S. Thesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

1994-01-01

33

Few Girls With Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Show Positive Adjustment During Adolescence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Employing data from 140 prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 88 age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls, we adopted a person-centered analytic approach to assess rates of adolescent positive adjustment (PA) across six domains: ADHD symptoms, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, social skills, peer acceptance, and school achievement. During adolescence, between 19.8% and 61.1% of the girls with childhood ADHD met criteria for PA w...

Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Lee, Steve S.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

34

Suture Granuloma Showing False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report a case of a 33-year-old male with a mixed germ-cell testicular tumor. Postoperative follow-up FDG-PET revealed concentration of FDG in the left inguinal area which is not tumor metastasis or local recurrence but suture reactivity granuloma. In this paper, we reviewed suture granulomas associated with false-positive findings on FDG-PET after surgery. If FDG-PET will be used more frequently in the future, it will be necessary to refrain from using silk thread in order to prevent any u...

2013-01-01

35

Suture Granuloma Showing False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of a 33-year-old male with a mixed germ-cell testicular tumor. Postoperative follow-up FDG-PET revealed concentration of FDG in the left inguinal area which is not tumor metastasis or local recurrence but suture reactivity granuloma. In this paper, we reviewed suture granulomas associated with false-positive findings on FDG-PET after surgery. If FDG-PET will be used more frequently in the future, it will be necessary to refrain from using silk thread in order to prevent any unnecessary surgery. PMID:23762743

Takahara, Kohei; Kakinoki, Hiroaki; Ikoma, Saya; Udo, Kazuma; Tobu, Shohei; Satoh, Yuji; Tokuda, Yuji; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Aoki, Shigehisa; Uozumi, Jiro

2013-01-01

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Knowledge, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Namibia  

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Full Text Available Background: This study examined the practices, knowledge, attitudes, and the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV-positive patients with regard to the disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Windhoek, Namibia.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding the disclosure of HIV status at Betesda Clinic in Namibia, and to determine the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study and 263 HIV-positive patients were enrolled in the study.Results: Analyses revealed that knowledge on disclosure was good, with 68% who thought it was important. The majority (73% have disclosed and 60% disclosed within 1 week of receiving their results. The most common reasons for disclosure were that 32% needed help, 25% wanted his or her partner to go for testing, and 20% wanted to let relatives know. Reasons for non-disclosure were mainly the fear of gossip (79%. Seventy-three per cent had disclosed to their partners, and 23% had disclosed to more than one person. People’s reactions were supportive in 43%, whereas 29% understood, 9% accepted and 6% were angry. Upon disclosure 40% received help, 24% of partners were tested, 23% received psychological support and 5% were stigmatised. Disclosure was higher amongst the married and cohabitating.Conclusion: The attitude was positive with regard to knowledge of disclosure, with most participants thinking that disclosure was important and good. The attitudes and actual practices of disclosure were encouraging; however, people are disclosing only to trustedindividuals in the society and the fear of stigma is still present although the actual stigma was very low.

Penelope Tom

2013-02-01

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Attitudes to reproductive genetic testing in women who had a positive BRCA test before having children: a qualitative analysis  

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The scope of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is licensed has recently been expanded in the United Kingdom to include genetic predisposition to adult-onset cancer. This qualitative interview study explores reproductive decision making, knowledge of and attitudes to reproductive genetic testing (prenatal diagnosis and PGD) with 25 women aged 18–45 years who received a positive BRCA test in the United Kingdom before having children. In this cohort of younger women,...

Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Donnelly, Louise; Moynihan, Clare; Savona, Cornelie; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Lavery, Stuart; Watson, Maggie

2012-01-01

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Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid showing a positive enhancement upon metrizamide CT cisternography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of epidermoid tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle cistern is reported in a 43-year-old woman with left trigeminal neuralgia. Plain CT scan revealed a low density area at the left cerebellopontine angle and left ambient cisterns, which could not be differentiated from their enlargement. Metrizamide CT cisternography showed a irregular, high density pattern in the low density filling defect which was extending into the suprasellar and interpeduncular cisterns. The developmental mechanism of this specific finding in the metrizamide CT cisternography was discussed on the basis of morphological characteristics of epidermoid tumor. (author)

1985-01-01

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Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid showing a positive enhancement upon metrizamide CT cisternography  

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A case of epidermoid tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle cistern is reported in a 43-year-old woman with left trigeminal neuralgia. Plain CT scan revealed a low density area at the left cerebellopontine angle and left ambient cisterns, which could not be differentiated from their enlargement. Metrizamide CT cisternography showed an irregular, high density pattern in the low density filling defect which was extending into the suprasellar and interpeduncular cisterns. The developmental mechanism of this specific finding in the metrizamide CT cisternography was discussed on the basis of morphological characteristics of epidermoid tumor.

Hasegawa, Takeshi; Wakamatsu, Koichi; Fujii, Toshiharu; Ito, Haruhide; Yamamoto, Shinjiro; Nagata, Izumi

1985-04-01

40

Practitioners' views and use of evidence-based treatment: positive attitudes but missed opportunities in children's services.  

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The extent evidence-based treatments (EBTs) are used in clinical practice within the Australian therapeutic child welfare sector is unknown. In this study, we investigated practitioners' knowledge, attitudes, and use of EBT when providing interventions to children and families and how the intended outcomes of interventions are evaluated. Practitioners (N = 112) from 41 non-government organizations were surveyed and reported few barriers to implementing EBTs and positive attitudes. While just over half the practitioners surveyed provided an accurate definition of EBT, 72 % of practitioners reported using EBTs in their clinical practice. Of those, 88 % reported modifying the EBT, however interventions were rarely evaluated systematically. Implications for the use of EBTs, how they are modified, and the role of systematic evaluation are discussed. PMID:23371263

Thomas, Rae; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Chaffin, Mark

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
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A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate

2010-06-01

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The association between Colombian medical students' healthy personal habits and a positive attitude toward preventive counseling: cross-sectional analyses  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician-delivered preventive counseling is important for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Data from the U.S. indicates that medical students with healthy personal habits have a better attitude towards preventive counseling. However, this association and its correlates have not been addressed in rapidly urbanized settings where chronic disease prevention strategies constitute a top public health priority. This study examines the association between personal health practices and attitudes toward preventive counseling among first and fifth-year students from 8 medical schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods During 2006, a total of 661 first- and fifth-year medical students completed a culturally adapted Spanish version of the "Healthy Doctor = Healthy Patient" survey (response rate = 78%. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between overall personal practices on physical activity, nutrition, weight control, smoking, alcohol use (main exposure variable and student attitudes toward preventive counseling on these issues (main outcome variable, stratified by year of training and adjusting by gender and medical training-related factors (basic knowledge, perceived adequacy of training and perception of the school's promotion on each healthy habit. Results The median age and percentage of females for the first- and fifth-year students were 21 years and 59.5% and 25 years and 65%, respectively. After controlling for gender and medical training-related factors, consumption of ? 5 daily servings of fruits and/or vegetables, not being a smoker or binge drinker were associated with a positive attitude toward counseling on nutrition (OR = 4.71; CI = 1.6–14.1; p = 0.006 smoking (OR = 2.62; CI = 1.1–5.9; p = 0.022, and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.61; CI = 1.3–5.4; p = 0.009, respectively. Conclusion As for U.S. physician and medical students, a positive association was found between the personal health habits of Colombian medical students and their corresponding attitudes toward preventive counseling, independent of gender and medial training-related factors. Our findings, the first relating to this association in medical students in developing regions, also suggest that within the medical school context, interventions focused on promoting healthy student lifestyles can potentially improve future physician's attitudes toward preventive counseling.

Sarmiento Francisco

2009-07-01

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Canadian outpatients and advance directives: poor knowledge and little experience but positive attitudes.  

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OBJECTIVE: To examine the knowledge of, previous experience with, attitudes toward and perceived barriers to completing advance directives among outpatients at two general medicine clinics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire administered in face-to-face structured interviews. SETTING: General internal-medicine outpatient clinics at a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred and five adult outpatients who could communicate in spoken English and who consented to be interviewed. RE...

Sam, M.; Singer, P. A.

1993-01-01

44

Rethinking procrastination: positive effects of "active" procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance.  

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Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals. PMID:15959999

Chu, Angela Hsin Chun; Choi, Jin Nam

2005-06-01

45

An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions

2009-07-01

46

An examination of key experiences which contribute to a positive change in attitude toward science in two elementary education teacher candidates at the University of Wyoming  

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This investigation utilized life history methodology (Armstrong, 1987; Bogdan & Biklen, 1998; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 1977; Marshall & Rossman, 1995; Patton, 1987; Taylor & Bogdan; 1984) to examine lifelong science experiences of two elementary education teacher candidates at a land grant institution with a large, undergraduate teacher education program. Purposive sampling techniques (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998) led to the selection of two teacher candidates who reported high science anxiety when they began university coursework. The investigation focused on five broad questions: (a) What were key experiences in the elementary teacher education program which contributed to a positive change in attitude toward science? (b) What science experiences, in and out of school, did the teacher candidates encounter while they were in elementary school, junior high school, high school, and college? (c) How did the elementary education program's science course structure, professors, and field experiences contribute to the change in attitude toward science? (d) How much time was involved in the change in attitude toward science? and (e) What were the effects of the change in attitude on the teaching of science in the elementary classroom? Each candidate completed approximately twenty hours of interviews yielding rich descriptions of their lifelong science experiences. Data also included interviews with science and science education professors, journaling, and observations of student teaching experiences. Data analysis revealed four over-arching themes with implications for teacher educators. First, data showed the importance of relationship building between professors and teacher candidates. Professors must know and work with teacher candidates, and provide a structure that encourages question asking. Second, course structure including hands-on teaching strategies and students working in small groups over an extended period of time was vital. Third, integrating language arts with science proved important because the generally high comfort level experienced by elementary teacher candidates toward language arts may be extended to the teaching of science. Teacher candidates realize the benefits for both teaching and learning when the two subjects are integrated. Last, the study revealed the powerful effects of field experiences which include teaching science in the public schools and demonstrated the drawbacks of field experiences which do not include teaching science.

Cason, Maggie A.

47

Thoughts, Attitudes, and Feelings of HIV-Positive MSM Associated with High Transmission-Risk Sex  

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This study presents survey data collected from a sample of HIV-positive men (N = 182) who had high transmission-risk sex, defined as unprotected anal intercourse with a man whose HIV-status was negative or unknown, in the previous 6 months. Despite the tremendous changes in HIV treatment and their impact on people living with HIV, little recent…

Skinta, Matthew D.; Murphy, Jessie L.; Paul, Jay P.; Schwarcz, Sandra K.; Dilley, James W.

2012-01-01

48

"Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders  

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Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2008-01-01

49

A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador  

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Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide.

De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

2014-01-01

50

A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador  

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Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide.

Sara De Meyer

2014-07-01

51

A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents' sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14-18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents' sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide. PMID:25024066

De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

2014-01-01

52

Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 cultured from Swedish sheep showing serologically false-positive reactions for Brucella melitensis  

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Full Text Available In a herd of 20 sheep in Sweden, a country where brucellosis has never been diagnosed in sheep or goats, a total of six sheep were found serologically positive to Brucella melitensis in two different rounds of sampling. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 could at the time of the second sampling be isolated from four sheep, one of them at the same time serologically positive for B. melitensis. The article describes the case and gives some background information on brucellosis and Y. enterocolitica in general as well as a more specific description of the Swedish surveillance program for B. melitensis and the test procedures used. The problem with false-positive reactions, in particular its implications for surveillance programs in low prevalence or officially brucellosis-free countries, is discussed.

Erika Chenais

2012-12-01

53

MD Anderson study shows targeted agent addition to herceptin has positive effect on metastatic HER-2 breast cancer:  

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Adding Afinitor (everolimus) to Herceptin (trastuzumab), the main treatment for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, helps some women with disease that has been resistant to previous Herceptin-based therapies, according to a study led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

54

Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents’ positive attitudes towards people with mental illness  

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Full Text Available High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents’ attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.

John Tsiantis

2012-07-01

55

Attitudes toward Counselling Practicum: An Implication for the Caring Attitude of Future Counsellors in Malaysia.  

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This action research was conducted during the counseling practicum for trainees from the Bachelor of Education (Guidance and Counseling) program from one of the local universities in Malaysia. There was a great concern about the attitudes of counseling practicum trainees. The assessment of their attitudes shows some levels of positiveness, but it…

Harun, Lily Mastura

56

Mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations of the head and neck show a clinicopathologic spectrum similar to cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.  

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CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are classified as cutaneous (primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis) or systemic. As extent of disease dictates prognosis and treatment, patients with skin involvement need clinical staging to determine whether systemic lymphoma also is present. Similar processes may involve mucosal sites of the head and neck, constituting a spectrum that includes both neoplasms and reactive conditions (eg, traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia). However, no standard classification exists for mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations. To improve our understanding of these processes, we identified 15 such patients and examined clinical presentation, treatment and outcome, morphology, phenotype using immunohistochemistry, and genetics using gene rearrangement studies and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The 15 patients (11 M, 4 F; mean age, 57 years) had disease involving the oral cavity/lip/tongue (9), orbit/conjunctiva (3) or nasal cavity/sinuses (3). Of 14 patients with staging data, 7 had mucosal disease only; 2 had mucocutaneous disease; and 5 had systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Patients with mucosal or mucocutaneous disease only had a favorable prognosis and none developed systemic spread (follow-up, 4-93 months). Three of five patients with systemic disease died of lymphoma after 1-48 months. Morphologic and phenotypic features were similar regardless of extent of disease. One anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive case was associated with systemic disease. Two cases had rearrangements of the DUSP22-IRF4 locus on chromosome 6p25.3, seen most frequently in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Our findings suggest mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations share features with cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, and require clinical staging for stratification into primary and secondary types. Primary cases have clinicopathologic features closer to primary cutaneous disease than to systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, including indolent clinical behavior. Understanding the spectrum of mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations is important to avoid possible overtreatment resulting from a diagnosis of overt T-cell lymphoma. PMID:22388754

Sciallis, Andrew P; Law, Mark E; Inwards, David J; McClure, Rebecca F; Macon, William R; Kurtin, Paul J; Dogan, Ahmet; Feldman, Andrew L

2012-07-01

57

Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.  

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Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. ?(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (Pfood production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (Pfood production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. PMID:23260729

Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

2013-01-01

58

The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common ancestor of all the Deuterostomia.

Grondona Jesus M

2009-06-01

59

Turkish college students' attitudes toward women managers: the effects of patriarchy, sexism, and gender differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examined how patriarchy, sexism, and gender influence Turkish college students' attitudes toward women managers. Turkish undergraduate students (N = 183) from Middle East Technical University completed questionnaires measuring attitudes toward women managers as well as attitudes toward the concepts of hostile and benevolent sexism and support for patriarchy. Participants were of upper- or middle-class Turkish backgrounds. The results showed that male participants exhibited less positive attitudes toward women managers than did female participants. In addition, participants who held more favorable attitudes toward patriarchy and who scored high on hostile sexism also held less positive attitudes toward women managers than those who held less favorable attitudes toward patriarchy and who scored low on hostile sexism. A regression analysis showed that support for patriarchy and hostile sexism was more important for explaining less favorable attitudes toward women managers than was benevolent sexism. PMID:12523452

Sakalli-Ugurlu, Nuray; Beydogan, Basak

2002-11-01

60

A case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer  

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Abstract We report a case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy 6 years after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. The primary tumor was negative for HER-2 as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (1+, and ratio, 1.1), but examination of the recurrent lymph node metastasis showed positivity for HER-2 by FISH (ratio, 5.2). No lesions were d...

Shigematsu Hideo; Kadoya Takayuki; Kobayashi Yoshie; Kajitani Keiko; Sasada Tatsunari; Emi Akiko; Masumoto Norio; Haruta Rumi; Kataoka Tsuyoshi; Oda Miyo; Arihiro Kouji; Okada Morihito

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

A case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer  

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We report a case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy 6 years after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. The primary tumor was negative for HER-2 as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (1+, and ratio, 1.1), but examination of the recurrent lymph node metastasis showed positivity for HER-2 by FISH (ratio, 5.2). No lesions were detected in either h...

Shigematsu, Hideo; Kadoya, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Yoshie; Kajitani, Keiko; Sasada, Tatsunari; Emi, Akiko; Masumoto, Norio; Haruta, Rumi; Kataoka, Tsuyoshi; Oda, Miyo; Arihiro, Kouji; Okada, Morihito

2011-01-01

62

Deterministic and Recursive Approach in Attitude Determination for InnoSAT  

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Full Text Available Attitude determination system (ADS was indispensable in attitude control of satellite. Especially for InnoSAT due to the limitation of budget, weight, and power, the attitude was determined using onboard position sensors. Previous research has successfully implemented the attitude determination using only Earth's magnetic field sensors for small attitude angle, but the approach produced quite big error for large attitude angle. This paper presents attitude determination for InnoSAT using combination of sun sensors and earth's magnetic field for large attitude angle. The attitude was determined using a deterministic (QUEST and recursive (EKF approach. A problem arises when using the sun sensors while the satellite experiencing eclipse. Consequently, the accuracy of both approaches was analyzed at eclipse and no eclipse conditions. The result shows that deterministic approach produced better accuracy at no eclipse but recursive approach produced better accuracy at eclipse. The strategy to apply the both approaches and eclipse conditions also discussed in this paper.

Harijono Djojodihardjo

2011-12-01

63

The Determinants of Consumers’ Attitude Towards Advertising  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advertising industry is a lucrative business in Malaysia. However, government intervention in the industry has to certain extent regulated the content of the advertisement messages. This in turn has impacted the formation of consumers’ attitude towards advertising. As such, it is crucial to identify the determinants of their attitude. The aim of this research is to investigate the determinants of consumers’ attitude towards advertising among tertiary students in a private higher education institution in Malaysia. A total of 263 undergraduate business students from a private university in Malaysia participated in this research. The outcome shows that credibility, informative, hedonic/ pleasure and good for economy positively relates to consumers’ attitude towards advertising.
Keywords: attitude towards advertising; credibility; informative; hedonic/pleasure; good for economy.

Lau Teck Chai

2010-08-01

64

Attitudes toward Family Planning among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women Enrolled in a Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission Study in Kisumu, Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Preventing unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women through family planning (FP) reduces pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality, decreases the number of pediatric HIV infections, and has also proven to be a cost-effective way to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. A key element of a comprehensive HIV prevention agenda, aimed at avoiding unintended pregnancies, is recognizing the attitudes towards FP among HIV-positive women and their spouse or partner. In this study, we analyze FP attitudes among HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a PMTCT clinical trial in Western Kenya. Methods and Findings Baseline data were collected on 522 HIV-positive pregnant women using structured questionnaires. Associations between demographic variables and the future intention to use FP were examined using Fisher's exact tests and permutation tests. Most participants (87%) indicated that they intended to use FP. However, only 8% indicated condoms as a preferred FP method, and 59% of current pregnancies were unintended. Factors associated with positive intentions to use FP were: marital status (p?=?0.04), having talked to their spouse or partner about FP (p<0.001), perceived spouse or partner approval of FP (p<0.001), previous use of a FP method (p?=?0.006), attitude toward the current pregnancy (p?=?0.02), disclosure of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis (p?=?0.03) and ethnic group (p?=?0.03). Conclusion A significant gap exists between future FP intentions and current FP practices. Support and approval by the spouse or partner are key elements of FP intentions. Counseling services should be offered to both members of a couple to increase FP use, especially given the high number of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-positive women. Condoms should be promoted as part of a dual use method for HIV and STI prevention and for contraception. Integration of individual and couple FP services into routine HIV care, treatment and support services is needed in order to avoid unintended pregnancies and to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission.

Akelo, Victor; Girde, Sonali; Borkowf, Craig B.; Angira, Frank; Achola, Kevin; Lando, Richard; Mills, Lisa A.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lee Lecher, Shirley

2013-01-01

65

A case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy 6 years after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. The primary tumor was negative for HER-2 as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH (1+, and ratio, 1.1, but examination of the recurrent lymph node metastasis showed positivity for HER-2 by FISH (ratio, 5.2. No lesions were detected in either her left breast or in other organs, and the patient was diagnosed as having HER-2-positive recurrent disease. Combination chemotherapy using weekly paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated, and a clinically complete response was achieved. This report suggests the benefit of routine evaluation of HER-2 status in recurrent breast cancer with the introduction of HER-2-targeting agents.

Haruta Rumi

2011-11-01

66

Characterization and expression of the CXCR1 and CXCR4 in miiuy croaker and evolutionary analysis shows the strong positive selection pressures imposed in mammal CXCR1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The innate immune system can recognize non-self, danger signals, and pathogen associated molecular patterns and provides a first line of antimicrobial host defense. Therefore, it plays an instructive role and is pretty important in vertebrates. In innate immune responses, CXCRs act as the main receptors of CXC chemokines and play a vital role in host defense and inflammation. In present study, we cloned two cDNA molecules of CXCR1 and CXCR4 in Miichthys miiuy (miiuy croaker). In these two genes, we found the most highly conserved DRY motif in the second intracellular loop adjacent to the third transmembrane domain. The expressions of CXCR1 and CXCR4 showed that they were ubiquitously expressed in ten normal tissues. After infection with Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio harveyi, the expressions of CXCRs in the immune tissues were significantly regulated in most of tissues except that of CXCR1 in the kidney after V. harveyi injection. Evolutionary analysis showed that only the ancestral lineages of CXCR4 in amphibians underwent positive selection, indicating that the ancestors of amphibians boarded the land and had to further evolve to adapt to terrestrial environments. Multiple ML methods were implemented to detect the robust positively selected candidates for sites. In total, we detected 12 and 3 positively selected sites in the subsets of current mammal and fish CXCR1 genes, and only one site under positive selection was found in mammalian CXCR4 subsets. These positively selected sites were mainly located in the extracellular domains of CXCRs. The sliding window analysis and evolution test tended to favor positive selection acting on the N-terminal domain of CXCR1, which was the critical region for ligand/receptor signaling for neutrophils and receptor-ligand interaction, indicating that the N-terminal of CXCR1 in mammals underwent more positive selection than that of fish. PMID:24333436

Xu, Tianjun; Zhu, Zhihuang; Sun, Yuena; Ren, Liping; Wang, Rixin

2014-05-01

67

Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians. PMID:23952927

Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

2013-01-01

68

Food and the relation between values and attitude characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This survey showed that the values power (dominance over nature and resources) and universalism (respect for people and for nature) are related to attitudes toward genetically modified food (GMF) and organically grown food (OGF). Furthermore, these values have an influence on the centrality, commitment and ambivalence of these attitudes. Values that are positively related to an attitude influence how central this attitude is to a person. However, values that are negatively related to an attitude have a larger effect on the commitment of this attitude. No such pattern of effects was found for the relationship between ambivalence and values. These data suggest that centrality, commitment, and ambivalence are structurally different constructs that have a distinct relationship with specific values. PMID:16018906

Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien; Tenbült, Petra; Kok, Gerjo; de Vries, Nanne K

2005-08-01

69

A rigorous attitude estimation method for satellite attitude determination based on star sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitude estimation method is one of influencing factors for the attitude accuracy. Traditionally, the elements of the rotation matrix as attitude unknowns are estimated optimally, but the solved attitude angles based on the elements of rotation matrix aren't optimal. A rigorous attitude estimation approach for satellite attitude determination based on star sensor is presented in this paper, which directly considers three-axis attitude angles as attitude unknowns. The experiment indicates the proposed approach can improve the attitude accuracy to a great degree when the position errors of image points are within +/-0.5 pixel, and the efficiency can be guaranteed as well.

Xie, Junfeng; Gong, Jianya; Jiang, Wanshou

2008-10-01

70

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

71

Endurance of Undergraduate Attitudes toward Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward older adults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…

Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.

2006-01-01

72

The Intergenerational Transmission of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Smoking  

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This study examined the intergenerational transmission of implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking, as well as the role of these attitudes in adolescents’ smoking initiation. There was evidence of intergenerational transmission of implicit attitudes. Mothers who had more positive implicit attitudes had children with more positive implicit attitudes. In turn, these positive implicit attitudes of adolescents predicted their smoking initiation 18-months later. Moreover, these effects wer...

Sherman, Steven J.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Seo, Dong-chul; Macy, Jonathan T.

2009-01-01

73

Loss aversion and price volatility as determinants of attitude towards and preference for variable price in the Swedish electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a survey of a random sample of 488 Swedish residents showed that a positive attitude towards and preference for a variable price agreement with the incumbent electricity supplier was negatively affected by loss aversion, and a positive attitude also negatively affected by beliefs about price volatility. Although correlated with attitude and preference, age, education, and current choice of a variable price agreement had no independent effects. Income and current electricity costs had no effects. (author)

2007-11-01

74

A Study of Attitude Among Education Students  

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Two groups of students, one beginning and one completing professional teacher training, were administered a semantic differential, responding to 16 discrete educational terms. Results showed differences in attitude toward the concepts between groups, with beginning students being more positive. Results were discussed in terms of the effectiveness…

Magoon, Robert A.; And Others

1976-01-01

75

Direct contact as a moderator of extended contact effects: cross-sectional and longitudinal impact on outgroup attitudes, behavioral intentions, and attitude certainty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cross-group friendships (the most effective form of direct contact) and extended contact (i.e., knowing ingroup members who have outgroup friends) constitute two of the most important means of improving outgroup attitudes. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal samples from different intergroup contexts, this research demonstrates that extended contact is most effective when individuals live in segregated neighborhoods having only few, or no, direct friendships with outgroup members. Moreover, by including measures of attitudes and behavioral intentions the authors showed the broader impact of these forms of contact, and, by assessing attitude certainty as one dimension of attitude strength, they tested whether extended contact can lead not only to more positive but also to stronger outgroup orientations. Cross-sectional data showed that direct contact was more strongly related to attitude certainty than was extended contact, but longitudinal data showed both forms of contact affected attitude certainty in the long run. PMID:20966179

Christ, Oliver; Hewstone, Miles; Tausch, Nicole; Wagner, Ulrich; Voci, Alberto; Hughes, Joanne; Cairns, Ed

2010-12-01

76

Assessing medical students’ attitudes towards learning communication skills – which components of attitudes do we measure?  

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Background. The Communication Skills Attitudes Scale (CSAS) created by Rees, Sheard and Davies and published in 2002 has been a widely used instrument for measuring medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. Earlier studies have shown that the CSAS mainly tests two dimensions of attitudes towards communication; positive attitudes (PAS) and negative attitudes (NAS). The objectives of our study are to explore the attitudes of Norwegian medical students towards learning ...

Anvik, Tor; Gude, Tore; Grimstad, Hilde; Baerheim, Anders; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Hjortdahl, Per; Holen, Are; Risberg, Terje; Vaglum, Per

2007-01-01

77

Computer knowledge, attitudes, and skills of nurses in People's Hospital of Beijing Medical University.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first Chinese Hospital Information Systems (HIS) was used as a pilot project at People's Hospital, of Beijing Medical University (BMU). To assess the computer knowledge, attitudes, and skills of nurses working in the hospital, and to examine the relationships among these factors, 169 staff nurses working on clinical units were surveyed by proportionate stratified random sampling. Computer knowledge, attitudes, and skills were measured, by a nurses' computer knowledge questionnaire (NCKQ), nurses' computer attitude scale (NCAS), and nurses' computer skill scale (NCSS), respectively, developed by the investigators. Data analysis showed that the overall computer knowledge and skills of nurses were at moderate levels and the computer attitudes were neutral. Nurses' computer skills were significantly and positively correlated with both computer knowledge and computer attitudes; however, no significant correlation was found between computer knowledge and computer attitudes. Strategies to enhance nurses' computer knowledge, attitudes, and skills were proposed. PMID:10939189

Liu, J E; Pothiban, L; Lu, Z; Khamphonsiri, T

2000-01-01

78

Young Men, Religion and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality  

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Full Text Available This paper explains attitudes towards gays and lesbians, and explores the complex relationship of religiosity, youth, masculinity and support for gay rights. Based on a large, reliable and nationally representative study (n=1405 from PEW Center carried out in 2006, we estimate three logistic regression models predicting approval for gay marriage, gay adoption and gays in the military, which helps us to observe the differences. We conclude that while religiosity and fundamentalism negatively affect support for all three issues, the relationship varies by age and gender. Generally, young men do not show differences in their views of gay marriage, but men, especially religious, young men do show more negative attitudes than their female counterparts in support for gay adoption. Finally, men show more positive attitudes towards gays in the military.

Gilbert Zicklin

2007-11-01

79

A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10?11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations.

Acuna-Alonzo, Victor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hunemeier, Tabita; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Ortiz-Lopez, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramirez, Hugo; Leon-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramirez-Jimenez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Angeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, Jose; Cedillo-Barron, Leticia; Gomez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodriguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Catira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

2010-01-01

80

Surveys Assessing Students' Attitudes toward Statistics: A Systematic Review of Validity and Reliability  

Science.gov (United States)

Students with positive attitudes toward statistics are likely to show strong academic performance in statistics courses. Multiple surveys measuring students' attitudes toward statistics exist; however, a comparison of the validity and reliability of interpretations based on their scores is needed. A systematic review of relevant electronic…

Nolan, Meaghan M.; Beran, Tanya; Hecker, Kent G.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Consumersâ?? attitudes towards green food in China : A hierarchical value-attitude model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumersâ?? values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology. The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism and attitudes towards technology points towards the belief of Chinese people that technology is a positive determinant of food safety, and that interest in technology steams from altruistic predispositions.

Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G

82

Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological processes in the soil have been modelled with simulation model SWAP. The experiment started in 2010 and is ongoing. Data, collected so far show that the plots with controlled drainage (all compared with plots equipped with conventional drainage) conserve more rain water (higher groundwater tables in early spring), lower discharges under average weather conditions and storm events, reduce N-loads and saline seepage to surface waters, enhance denitrification, show a different 'first flush' effect and show similar crop yields. The results of the experiments will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of controlled drainage on complex hydrological en geochemical processes in agricultural clay soils, the interaction between ground- en surface water and its effects on drain water quantity, quality and crop yield.

schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

2014-05-01

83

Knowledge, attitudes, and dietary practices of female athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between the nutrition knowledge and attitudes and dietary practices of adolescent female athletes was studied, using a 24-hour recall and a 48-hour food record with a modified version of the self-administered knowledge and attitude questionnaire of Werblow et al. Analysis indicated that the diets were similar to those of other teenage girls in the United States. The calculated mean values for vitamins A and C were more than 100% of the RDAs, while those for calcium and iron were less than 67% of the allowances. The mean energy value was less than recommended and may have been inadequate for the active subjects. Food consumption analysis showed that of total servings, the milk and meat groups accounted for only about 10% each and that more than 30% came from the "others" group. Although the subjects had some common misconceptions about nutrition, they were generally knowledgeable as well as positive in their attitudes toward nutrition. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated, indicating that the more nutrition knowledge a subject had, the more positive was the attitude toward nutrition, and vice versa. However, no significant correlation was found between nutrition knowledge or attitudes and dietary intake, suggesting that factors other than nutrition knowledge and attitudes, such as a concern for weight and a dependence on others for food selection, played a role in determining the food practices of the subjects. PMID:3989173

Perron, M; Endres, J

1985-05-01

84

NURSING STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS ALCOHOL, ALCOHOLISM AND ALCOHOLICS: A STUDY OF A BRAZILIAN SAMPLE  

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Full Text Available Objective:Various international studies have reported on negative attitudes of nurses and nursing students towards substance misusers and have found that this issue receives little attention in professional nursing education. This research examined attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics in a Brazilian nursing student sample and analyzed associations between these attitudes and participants’ socio-demographic characteristics.Methods: Study participants were 144 last-year undergraduate students from two private colleges. A scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics was used for data collection.Results: The results showed that most participants had positive attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts. In addition, gender, age and the number of hours participants spent in lectures on alcohol and other drugs during their education were associated with positive attitudes towards their work and interpersonal relationships with alcoholics. This association was stronger in females (OR = 3.42, younger participants (OR = 2.18 and students who received more lecture hours on alcohol and other drugs during their education (OR = 3.53.Conclusion: In conclusion, the authors suggest that education and preparation in coping with drug problems increase nurses’ abilities at work and support more positive attitudes towards clients with drug problems. In addition, this study demonstrated that a significant part of students had negative attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts, despite the fact that positive attitudes prevailed in their schools. These results reflect the lack of importance granted to drug issues in undergraduate nursing curricula in Brazil.

Divane de Vargas

2012-01-01

85

Attitude, motivation, and consumption of seafood in Bacninh province, Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study applies the theory planed behavior (TPB - Ajzen, 1991) to investigate the general antecedents of seafood consumption in Bacninh province of Vietnam. The results show that customers in the area consume seafood at a low frequency although they have high motivation and positive attitude toward fish consumption. A further investigation reveals that quality, negative effects, and suitability have significant impact on attitude, while availability, suitability, and value are main determi...

Thom, Nguyen Tien

2007-01-01

86

Factors Influencing South African Attitudes toward Digital Piracy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Digital piracy has become an important issue in today’s technology-driven world. This research looks at the factors that cause South Africans to choose digital piracy as a means of obtaining digital media. We tested a revised Digital Piracy Attitude Model incorporating individual and situational constructs using quantitative data. Constructs showing significant correlation to an individual’s attitude toward digital piracy were age, Machiavellianism, cognitive beliefs, positive affective b...

2008-01-01

87

The Effects of History of Mathematics on Attitudes Toward Mathematics of College Algebra Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Two college algebra classes were exposed to items from mathematics history in their classroom instruction, while two other college algebra classes received no such exposure. Results showed a significant positive attitude change of the mathematics history group. (DT)

McBride, Cecil; Rollins, James H.

1977-01-01

88

Multidimensionality of EU attitudes in France: An issue for the understanding of the politicization of attitudes towards the EU  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes if and how citizens' attitudes towards European Union (EU integration are correlated with their ideological and partisan positioning, using France as a case study. We challenge traditional measures of citizens' support for European integration, which are one-dimensional. We analyze the French samples of the European Election Study (EES 2009 and the European Values Study (EVS 2008 surveys and use multiple correspondence analysis to highlight the multidimensionality of French attitudes towards European integration. To avoid methodological problems typically encountered in correspondence analysis when the variables analyzed are ordinal, we have applied an original adaptation of multiple correspondence analysis proposed by French statisticians. The use of multiple correspondence analysis demonstrates the multidimensionality of attitudes of the French towards the EU. Our results show that the correlation of attitudes towards the EU with the left-right scale or partisan identification is not the same across different dimensions. The most general attitude towards the EU (first dimension has complex relationships with ideological and partisan positioning. However, concerns expressed with respect to the consequences of European integration in terms of loss of social benefits or those expressed in terms of loss of identity and national culture (second and third dimensions are clearly related to the left-right scale positioning. In the second and third dimensions identified in the EVS 2008 data, attitudes towards the EU rank the left-right positioning in the expected order. These results show that perception of EU integration by the French citizens is not simple.

Bruno Cautrès

2012-02-01

89

Accuracy and Potential Usefulness of Triplex Real-Time PCR for Improving Antibiotic Treatment of Patients with Blood Cultures Showing Clustered Gram-Positive Cocci on Direct Smears?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing currently require 48 h when a first blood culture (BC) is positive for clustered gram-positive cocci on direct smear examination (DSE). Meanwhile, antibiotic treatment is often inadequate, reducing the chances of effective treatment or creating unnecessary selective pressure. A new real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique that differentiates Staphylococcus aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and detects methicillin resista...

Ruimy, Raymond; Dos-santos, Marie; Raskine, Laurent; Bert, Fre?de?ric; Masson, Rene?; Elbaz, Sandrine; Bonnal, Christine; Lucet, Jean-christophe; Lefort, Agne?s; Fantin, Bruno; Wolff, Michel; Hornstein, Michele; Andremont, Antoine

2008-01-01

90

Gender differences in educational aspirations and attitudes  

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We use data from the youth component of the British Household Panel Survey to examine gender differences in educational attitudes and aspirations among 11-15 year olds. While girls have more positive aspirations and attitudes than boys, the impacts of gender on children's attitudes and aspirations vary significantly with parental education level, parental attitudes to education, child's age and the indirect cost of education. Boys are more responsive than girls to positive parental characteri...

Rampino, Tina; Taylor, Mark P.

2013-01-01

91

Health workers’ attitudes toward immigrant patients: a cross-sectional survey in primary health care services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Health workers’ attitudes toward immigrant patients influence behaviour, medical decisions, quality of care and health outcomes. Despite the increasing number of immigrant patients in health services and the potential influence of health workers’ attitudes, there is little research in this area. This study aimed to examine attitudes of different health workers’ groups toward immigrant patients and to identify the associated factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 400 health workers from primary health care services in the Lisbon region, Portugal. Among those, 320 completed a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for the evaluation of data. Results Most participants did not agree that immigrant patients tend to behave like victims, but about half considered that some are aggressive and dangerous. Doctors and nurses showed more positive attitudes than office workers. Among doctors, the older ones reported less positive attitudes compared to the younger ones. Health workers who have less daily contact with immigrants revealed more positive attitudes. Most participants evaluated their knowledge and competencies to work with immigrants as moderate or low. Conclusions Although health workers reveal positive attitudes, this study reinforces the need to develop strategies that prevent negative attitudes and stereotyping in health services. Efforts should be made to improve workers’ competencies to deal with culturally diverse populations, in order to promote quality of health care and obtain positive health outcomes among immigrant populations.

Dias Sónia

2012-07-01

92

Attitudes Toward Older Workers and Human Resource Practices  

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This study investigated attitudes towards older employees, perceived age discrimination, and HR practices (personnel development and reward) in 240 employees. Attitudes toward older employees were largely positive, thus supporting the notion that attitudes toward older employees are becoming increasingly positive. Older employees' attitudes towards older employees were more positive, but younger employees' attitudes were still favorable. Moreover, older and younger employees reporte...

2008-01-01

93

Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome  

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Full Text Available We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

Nicoletta Testoni

2013-06-01

94

Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.

Wole M. Olatokun

2012-09-01

95

Evaluation of three tumor markers (CEA, CA19-9, nm-23 in tumor tissues of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma showing positive peritoneal lavage solution for malignant cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of patients with serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma develop peritoneal recurrence and die of this disease during the first 2 years, even if curative resection is performed. Peritoneal lavage samples (PLS from 31 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were obtained at laparotomy and the free cancer cells in the lavage solution were investigated. The aim of this study was to compare positive peritoneal lavage solution compare with expression in gastric carcinoma CEA, CA19-9, nm23 immunohistochemically and CEA and CA19-9 levels of systemic and portal venous blood.Materials and Methods: Peritoneal lavage samples from 31 patients with gastric carcinoma were obtained at laparotomy. To identify the free cancer cells in the samples, cytopathologic examinations were performed. Systemic venous blood samples were taken from all diagnosed gastric malignancy patients. In addition, portal blood samples were taken in order to measure CEA and CA 19-9 levels in the blood samples. By immunohistochemical analyses for CEA, CA19-9 and nm23 were performed all gastric operation specimens. For statistical analyses, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used.Results: The study group was comprised of 31 advanced gastric carcinoma patients. Of these patients, 16 were diffuse and the remaining 15 were diagnosed with intestinal type gastric carcinoma. Serosal invasion of tumor cells were established in 24 patients and of those patients, 6 had positive peritoneal lavage solutions. There were no patients with positive peritoneal lavage solution without serosal involvement. There was no significant correlation of immunohistochemical expression of CEA, CA19-9 and nm23 and PLS, although correlation of PLS and systemic CEA, CA19-9 and venous CEA levels were found to be significant (p<0.05.Discussion: Cytologic examination for malignant cell investigation in PLS is a simple, inexpensive and quick method, however the sensitivity of this method is not very high. Additional methods could be used for the investigation of malign cells in PLS.

Fatma Tokat

2007-02-01

96

Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

2014-05-01

97

Effects of Information about Group Members on Young Children's Attitudes towards the In-Group and Out-Group  

Science.gov (United States)

Research shows that being a member of a group is sufficient to instigate more positive attitudes towards the in-group than an out-group in young children. The present study assessed whether children's intergroup attitudes during the middle childhood years are moderated by additional information about in-group and out-group members, as proposed by…

Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.; Durkin, Kevin; Duffy, Amanda

2010-01-01

98

Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

99

Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

2008-01-01

100

Candidate Teachers’ Attitude toward Scientific Research  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine candidate teachers’ attitude toward scientific research. The study was a descriptive survey. Study group was composed of 713 education faculty students. Data were collected with a scale called ‚Scale of attitude towards scientific research? developed by the researchers. Data analysis involved calculation of descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, min, max, frequency and percentile, analysis of variance (ANOVA, LSD, and t tests. As a result: Teacher candidates' attitude toward scientific researches levels are ‚high? according to all the factors. Teacher candidates' attitudes toward scientific researches levels are significantly different according to departments except ‚Positive Attitude toward Researches? factor. Teacher candidates' attitude toward scientific researches levels are significantly different according to genders for ‚Be ‚the reluctance of help researchers?, ‚Negative Attitude toward Researches? and ‚Positive Attitude toward Researches? factor.

Özgen KORKMAZ

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Gene expression profile of Xenopus A6 cells cultured under random positioning machine shows downregulation of ion transporter genes and inhibition of dome formation  

Science.gov (United States)

Random positioning machine (RPM) devices that generate a simulated microgravity environment of approximately 0 g prevent the formation of dome structures in Xenopus kidney-derived A6 cells. In the present study, the gene expression profile of A6 cells cultured under RPM was determined using the Xenopus 22K scale microarray, and those genes up- or downregulated twofold or more were investigated. We identified 29 genes (up, 25 genes; down, 4 genes) on day 5, 68 genes (up, 25 genes; down, 43 genes) on day 8, 111 genes (up, 69 genes; down, 42 genes) on day 10, and 283 genes (up, 153 genes; down, 130 genes) on day 15 of culture under RPM. These genes were classified according to categories described in the KOG database, such as "extracellular structure", "cytoskeleton", and "transcription". Almost all the genes involved in "inorganic ion transport and metabolism" were downregulated under RPM. Our study further investigated some of these including the epithelial Na + channel (ENaC) and Na +/K +-ATPase transporter genes. A specific inhibitor of Na +/K +-ATPases, ouabain, inhibited dome formation in the A6 cells, even under control culturing conditions of 1 g (the static condition). Together these data suggested that downregulation of sodium ion transporter gene expression plays a significant role in the RPM-dependent prevention of the dome formation in kidney epithelial cells.

Ikuzawa, Masayuki; Akiduki, Saori; Asashima, Makoto

102

Attitudes of Secondary School Students toward Agriculture in Swaziland.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 24,107 high school students in Swaziland found that 11th and 12th graders had significantly higher positive attitudes toward agriculture. Achievement level, farming background, and rural residence influenced positive attitudes. (SK)

Dlamini, B. M.

1997-01-01

103

Attitude Selective Aircrew Escape Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

A line cutter of discharge valve responsive to aircraft attitude is positioned on an aircraft ejection seat to interrupt the gas initiated sustainer rocket system. During inverted ejections, the cutter or valve will either sever or discharge pressure from...

J. W. Stone V. D. Burklund R. B. Dillinger

1978-01-01

104

GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).  

CERN Multimedia

GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

2004-01-01

105

Got an Attitude Problem?  

Science.gov (United States)

Through a Small Business Innovation Research grant from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Servo Corporation of America, Inc. built its Mini-Dual Sensor to provide attitude control for Earth-orbiting unmanned satellites. The sensor is an Earth horizon sensor that provides higher accuracy through the use of pyroelectric arrays and a patented radiance compensation scheme.This sensor gathers data with two pairs of lithium tantalate pyroelectric arrays that are positioned 90 degrees apart in the imaging plane. The Mini-Dual Earth Sensor is a high-accuracy sensor that could be used for attitude determination in future space missions.

1999-01-01

106

Interactions among Attitudes toward Teaching and Personality Constructs in Early Childhood Pre-service Teachers  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine early childhood education teachers’ attitudes toward teaching, and their relationship to internal-external locus of control and sociotropy and autonomy orientations. The participants in this study were limited to 180 undergraduate students enrolled in early childhood education in three different universities in Ankara, Turkey. The results showed that the participants had fairly high positive attitudes toward teaching. On the other hand, despite these high positive attitudes, almost half of the participants indicated that their future plans did not include being involved with early childhood education. In general, the demographic characteristics were not significantly related to these attitudes. Attitude toward teaching was negatively related to overall external locus of control and it was not related to internal locus of control at a significant level. In relation to sub-factors, belief in chance and meaninglessness of effort also showed a negative relationship with attitude toward teaching. Attitude toward teaching was not significantly related to either of sociotropy or autonomy orientations. However, when computing correlations with the sub-scales of the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale, only attitude toward teaching was found negatively correlated with concern about disapproval subscale.

Emine Ferda BEDEL

2008-01-01

107

CAN LEARNING THEORETICAL APPROACHES ILLUMINATE THE WAYS IN WHICH ADVERTISING GAMES EFFECT ATTITUDE, RECALL, AND PURCHASE INTENTION  

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Full Text Available This study demonstrates how learning approaches (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and cognitive learning can be incorporated in the design of advergames to influence the attitudes, recall of brand, recall of product information, and purchase intention. The results show that cognitive learning results in the best recall of brand name and product information, followed by classical and then operant conditioning. The learning approaches adopted in the games have a significant effect on overall attitude, with the classical conditioning inducing the most positive attitude followed by operant conditioning and then cognitive learning. Finally, hedonic attitude is shown to be a more influential factor underlying purchase intention. Implications of the findings are addressed.

Ya-Shin Huang

2011-12-01

108

Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305

Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

2014-05-01

109

Jordanian and British Primary Schoolchildren's Attitudes Towards the Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the important but neglected field of primary schoolchildren's attitudes toward the environment, particularly toward issues of pollution, waste, and plants and animals, using a scale in Arabic and English. Shows that environmental-education programs produce only slightly positive results. Gives consideration to further research required to…

Reid, Ivan; Sa'di, Imad

1997-01-01

110

Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

2012-01-01

111

Mexican beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and gender-role ideology in marriage.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and sixty-one Mexican respondents completed a questionnaire that measured beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and another that measured gender-role ideology in marriage (GRIMQ). The participants were divided into two groups according to the GRIMQ: "high machismo/marianismo" and "low machismo/marianismo" groups. The participants belonging to the first group showed the most negative attitudes toward hysterectomy. In this group, men showed more negative attitudes toward hysterctomy and were less likely than women to believe that hysterectomy has positive aspects. The findings are discussed in light of male dominance and female subordination that prevail in certain cultural groups of Mexico.xs. PMID:22577739

Marván, Ma Luisa; Quiros, Vanessa; López-Vázquez, Esperanza; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet

2012-01-01

112

The Student's Attitude toward Use Platform as Learning Resources at University of Granada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aim to investigate students' attitudes towards use platform as learning resources at University of Granada (UGr), a survey of two hundred fifty-eight male and female undergraduate students from faculty of education, were randomly selected to participate in the study. The results of the study shows a positive attitude toward use of platform as learning resources and there was a significance difference, due to the gender, owning a personal computer (PC), and having access to the inter...

Ahmad Alobiedat; Raji Saraierh

2010-01-01

113

Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

Pereira, Ine?s Veiga

2010-01-01

114

Methods, Findings, and History in Attitude-Behavior Research: A Rejoinder to Hanson.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews Hanson's findings that laboratory research tends to demonstrate a positive correlation between attitudes and behavior while field research does not. This article, by adding date of publication, shows that the trend over time, presumably because of improved methodology, is toward more positive correlations in both settings. (Author/JAC)

Piliavin, Jane Allyn

1981-01-01

115

Attitudes Toward the Aged of Persons Under and Over the Age of Forty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzed attitudes toward persons 65 years or older. Found five factors used by both young and older groups to describe the social image of the older person: integrity, fortitude, social appeal, dependability, and open-mindedness. Showed a positive image by all age groups, with the older sample slightly more positive. (Author/JAC)

Signori, Edro I.; And Others

1982-01-01

116

Factors Influencing South African Attitudes toward Digital Piracy  

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Full Text Available Digital piracy has become an important issue in today’s technology-driven world. This research looks at the factors that cause South Africans to choose digital piracy as a means of obtaining digital media. We tested a revised Digital Piracy Attitude Model incorporating individual and situational constructs using quantitative data. Constructs showing significant correlation to an individual’s attitude toward digital piracy were age, Machiavellianism, cognitive beliefs, positive affective beliefs and perceived importance. Interestingly, no gender influence was found. The paper concludes with practical suggestions for South African educational, government and business institutions to reduce digital piracy based on our findings.

Kimi van der Byl

2008-08-01

117

Fulltime employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore the employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia in order to contribute to the efforts for positive changes in the Serbian economy. Qualitative survey of attitudes was realized through the use of focus groups. Participants were fulltime employees from five developed and underdeveloped locations in Serbia. The results showed that the main obstacle to improving the working culture of employees is massive failure of the labour inspections and unfavorable political environment. Until the state does not ensure effective implementation of ratified ILO Conventions and labour related adopted legislative, there are no conditions for developing quality working culture and economic progress in Serbia.

Kordi? Ljiljana

2012-06-01

118

Comparing Multicarrier Ambiguity Resolution Methods for Geometry-Based GPS and Galileo Relative Positioning and Their Application to Low Earth Orbiting Satellite Attitude Determination  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of several GNSS multicarrier ambiguity (MCAR resolution techniques for the purpose of attitude determination of low earth orbiting satellites (LEOs. It is based on the outcomes of the study performed by the University of Calgary and financed by the European 6th Framework Programme for Research and Development as part of the research project PROGENY. The existing MCAR literature is reviewed and eight possible variations of the general MCAR processing scheme are identified based on two possible options for the mathematical model of the float solution, two options for the estimation technique used for the float solution, and finally two possible options for the ambiguity resolution process. The two most promising methods, geometry-based filtered cascading and geometry-based filtered LAMBDA, are analysed in detail for two simulated users modelled after polar orbiting LEOs through an extensive covariance simulation. Both the proposed Galileo constellation and Galileo used in conjunction with the GPS constellation are tested and results are presented in terms of probabilities of correct ambiguity resolution and float and fixed solution baseline accuracies. The LAMBDA algorithm is shown to outperform the cascading method, particularly in the single-frequency dual-GNSS system case. Secondly, more frequencies and multiple GNSS always offer improvement, but the single-frequency dual-system case is found to have similar performance to the dual-frequency single-system case.

Kyle O'Keefe

2009-01-01

119

Determinanten für eine hausärztliche Berufswahl unter Studierenden der Medizin: Eine Umfrage an drei bayerischen Medizinischen Fakultäten [Predictors of a positive attitude of medical students towards general practice – a survey of three Bavarian medical faculties  

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Full Text Available [english] Objective: Germany is witnessing an increasing shortage of general practitioners (GPs. The aim was to determine predictors of the job-related motivation of medical students of three medical faculties with different institutionalisation of general practice as an academic discipline.Methods: Medical students were surveyed with a standardised questionnaire about their attitudes towards general practice and their motivation to work as a GP in different working conditions. Predictors for positive attitudes and motivation were calculated using logistic regression models.Results: 940 (15.2% out of 6182 medical students from three Bavarian medical faculties participated in an online survey. 585 (62.7% were female, and the average age was 25.0 (standard deviation 3.7. The average grade of a university-entrance diploma was 1.6 (standard deviation 0.5. 718 (76.4% could imagine working as a GP. However, they favoured being employed within another organisation and not having their own private practice (65.5% vs. 35.1%. “Presence of a professorship of general practice” was associated with a positive attitude towards general practice (OR 1.57; 95%CI 1.13-2.417. Motivation for working as a GP was associated with “being female” (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.80-3.56 and “presence of a professorship of general practice” (OR 1.68; 95%CI 1.14-2.46. Having a lower grade for one’s university-entrance diploma was associated with a higher preference to work in one’s own practice (OR 1.39; 95%CI 1.02-1.90.Conclusion: A high amount of medical students were open-minded towards general practice. However, they favoured employment within an organization over working in their own practice. Institutionalisation of general practice as an academic discipline might be of importance to gain positive attitudes towards general practice and motivate medical students to work as a GP.[german] Zielsetzung: Der zunehmende Hausärztemangel wird immer mehr zu einem realen Versorgungsproblem. Ziel war es, an drei Universitäten mit unterschiedlichem Grad der Institutionalisierung des Fachs Allgemeinmedizin Einflussfaktoren zu ermitteln, die die Motivation für eine spätere hausärztliche Tätigkeit begünstigen. Methodik: In einem standardisierten Fragebogen wurde die Haltung gegenüber dem Fach Allgemeinmedizin und die Bereitschaft zur Niederlassung in eigener hausärztlicher Praxis bzw. Motivation zur Arbeit in Anstellungsverhältnissen erfasst. Einflussfaktoren auf Haltung und Motivation für eine spätere hausärztliche Tätigkeit wurden mittels binär logistischer Regression berechnet.Ergebnisse: 940 (15,2% Studierende von insgesamt 6182 Studierenden aus drei bayerischen Universitäten (Erlangen, LMU und TUM haben sich an einer internetbasierten Umfrage beteiligt. 585 (62,7% waren weiblich. Das Durchschnittsalter betrug 25,0 Jahre (Standardabweichung 3,7. Die durchschnittliche Abiturnote war 1,6 (Standardabweichung 0,5. 718 (76% der Studierenden könnten sich eine hausärztliche Arbeit vorstellen, wobei die Anstellung der Selbstständigkeit vorgezogen wird (65,5 vs. 35,1%. Für die wertschätzende Haltung gegenüber der Allgemeinmedizin zeigt sich die „Existenz eines Lehrstuhls“ als stärkster Prädiktor (OR 1,57; 95%CI 1,13-2,417. Die stärksten Prädiktoren für die Motivation zu einer späteren hausärztlichen Tätigkeit sind „weibliches Geschlecht“ (OR 2,56; 95%CI 1,80-3,56 und die „Existenz eines Lehrstuhls“ (OR 1,68; 95%CI 1,14-2,46. Eine weniger gute Abiturnote war mit einer höheren Bereitschaft zur Selbständigkeit assoziiert (OR 1.39; 95%CI 1.02-1.90.Schlussfolgerung: Diese Studie zeigt, dass durchaus viele Studierenden gegenüber einer hausärztlichen Tätigkeit aufgeschlossen sind, allerdings präferenziell im Angestelltenverhältnis und nicht in selbstständiger Niederlassung. Eine Institutionalisierung der Allgemeinmedizin scheint bedeutsam zu sein für eine positive Einstellung zum Fach und zur Motivation für eine spätere hausärztliche Tätigkeit.

Schelling, Jörg

2013-11-01

120

Free the animals? Investigating attitudes toward animal testing in Britain and the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 185 British and 143 American undergraduates completed a battery of tests that measured attitudes toward animal testing and various individual difference variables. Attitudes toward animal testing factored into two interpretable factors: general attitudes toward animal testing, and animal welfare and conditions of testing. Overall, there was support for animal testing under the right conditions, although there was also concern for the welfare of animals and the conditions under which testing takes place. There were small but significant national difference on both factors (with Americans more positive about testing and less positive about animal welfare), and a significant sex difference on the first factor (women were more negative about testing). Correlation and regression analyses showed that there were few significant individual difference predictors of both factors. These results are discussed in relation to past and future work on attitudes toward animal testing. PMID:18419591

Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Christopher, Andrew N

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Trust in social actors and attitudes towards genetically modified organisms in Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article tries to fulfil the research gap left by the fact that no study to date has examined how trust in social actors affects attitudes towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Therefore, two key hypotheses were posited: a trust in social actors is a more important factor of attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs; and b trust in certain social actors is a more important factor than trust in other social actors. Telephone survey data of adult Slovenians were used. The analyses show that: a general trust in social actors has a positive effect on attitudes towards GMOs; b trust in various social actors has different effects; and c trust in social actors has a stronger effect on attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs.

Karmen Erjavec

2013-01-01

122

Preservice teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of heritage education in elementary social studies  

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Full Text Available This study explores pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward heritage education, an approach to teaching history grounded in first-hand experiences with material culture. The research was conducted at a large Midwestern university in the United States, in a methods course that included 28 pre-service teachers. Data were derived from both quantitative and qualitative instruments, including attitude surveys completed before and after classroom activities and a field trip to a local history museum; these activities aimed to introduce teachers to the meaning and purpose of using material history in elementary classrooms. We found that pre-service teachers already had highly positive attitudes toward inclusion of heritage education; that they considered heritage resources educationally valuable; and that they wanted to use such resources in their teaching. Participants’ attitudes, however, showed little or no change after participating in classroom activities, presumably because their initial perceptions of heritage materials were so uniformly positive

Cemil C. YE??LBURSA

2011-11-01

123

Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10–12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.

Magarey Anthea M

2008-01-01

124

Low-attitude Oxfordian position of the oravic crustal segment (Pieniny Klippen Belt, western Carpathians). Was it a slow drift or a big jump?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Bajocian and Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian limestones and Bathonian- Callovian neptunian dykes which cut the limestones from the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB) were samples for rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study. The samples were measured in the Paleomagnetic Laboratory in the Institute of Geophysics, Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava and in the Paleomagnetic Laboratory of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. SIRM(T) curves show that limestone and dykes from Mestecko contain hematite with blocking temperature about 650-670 deg C. Babina limestone and dykes contain magnetite with Tb between 470 and 570 deg C, usually accompanied by small hematite tail. Sometimes goethite with Tb about 80-100 deg C is seen. Dykes and limestone from Vrsatec contain magnetite with Tb 570 deg C or hematite with unblocking temperature of 670 deg C. After cleaning of recent soft component by temperature of 200 deg C and a field of 10-20 mT, hard component was revealed. After tilt correction mean directions found in Bajocian and Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian limestones have scattered declination but similar reversed inclination between 35 deg and 49 deg. Exceptions is mean direction for Bajocian limestone from Boleslav which have normal polarity. Mean directions for Bathonian- Callovian dykes are scattered in situ and after tilt correction. Fold test for inclination only showed pre-folding inclination for Bajocian and Oxfordian-Kimmeridgain limestone and scattered inclination for in situ and tilt corrected directions for dykes. Mean paleoinclination calculated for Bajocian and Oxfordian-Kimmeridgain limestone are 38.5 deg and 42.5 deg, respectively, which corresponds to 22 degN and 25 degN of paleolatitude. This is about 10 deg - 15 deg lower than the value of inclination expected for that age for Pieniny Klippen Belt from Jurassic poles for Stable Europe. As positive fold test prove pre-folding age of isolating directions other possibility - flattening of inclination should be considered. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and magnetic remanence (AARM) can be used to evaluation of origin and deviation of NRM in sedimentary rocks. Axes of AMS are scattered for all localities. The degree of anisotropy is weak. Shape parameter T shows equal distribution of oblate and prolate fabric. On the contrary, ARM maximum axes are well clustered, especially for Mestecko and Vrsatec. Maximum axes are distributed in a vertical plane for Mestecko and in horizontal plane for Babina and Vrsatec. This evidences that the AAMR fabric is not related to the sedimentation and compaction processes but it was controlled by magnetization process and ambient field direction. However, anisotropy axes are not close to NRM directions. For Mestecko they are steeper. This exclude an effect of shallowing of NRM. On this basis we can assume that more southern paleolatitude of the Pieniny Klippen Belt than expected is demonstration of paleogeography and tectonics and points to the close vicinity of PKB to African plate in Jurassic.

2009-08-23

125

A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Voluntary Blood Donation among Medical Students in Puducherry, India  

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Full Text Available Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%. About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77% showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%. In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%, in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student’s showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis.

S. Latha

2013-01-01

126

A study on knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among medical students in Puducherry, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%). About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77%) showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%). In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%), in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student's showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis. PMID:24498809

Kowsalya, V; Vijayakumar, R; Chidambaram, R; Srikumar, R; Reddy, E Prabhakar; Latha, S; Fathima, I Gayathri; Kumar, C Kishor

2013-05-01

127

[On attitudes toward marital and intergenerational relationships].  

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Structures and determinants of normative attitudes concerning marital and intergenerational relationships were studied. The data are based on the Public Opinion Survey on Population Issues carried out by the Institute of Population Problems in June 1990. 3 principal components were extracted from 11 questions on attitudes toward marriage and conjugal unions. The 1st is interpreted as the conservative attitude toward universal marriage and traditional sex-role differentiation. The 2nd is though to be intolerance for premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse, and the 3rd is the positive attitude toward such current issues as divorce or preservation of wife's surname. Regression analysis shows that such factors as age, education, marital status, and ideal family size have statistically significant effects on the 1st primary component, an index of universal marriage and extramarital sex measured by the 2nd component, the effect of community size is also statistically significant as well as the variables mentioned above. Only a small portion of the 3rd component which indicates attitude toward recent issues on marriage is explained by the regression model. From 8 questions concerning intergenerational relationships, 2 meaningful principal components have emerged. These are interpreted as the norm of supporting aging parents and the avoidance of frequent daily contact between parents and married children. Married people who are highly educated, living in urban areas, not living with their parents, or have a small family tended to have low scores on the 1st principal component and seem to hold the value of intergenerational independence. In addition to education, urban residence, living with parents, and ideal family size, the effect of living with married children is also significant on the 2nd component which indicates partition of daily life. (author's modified) PMID:12155021

Suzuki, T

1991-10-01

128

Nursing student attitudes toward statistics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing is guided by evidence-based practice. To understand and apply research to practice, nurses must be knowledgeable in statistics; therefore, it is crucial to promote a positive attitude toward statistics among nursing students. The purpose of this quantitative cross-sectional study was to assess differences in attitudes toward statistics among undergraduate nursing, graduate nursing, and undergraduate non-nursing students. The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics Scale-36 (SATS-36) was used to measure student attitudes, with higher scores denoting more positive attitudes. The convenience sample was composed of 175 students from a public university in the northeastern United States. Statistically significant relationships were found among some of the key demographic variables. Graduate nursing students had a significantly lower score on the SATS-36, compared with baccalaureate nursing and non-nursing students. Therefore, an innovative nursing curriculum that incorporates knowledge of student attitudes and key demographic variables may result in favorable outcomes. [J Nurs Educ. 2014;53(4):233-237.]. PMID:24654592

Mathew, Lizy; Aktan, Nadine M

2014-04-01

129

Examining Life Satisfaction Levels of High School Student in term of Parental Attitude and Some Variables  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the correlation between life satisfaction levels of high school students with parental attitude. Life satisfaction levels of high school students was also investigated in terms of perceived academic achievement, perceived economic status, grade level, grown place, age, gender and parents’ education level. The participants of study consist of 245 students, 107 girls, 138 boys, between ages 15 and 19. The data were collected through the Satisfaction with Life Scale developed by Diener, Emmons, Laresen ve Griffin (1985 and adopted in Turkish by Köker (1991; Parentel Attitude Scale developed by Kuzgun and Eldeleklio?lu (1996 and Personal Information Form developed by researcher. Correlation analysis, regression analysis and t- test were used to analyze data. Results show that there were positive medium level correlation between democratic mother attitude and democratic father attitude with life satisfaction. There were also negative level correlation authoritarian and protective mother and father attitude and grade level with level of life satisfaction. In the direction of these relational findings; in regression analysis used method of enter mothers’ democratic attitude determined that perceived high academic achievement and perceived high socio-economic status are positively predictive whereas mother’s authoritarian attitude and grade level are negatively predictive of life satisfaction (F(1, 245= 12.002, p.05.© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

Sedef Ünsal Seydoo?ullar?

2012-12-01

130

Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy  

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Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.

2014-02-01

131

Malignant Memories: Effect of a Shooting in the Workplace on School Personnel's Attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-disaster surveys of elementary school personnel examined the effects of a shooting incident on attitudes toward self, family, workplace, community, and social issues. Specific attitudes were associated with specific preexisting personality and familial variables. Results revealed more positive than negative attitudes. Positive self attitudes

Schwarz, Eitan D.; Kowalski, Janice M.

1993-01-01

132

Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful  

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Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

Mark Brimble1

2013-03-01

133

Development of Metacognitive Knowledge of Reading Strategies and Attitudes Toward Reading in Early Adolescence: The Effect on Reading Comprehension  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine developmental changes in metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading during early adolescence (from 10 to 14 years, taking gender into account. A secondary aim was also to test a model of the relationships among gender, attitudes toward reading, metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies, and reading comprehension. The sample for this longitudinal study consisted of 175 students. The first data collection took place when the students were enrolled in grade 4 (10 years old, and the follow-up measurements were conducted in grades 6 and 8. At each measurement point, measures of metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading were applied in addition to text comprehension tasks. The obtained results indicated that metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies continuously improved during early adolescence, while attitudes toward recreational reading showed continuous decline from the fourth to the eighth grade, and attitudes toward academic reading dropped significantly between sixth and eighth grades. Girls consistently demonstrated better metacognitive knowledge, as well as more positive attitudes toward both recreational and academic reading when compared to boys. The model that included only attitudes toward recreational reading fitted the data better than the model comprising both academic and recreational reading attitudes. The findings of the path analysis indicated that gender had an effect on recreational reading attitudes that consistently predicted text comprehension directly and indirectly through metacognitive knowledge during early adolescence. The model fitted the data better as students got older.

Svjetlana Koli?-Vehovec

2014-04-01

134

Effects of Puppetry on Elementary Students’ Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Individuals with Disabilities  

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Full Text Available Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB puppet shows onelementary school students’ knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities aredescribed. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and changeattitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both studies indicated that KOB performanceshad positive effects on both the knowledge and attitudes of second, third, and fourth grade students.Study 1 showed that the puppet show participants had more positive attitudes and more accuratefactual knowledge of individuals with disabilities compared to the control group participants who didnot experience the KOB puppets. Findings from Study 2 showed pretest-post test gain scores for theKOB group were larger than those for the control group. The results taken together provided evidencethat a rather simple intervention was effective in terms of changing the knowledge of and attitudestoward individuals with disabilities.

Carl J. DUNST

2012-01-01

135

Analysis of Consumer Attitudes to Purchase Intentions of Counterfeiting Bag Product in Indonesia  

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Full Text Available Fashion handbags are products that occupy the third position of the 11 types of products most often hijacked. According to the United States Customs and Border Protection and European Commission, Indonesia is a country that ranked the 8th largest country after Hong Kong with the highest levels of product piracy in Asia in 2006. This study investigate the effect of product cues factors, including extrinsic cues and intrinsic cues, Attitudes towards counterfeits, religiosity, lawfulness attitudes, status of consumption on purchase intentions. This study aims to explain the process of forming an intention to buy pirated bag products that rest on the primary relationship of independent variables like attitudes towards counterfeit, lawfulness attitudes and consumption status of the intention to buy pirated products as well as test patterns bag relationship between variables. The data was collected by using a questionnaire enclosed with the statement that based on the Likert scale. The respondents were all employed women who are in the area of Yogyakarta with 200 respondents. These results show that intrinsic factors had positive influence on consumer attitudes towards pirated handbags addition, a more positive attitude of consumers towards pirated bags will further strengthen the purchasing intentions and conversely the higher the status of a consumer's consumption will only further weaken the intention of purchasing the product bag pirated.

Santi Budiman

2012-06-01

136

Competitive personality attitudes and forgiveness of others.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors conducted a survey to determine whether competitive attitudes are differentially associated with forgiveness or lack of forgiveness of others. The results showed that hypercompetitiveness was associated with a lack of forgiveness, whereas personal development competitiveness was associated positively with forgiveness. Discussion centers on the need to discourage socialization practices that foster the adoption of a self-contained individualism that is associated with a maladaptive hypercompetitiveness. Instead, parents should promote an ensembled individualism that is associated with a psychologically healthy personal development competitive orientation. PMID:21053767

Collier, Shawn A; Ryckman, Richard M; Thornton, Bill; Gold, Joel A

2010-12-01

137

Attitude and Knowledge of Hyperthyroid Patients to Radioiodine Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to survey the attitude and knowledge of radiation and radioiodine treatment in hyperthyroid patients. One-hundred-eighty-seven hyperthyroid patients who were sent for radioactive iodine treatment at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital were requested to fill the questionnaires before and after receiving the information about radioiodine treatment. The questionnaires consisted of 15 questions of which the first five were about the attitude to radiation and radioiodine treatment. The rest was about an information on hyperthyroidism and radioiodine treatment. For data analysis, firstly the percentage of correct answer of each question was calculated and compared between pre-and post-test. Secondly all patients were categorized into 2 groups according to their education: up to high school, and undergraduate or higher. The attitude and the understanding about radioiodine treatment were analyzed in each group. If the average percentage was greater than 80, patients has positive attitude of good understanding. The results showed that post-test gives higher percentages of correct answers for all questions with an average of 24.6% improvement. For up to high school group, the attitude improved from 81.6% to 98.6% and the understanding about radioiodine treatment improved from 92.2% to 100%. Similarly, for the undergraduate or higher group, the attitude improved from 87% to 97.8% and the understanding about radioiodine treatment was 100% for both pre- and post-intervention. It may be concluded that our education intervention is informative and improves the patients, attitude and understanding about radiation

2003-06-19

138

The Effects Of Grade Level, Gender, And Ethnicity On Attitude And Learning Environment In Mathematics In High School  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate different factors (grade level, gender, and ethnicity that might affect the attitudes and learning environment perceptions of high school mathematics students in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The study involved the administration of the administration of the What Is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC questionnaire and an attitude questionnaire based on the Test of Mathematics-Related Attitude (TOMRA to 600 Grades 9 and 10 mathematics students in 30 classes in one high school. Quantitative research method was used in collecting information from the sample. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results showed that male consistently reported slightly more positive perceptions of classroom environment and attitudes than did females. Anglo students’ scores consistently are a little higher than Hispanic students’ scores. There is strong evidence of associations between students’ attitudes and the learning environment.

Thienhuong N. Hoang

2008-02-01

139

Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge. PMID:17312628

Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili

2006-04-01

140

An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Attitudes of Prospective Primary School Teachers toward Gender Equity  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine attitudes of prospective primary school teachers toward gender equity. The specific objectives were: (1) to find out their attitudes toward gender equity, that is, whether they were positive or negative; and (2) to compare the attitudes in terms of the following independent variables: gender, age, grade, type…

Aksu, Mualla Bilgin

2005-01-01

142

Study of the effects of informational and persuasive messages on the attitudes of high school students toward the use of nuclear energy for electrical production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation assessed the relationship between knowledge about and attitudes toward nuclear energy. The study's purpose was accomplished by attempting to manipulate knowledge about and attitude toward nuclear energy independently. Over two thousand high school students participated in the study. A Non-Equivalent Control Group quasi-experimental design was used involving random assignment by intact groups to treatments. A knowledge treatment was designed to increase student knowledge without affecting attitudes. An attitude treatment was designed to change attitudes without changing knowledge, and a control treatment was employed for comparison to the experimental treatments. Each treatment consisted of a videotape with a viewing guide and a homework assignment. The Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery was used as a pretest, post-test, and retention test. Males scored significantly higher in knowledge and positive attitudes, but no interaction between gender and treatment was found. The study concluded that (1) there is a correlation between nuclear knowledge and attitudes, (2) knowledge about nuclear energy can be changed without affecting attitude and attitude can be changed without affecting knowledge, and (3) students show differences and attitude based on gender

1986-01-01

143

Extending positive CLASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a multiyear study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed significantly improved attitudes from pre- to postcourse. Cohen’s d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d=0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26-0.64). These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.

Brewe, Eric; Traxler, Adrienne; de la Garza, Jorge; Kramer, Laird H.

2013-12-01

144

Attitude toward Plagiarism among Iranian Medical Faculty Members  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members ofTehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. E...

2012-01-01

145

Evaluation of relationship between metacognition components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metacognitive components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II. Methods: Thirty-six young adult outpatients with current diagnoses of BMD II(20 females and 16 males were recruited from Esfahan Counseling Center. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder-Clinical Version(SCID-CV. A battery of questionnaires including Metacognition Questionnaire and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale(DAS were self-assessed by patients before medical therapy. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the components of metacognition and its relationship with dysfunctional attitudes is positive and significant(r= 28/0, p<0/05. Multiple regression analysis showed that two of the metacognitive components emerged as potentially useful in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes(negative beliefs about uncontrollability, danger and thoughts control. Also, results indicated that those two components have a significant positive relationship with vulnerability, perfectionism and effectivenessR²= 0/29, 0/35; p<0/05. Components of positive beliefs about worry and beliefs about cognitive self-consciousness related to cognitive confidence in predicting the criterion variable and its components showed no significant contribution. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that DSM-IV BMD II outpatients with metacognitive distortions have shown higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes.

H Kazemi

2012-05-01

146

Comparison of Attitudes towards suicide and its Prevention in Medical Students before and after the Apprenticeship Course  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Doctor patient relationship is directly overshadowed by physician’s attitude toward suicide. This study was aimed to compare the attitudes towards suicide and its prevention in medical students before and after the apprenticeship course.Subjects and Methods: In this study 96 medical students participate (44 before and 50 after apprenticeship course (were selected using the available sampling in University of medical sciences of Ahvaz. A questionnaire on attitudes towards suicide ATTS (Attitudes towards Suicide was used to measure suicide related attitudes and thoughts. The ATTS items address attitudes, knowledge, and personal beliefs toward suicide and suicide prevention. Also, this questionnaire includes six subscales. Permissiveness, preventability, incomprehensibility, avoidance of talking, unpredictability and loneliness& appeal. Results: The results showed that medical students who had passed the training course in comparision with students who had not passed; there were no significant difference in subscales of incomprehensibility, avoidance of talking, unpredictability and loneliness& appeal. But there were significant difference in subscales of permissiveness and preventability.Conclusion: Results showed that the total student views towards prevention of suicide and the relationship with these patients is positive. The views of students who had passed the course is more negative than other groups. Therefore, perhaps, the training in the attitude of students who have passed the course has not a positive effect.

Nilufar Khajeddin

2013-01-01

147

?????????????? Research on the Implicit Attitude of Free Normal Student’s Identity  

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Full Text Available ????????(IAT?????????(?????vs?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The study applied the implicit association test to explore different kinds of students’ attitude (free normal students vs non-normal students toward free normal students’ identity. Results showed that free normal students had positive attitude toward their identity and males’ attitude were more positive than females’; female of non-normal students had positive attitude toward “free normal students’ identity”; compared with non-normal students, free normal students’ attitude were more positive. These suggested that free normal student have positive attitude toward their identity and non-normal students don’t have negative attitude toward free normal students’ identity.

??

2012-07-01

148

ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATIONS OF STUDENTS TOWARDS LEARNING OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS IN ENGLISH  

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Full Text Available This study examines the policy of teaching science and mathematics in English in the Malaysian educational system by focusing on the attitudes and achievement orientations of secondary school students towards the learning of these two subjects. Attitudes and achievement are two important outcomes of learning that will determine the effectiveness of an education policy. This study is based on a sample of 400 secondary school students selected from four non-premier schools. It looks into the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics as well as their variations according to four background variables, i.e., gender, ethnicity, types of feeder school and English achievement grades. It also examines the inter-correlations between the students’ attitudes and achievement orientations. Findings from statistical analyses of collected data were supplemented by more in-depth interviews. This study shows that the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics in English do not indicate that the policy has achieved its objective. However, their attitudes and achievement motivations vary according to the four background variables. The significant and positive inter-correlations between attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics further confirm the causal relationship between these two important dimensions of learning.

Tan Yao Sua

2007-01-01

149

Food Sanitation Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior for the University Restaurants Employees  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discuss the food sanitation knowledge, attitude, and behavior for the employees of university restaurants, and furthermore, to explain the interrelations of these various were occurring at school. A questionnaire survey procedure was used. Each two constructs of food sanitation attitude and behavior were analyzed by factor analysis. Data was analyzed by description, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. The correctness rate toward the whole sanitation knowledge of trials was 70%. The overall attitude toward food sanitation was prone to positive and the attitude of employee self-responsibility was superior to the attitude of food sanitation practice. The sanitary guiding behavior was better than the sanitary habit behavior; and there was a significant relationship indicated through Pearson correlation analysis among three various. The sanitation knowledge and sanitation attitude showed a 42.6% predictive power to behavior, the attitude was mediated between knowledge and behavior. The university restaurant employees shared a more pessimistic view toward the benefits of training and the institutions could establish a committee for monitoring food nutrition and sanitation. It provides valuable information for development employees training while seeking to raise school restaurant food safety levels.

Wen-Hwa Ko

2011-09-01

150

Organizational Goal Congruence and Job Attitudes Revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vancouver and Schmitt (1991) operationalized person-organization fit in terms of goal congruence and reported that goal congruence scores were positively related to favorable job attitudes. The purpose of the present study was to replicate and extend thei...

L. A. Witt L. G. Nye

1992-01-01

151

Attitudes and knowledge level of teachers in ICT use: The case of Turkish teachers  

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Full Text Available This research aims to determine teachers' influence in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT at schools. Various variables are examined such as years of experience, gender, the duration of computer and Internet use, and to determine the attitude, level of knowledge on and the frequency of ICT use among teachers. The study was conducted with 1540 primary school teachers using Knowledge, Use and Attitude Scales of ICT. The results show that the most commonly used and well-known ICT types among teachers are the Internet, e-mail and word processing, and teachers' attitudes towards computers and the Internet are generally positive. It was also found that their attitudes vary with their years of experience and levels of knowledge.

Erdo?an Tezci

2010-07-01

152

[Cognitive alterations of the elderly in home settings and the attitudes of children towards aging].  

Science.gov (United States)

Children develop attitudes towards aging from birth and are influenced by everyday factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards aging of children living with elderly individuals with and without cognitive changes. Home interviews were performed with 54 children from five Family Health Units, 25 of whom lived with seniors with cognitive changes (group 1), and 29 living with seniors without cognitive changes (group 2). All ethical precautions were observed. The Scale for Children's Attitudes Towards Aging was used. The mean scores obtained were 1.66 (group 1) and 1.52 (group 2). One point represented the most positive possible score, and three points the most negative. The comparison between groups, cognition domains, and social relationships presented significant rates, showing that children living with seniors with cognitive changes have more negative attitudes in these domains. Primary healthcare professionals should pay close attention to multigenerational families and invest in their education. PMID:22576536

Luchesi, Bruna Moretti; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost; Viana, Aline Silveira

2012-04-01

153

[Evaluation of the attitudes of children living with seniors toward aging].  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aging of the population, it is important to identify how other age groups perceive the elderly. The objective of this quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was to evaluate the attitude of children living with seniors toward aging. Interviews were conducted with 54 children, aged between seven and ten years old, living with elderly people. After sociodemographic data were collected, the Todaro Scale for the Assessment of Attitudes of Children Toward the Elderly was applied. It assesses the domains of persona, cognition, social interaction, and agency. Most children were nine years old, male and had lived with an elderly individual for at least five years. The results showed positive attitudes. The persona domain was associated with 'time living with a senior.' This study's results support health professionals in planning educational interventions, designed to maintain and improve the attitudes of children toward the elderly. PMID:23596914

Luchesi, Bruna Moretti; Dupas, Giselle; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

2012-12-01

154

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE AND EXPERIENCE of USING A MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE PROGRAM (MATLAB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This correlation study examined the relationship between gender and the students’ attitude and prior knowledge of using one of the mathematical software programs (MATLAB. Participants were selected from one community college, one state university and one private college. Students were volunteers from three Calculus I classrooms (one class from each school in which MATLAB was used extensively. A survey regarding students’ attitude and experience on using the MATLAB program was administered to classes. The findings of the study indicated that gender differences are not related to students’ attitude and experience on the program. The results revealed slightly positive correlation between and students’ attitude and experience on the program. The implications of this study shows that teachers who use MATLAB in their instruction and classroom practices must pay attention on how much students use it, the obstacles students had to overcome to succeed in its use, and their general issues and concerns regarding MATLAB use.

Mehmet A. OCAK

2006-04-01

155

Factors Influencing Attitudes and Intention to Purchase Counterfeit Luxury Brands among Indonesian Consumers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present research study is to examine the influence of antecedents of attitudes towardscounterfeiting products of Indonesian consumers and its relationship to purchase intention of counterfeitproducts. The research mainly discussed the effect of social factors and personality factors towards consumerattitudes to buy counterfeit product, in this context is handbags. Approximately 250 respondents aged from16-40 participated to give response for the survey gathered from questionnaire distribution. The analysis usingpath coefficient analysis show that social and personality factors has mostly significant impact towards attitudes.The study concluded that the more positive attitude of consumers towards counterfeit products will furtherstrengthen the purchasing intentions while the higher the status of a consumers’ consumption will not affect anychange to both their attitude and willingness to purchase counterfeit products.

Anas Hidayat

2013-06-01

156

Exploring the Relationship between Teaching Staff' Age and Their Attitude towards Information and Communications Technologies (ICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current research seeks to understand the relationship between teaching staff' age and their attitude toward ICT. Survey methodology is facilitated through the use of the questionnaires. The survey domain is a random sampling of teaching staff in Egyptian HEI. The population for this study was 500 full-time Faculty staff, and only 412 returned and completed questionnaires are considered as the study sample. The results showed that there is a moderate and positive relationship between the age of participants and their attitude towards ICT; thus, when considering attitude towards ICT by teaching staff members in Egyptians HEI, age is a significant factor. The result of this research has significant implications to HEI when they plan, develop, and adopt ICT. HEI has to consider that teaching staff' attitude towards ICT is related to their age.

Mohamed Abdelaziz Elsaadani

2013-01-01

157

Attitudes towards telework for continuity planning in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the suitability of telework for business continuity planning (BCP) in Japan by looking at how views on telework are shaped by demographic characteristics, organizational culture, and individuals' use of technology. The study surveyed regular employees with experience of the 2011 T¯ohoku earthquake (n=39) and their responses were analyzed using cross-tabulation analysis. The results showed generally positive attitudes towards telework, overwhelmingly so with respect to BCP...

Maria, Bourna; Hitoshi, Mitomo

2012-01-01

158

Consumer attitudes towards electricity conservation in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the second half of 1996 until October 1997 the Brazilian Program to Combat the Waste of Electric Energy (PROCEL) carried out various market research studies, covering 2/3 of the country. These researches include six qualitative inquiries (focus groups), fifteen quantitative surveys and a weekly Tracking Waves to monitor an energy conservation campaign launched by PROCEL in September 1997. These studies showed contradictory positions among the Brazilian consumers regarding the efficient use of electricity. Even though the need to save was recognized by most of the interviewed households, this recognition was rarely converted into positive actions. This paper discusses the main results of these studies with a focus on a better understanding of some of the contradictions detected, in order to show how the traditional market segmentation made by the utilities, based on income groups and level of electricity consumption, is no longer sufficient to explain consumers' attitudes regarding energy conservation.

Pimentel, G.; Zaltzman, C.; Leonelli, P.A.; Principe, C.A.; Geller, H.; Souza, R.C.

1998-07-01

159

Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.

2011-01-01

160

Automatic control method for the position and the attitude of an underwater vehicle. Part 2. Suichu vehicle no ichi oyobi shisei no jido seigyo. 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The underwater vehicle, as previously tested per Part 1, being reported in result of both the design method application and actual vehicle trial, it was to be then studied whether such theory and design method are consistent or not with the actual vehicle trial result. Simultaneously, it was further investigated whether the performance-assuming evaluating method of linear control system, conventionally used in other wide fields, is applicable or not to such proposition of underwater vehicle. The underwater vehicle, used for the trial, is 11m in overall length and 6 in complement, and equipped with one main propeller aft, one set of shround ring aft, operating as a vertical horizontal rudder during the steady running, and further, one horizontal and one vertical thrusters fore and aft, respectively. As an actual sea trial result by the underwater vehicle, to which the previosly explained theories were applied, the non-linear and coupled modes, as indicated per Part 1, succeeded in being converted into linear and uncoupled ones, which then showed the present linear design method to be established simply on a degree-by-degree basis of freedom. 12 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Takasugi, N. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Dysfunctional Attitudes of University Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess dysfunctional attitudes of university students using personal variables such as gender; type of educational institute (i.e. which college faculty or school they currently attend, which type of high school they graduated from; perception of parents’ attitudes; and socio-economic level. The study was conducted in the academic year of 2009-2010, with a total of 501 students randomly selected from 10 different faculties of Atatürk University in Erzurum Turkey. Data were collected using the “Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, adapted to Turkey by ?ahin and ?ahin (1992. A “Personal Information Form” was given to the students for collecting data about personal, organizational and social variables. The t test, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis analysis were used in data analysis. The findings indicated that the dysfunctional attitudes of university students varied significantly according to gender (t (499= -2.623, p=.009, and the faculty they attended (F(9, 491= 4.659, p=.000. Dysfunctional attitudes did not show significant differences in terms of students’ perception of their parents’ attitudes, socio-economic level and type of high school they graduated from.

Durmu? KILIÇ

2010-08-01

162

Contact, Perspective Taking, and Anxiety as Predictors of Stereotype Endorsement, Explicit Attitudes, and Implicit Attitudes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract We proposed a model of intergroup contact wherein contact promotes understanding of outgroup perspectives, perspective taking relates to reduced intergroup anxiety that in turn is associated with lessened stereotyping and more positive intergroup attitudes. Additionally, we examined if implicit attitudes followed this model or were directly impacted by contact. White undergraduates (n = 153) completed measures of contact, perspective taking, intergroup anxiety, stereotype ...

2007-01-01

163

Energy attitudes in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy issues are at present heavily debated in Finland. Public discussion is very emotional and biased against nuclear power. The undetermined situation together with the need for a decision on increasing the nuclear capacity led Imatran Voima Oy (Imatra Power Company) to measure the prevailing attitudes. The paper discusses the energy opinion surveys recently made in Finland. The general results give evidence of the changes occurring in the values of life. Environmental issues and the purity of energy production are seen as the most important factors of energy policy. Low price or availability and reliability are considered less important. The results of the surveys show, however, that people think that more electricity will be needed in the future. Natural gas, peat and hydroelectric power are most favoured. The attitude towards the use of coal and nuclear power is clearly more diffuse. In the survey, 21% want to increase the share of nuclear power, 32% want to keep its use at the present level and 35% want to reduce it. This 35% includes the one-fifth of the population that would like to abandon nuclear power altogether. Nuclear wastes and accidents are considered the most important factors contributing to the formation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. The other main factors are discussed in the paper. A great desire for information on energy policy together with personal decision making interests reflect the general attitude in Finland also. Totally incorrect information on nuclear energy is, however, surprisingly prevalent, which makes opposition to nuclear power understandable. All these factors make taking a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland difficult. (author)

1984-04-09

164

CALM/AF10-positive leukemias show upregulation of genes involved in chromatin assembly and DNA repair processes and of genes adjacent to the breakpoint at 10p12.  

Science.gov (United States)

The t(10;11)(p12;q14) is a recurring chromosomal translocation that gives rise to the CALM/AF10 fusion gene, which is found in acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and malignant lymphoma. We analyzed the fusion transcripts in 20 new cases of CALM/AF10-positive leukemias, and compared the gene expression profile of 10 of these to 125 patients with other types of leukemia and 10 normal bone marrow samples. Based on gene set enrichment analyses, the CALM/AF10-positive samples showed significant upregulation of genes involved in chromatin assembly and maintenance and DNA repair process, and downregulation of angiogenesis and cell communication genes. Interestingly, we observed a striking upregulation of four genes located immediately centromeric to the break point of the t(10;11)(p12;q14) on 10p12 (COMMD3 (COMM domain containing 3), BMI1 (B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog), DNAJC1 (DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog subfamily C member 1) and SPAG6 (sperm associated antigen 6)). We also conducted semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis on leukemic blasts from a murine CALM/AF10 transplantation model that does not have the translocation. Commd3, Bmi1 and Dnajc1, but not Spag6 were upregulated in these samples. These results strongly indicate that the differential regulation of these three genes is not due to the break point effect but as a consequence of the CALM/AF10 fusion gene expression, though the mechanism of regulation is not well understood. PMID:22064352

Mulaw, M A; Krause, A; Krause, A J; Deshpande, A J; Krause, L F; Rouhi, A; La Starza, R; Borkhardt, A; Buske, C; Mecucci, C; Ludwig, W-D; Lottaz, C; Bohlander, S K

2012-05-01

165

Attitudes of Turkish midwives and nurses working at hospitals towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health professionals caring for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) show poor or negative attitudes because of fear of contagion. Therefore, it is important to know the attitudes of midwives' and nurses' towards people living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this descriptive and cross-sectional study is to assess the attitudes of Turkish midwives and nurses working at hospitals to people living with HIV/AIDS and to identify factors that affect these attitudes. A group of 46 midwives and 192 nurses working in hospitals were included in the study. Data were collected through AIDS Attitude Scale. Age, professional experience, number of children and marital status influenced the attitudes of the participants towards people living with HIV/AIDS. We concluded that higher level of education appear to positively influence the attitudes of the participants. Education programmes including evidence-based nursing implications might be planned to improve positive attitudes and to prevent stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:23009372

Akgun Kostak, Melahat; Unsar, Serap; Kurt, Seda; Erol, Ozgul

2012-10-01

166

A binational comparison of HIV provider attitudes towards the use of complementary and alternative medicine among HIV-positive Latino patients receiving care in the US-Mexico border region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common among Latinos living with HIV in the United States (US)-Mexico border region. Health providers may vary in their approach to communicating acceptance or non acceptance of CAM use, which can undermine patient confidence in disclosing CAM use. Patient-provider communication about CAM is important because certain types of CAM can affect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We undertook the present binational study to understand US and Mexican provider beliefs, and perceptions surrounding CAM use among Latino patients, and to learn if and how CAM communication occurs. Between July and December 2010, we conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews in Tijuana and San Diego. Analysis procedures drew upon principles of Grounded Theory. The sample was comprised of 19 HIV-health care providers, including 7 women and 12 men. Emerging CAM-related themes were: Provider's perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about CAM; CAM types and modalities; and patient-provider CAM communication. Many clinicians were uncomfortable supporting CAM use with their patients. San Diego providers reported more frequent instances of CAM use among Latino patients than Tijuana providers. Providers from both cities reported that patients infrequently disclose CAM use and almost half do not routinely ask patients about CAM practices. Most of the providers acknowledged that they lack information about CAM, and are concerned about the drug interaction as well as the effects of CAM on adherence. Our findings have important implications for understanding provider communication surrounding CAM use in a highly transnational population and context. Because CAM use may undermine ART adherence and is highly prevalent among Latinos, provider communication about CAM is critical to improved health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos. Considering the significant growth of US Latinos, especially in the US-Mexico border region, assessment of Mexican and US provider training and communication needs surrounding Latino patient CAM use is warranted. PMID:23088506

Muñoz, Fátima A; Servin, Argentina E; Kozo, Justine; Lam, Mario; Zúñiga, María Luisa

2013-08-01

167

Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

2011-01-01

168

CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOBILE MARKETING AND MOBILE COMMERCE IN CONSUMER MARKETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in information and communication technologies are not only offering new marketing channels to companies but also significantly influencing the ways in which companies conduct their businesses and marketing activities. This paper analyses the possible significant impacts of mobile phone technology developments on marketing, and offers insights into mobile commerce and mobile marketing, which have not previously been investigated in Turkey. In the survey, mobile phone users’ attitudes towards mobile commerce and mobile marketing and their intentions to benefit from mobile phones are searched. The empirical results show that the mobile phone users’ adoption of mobile shopping is low, and apart from mobile shopping, mobile phone users have positive attitudes towards mobile advertising, entertainment, discount coupons and mobile marketing. Moreover, the demographics characteristics (age, income, occupation and employment of mobile phone users who have more positive attitudes towards mobile marketing tools are determined and managerial implications and recommendations are also given to increase mobile commerce and marketing adoption rates.

Süleyman BARUTÇU

2008-01-01

169

Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model  

Science.gov (United States)

In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching

2012-01-01

170

Alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e hísticas hepáticas en donantes de sangre con anticuerpo al VHC positivo / Clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and hystic hepatic alterations in blood donors showing positive hepatitis virus C antibody test results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de 69 donantes de sangre, con anticuerpos al virus C positivo detectados en el Banco de Sangre Provincial, remitidos a la consulta provincial del Hospital Universitario Provincial "Vladimir Ilich Lenin", entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2006, y a qui [...] enes se le realizó biopsia hepática translaparoscópica. Con el objetivo de estimar las alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e histopatológicas hepáticas se revisaron las boletas de solicitud de biopsia. Hubo predominio de las hepatitis crónicas con actividad mínima (12; 33,33 %) y ligera (13; 36,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes estaban asintomáticos (62; 89,9 %, y con transaminasas normales (47; 68,1 %). La laparoscopia constituyó una prueba muy específica, con un 84,4 % de especificidad, con un considerable valor de una prueba positiva, 75 %, para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica. Sin embargo, las bajas cifras de la sensibilidad (41 %) y del valor predictivo de una prueba negativa (57,1 %) para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica, reafirman que la biopsia hepática sigue siendo la prueba de oro para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Abstract in english An observational and descriptive study was made on 69 blood donors, who had positive C virus antibodies detected by the provincial blood bank and had been referred to "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" provincial university hospital from January 2000 to December 2006. They were performed translaparoscopic hepat [...] ic biopsy. For the purpose of estimating clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and histopathological hepatic disorders, the biopsy request forms were checked. Chronic hepatitis predominated, with minimal activity (12; 33.335) and slight activity (13; 36.1 %). Most of patients were asymptomatic (62; 89.9 %) and their transaminase values were normal (47; 68.1 %). Laparoscopy was a very specific test showing 84.4 % specificity, with a high value (75 %) in a positive test for chronic hepatitis diagnosis. However, low figures of sensitivity (41 %) and of the predictive value in a negative test (57.1 %) for chronic hepatitis diagnosis reaffirmed that hepatic biopsy continues to be the golden test for the diagnosis of this disease.

Agustín, Mulet Pérez; Évora, Arencibia Vidal; Martha, Gámez Escalona; Menelio, Pullés Labadié; Marlen, Pérez Lorenzo; Agustín, Mulet Gámez.

171

New attitudes toward wind  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite highly vocal opposition to specific projects near Los Angeles, opinion surveys still found strong support for wind energy. The first, a mail survey Consumer Attitude and Choice in Local Energy Development, was conducted by Robert Thayer at the University of California's Davis campus. The other survey, conducted by Dr. Phyllis Bosley at Towson State University targeted national environmental leaders. The Thayer survey examined how people view four energy technologies - biomass, nuclear, fossil, and wind - and where they would find them most acceptable. Of the six factors Thayer measure - safety, reliability, environmental impacts, cost, dependence on foreign oil, and visual impacts - wind energy's big bugaboo, visual impact, was the least important. Wind turbines do produce a strong NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) response among customers, however. The Bosley study of national environmental leaders found, somewhat surprisingly, that the Sierra Club held slightly more positive views toward wind energy than environmental leaders in general. Nationally, solar was seen as the most cost effective energy source, followed by wind. The survey compared attitudes toward four energy technologies: solar, wind, fossil fuels, and nuclear power. There was general agreement among the environmentalists that both wind and solar were environmentally superior energy sources to fossil fuels and nuclear power.

Gipe, P.

1990-03-01

172

Learning Chemistry at the University level : Student attitudes, motivation, and design of the learning environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of the research this thesis is based upon was to study students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry at university level and their motivation from three perspectives. How can students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry be assessed? How can these attitudes be changed? How are learning situations experienced by students with different attitude positions? An attitude questionnaire, assessing views of knowledge, learning assessments, laboratory activities, and perceived r...

Berg, C. Anders R.

2005-01-01

173

Iranian Nurses' Attitudes and Perception towards Patient Advocacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patient advocacy is an inherent component of professional nursing ethics; in other words, nurses' enough knowledge would be essential to gain a positive attitude towards nursing advocacy. Using a descriptive-analytic design, this study aimed to assess the correlation between nurses' perception and attitudes towards patient advocacy, amongst 385 nurses in Kerman, Iran; hence, a three-part questionnaire was applied: part I, a demographic data sheet, part II, attitude measuring instrument, and part III, perception measuring instrument in nursing advocacy. The results implied that fairly positive attitudes and perception were found amongst the participants, and nurses' attitudes, in general, were positively correlated to their perception toward nursing advocacy. This means that with an improvement in perception, the attitude would also improve. In addition to our findings, it seems that these nurses needed more advocacy educational programs and support from responsible employers. PMID:23326680

Motamed-Jahromi, Mohadeseh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Zaher, Homa

2012-01-01

174

[Attitude towards immigration a study among nursing professionals].  

Science.gov (United States)

Somewhat more than 5 million foreigners reside in Spain; they make up 11.3% of the total population, their presence implies an increase in the cultural diversity of the people who make use of public health services. By means of a descriptive quantitative study which used interviews, we have been able to discover the attitudes towards immigration which nursing professionals in the three public hospitals in the province of Almeria hold; and to analyze whether or not significant differences exist among them. After analyzing the results of more than 200 questionnaires collected, we can conclude that there are few clearly positive or negative attitudes while almost 75% of this sample show moderate attitudes and there are no statistically significant differences based on work place; therefore, we can suppose that the percentage of foreigners attended to does not determine the attitude toward immigration by personnel in each hospital. This research project was financed by the Andalucian Government's Health Council as part of those Biomedical and Health Sciences Research Projects subsidized in Andalucia in 2007, according to the official Andalucian Government publication "BOJA no 149 de fecha 30 de julio. Expediente: Pl 424-2007". PMID:20143740

Plaza del Pino, Fernando Jesús

2009-12-01

175

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Providing Quality Education for All children in inclusive setting has beenidentified as the most challenging, yet the most important issue in education across theworld Inclusive Education is the practice of educating students with disabilitiesalongside children without disabilities in general classrooms. Right to Education (RTEAct, 2009 attempts to provide an enabling environment for all disabled children to enterschool, attend and complete elementary education on par with other children. Successfuland effective implementation of Inclusive Education depends upon teachers' knowledgeand positive attitudes towards it. The main aim of this study was to find out the attitudesof elementary school teachers towards Inclusive Education. The Attitude TowardsInclusive Education Scale (ATIES was administered to 78 teachers working inelementary schools in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. It was found thatelementary school teachers had a positive attitude towards Inclusive Education.Significant differences were found in the scores of attitude towards Inclusive Educationwith respect to gender, locality ,age, educational qualification and teaching experienceetc.

KANDIPALLI RAMAKRISHNARAO

2013-05-01

176

Attitude and achievement patterns of seventh-grade science students: Are there sex differences?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study adapted Fennema and Peterson's Autonomous Learning Behavior model to examine sex differences in seventh grade science attitude and achievement. Six dimensions of student attitude were examined: (a) self confidence in science, (b) perceptions of the usefulness of science, (c) perceptions of science as a male domain, (d) attitudes toward success in science, (e) perceptions of teacher attitudes, and (f) attributions for success and failure experiences in science. Attitudinal data were collected during fall and spring from a sample of 65 males and 53 females. Science achievement scores at the end of grades six and seven were obtained from student records. Using repeated measures analyses of variance, the study investigated whether seventh grade males and females (a) differ in their attitudes toward science, (b) experience similar changes in attitudes toward science from fall to spring, and (c) demonstrate differences in the relationship between attitude toward science and science achievement. In general, males and females were more similar than different in their attitudes toward science. Main effects of sex were observed on only one attitudinal variable (male domain), and two attribution scales (success/ability and failure/ability). Males more than females viewed science as a male domain, and were more likely than females to attribute success in science to their ability. Females more than males, in contrast, tended to attribute failure to their lack of ability. Where changes were observed over time, males tended to show a less positive attitude from fall to spring, while females tended to become more positive in their attitudes, if they changed at all. Results indicated no sex differences in science achievement at the sixth or seventh grade level. However, attitude was a stronger predictor of achievement for males than females. These findings support the usefulness of the Autonomous Learning Behavior model as a framework for examining sex differences in science. The results also indicate that males and females who are equal in science achievement may have different attributions for their successes and failures and that these differences may have implication for future motivation to study science.

Tingley, Paula B.

1997-12-01

177

The importance of shiftwork attitudes and ethics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author, a nuclear power plant operator at the Ginna pressurized water reactor, discusses the positive and negative aspects of 12-hour workshifts, the various schedules that have been developed to optimize performance during the 12-hour shifts, and the motivation required to prepare mentally and physically for the shift. A healthy work attitude is the best guarantee of high standards of performance whether the shift be of 8-, 10-, or 12-hour duration. This healthy work attitude will cause peers to improve their attitudes and attentiveness and strive to lift their own work levels to a higher standard.

Litzenberger, G. (Rochester Gas and Electric Corp., Ontario, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

178

The importance of shiftwork attitudes and ethics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author, a nuclear power plant operator at the Ginna pressurized water reactor, discusses the positive and negative aspects of 12-hour workshifts, the various schedules that have been developed to optimize performance during the 12-hour shifts, and the motivation required to prepare mentally and physically for the shift. A healthy work attitude is the best guarantee of high standards of performance whether the shift be of 8-, 10-, or 12-hour duration. This healthy work attitude will cause peers to improve their attitudes and attentiveness and strive to lift their own work levels to a higher standard

1992-06-07

179

Gender differences in tenth-grade students' attitudes toward science: The effect of school type  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this mixed methods study was on 10th grade students' attitudes towards science. Its purpose was to examine the effect of gender and school-type on attitudes toward science. Research on attitudes toward science has focused on gender, school level, and classroom environment. Relatively little has been done on the effect of school type. In the present study, school type refers to the following variables; private vs. public, single-sex vs. coeducational and high vs. low-achieving schools. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there are gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the school type variables being investigated. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was the instrument used to provide quantitative data for this aspect of the study. TOSRA is a Likert scale consisting of seven subscales measuring different aspects of science attitudes. The qualitative component, on the other hand, explored students' perspectives on the factors, which were influential in the development of the attitudes that they hold. The events and experiences of their lives in and out-of-school, with respect to science, and the meanings that they make of these provided the data from which their attitudes toward science could be gleaned. Data for this component of the study was gathered by means of in-depth focus group interviews. The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. Statistical treatment of the questionnaire data involved the use of t tests and ANOVA. Findings did not reveal any gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were some differences on some of the subscales. School type did not appear to be a significant variable in students' attitudes to science. The results of both quantitative and qualitative components show that instructional strategy and teacher characteristics, both of which are components of the classroom environment are important factors shaping students' attitudes to science. These findings suggest that efforts to foster positive attitudes to science among high school students should focus on the enhancement of the high school science classroom environment.

Ndakwah, Ernestine Ajame

180

The influence of parents' martial dissolutions on children's attitudes toward family formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the influence of parents' martial dissolutions on their children's attitudes toward several dimensions of family formation. Hypotheses focus on the role of patients' attitudes as a mechanism linking parents' behavior to their children's attitudes. We test these hypotheses using intergenerational panel data that include measures of children's attitudes taken directly from children. Results demonstrate strong effects of parental divorce, remarriage, and widowhood on children's attitudes toward premarital sex, cohabitation, marriage, childbearing, and divorce. The results also show that parents' own attitudes link their behavior to their children's attitudes, although substantial effects of parental behavior remain after controlling for parents' attitudes. PMID:8690141

Axinn, W G; Thornton, A

1996-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Semi-Physical Simulation of RR/S Attitude Algorithm Based on Non-Holonomic IMU  

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Full Text Available Rolling Rocket/Shell (RR/S can effectively overcome the impact point error caused by the asymmetry of aerodynamic appearance and mass eccentricity .etc. The spatial attitude of RR/S in the process of flight must be studied for that RR/S realizes the guidance control and improves the falling point precision. This paper introduces a semi physical simulation of RR/S attitude algorithm based on non-holonomic Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU which is composed of 3 orthogonal import rate gyroscopes. It adopts the 902E-1 two-axis turntable to simulate the spatial attitude of RR/S, and uses the non-holonomic IMU, which is fixed on the turntable by ensuring the axes of them to be aimed, to measure the 3-axis angular rate motion of the turntable. By setting the motion condition of the turntable, we can get the 3-axis angular rate data of the IMU and the 3-axis angular position data of the turntable. The attitude algorithm simulation of IMU adopts the four-sample rotation vector algorithm based on MTLAB/Simulink. The simulation results show that the semi-physical simulation method can model the spatial attitude of RR/S truly and provide exact and real-time attitude information of RR/S which is rolling in the two-axis complex movement condition.

Zhong. Su

2009-10-01

182

Bar??a Yönelik Tutumlar?n Özsayg? ve Cinsiyet De?i?kenleriyle ?ncelenmesi(Investigating the Peace Attitudes with Respect to Self -Esteem and Gender  

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Full Text Available Investigating the Peace Attitudes with Respect to Self -Esteem and GenderProblem Statement: It can be seen that studies which are about subjective well-being, optimism and peace have increased since positive psychology was developed. Societies can get better positions by means of positive psychology and peace psychology. We need scientific studies so as to establish this structure. The Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the peace attitudes with respect to self esteem and gender. Method: 471 persons (249 male; 222 female who are adolescents, emerging adults, adults, middle adults and old adults were participated. Peace Attitudes Li’Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. In the study Independent-Samples T-Test and Pearson Correlation methods were used. Results / Findings: Female’s peace attitudes were more positive (p<.01, t= -2.61 than male’s attitudes. Positive correlation was found between peace attitudes and self- esteem ( p<.01,.28. The results were discussed. Conclusions / Recommendations: This study shows that woman has an important role at peace process. For sustainable peace process, we need their support. In addition to this, it can be useful to have moderately self-esteem for peace.

Ali Ery?lmaz

2009-06-01

183

Attitudes toward psychotropic medications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication were evaluated among psychiatric outpatients, patients receiving buprenorphine treatment for substance abuse, and a group who reported never having used psychotropic medications (non-users). The Drug Attitude Inventory scale and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire General were used to assess attitudes and beliefs of 49 participants. Non-users exhibited more negative attitudes and beliefs toward psychotropic medication than both psychiatric groups. PMID:22662401

Fife, Stephanie A; Ketzenberger, Kay E; Olson, James N

2012-04-01

184

Breastfeeding attitudes: association between maternal and male partner attitudes and breastfeeding intent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breastfeeding is considered the best infant feeding method, yet initiation and duration rates in the United States are lower than recommended by medical and public health professionals. Positive attitudes toward breastfeeding of the male partner are important in a mother's success at initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. This study measured the infant feeding attitudes of low-income women and their male partners using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS), investigated the reliability and validity of the measure in male partners, and examined the associations of the partner's attitudes with the mother's attitudes and intention to breastfeed. A convenience sample of 112 pregnant women and their male partners completed a survey including sociodemographic items, the IIFAS, and their intended infant feeding method in the hospital and in the first few weeks after the infant's birth (breastfeeding, formula feeding, mixed, and don't know). Mother's and partner's IIFAS scores were highly correlated, and higher scores of both mothers and partners were significantly associated with their intentions to breastfeed. With each increased point on mother's and partner's IIFAS scores, the odds that the mother and her partner intended to breastfeed in the first few weeks increased 12% and 20%, respectively. This is the first U.S. study to validate the IIFAS with male partners. Future research on breastfeeding attitudes and attitude-changing interventions is needed to see if improving partners' attitudes toward breastfeeding will also improve mothers' attitudes and if that increases initiation and duration of breastfeeding. PMID:23560449

Mitchell-Box, Kristen; Braun, Kathryn L; Hurwitz, Eric L; Hayes, Donald K

2013-08-01

185

Assessing medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills – which components of attitudes do we measure?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Communication Skills Attitudes Scale (CSAS created by Rees, Sheard and Davies and published in 2002 has been a widely used instrument for measuring medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. Earlier studies have shown that the CSAS mainly tests two dimensions of attitudes towards communication; positive attitudes (PAS and negative attitudes (NAS. The objectives of our study are to explore the attitudes of Norwegian medical students towards learning communication skills, and to compare our findings with reports from other countries. Methods The CSAS questionnaire was mailed simultaneously to all students (n = 3055 of the four medical schools in Norway in the spring of 2003. Response from 1833 students (60.0% were analysed by use of SPSS ver.12. Results A Principal component analysis yielded findings that differ in many respects from those of earlier papers. We found the CSAS to measure three factors. The first factor describes students' feelings about the way communication skills are taught, whereas the second factor describes more fundamental attitudes and values connected to the importance of having communication skills for doctors. The third factor explores whether students feel that good communication skills may help them respecting patients and colleagues. Conclusion Our findings indicate that in this sample the CSAS measures broader aspects of attitudes towards learning communication skills than the formerly described two-factor model with PAS and NAS. This may turn out to be helpful for monitoring the effect of different teaching strategies on students' attitudes during medical school.

Holen Are

2007-03-01

186

Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified

2006-09-01

187

Counter-conditioning as an intervention to modify anti-fat attitudes  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effect of anti-fat attitude counter-conditioning using positive images of obese individuals participants completed implicit and explicit measures of attitudes towards fatness on three occasions: no intervention; following exposure to positive images of obese members of the general public; and to images of obese celebrities. Contrary to expectations, positive images of obese individuals did not result in more positive attitudes towards fatness as expected and, in some cases, indices of these attitudes worsened. Results suggest that attitudes towards obesity and fatness may be somewhat robust and resistant to change, possibly suggesting a central and not peripheral processing route for their formation.

Stuart W. Flint

2013-04-01

188

Performance Information, Blame Avoidance, and Politiciansâ?? Attitudes to Spending and Reform: Evidence From an Experiment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Performance information has been argued to assist politicians in decision making on budgeting and reform, but research on how political decision makers respond to performance information is sparse. Building on blame-avoidance theory, we develop novel hypotheses concerning the impact of performance information on politiciansâ?? attitudes to spending and reform. To isolate the causal effect of performance information, we conducted a randomized survey experiment among 844 Danish city councilors. Information treatments showing high and low performance had a positive effect on attitudes to spending, whereas information on average performance had a negative effect on spending attitudes. Moreover, information showing high performance rendered politicians less willing to pursue reform. We discuss the implications of these findings for the role of performance information in public administration.

Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Bækgaard, Martin

2013-01-01

189

The Student's Attitude toward Use Platform as Learning Resources at University of Granada  

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Full Text Available The study aim to investigate students' attitudes towards use platform as learning resources at University of Granada (UGr, a survey of two hundred fifty-eight male and female undergraduate students from faculty of education, were randomly selected to participate in the study. The results of the study shows a positive attitude toward use of platform as learning resources and there was a significance difference, due to the gender, owning a personal computer (PC, and having access to the internet, and it was in favor of male students, and student who own a pc, and student whom do have access to the internet respectively.

Ahmad Alobiedat

2010-12-01

190

The impact of party on nuclar power attitudes in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mass attitudes to nuclear power in general and to the more specific problems having to do with the management of nuclear waste are related to each other. People with anti-nuclear attitudes tend to view many of the nuclear waste problems differently than persons who are positive to the use of nuclear power. Hence, the study of mass attitudes to nuclear power is of relevance for the study of attitudes to nuclear waste. The present study analyse attitudes to nuclear power as well as attitudes to nuclear waste. The emphasis, however, is on the development of mass attitudes to nuclear power. The setting is Sweden and the time-frame the last 20 years. (author)

1991-01-01

191

A comparison of African-American and Caucasian college students' attitudes toward computers  

Science.gov (United States)

As computer usage becomes mandatory on college campuses across the world, the issue of examining students' attitudes toward computers becomes very important. The major goal of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and ethnicity and African American and Caucasian college students attitudes toward computers. The Computer Attitude Scale instrument was used to measure the students' attitudes. During the Summer of the 1996 academic year, a university in the southeastern United States was selected to participate in this study. A total of 230 African American and Caucasian undergraduate students participated in the study. The students were pre-tested during the first week of the semester to access their initial computer attitudes. The students were enrolled in one of the mandatory computer literacy courses (Computer Literacy Awareness Course or C, Pascal or FORTRAN Programming Course) for 12 weeks. There were a total of seven different instructors for the courses. During the 12th week of class, the students were post-tested to access their computer attitudes after completing one of the computer literacy courses. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA. While both African Americans and Caucasian students showed a slight increase in their attitudes toward computers after completing the course, no significant difference between the groups was found. However, all groups were found to have positive attitudes toward computers in general. Data analysis also indicated no significant gender difference among African American and Caucasian undergraduate students. This confirmed findings of previous studies in which no significant gender difference was found to exist among college students.

Luckett, Pamela Gail

1997-09-01

192

Type of Birth, Depression and Anxiety as determinates of Breastfeeding Attitude among Nursing Mothers  

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Full Text Available This study examined Type of Birth, Depression and Anxiety as determinates of Breastfeeding attitude among Nursing Mothers in Edo and Kogi State Nigeria. A total of two hundred (200 currently Breastfeeding mothers participated in the study. This comprises of a hundred and twenty breastfeeding mother drawn from the General Hospital Auchi Edo State and eighty drawn from Ajaokuta Steel Medical Centre Kogi State. A questionnaire was used in collecting data. The questionnaire consisted of four sections. The demographic variables, Breastfeeding attitude scale, Depression and Anxiety sub-scales. Results of the study revealed that mothers who had normal delivery reported positive attitude towards breastfeeding than mothers who gave birth through caesarian section (t=3.38, df 198 P < 0.05. There were no significant differences in the reported attitude of mothers scoring high and low on the Zung depression inventory towards breastfeeding. Likewise there were no significant differences in the reported attitude of mothers scoring high or low towards breastfeeding. Results obtained also shows that there was an interaction effect between type of delivery and depression on breastfeeding attitude among nursing mothers. An interaction existed also between type of Delivery and anxiety; Depression and anxiety but surprisingly, type of delivery, depression and anxiety did not have an interaction effect on the prediction of breastfeeding attitude among nursing mothers. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that there is need for counseling and enlightenment campaign embarked upon by government, and non-governmental organization as well as all health professional concerned within Nigeria to eliminate this wrong attitude and belief about Caesarean section birth as well as campaign on the nutritional values of breastfeeding milk to children. The need for mothers who went through CS to be counseled on the need to believe in themselves as well as the benefit of breastfeeding to the child and mother is very important.

Imhonde H. O.

2012-08-01

193

Relationship of Community Leaders Knowledge and Attitude in Role of Dengue Fever Control in Kawalu Tasikmalaya  

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Full Text Available Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. If not treated quickly, it can develop into a lethal hemorrhagic disease. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design aimed to determine the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever in Kawalu Public Health Centre Tasikmalaya City. The study population is all public jigures who are in the Kawalu Public Health Centre, with sample size of 68 respondents. Sampling technique was purposive sampling. The results were analyzed with chi­square (X2 to see the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between knowledge of the role of community leaders in the control of dengue fever (p = 0.578, as well as the attitude of no significant relation to the role of community leaders (p = 0.177. The role of society is not based on the knowledge and a positive attitude, or a positive attitude and know it but not yet reflected in its role in the control of dengue fever; may be one cause of the dengue fever problem is difficult of resolve so far. Health care workers are expected to approach and field studies in more depth so that people contribute more significantly in the control of dengue fever.

Yanyan Bahtiar

2012-11-01

194

Knowledge and attitude of Rafsanjan physicians about complementary and alternative medicine  

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Full Text Available Background: Alternative or complementary medicine includes models for treatment or prevention of disease, which are different in method or efficacy from current biologic medicine. Interest in alternative and complementary medical practices have increased in recent years. This study has been conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of the general physicians about complementary and alternative medicine.Materials and method: This descriptive study was done on all general physicians of Rafsanjan city (n=80 in a census method. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, which included three parts; demographic, knowledge and attitude questions about complementary and alternative medicine. After collecting, the questionnaires, data were collected and entered in SPSS-16 software and were analyzed statistically by means of descriptive statistics (charts and tables and analytical statistics (Chi-squared and Fisher statistical tests.Results: The findings of this study (n=80 showed 53.8% (n=43 had a good knowledge and 5% (n=4 had a positive attitude about complementary and alternative medicine. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, knowledge and positive attitude of general physicians of Rafsanjan about complementary and alternative medicine is low. For promotion of their knowledge, continuous education is needed for proper attitude to be developed

Vahid Mirzai

2011-11-01

195

Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Neyshabour Primary Health Care System Personnel  

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Full Text Available Health care personnel are the first line of contact for public with the health care system and therefore, can have an important role in public’s oral health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of Health Care centers personnel in Neyshabour, Iran. One hundred and thirty four health care personnel in Neyshabour participated in this cross sectional study. A researcher-led questionnaire was used to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of participants. Oral hygiene examination was carried out by a qualified dentist using simplified oral hygiene index. Then the association between knowledge, attitude and behavior of health care personnel with age, gender, occupation and education level were assessed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that 56% of participants had good knowledge, 80% reported positive attitude and 86% of personnel reported tooth brushing once daily. Average score for oral hygiene index was 1.26±1.66. Personnel with higher educational level had more knowledge (p = 0.007 and people with higher education and income had more positive attitude (p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively. The oral hygiene index of people with higher education was better than others (p = 0.001. It seems that level of knowledge and behavior of studied Health Care employees regarding oral health needs improvement. Enhancement and continuation of oral health educational courses is mandatory.

Taraneh Movahhed

2014-01-01

196

Robust GPS attitude determination for spacecraft  

Science.gov (United States)

The space environment presents challenging operating conditions for a GPS attitude receiver. While spacecraft vehicle attitude dynamics may be at a lower rate than terrestrial vehicles or aircraft, they may undergo a much more general attitude motion. For example, for inertially fixed spacecraft or spinning spacecraft there is no preferred orientation of an array of antennas with aligned boresights that will give good GPS constellation visibility and ensure continuous attitude solution availability over an entire orbit. For these cases of general vehicle attitude motion, continuous attitude solution availability can be achieved using an array of antennas pointing in different directions. However, such a non-aligned antenna array requires modifications to the receiver signal processing algorithms to make attitude determination possible and to achieve accuracies comparable to an aligned array. Non-aligned antenna arrays introduce LOS dependent phase errors into the differential carrier phase measurements, the most significant of which are; the right hand circular polarization (RHCP) contribution to the carrier phase, antenna phase center variations, and multipath error. In this dissertation, the results of two experimental laboratory demonstrations of attitude determination using measurements from a non-aligned antenna array are presented, along with a simulation study for the on-orbit case. In the first laboratory demonstration, attitude estimation was done (in post processing) using a passive, spinning platform with only single degree of freedom rotation, in a laboratory environment that had very significant reflected multipath signals, and near transmitters. The experiment used a 2-D air cushion vehicle on a granite table top with a single antenna baseline measurement. The results of this experiment showed that robust attitude solutions could be attained from differential carrier phase measurements taken from an array of non-aligned antennas, but also highlighted the importance of compensating for the RHCP in the measurement. Continuous attitude estimates with RMS errors on the order of 0.25°--0.50° were achieved using antenna baselines on the order of 1.0 in, after compensating for the limitations of an indoor GPS laboratory multipath environment. A spinning 3-D test platform was also constructed to allow for full motion attitude sensing and closed loop control in a laboratory environment with much larger transmitter distances. The test platform has a non-aligned array of four antennas connected to a center node that is suspended from an overhead cable. The platform has three axis attitude control, and rate gyros to provide attitude truth measurements. This new 3-D experiment platform was used to demonstrate real-time attitude estimation, including real-time measurement bias estimation for periodically occluded measurements.

Adams, John Carl

2000-11-01

197

Practice what you preach!? : A study of the gap between attitude and behaviour towards organic milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The trend of environmentally friendly consumption permeates our whole society and the general attitude towards the consumption of it is strongly positive. However, the existence of an attitude-behaviour gap became clear to us since the actual green consumption does not reflect the positive attitude. In this thesis focus is on one specific product - organic milk. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to explain the dissonance between attitude and behaviour towards organic milk. In order to ...

Lindgren, Karin; Olsson, Elin

2009-01-01

198

Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively. PMID:17184407

Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F

2006-12-01

199

Attitude, Parental Encouragement and Perception of the Importance of English in English Language Learning  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the students’ perception of the importance of English language amongst a sample of 150 Upper Six students from a population of 755 students from six schools in the district of Marang, Terengganu. Also studied was whether their attitude towards learning English language is positive and whether they receive sufficient parental encouragement and support in their English language learning. It was found that the students were well aware of the importance of English language and also had a very positive attitude towards English Language learning. The parental encouragement and support scores also recorded a high total mean. In all three instances the sample means were well above the mid-point means indicating that the sample means fell in the higher halves of the mean scores. This implies that students are well aware of the importance of English language, are very positive about learning English language and receive more than adequate parental encouragement and support in their English language learning. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant and positive relationship between the students’ perception of the importance of English language and their attitude towards learning the language. Since the students’ attitude and parental encouragement and support seem to be satisfactory, future researchers should investigate whether the curriculum offered is suitable for rural students.

Gopala Krishnan Sekharan Nair

2014-01-01

200

Image Positioning Accuracy Analysis for the Super Low Altitude Remote Sensing Satellite  

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Full Text Available Super low altitude remote sensing satellites maintain lower flight altitudes by means of ion propulsion in order to improve image resolution and positioning accuracy. The use of engineering data in design for achieving image positioning accuracy is discussed in this paper based on the principles of the photogrammetry theory. The exact line?of?sight rebuilding of each detection element and this direction precisely intersecting with the Earth’s elliptical when the camera on the satellite is imaging are both ensured by the combined design of key parameters. These parameters include: orbit determination accuracy, attitude determination accuracy, camera exposure time, accurately synchronizing the reception of ephemeris with attitude data, geometric calibration and precise orbit verification. Precise simulation calculations show that image positioning accuracy of super low altitude remote sensing satellites is not obviously improved. The attitude determination error of a satellite still restricts its positioning accuracy.

Ming Xu

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

COBE attitude as seen from the FDF  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) attitude support is twofold: to determine spacecraft attitude and to explain deviations from nominal attitude behavior. Attitude determination often requires resolving contradictions in the sensor observations. This may be accomplished by applying calibration corrections or by revising the observation models. After accounting for all known sources of error, solution accuracy should be limited only by observation and propagation noise. The second half of the goal is to explain why the attitude may not be as originally intended. Reasons for such deviations include sensor or actuator misalignments and control system performance. In these cases, the ability to explain the behavior should, in principle, be limited only by knowledge of the sensor and actuator data and external torques. Documented here are some results obtained to date in support of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Advantages and shortcomings of the integrated attitude determination/sensor calibration software are discussed. Some preliminary attitude solutions using data from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument are presented and compared to solutions using Sun and Earth sensors. A dynamical model is constructed to illustrate the relative importance of the various sensor imprefections. This model also shows the connection between the high- and low-frequency attitude oscillations.

Sedlak, J.; Chu, D.; Scheidker, E.

1990-01-01

202

Euthanasia Attitude; A Comparison of two Scales  

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Full Text Available The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term "euthanasia" influences people's support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors.In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared.197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS or Wasserman's Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the The HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised.Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness.It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it.

Javad Hatami

2011-01-01

203

Relationships between Attitudes to Irish, Social Class, Religion and National Identity in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…

Riagain, Padraig O.

2007-01-01

204

Iranian Nurses' Attitudes and Perception towards Patient Advocacy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patient advocacy is an inherent component of professional nursing ethics; in other words, nurses' enough knowledge would be essential to gain a positive attitude towards nursing advocacy. Using a descriptive-analytic design, this study aimed to assess the correlation between nurses' perception and attitudes towards patient advocacy, amongst 385 nurses in Kerman, Iran; hence, a three-part questionnaire was applied: part I, a demographic data sheet, part II, attitude measuring instrument, and p...

2012-01-01

205

Current Language Attitudes of Mainland Chinese University Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on an investigation of Chinese university EFL learners’ attitudes towards English and Chinese in relation to their motivation to learn the language and awareness of their ethnic identity. 302 university students answered a 22-item Language Attitudes Questionnaire and 112 of them answered four open-ended questions. Analyses of the data reveal that the participants held positive attitudes towards English, were motivated to learn the language, and valued their associatio...

Meihua Liu; Shan Zhao

2011-01-01

206

MAN AND HIS WORLD-ATTITUDE. REPORT 2. WORLD-ATTITUDE AND SELF-DETERMINATION ??????? ? ??? ?????????????. ????????? 2. ????????????? ? ???????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of the interrelation of human world-attitude and self-determination. The author shows the differences in the nature of links of world-definition and world-creativity of environment as two procedural components of world-attitude and self-determination of a human being

Belyaev I. A.

2011-11-01

207

Preservice elementary teachers' alternative conceptions in science and attitudes toward teaching science  

Science.gov (United States)

The improved preparation of preservice elementary teachers in university education programs is a specific target of current attempts to reform science education. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which preservice elementary teachers held twelve alternative conceptions in earth/space, life, and physical science along with their attitudes toward teaching science and to determine the relationship between the number of alternative conceptions held and attitudes toward teaching science. The study also explored whether specific types of conceptions are associated with positive or negative attitudes toward teaching science. One hundred and eighty four preservice elementary teachers at various universities in Louisiana completed a demographic information form, an assessment of alternative conceptions, and an attitude survey on the first day of a science methods course. Over 75% of the participants held alternative conceptions regarding sun-earth relationships during the day and in the summer, the cause of lunar phases, the application of inertia to a moving airplane, and the effect of rust on the mass of a nail. Participants' attitudes toward teaching science were favorable overall and on the "need for science" and "time required to prepare and teach science" subcomponents. In comparison, the means for the "comfort/discomfort" and "handling science equipment" subcomponents were closer to neutral. Correlation coefficients showed an inverse relationship between the number of alternative conceptions held by the total sample on the "basic need American students have for science" subcomponent as well as three items on the attitude scale and an inverse relationship between the number of alternative conceptions held by participants with the highest number of alternative conceptions (8 or more) and their overall attitudes toward teaching science, their attitude toward the basic need students have for science, their feelings about the time required to prepare and teach science, and seven items on the attitude survey. An alternative conception regarding how electricity functions in a circuit was associated with significantly lower attitudes among participants. An understanding of this concept may be critical to the development of prospective elementary teachers who feel positive about teaching science and should be considered in teacher preparation programs.

Schulte, Paige Lilley

208

Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time: a comparison between 1996 and 2004  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although medical specialists traditionally hold negative views towards working part-time, the practice of medicine has evolved. Given the trend towards more part-time work and that there is no evidence that it compromises the quality of care, attitudes towards part-time work may have changed as well in recent years. The aim of this paper was to examine the possible changes in attitudes towards part-time work among specialists in internal medicine between 1996 and 2004. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these attitudes were associated with individual characteristics (age, gender, investments in work and whether attitudes of specialists within a partnership showed more resemblance than specialists' attitudes from different partnerships. Methods Two samples were used in this study: data of a survey conducted in 1996 and in 2004. After selecting internal medicine specialists working in general hospitals in The Netherlands, the sample consisted of 219 specialists in 1996 and 363 specialists in 2004. They were sent a questionnaire, including topics on the attitudes towards part-time work. Results Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time became slightly more positive between 1996 and 2004. Full-time working specialists in 2004 still expressed concerns regarding the investments of part-timers in overhead tasks, the flexibility of task division, efficiency, communication and continuity of care. In 1996 gender was the only predictor of the attitude, in 2004 being a full- or a part-timer, age and the time invested in work were associated with this attitude. Furthermore, specialists' attitudes were not found to cluster much within partnerships. Conclusion In spite of the increasing number of specialists working or preferring to work part-time, part-time practice among internal medicine specialists seems not to be fully accepted. The results indicate that the attitudes are no longer gender based, but are associated with age and work aspects such as the number of hours worked. Though there is little evidence to support them, negative ideas about the consequences of part-time work for the quality of care still exist. Policy should be aimed at removing the organisational difficulties related to part-time work and create a system in which part-time practice is fully integrated and accepted.

de Jong Judith D

2006-10-01

209

Danish consumers' attitudes towards functional foods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. "Functional foods" is a relatively new term used to describe food products which have been enriched with natural substances/components with a specific physiological preventive and/or health-promoting effect. As yet, there are few actual functional foods in the Danish market, but in Japan and the USA, where these products are relatively common, sales are enjoying growth rates far above those for conventional products. 2. The aim of this study is to examine Danish consumers' attitudes to functional foods, including: whether enrichment with health-promoting substances results in a higher value perception among consumers; the relative importance consumers attach to enrichment compared with other product attributes; which beliefs consumers associate with enrichment; and, which beliefs influence and determine consumers' purchasing intentions and the relative importance of these beliefs. 3. The study consists of three analyses: focus-group interviews, the aim of which is to get an overview of the issue and generate input for the quantitative analyses. The quantitative analyses consist of a conjoint analysis and a survey based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. These analyses are based on concrete, non-existent examples of functional foods, a dairy product and a bread product, each of which has been enriched with three different substances: a) soluble food fibre, b) omega-3, and c) calcium and vitamin D. 4. The focus-group interviews show that the main beliefs which consumers associate with functional foods are the convenience of enrichment through daily diet, (un)naturalness, apprehension about changes in taste, higher price, uncertainty about belief in the effect of enrichment, dosage (when is there enough/ too much of the enrichment substance), own ignorance and uncertainty about manufacturers' knowledge of the health effects of eating enriched products. The respondents have very little knowledge of functional foods and were fairly sceptical. However, attitudes to concrete examples of functional foods were much morepositive than attitudes to the concept of functional foods. 5. The conjoint analyses show that, in general, consumers preferred the non-enriched variety, though with the exception of bread enriched with fibre, since the benefit of this is greater than for the conventional product. About 75% of consumers attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. For about 30% of consumers in the case of the dairy product and 50% in the case of the bread product, enrichment in one of the three forms resulted in a higher value perception, while about 25% and 40% respectively attached a lot of importance to the products not being enriched. 6. The cluster analysis identified several segments with a preference for the various enriched products. Two relatively large segments (25% and 20% of respondents respectively) had a higher value perception for the enriched than for the conventional product, especially as regards the calcium and vitamin D-enriched dairy product and the fibre-enriched bread product, and these segments also attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. The analysis also identified a large segment with a preference for the calcium and vitamin D-enriched bread product, about 30% of respondents saying they preferred this product variety and 35% saying they attached relatively great importance to enrichment. Only very few respondents preferred enrichment with omega-3, which was also the case for enrichment with fibre in the dairy product. 7. In general, attitudes to enrichment are more positive as regards the bread product and product varieties enriched with substances already present in the conventional product. However, attitudes are generally more negative as regards enrichment with omega-3 than with the two other substances. On the whole, consumers' attitudes to functional foods depend on both the type of product enriched, the enrichment substance and the combination of these. 8. The questionnaire survey shows that consumers' purchasing int

Poulsen, Jacob

1999-01-01

210

Counter-conditioning as an intervention to modify anti-fat attitudes  

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This study examined the effect of anti-fat attitude counter-conditioning using positive images of obese individuals participants completed implicit and explicit measures of attitudes towards fatness on three occasions: no intervention; following exposure to positive images of obese members of the general public; and to images of obese celebrities. Contrary to expectations, positive images of obese individuals did not result in more positive attitudes towards fatness as expected and, in some c...

Flint, Stuart W.; Joanne Hudson; David Lavallee

2013-01-01

211

Relationship between Drug Attitudes of Schizophrenic Patients on Discharge and Re-hospitalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "nObjective: Non-compliance is one of the major problems in treatment of patients with schizophrenia. It is also the most significant risk factor for relapse and re-hospitalization. Previous studies showed that 25-70% of all patients with schizophrenia have negative attitudes to drugs. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the relationship between drug attitude and discharge and the rate of re-hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia. "nMethod: This cohort study was carried out on 200 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI was completed for all the patients at the time of discharge. All patients were followed-up for one year for ehospitalization. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between drug attitude and specific risk factors. "nResults: The Mean age of patients was 37.34±10.74 years. Positive and negative drug attitudes were 68%.5 and 27% respectively. The rate of rehospitalization was 41.5% during the one year follow-up. The rate of negative attitude was not significantly different between the two groups with and without re-hospitalization. However, the mean DAI score was significantly lower in the re-hospitalized patients. Multivariate analysis showed that lower DAI score and being female were significant and independent risk factors for re-hospitalization. "n "nConclusion: The more negative attitude the patients with schizophrenia had towards drugs, the more rate of re-hospitalization they had. Moreover, female patients are at higher risk for re-hospitalization.

Hannaneh Taghizadeh

2008-08-01

212

Knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management of pediatric nurses in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses play an important role in managing children's pain. The nurse's accurate assessment, appropriate intervention, and evaluation of pain relief measures are necessary for positive patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses regarding the child's pain. The Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Survey (PNKAS) was used to evaluate the nurses' knowledge and attitudes. The PNKAS consists of 40 questions. In this study, 29.9% of nurses had a diploma and 40.6% associate's, 25.0% bachelor's, and 4.5% master's degree, and respondents had an everage 6.1 years pediatric nursing experience. The total mean score on the PNKAS scale was 38.2%. The highest score was 65%, and the lowest score 15%. The findings of the survey show that pediatric nurses in Turkey have insufficient knowledge regarding pain management and could benefit from additional education on that issue. PMID:24315279

Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakc?, Ayse Ferda

2013-12-01

213

Developing a Biology Attitude Scale  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a likert-style reliable and valid biology attitude scale. Before developing the biology attitude scale, the current scales had been carefully scrutinized, the views of experts taken, and the first draft of scale prepared by choosingstatements. The validity and reliability studies of the scale were carried out by applying the first draft on 168 students as a pilot study. The content validity of the scale was confirmed by the panel of judges. The factor analysis of the scale provided the construction validity of the scale. There are 36 statements as positive and negative statements. The value of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin is 0.91, Barlet’s value is 5415.115 and Cronbach alpha coefficient is 0.941 for the reliability.

Melih KOÇAKO?LU

2010-08-01

214

The Relationship between Depression and Religious Attitudes in Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Depression is one of the main causes of debility all over the world. Its prevalence is reported to be 10% -64% in students. Various researches indicate that utilizing religious approaches play an efficient and effective role in treating mental disorders. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between depression and religious attitudes in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences (QUMS, Qom, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive– analytical study, 250 students of QUMS were assessed by means of three questionnaires; a standard depression test questionnaire, and religious attitude questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical procedures of Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal- Wallis test and Spearman Correlation Coefficient and P<0/05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: The study showed that 44.8%of the subjects had no depression, 37.2% had minor depression, 14.8% were moderately depressed, and 0.8% were intensely depressed while 2.4% very intensely depressed. The study also showed that 82% of the cases had positive attitudes toward religious beliefs and 18% had negative ones. Moreover, results showed that there was a meaningful but negative relationship between depression and religious attitudes (P<0/02.Conclusion: Regarding the positive effects of religious beliefs and practices on mental health, it is recommended to use this potential in community health planning especially when dealing with young adults.Keywords: Depression; Attitude; Religious; University Students.

Ahmari Tehran H.

2009-11-01

215

Implicit attitudes and psychopathology  

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The past 15 years have witnessed an ever-growing interest in the role of implicit attitudes in mental and health-related problems and disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to this research area. More specifically the following issues will be addressed: 1) Why do researchers consider implicit attitudes to be of interest? 2) In what way have researchers in the field of experimental psychopathology studied implicit attitudes? and 3) What has this research yiel...

Huijding, J.

2006-01-01

216

Verbs with an Attitude  

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The aim of this paper is to investigate some semantic and syntactical properties of verbs of propositional attitude, using data from English, German, Swedish, Italian and Gallipolino (a dialect from South Italy). The work is based on the distinction between situational and actional attitude as proposed by Ray Jackendoff (Jackendoff, Language, Consciousness and Culture, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2007). Within this theoretical framework, two types of propositional attitude verbs will be distinguish...

Colonna Dahlman, Roberta

2011-01-01

217

Spacecraft Attitude Tracking and Maneuver Using Combined Magnetic Actuators  

Science.gov (United States)

A paper describes attitude-control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) or other types of actuators such as thrusters. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for nadir-pointing, pitch, and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude- control accuracy is comparable with RWA-based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude-control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode, and the control accuracy can be maintained. The attitude-control algorithms of the combined actuators are derived, which can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded values precisely. Results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached, and the attitude-control accuracy is comparable with 3-axis wheel control.

Zhou, Zhiqiang

2012-01-01

218

Consumer attitude toward food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

1986-01-01

219

Consumer attitude toward food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person.

Bruhn, C.M.M.

1986-01-01

220

Contact, Perspective Taking, and Anxiety as Predictors of Stereotype Endorsement, Explicit Attitudes, and Implicit Attitudes  

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We proposed a model of intergroup contact wherein contact promotes understanding of outgroup perspectives, perspective taking relates to reduced intergroup anxiety that in turn is associated with lessened stereotyping and more positive intergroup attitudes. Additionally, we examined if implicit attitudes followed this model or were directly impacted by contact. White undergraduates (n = 153) completed measures of contact, perspective taking, intergroup anxiety, stereotype endorsement, and imp...

Aberson, Christopher L.; Haag, Sarah C.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Anaesthesiologists H attitude towards preoperative patients education needs in 2005  

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Full Text Available Background and purpose: lack of information about anaesthisia and fear of post operation contiousness, pain, nausea and vomiting increases the patientsH anxiety. There are various reports about patiensH desire for preoperation information in Iran and other countries. However, there is no study related to anaesthesiologistsH view about patientsH needs before anaesthesia and operation in the literature.Materials and Methods: This descriptive (cross- sectional study was done in 2005 on 110 anaesthesiologists working in hospitals of Mazandaran province. Questionnaire containing 4 questions about demographic and 18 questions related to anaesthesia was prepared. Attitude of the anaesthesiologists was divided into 5 categories based on Likert rating scale as follows: completely agreed, agreed, partially agreed, not agreed, completely not agreed. Chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of the data.Results: Results of this study showed that the most positive attitude of anaesthesiologists about patient teaching was related to the proper explanation about duration of N.P.O before operation (%97.3. %52.7 of anaes the siologists were against giving explanation of the duration of N.P.O and post operation possible problems. In this regard no significant difference was observed between educational and non educational hospitals (P<0.018. No significant difference in terms of attitude was observed between anaesthesiologists at different level of education (P<0.07.Conclusion: Considering the positive attitude of the anaesthesiologists towards education and preoperation of the patients, it is recommended that such education be implemented and the patients be charged for preoperation consultation in order to give explanation about anaesthesia at proper time, when needed.

R. Esmaeeli

2006-01-01

222

The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades  

Science.gov (United States)

The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude

Friedkin, Noah E.

2010-01-01

223

Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding  

Science.gov (United States)

Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

2013-01-01

224

Elementary Students' Attitudes Toward Traditional and Innovative Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of study indicate that there is no significant difference in attitudes of six to eight year olds attending innovative or traditional school; however, nine to eleven year olds attending innovative school had "significantly more positive attitudes toward school" than those attending traditional school. (Author/RW)

Panko, Jessie Symington

1976-01-01

225

Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

2011-01-01

226

Nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and food patterns of women athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and food patterns of women athletes at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln were studied. Mean test scores for nutritional knowledge were higher for questions relating to "nutrition for the athlete" than to "general nutrition." Attitudes toward nutrition were generally favorable, with a positive correlation between nutritional knowledge and attitudes. Athletes who had received some form of nutrition education had higher nutritional knowledge and attitude scores than those who had not. Respondents were especially concerned with diet as it relates to weight control; those with higher knowledge scores consistently followed food patterns for weight-control diets similar to those used in training and pre-event diets. PMID:681645

Werblow, J A; Fox, H M; Henneman, A

1978-09-01

227

Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.

Rustad Aase-Bente

2007-05-01

228

College students' attitudes about AIDS: 1986 to 2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

College students' attitudes about AIDS and people with AIDS (PWAs) were measured over a 15-year period. The AIDS Attitude Scale, designed by Shrum, Turner, and Bruce (1989; AIDS Education and Prevention, 1, 222-230), was administered to introductory psychology students (n = 1,571) at one midsized southeastern university, thus allowing direct comparison of attitudes over time. Overall tolerance about AIDS and PWAs has increased from 1986 to 2000 and robust gender differences in attitudes have been apparent over time, with females expressing more tolerant attitudes. Concerns about contagion from casual contact are diminishing as well and perceived knowledge about AIDS has increased over time. Perceptions about personal susceptibility to HIV remain low and show little relationship to attitudes about AIDS and PWAs. These data may be used to help refine HIV prevention programs for college students and provide an example of a useful approach to monitor changes in attitudes over time. PMID:11718442

Bruce, K E; Walker, L J

2001-10-01

229

Does Your Library Have an Attitude Problem towards "Marketing"? Revealing Inter-Relationship between Marketing Attitudes and Behaviour  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behaviour of librarians in thirty-three different libraries of Finland. Based on market-oriented behaviour, three kinds of libraries were found: "strong," "medium" and "weak." The findings indicate a positive relation between the marketing attitudes and…

Singh, Rajesh

2009-01-01

230

Public attitudes toward gays and lesbians: trends and predictors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public opinion about gay men and lesbians is a popular topic in both the popular press and academic journals. However, analyses of attitudinal trends are rare. Tracing changes in opinion polls on homosexuals in the United States between 1977 and 2003, the first part of the present study showed that public opinion of this minority group has become more positive over time. Part two of this research utilized a recent national survey to identify factors predicting anti-gay attitudes. The best predictors included respondents' sex, stance of anti-abortion and anti-women's equality, and religiosity. Implications for gay rights advocates were discussed. PMID:16901867

Hicks, Gary R; Lee, Tien-tsung

2006-01-01

231

The Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction Based Constructivist Learning Approach on Students’ Attitudes and Achievements  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of computer assisted instruction based constructivist learning approach on students’ attitudes towards computers and science and technology lesson and their achievements at science and technology lesson. The study group is a group of 56 students who attend to fourth grade of a public primary school which were selected via convenient sampling method from Körfez (Kocaeli. The data were collected by means of Attitude Scale to Science and Technology Lesson, Attitude Scale to Computers and Achievement Test. In this research, a quasi-experiment design with pre test-post test control group was employed. The subjects was taught to the students using constructivist learning method which carried out at present syllabus in control group and computer assisted instruction based constructivist learning approach in experimental group. The findings from this study showed that there was a statistically significant difference between groups’ post-test attitudes towards computers and post-test scores obtained from achievement test in favour of experimental group (p0.05 despite the fact that there was a positive increase at experimental groups’ attitudes.

?eyda Gül

2011-06-01

232

Current and future health care professionals attitudes toward and knowledge of statistics: How confidence influences learning  

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Full Text Available Background: Health care professionals require some understanding of statistics to successfully implement evidence based practice. Developing competency in statistical reasoning is necessary for students training in health care administration, research, and clinical care. Recently, the interest in healthcare professional’s attitudes toward statistics has increased substantially due to evidence that these attitudes can hinder professionalism developing an understanding of statistical concepts. Methods: In this study, we analyzed pre- and post-instruction attitudes towards and knowledge of statistics obtained from health science graduate students, including nurses and nurse practitioners, enrolled in an introductory graduate course in statistics (n = 165. Results and Conclusions: Results show that the students already held generally positive attitudes toward statistics at the beginning of course. However, these attitudes—along with the students’ statistical proficiency—improved after 10 weeks of instruction. The results have implications for curriculum design and delivery methods as well as for health professionals’ effective use of statistics in critically evaluating and utilizing research in their practices.

Heibatollah Baghi

2013-01-01

233

HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Assessment of Chinese Students: A Questionnaire Study  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.

Chaojun Xie

2007-09-01

234

Effects of Attitude towards Language Learning and Risk-taking on EFL Student's Proficiency  

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Full Text Available This study was an endeavor to investigate effects of attitude towards language learning and risk-taking on EFL students' proficiency. To achieve the objectives of the study, three data gathering instruments were used: Attitude towards Language Learning Scale, Venturesomeness Subscale of Eysenck IVE Questionnaire, and Oxford Quick Placement Test (2005. The participants were 120 female and male college students majoring in English Translation at Marvdasht University. The results showed that the relationship between proficiency level –high, middle, and low –and attitude towards language learning was not significant and the middle proficient participants were higher risk-takers. The results demonstrated differences in risk-taking between high and intermediate levels. Moreover, there was no significant difference between high and low groups and low and middle groups. Correlational analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between attitude towards language learning and risk-taking (r=.20, p< 0.05. Besides, language proficiency and attitude towards language learning did not have a significant correlation (r= .06, p> 0.05.

Elham Dehbozorgi

2012-03-01

235

Young people's attitudes towards Muslims in Sweden  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the use of multiple regression technique, the principal objective of this study is to clarify and examine young people's attitudes towards Muslims, and the relationships between these attitudes and a large number of background factors. We use a representative sample of 9,498 non-Muslim youths between 15–19 years of age. The main results show that when controlling for several background variables simultaneously, the country of birth, socio-economic background and school/program factors ...

Bevelander, Pieter; Otterbeck, Jonas

2010-01-01

236

Finnish Consumer Attitudes Concerning Organic Foods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis was written as an independent study on the topic of consumer behaviour concerning organic grocery consumption. The main objective of the thesis was to find out the factors that influence attitude, belief and behaviour towards organic foods in both organic and non-organic consumer segments. The goal was to show how attitude and beliefs are affecting the overall popularity of organic food in Finland. The theoretical framework is based on consumer behaviour and to a less extent also ...

Peart, Joel

2013-01-01

237

Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

2014-01-01

238

Gender Differences in Computer-Related Attitudes and Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A meta-analysis of studies of gender differences in computer attitudes and behavior found that males exhibited greater sex-role stereotyping of computers, higher computer self-efficacy, and more positive attitudes toward computers than females. Most differences in attitudes and behavior were small, with the largest found in high school students.…

Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

1997-01-01

239

Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

Slezak, Michael E.

1982-01-01

240

Climate change and changing attitudes. Effect of negative emotion on information processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chapter 2 describes our first study of the relations between negative emotion, information processing, and attitudes within the field of environmental communication. This study examined how the level of fear with regard to climate change influenced the processing of information about energy-efficient lighting. The consequences for the relations between attitudes, intentions, and behaviour were also assessed. A moderate fear level merely seemed to have an effect on attitudes by stimulating systematic information processing. Provided that strong arguments were presented this resulted in more favourable attitudes. Although there were indications that a high fear level also increased systematic information processing, this effect seemed to be dominated by a direct positive effect on attitudes. Though the relation between attitudes and behavioural intentions was fairly strong regardless of fear level, actual behaviour could only be reliably predicted from behavioural intentions when the level of fear was high. Chapter 3 describes a study aimed at replicating the findings of the first study. In addition this study took into account the effect of pre-existing differences in concern about climate change. The consequences for attitude stability were also examined. Again some indications were found that a moderate fear level increased systematic processing. Regarding the effect of level of pre-existing concern, we mainly found a direct positive effect on attitudes. No evidence was found that the level of fear or concern through stimulating systematic processing resulted in more persistent attitudes. Chapter 4 describes a study examining the effects of induced fear level and the level of pre-existing concern on the processing of information about the implementation of a European energy tax. No evidence was found that the induced fear level influenced,the elaboration of this information. However, the level of pre-existing concern did appear to have an impact: Elaboration was higher at high rather than low levels of concern. The purpose of the final experiment presented in Chapter 5 was to examine whether the impact of the level of fear on the extent of systematic processing depends on the relevance of the information within the given context. Although this experiment provided no evidence that fear increased the elaboration of relevant information, it did show that fear decreased the extent to which irrelevant information was processed. Chapter 6 summarizes the results of the four experiments. Conclusions are drawn and explanations of unexpected findings and inconsistencies are suggested. Theoretical, pragmatic, and methodological implications are also outlined, and suggestions for a future research agenda are given. refs.

Meijnders, A.L.

1998-12-17

 
 
 
 
241

VALIDITY OF THE EATING ATTITUDE TEST AMONG EXERCISERS  

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Full Text Available Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items, oral control (7-items, and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10, the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09 showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06. Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10 and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08 showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06. Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients among exercise participants, and that future research is needed to investigate eating attitudes among samples of exercisers.

Hilary Matheson

2004-12-01

242

A study on the attitudes and behavioural influence of construction waste management in occupied Palestinian territory.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a step towards comprehending what drives the management of construction waste in the occupied Palestinian territory, this paper quantifies construction waste generation and examines how the local contractors' waste management attitudes and behaviour are influenced. Collection of data was based on a survey, carried out in the southern part of the West Bank between April and May 2010. The survey targeted contractors who specialized in the construction of buildings. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship between various attributes and the attitudes and behaviour that the local contractors demonstrate towards waste management. The results showed that during the construction of buildings, 17 to 81 kg of construction waste are generated per square metre of building floor. Although the area of a building is the key factor determining 74.8% of the variation of construction waste generation, the employment of labour-intensive techniques in the study area means that human factors such as the contractor's attitude and behaviour towards waste management, exert a key influence on waste generation. Attitudes towards the 3Rs of waste minimization and behaviour towards waste disposal are generally positive with smaller contractors exhibiting more positive attitudes and more satisfactory behaviour towards waste management. Overall, while contractors' behaviour towards waste sorting and disposal tends to be more satisfactory among contractors who are more conscious about the potential environmental impacts of construction waste, it was generally observed that in the absence of a regulatory framework, the voluntary attitudes and behaviour among the local contractors are mostly driven by direct economic considerations. PMID:21976210

Al-Sari, Majed I; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Avraamides, Marios; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo

2012-02-01

243

Information sources, donation knowledge, and attitudes toward transplant recipients in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context-Knowledge is linked consistently with organ donation attitudes, willingness, and consent. Negative information about donation and the recipients of donation can affect public opinion and donation willingness. However, it is unclear which information sources are most important in forming knowledge, particularly in Australia where little prior research exists.Objectives-To identify information sources that may inform Australians' organ donation knowledge and attitudes toward transplant recipients.Participants-1487 Australian residents aged 18 years or older who completed an online survey.Main Outcome Measures-Self-reported knowledge, information sources, and attitudes toward transplant recipients.Results-Participants felt fairly well informed about organ donation, particularly if they registered donation wishes, were female, and were older. More than half reported their driver's license, television news, and discussion with family/friends as donation information sources. However, information sources contributing to knowledge were personal experience, online, hospital, government campaign, discussion with family/friends, Medicare, doctor's surgery, and the newspaper. Differences based on registration status, sex, and age, were found. Discussion with family/friends and movies or television shows, as well as not having seen information in a newspaper or doctor's surgery, contributed to positive attitudes toward recipients, although the variance explained was small.Conclusions-People felt more informed by personal, medical, and government information sources than by mass media. Family discussion was not only a common information source but also contributed significantly and positively to both donation knowledge and attitudes toward recipients. Further exploration of information sources contributing to donation knowledge and community attitudes toward transplant recipients among young men is needed. PMID:24919734

Hyde, Melissa K; Chambers, Suzanne K

2014-06-01

244

The knowledge and attitude of general dentists toward denture adhesives in Tehran  

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Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? Materials and Methods: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge. Results: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The ?2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.

Fakhri Hamidreza

2009-01-01

245

Attitudes toward Specific Advertising Media (AM: Informative or Manipulative?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attitudes toward advertising in general (AG is a concept which often raises ethical, social and cultural concerns, and yet in the context of specific media, consumers are often more positive, and find advertising entertaining, thought-provoking, amusing and informative. This paper focuses on attitudes toward advertising in three specific media (AM (print, television and online advertising and aims to provide input into the design decisions of an advertising campaign. The survey is based on a sample of 425 Malaysian and international tourists, and one key finding is the positive view that respondents have about advertising in print, online and on television. In terms of attitudes to print advertising, social role and image makes the strongest unique contribution to AP; for television advertising product information makes the strongest unique contribution to explaining attitudes to ATV; and in terms of online advertising, hedonic pleasure makes the strongest unique contribution to explaining attitudes to AO.

Azizul Yaakop

2014-03-01

246

Diversity experiences predict changes in attitudes toward affirmative action.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined the role of diversity experiences in promoting changes in attitudes toward affirmative action (AA). Using longitudinal data from a survey of over 1000 college students at admission and in their fourth year, results demonstrated that participation in diversity-related campus activities related to positive changes in attitudes toward affirmative action. This result was consistent across samples of White, African American, and Asian American students. Positive changes in attitudes persisted despite statistical controls for established predictors of attitudes toward AA such as merit and prevalence of discrimination beliefs, and individual-level characteristics such as experiences of discrimination and political liberalism. I discuss the relevance of this finding to the AA literature and to changing attitudes toward AA. PMID:17967096

Aberson, Christopher L

2007-10-01

247

Changes in Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Inclusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite federal mandates to educate students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment, teachers continue to have mixed feelings about their own preparedness to educate students with disabilities in the general education setting. However, research has demonstrated that teachers with more positive attitudes toward inclusion are more…

Swain, Kristine D.; Nordness, Philip D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

2012-01-01

248

Pornography and Sexist Attitudes Among Heterosexuals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a probability-based sample of young Danish adults and a randomized experimental design, this study investigated effects of past pornography consumption, experimental exposure to nonviolent pornography, perceived realism of pornography, and personality (i.e., agreeableness) on sexist attitudes (i.e., attitudes toward women, hostile and benevolent sexism). Further, sexual arousal mediation was assessed. Results showed that, among men, an increased past pornography consumption was significantly associated with less egalitarian attitudes toward women and more hostile sexism. Further, lower agreeableness was found to significantly predict higher sexist attitudes. Significant effects of experimental exposure to pornography were found for hostile sexism among low in agreeableness participants and for benevolent sexism among women. These experimental exposure effects were found to be mediated by sexual arousal. © 2013 International Communication Association.

Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N.

2013-01-01

249

Implicit attitudes and self-concepts towards transgression and aggression: Differences between male community and offender adolescents, and associations with psychopathic traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research suggests that implicit attitudes play a key role in the occurrence of antisocial behaviours. This study assessed implicit attitudes and self-concepts related to aggression and transgression in community and offender adolescents, using a new set of Implicit Association Tests (IATs), and examined their association with of psychopathic traits. Thirty-six offenders and 66 community adolescents performed 4 IATs assessing 1) implicit attitudes about a) aggression and b) transgression as good, and 2) implicit self-concepts about a) aggression and b) transgression as self-descriptive. They filled in self-report questionnaires: the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory, the Child Behaviour Checklist, and explicit measures of their attitudes and self-concepts towards transgression and aggression. Results showed few differences between community and offender adolescents on implicit attitudes and self-concepts, and unexpected negative associations between some implicit attitudes and psychopathic traits, while the association was positive for the corresponding explicit attitudes. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed. PMID:24679466

Suter, Maya; Pihet, Sandrine; de Ridder, Jill; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Stephan, Philippe

2014-07-01

250

The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have...

2010-01-01

251

The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people ha...

Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

2010-01-01

252

Attitudes toward breastfeeding working mothers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation assesses attitudes towards breastfeeding working mothers, employees' knowledge of their legal rights and employees' views of the new amendment of Law 427 in Puerto Rico. The sample consists of 36 men and 64 women (N = 101) employed in different institutions of the San Juan metropolitan area. Participants completed the Attitude Scale toward working breastfeeding mothers. The scale's consistency is substantiated by an item-total reliability coefficient yielding r (92) = .70, p < .05. Results show that employed Puerto Ricans may support breastfeeding working mothers. However, many individuals are not aware of the laws that protect a breastfeeding working mother and how extracting milk may help productivity instead of impairing it. PMID:14619459

Cardalda, Elsa B; Miranda, Susana E; Pérez, Melanie; Sierra, Elizabeth M

2003-09-01

253

Eating Attitudes Test in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Japanese version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) was developed and validated using a group of anorectics and Japanese female controls. Its sensitivity was considered to be low for anorectics, especially for the fasting type anorectics. A cross-cultural comparison of the EAT scores of anorectics showed some significant differences among those found in Japan, Canada and Germany. A survey of eating disorders among 286 Japanese female students was carried out with a Japanese EAT. Three cases of bulimia nervosa were identified in this survey, although no clear case of anorexia nervosa could be identified. The EAT seemed to be useful to screen cases of bulimia nervosa and sensitive to distinguish abnormal eating attitudes among the young females in Japan. PMID:7891418

Ujiie, T; Kono, M

1994-09-01

254

Elaborating on the attitude-behaviour gap regarding organic products : Young Danish consumers and in-store food choice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Even though most consumers hold positive attitudes towards organic food, attitudes appear not to translate into respective behaviour to the same extent. It has been found that the high price and availability are major reasons for this attitude-behaviour gap, especially among young consumers. In Denmark, supermarkets offer a comparatively broad range of organic at relatively small price premiums; however, even in Denmark market growth rates are moderate. To explore young consumer´s barriers to act upon their attitudes more in detail, we aimed at researching their thoughts and product associations at the point of sale. Qualitative accompanied shopping interviews with young consumers holding positive attitudes towards organic were conducted. The analysis resulted in a model of the point-of-sale thoughts concerning organic food, showing that the conditions (expected quality, price premium) met in the store and the personal context (moral beliefs, household member influence) impact the argumentations, which lead to a choice decision and subsequent elaboration of the consequences of this choice. Price is discussed as a main barrier, but a temporary one: young consumers argue that they postpone organic purchase unto a later stage in life. We conclude that to increase young Danish consumers' choice of organic, the high price premium image needs to be lessened. Furthermore, communication might trigger young consumers to consider acting upon ethical values already now, instead of postponing it.

Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Aagaard, Emilie Marie Niebuhr

2014-01-01

255

Positive Proof.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

Auty, Geoffrey

1988-01-01

256

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Medication Use among Health Care Students in King Saud University  

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Full Text Available Background: Health sciences students are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward medication use. However, literary evidence of such expertise among health sciences students of King Saud University is unknown. This study was completed to assess the knowledge about medicines and behavior of health science students towards safe use of medications. It also aims to assess the health knowledge, attitude and practices of the students. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire consisting of 24 questions. This was administered by the researcher between October and December 2009 in the colleges of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, applied medical science and nursing of the King Saud University. The survey consisted of three parts: Ten questions assessed the students’ knowledge on drug safety (Part 1. Four questions assessed student attitude toward medication consultations by the pharmacist (Part 2 and ten questions involved medication use practices and consultation with pharmacists (Part 3. A stratified sampling method was used to select participants. Results: Pharmacy students had better medication knowledge compared to other health sciences students especially regarding antihypertensive drugs, antibiotics, paracetamol and antacids (p<0.05. Pharmacy students showed a positive attitude regarding the trustworthiness of a pharmacist to give a consultation. Nearly all other health science students showed a negative attitude about dispensing and consultation concerning nutritional supplements by a pharmacist. All health sciences students had a similar perception toward medication use and practice. Conclusion Pharmacy students had better knowledge about medication practice compared to other health sciences students. All other health sciences students lacked the appropriate attitude and practice related to the safe use of medications.

Abdullah T. Eissa

2013-11-01

257

Men's attitudes on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh India  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men’s attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men’s attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. Methods This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men’s attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife’s mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Results Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife’s mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife’s mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. Conclusion The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making.

2014-01-01

258

Relationships Among Values, Achievement Orientations, and Attitudes in Youth Sport  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research examines the value-expressive function of attitudes and achievement goal theory in predicting moral attitudes. In Study 1, the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire (YSVQ; Lee, Whitehead, & Balchin, 2000) was modified to measure moral,competence, and status values. In Study 2, structural equation modeling on data from 549 competitors (317 males, 232 females) aged 12–15 years showed that moral and competence values predicted prosocial attitudes, whereas moral (negatively) and status...

Lee, Martin J.; Whitehead, Jean; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis

2008-01-01

259

Attitude towards the Environment and Green Products:Consumers’ Perspective  

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Full Text Available The current rapid growth in the economy and the patterns of consumers’ consumption and behavior worldwide are the main cause of environmental deterioration. As the environment continues to worsen, it has become a persistent public concern in the developed countries and has recently awakens developing countries to the green movement. This paper is essentially exploratory in nature and has two objectives. The first objective is to compare gender with attitudes towards the environment and green products. The second objective is to investigate the relationship between attitude towards the environment and green products. Result from the independent sample t-test shows that there were no significant differences between gender in their environmental attitudes and attitudes on green products. The rotated factor matrix validated the underlying dimensions of environmental attitudes into three major dimensions (environmental protection, government’s role, and personal norm. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis revealed that consumer attitudes on the government’s role and their personal norm towards the environment contributed significantly to their attitude on green product. Further investigation revealed that personal norm was the most important contributor to the attitude towards green product. However, environmental protection did not contribute significantly to consumers’ attitudes on green product.Keywords: Environmental attitude; green products; consumer behaviour; Malaysia

Tan Booi Chen

2010-06-01

260

Generational cohorts and their attitudes toward advertising  

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Full Text Available This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, 48 interviews were conducted and data were content-analyzed. The findings were then incorporated into the second phase of study to investigate cohorts’ views about advertising, using theory of reasoned action. A quantitative approach via questionnaire-based survey was administered, and 1,410 copies were collected for analysis. Five distinct cohorts are proposed in the initial findings. They are labeled as Neoteric Inheritors, Prospective Pursuers, Social Strivers, Idealistic Strugglers and Battling Lifers on the basis of their respective engagement with events during the coming-of-age years. The subsequent findings show that beliefs about advertising are significant predictors of the attitudes to advertising, and so are the attitudes with regard to the intention of every cohort. However, their beliefs and attitudes to advertising are found to differ significantly, especially in the older cohort. The study thus highlights the implication of generational differences on the attitudes to advertising.

Ernest Cyril de Run

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Public attitudes to biodiversity  

Jan 20, 2011 ... Defra - Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. ... conservation of \\biodiversity is developed through media coverage, campaigns ... Surveys of \\public attitudes in relation to the environment have been carried out ...

262

Language Learners’ Acculturation Attitudes  

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Full Text Available Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian undergraduate students of English as a Foreign Language, following a one-semester academic sojourn in the United States. The data of the study were collected through a 29-item 5-point Likert scale acculturation attitude questionnaire. Findings indicated that sojourners tended to have close contact with the people of the target society while maintaining their original culture, adopting Integration and Assimilation strategies as their acculturation attitudes. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested providing opportunities for students of English as a Foreign Language to immerse in the target language culture through organizing academic exchange programs.

Vahid Rafieyan

2013-12-01

263

Extensionists` Attitude Toward Sustainable Agriculture in Iran  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the attitudes of extension professionals toward sustainable agriculture concepts. This study used a survey design and was conducted with a random sample of 87 agricultural extensionists in Iran. To identify the attitudes toward sustainable agriculture concepts, a self-designed questionnaire was developed to gather data. Content validity of the instrument was established by a panel of experts. Results indicated that extensionists` attitudes were moderate toward sustainability. It was found that the concepts of Independency and Community had the highest mean, respectively. F-test results revealed that extensionists` general perceptions toward sustainable agriculture concepts did not significantly vary with age, levels of education, years of experience in extension or organizational position.

M.S. Allahyari

2008-01-01

264

Comparisons of Sex Offenders with Non-Offenders on Attitudes Toward Masturbation and Female Fantasy as Related to Participation in Human Sexuality Sessions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…

Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.

1983-01-01

265

Public and private attitudes towards 'green' electricity: the case of Swedish wind power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for 'green' electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled

2005-09-01

266

Consumers’ Attitude towards Advertising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advertising is a growing business and with advances in the Internet technology, the dynamics and landscape of
the business has changed as well. Prior findings on consumers’ attitude towards advertising are mixed. This
paper is an attempt to examine young adults’ attitude towards advertising. We conceptualized a framework to
examine the influence of six independent variables namely consumer manipulation, product information,
hedonic/plea...

Uchenna Cyril Eze; Chai Har Lee

2012-01-01

267

GPS based attitude determination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is the result of a masters thesis performed at Linköping University for Saab Bofors Dynamics in Linköping, Sweden. Attitude is defined as the orientation of a coordinate frame in reference to another coordinate frame. This is often referred to as three consecutive rotations, called roll, pitch and yaw (or heading). Attitude determination is generally performed using inertial navigation systems composed of gyros and accelerometers. These systems are highly accurate but are very ex...

Thorstensson, Erika

2009-01-01

268

Language Learners’ Acculturation Attitudes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian undergraduate students of English as a Foreign Language, following a one-semester academic sojourn in the United States. The data of the study were collect...

Vahid Rafieyan; Maryam Orang; Maryam Bijami; Maryam Sharafi Nejad; Lin Siew Eng

2013-01-01

269

Utilization of attitude maps in evaluating teachers' attitudes towards assessment  

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Full Text Available Various methods have been performed to identify teachers’ attitudes towards assessment. Recognizing the idea that mapping is one of the most efficient tools, this study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of attitude maps in the evaluation of teachers’ attitudes towards assessment. The instrument, composed of open-ended questions, was utilized during the semi-structured interview protocol and used as the study’s data collection tool. Attitude maps were constructed during the evaluation process to represent the pre-service teachers’ attitudes’ towards assessment. The participants’ attitudes were determined and categorized as traditional, close to traditional, transitional, close to constructivist, and constructivist. Criterion validity of the results was achieved by comparing the categories drawn from the attitude maps with the categories derived by the survey. Results indicate that attitude mapping is a useful way to evaluate teachers’ attitudes towards assessment.

Feral OGAN-BEKIROGLU

2008-06-01

270

Attitudes towards suicide among adolescents  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Having a relatively high suicide rate of 19.5 per 100.000 inhabitants, the Republic of Serbia is in the first half on the list of the European countries concerning the number of suicides. However, the situation is particularly alarming in Vojvodina, which has been one of the areas with a very high population mortality rate caused by suicide for a long period of time not only in Serbia of nowadays, but also in former Yugoslavia. The number of suicides has increased by almost 50% over the last five and a half decades, and every eighth suicide was committed by a young person. The aim of this paper was to explore adolescents’ attitudes towards suicide and to find out whether the difference in age affects changes in attitudes regarding suicide. Material and Methods. The George Domino’s Suicide Opinion Questionnaire was completed by 254 adolescents divided into two age groups - 124 respondents were in the age group 13 to 15 and 130 of them in the age group 18 to 19. Results. The results of this study suggest that the attitudes of younger and older group of adolescents towards suicide mostly coincide and there is no statistically significant difference in the answers according to the analyzed clusters. Conclusion. This research shows that the attitudes of respondents of both age groups indicate a lack of awareness about suicide, its causes and dynamics of development of this public health problem. This leaves space for more intensive educational work in the mental health of the population, especially young people and for further research of the suicide problem as a basis for developing strategies.

?ankovi? Dušan

2013-01-01

271

Attitude determination and control for a small remote sensing satellite  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, a fully autonomous magnetic attitude control system is proposed for a small satellite for remote sensing applications. The attitude determination hardware consists of a horizon sensor and a pair of two-axis magnetometers. Three-axis attitude control is performed by means of three magnetic torquers. Control laws are derived separately for the attitude acquisition and the station keeping phases. The proposed control strategy is then tested by using a numerical code which simulates the satellite orbit and attitude dynamics and control, and the sensor measurement errors. Final results show that the proposed magnetic control system limits the attitude angles and rates within values adequate to low/medium resolution remote sensing applications.

Grassi, Michele

1997-01-01

272

Study of Family Planning Service Providers Knowledge about and Attitude toward Pregnancy Prevention Methods  

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Full Text Available Introduction: These days family planning is considered a fundamental principle in human life. This study aimed to investigate family planning service providers knowledge about and attitude toward pregnancy prevention methods in shahrood in 2008. Methods: This research was a cross-sectional and applied one. In this study a questionnaire including 8 general items and 52 specialized ones was administered to service providers. The studied population (162 people were all service providers working in health houses and urban and rural health centers in shahrood. The correlation between variables was calculated through Pearson correlation coefficient and the means of groups were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results have been show in the form of tables and diagrams. Results: 152 people the majority of whom (73.7% were women participated in the study. 74.3% of participants had high school diploma and below degrees. 7.9 % had associative and 2.6% had BS degrees in family health. 15.1% had BS degrees in midwifery. The Knowledge mean score was 17.9±2.7 out of 25 which indicates average knowledge of service providers. The attitude mean score was 71±10.3 out of 108 that indicates the positive attitude of family planning service providers. The results showed a significant relationship between knowledge and sex job level of education unit of service providing work experience and type of prevention used by the service providers (P=0.001. However there was no significant relationship between attitude and sex service unit and work experience. Conclusion: Noting the average knowledge and the positive attitudes of the family planning service providers and noting the unreliable prevention methods about one-third of them use providing all ranks of service providers with educational classes about family planning seems to be a considerable help for planning and promotion of mothers health plans.

Mohammad Amiri

2009-01-01

273

The attitudes of medical students to research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The workforce of 'physician-scientists' is ageing and decreasing in numbers. The responsibility to combat this trend rests on future generations of healthcare professionals and it is therefore valuable to evaluate medical students' attitudes towards research. OBJECTIVE: To establish the [...] attitudes of University of Cape Town (UCT) medical students towards research and to investigate the factors influencing these attitudes. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire was administered to medical students from years 1 to 6 studying medicine at UCT in 2011. Questions were primarily closed-ended and consisted of Likert scales. RESULTS: Out of a population of 1 195 medical students, 733 were sampled (63%); 65% were female, 53% were preclinical students (years 1 - 3) and 47% were in their clinical years (year 4 - 6). Overall, 61% of students had a positive attitude towards research and 74% felt that participation in research was important to their medical school education; 22% had been involved in voluntarily extracurricular research, 4% had presented at a scientific meeting and 3% had published in peer-reviewed journals. A number of perceived barriers to student research were identified including a lack of adequate training, time and research opportunities. CONCLUSION: Students believed that research was important and had a positive attitude towards it. However, few had been involved in voluntary research and produced work worthy of presentation and/or publication. Addressing identified barriers and improving students' attitudes may begin to reverse the trend in declining numbers of physician-scientists.

D, Nel; R J, Burman; R, Hoffman; S, Randera-Rees.

274

On Attitude towards HIV/AIDS among Iranian Students (Case Study: High School Students in Shiraz City  

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Full Text Available Young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS. The present study investigated the attitude toward HIV/AIDS and related socio-cultural factors among 600 high school students in Shiraz, Iran. The method of sampling is a stratified one and the instrument for collecting data is a self-administrated questionnaire. In this research, attitude has three dimensions-knowledge, emotion and tendency to action. Descriptive statistics showed that students did not have enough knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The 44.3% of students had low knowledge, 36.9% moderate knowledge and only 18.8% had high knowledge. Also the results indicated that attitude for 69.8% of student has in middle level, 15.4% positive and 14.9% negative. Moreover, results suggested that loyalty to Islamic religious beliefs have an important role on attitude toward this disease. Major of study, sex, mother’s occupation and use of some mass media such as books and newspapers were other main influencing factors in the students’ attitude. Furthermore, this study showed that parent education, major of study, father’s occupation and use of books and the internet are the most important variables affecting on the participants’ knowledge. Age, sex, parents’ education, religious beliefs, use of some mass media such as TV, the internet, newspapers, satellite and books affect emotion. Finally, there is a relationship between religious beliefs, sex and major of study, use of satellite, television, radio and books with tendency to action.

Majeed Movahed

2010-01-01

275

MAN AND HIS WORLD-ATTITUDE. REPORT 1. WORLD-ATTITUDE AND WORLD-VIEW ??????? ? ??? ?????????????. ????????? 1. ????????????? ? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discovers specific features typical to a man of world-attitude and world-view. Making comparative analysis of these phenomena of human consciousness, the author reveals the notion-forming features of each of them. World-attitude has such features as subjectiveness and discontinuity, world-view’s attributes are subjectification and continuity. At the same time both phenomena are characterized by process, intentionality and contextuality, which show up in essentially different ways

Belyaev I. A.

2011-11-01

276

Predictors and consequences of negative attitudes toward immigrants in Belgium and Turkey: the role of acculturation preferences and economic competition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research tested predictors and consequences of majority members' negative attitudes towards immigrants in Belgium and Turkey. It tested a mediation model in which economic competition and a perceived preference of the immigrants for culture maintenance have negative effects on majority members' own acculturation preference for integration, and where a perceived preference of the immigrants for contact has a positive effect. The effects of all three predictors were hypothesized to be mediated by negative attitudes toward immigrants. Two survey studies were conducted, one in Belgium (N=106) and one in Turkey (N=93). Results showed that, as hypothesized, 'economic competition' and a 'perceived preference for contact' had indirect effects on 'own acculturation preference' for integration, and 'negative attitude' was the mediator. 'Perceived preference for cultural maintenance' had a direct effect on 'own acculturation preference'. PMID:17355723

Zagefka, Hanna; Brown, Rupert; Broquard, Murielle; Leventoglu Martin, Sibel

2007-03-01

277

The Effect of Teaching Learning Strategies in an English Lesson on Students’ Achievement, Attitudes, and Metacognitive Awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of teaching learning strategies in an English lesson on students’ achievement, attitudes, and metacognitive awareness levels. The study was conducted in the 2010-2011 academic year in a primary school in Ni?de. Students in those schools were taught learning strategies. Totally, 60 8th graders from two different classrooms participated in the study. The study had a pre-test – post-test control group design. Means and standard deviations were reported in the study. In order to test the significance, Mann-Whitney U tests were performed. Results showed a significant difference between attitude scores of both groups. It was also found out teaching learning strategies was more effective in enhancing students’ achievement, lifting their metacognitive awareness levels up, and making them develop more positive attitudes toward English lesson than teaching via students’ course books.

Gökhan Ba?

2012-01-01

278

Concepts for conformal and body-axis attitude information for spatial awareness presented in a helmet-mounted display  

Science.gov (United States)

A piloted simulation study has been conducted to evaluate two methods of presenting attitude information in a helmet-mounted display (HMD) for spatial awareness in a fighter airplane. One method, the body-axis concept, displayed the information relative to the body axis of the airplane. The quantitative results of this study favored the body-axis concept. Although no statistically significant differences were noted for either the pilots' understanding of roll attitude or target position, the pilots made pitch judgment errors three times more often with the conformal display. The subjective results showed the body-axis display did not cause attitude confusion, a prior concern with this display. In the posttest comments, the pilots overwhelmingly selected the body-axis display as the display of choice.

Jones, Denise R.; Abbott, Terence S.; Burley, James R., II

1993-01-01

279

Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms : The influence of travel time and wind farm attributes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Generally people are more positive towards offshore wind farms compared to on-land wind farms. However, the attitudes are commonly assumed to be independent of experience with wind farms. Important relations between attitude and experience might therefore be disregarded. The present paper gives a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more positive attitudes compared to wind farms with fewer turbines.

Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

2011-01-01

280

A quantitative research of consumer’s attitude towards food products advertising  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Identifying the consumers' attitude towards television/radio/press advertising is especially important, a fact which is highlighted by national and international speciality literature. The attitude of the consumer towards a television commercial influences the attitude towards the promoted product or brand. Thus, a positive attitude towards the commercial for a brand determines a positive attitude towards the respective brand and, eventually, may result in the formulation of the purchase intent. It is hard to say which aspects of advertising have the greatest influence on the formation of consumer attitudes and purchase intent formulation, but not impossible to find out. In this context, through this study, we aim at contributing to the determination of the consumers' attitude towards televised advertising aimed at promoting food products.

Voicu Mirela-Cristina

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Demonstration Road Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

Shropshire, Steven

2009-04-06

282

Do attitudes of families concerned influence features of children who claim to remember previous lives?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. Aims: To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. Settings and Design: The study is based on field investigations. Materials and Methods: Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects? mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. Results: The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. Conclusions: The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases.

Pasricha, Satwant K.

2011-01-01

283

Knowledge and Attitude Towards HIV/AIDS Among College Students in Ardabil, Iran  

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Full Text Available Knowledge about the spread of HIV has a critical impact of the prevention of AIDS young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS,we intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of college students regarding AIDS in Iran,.This study is a cross-sectional study that carried out in 400 first college students. A structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge about AIDS, source of information and attitudes toward people living with HIV, the students identified mass media (40% as their most important source of information about ADIS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmissions. College students demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge (67.5% concerning AIDS and HIV. Results showed that 85% of samples fell all people entering Iran should be tested. Twenty five percent of them believed that people with HIV should not be allowed to use common toilets and 27% incorrectly believed that HIV infected college students be removed from university bedroom. Attitude was significantly correlated with knowledge, (r = -0.38, p< 0.001, student with less knowledge scores had more negative attitude toward HIV positive Individuals. The knowledge level seems to be moderately high misconception about the routes of transmission were common. Alarming gaps in knowledge about transmission and curability put young Iranian students at risk of contracting HIV. Intolerant attitudes about people living with HIV were prevalent. Present results suggest that a more appropriate education program in colleges in Iran may be necessary to reduce the discrepancy between general knowledge and desirable attitude regarding HIV/AIDS.

2008-01-01

284

Attitudes Of Middle School Students Towards The Forests In Nicosia  

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Full Text Available In this study the attitudes of middle school students’ towards forest were investigated and the results were compared in terms of gender, types of school, and grades level. A total of 199 students from public and private schools were participated in the study and the data was collected through “the AttitudeToward theForest Scale” which included 32 questions.. At the end of the study, it was found that middle school students have positive attitudes towards forest. In addition, girls’ attitudes on the subject were found higher than those of male students but there was not a significant difference between grade level and students’ attititudes towards forest. For example, the attitudes of 7th and 8th grade students were found similiar. In terms of school type and students’ attitutes towards forest, students who go to public schools have demostrated higher interets on forest than students going to private middle schools.

Serap ÖZBA?

2013-12-01

285

Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Sweden  

Science.gov (United States)

SYNOPSIS Objective The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers’ and fathers’ attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. Design Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 77 Swedish families. Results Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than did mothers; these differences remained significant after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers’ and fathers’ progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes after controlling for parents’ age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Conclusions We conclude that in Sweden fathers are more likely to attribute failures in caregiving situations both to themselves and to children than are mothers and that there is moderate concordance between fathers and mothers within the same family in progressive and authoritarian parenting attitudes.

Sorbring, Emma; Gurdal, Sevtap

2011-01-01

286

Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Sweden.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 77 Swedish families. RESULTS: Fathers reported higher adult-controlled failure and child-controlled failure attributions than did mothers; these differences remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers' and fathers' progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in Sweden fathers are more likely to attribute failures in caregiving situations both to themselves and to children than are mothers and that there is moderate concordance between fathers and mothers within the same family in progressive and authoritarian parenting attitudes. PMID:21927589

Sorbring, Emma; Gurdal, Sevtap

2011-07-01

287

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PATIENT'S ATTITUDE TOWARDS YOGA AND THE TREATMENT OUTCOME  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Correlations were obtained between scores on the P.G.I. Yoga Attitude Scale and improvement in a group of 20 psychoneurotic patients undertaking yoga therapy of 4-6 weeks duration. A significant positive correlation was found between the improvement in social and vocational disability and scores on the P.G.I Yoga Attitude Scale at intake. However, during treatment and followup, there was a significant change in the attitude towards yoga - it became more positive. Correlations were also perfor...

Grover, Poonam; Varma, V. K.; Verma, S. K.; Pershad, Dwaraka

1987-01-01

288

The Development of Attitude ScaleFor Physics Laboratory and The Assesment of Pre-Service Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Physics Laboratory  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a reliable and valid attitude scale in order to assess primary science preservice teachers’ attitudes towards physics laboratory. The attitude factors were developed by comparing existing attitudes scales and discussing with experts on the field. The sample related to the development phase of the scale consists of 318 science pre-service teachers studying in the Department of primary science education at the Faculty of education, K?rsehir at Gazi University. There are 19 positive and 17 negative attitude factors in the scale. The Cronbach-Alpha internal integrity coefficient of the final version of the scale was found to be 0.8930 after factor analysis was carried out. Science pre- service teachers’ attitudes towards physics laboratory were explored by a five point Likert scale. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and were evaluated at their attitudes towards physicslaboratory.

Hasret NUHO?LU

2004-12-01

289

Let the show begin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Major changes should occur in the European polyolefins industry this year. BASF's (Ludwigshafen) polypropylene (PP) deal with ICI is expected to be followed by that of Hoechst (Frankfurt) and Petrofina (Brussels). The two are engaged in feasibility studies for a possible joint venture in PP and are expected to make a decision in the second quarter of this year. Shell and Himont are on track to complete their feasibility study in the first quarter for a polyolefins joint venture. And Huels and PCD are still in talks. But two new possible deals, a polyolefins merger between Nests (Helsinki) and Statoil (Stavanger) and an alliance in PP involving Appryl, the Elf Atochem (51%)/BP Chemicals (49%) joint venture, and Solvay have been denied. The Hoechst/Fina venture would initially encompass only the two companies European plants - Hoechst's 550,000-m.t./year and Fina's 180,000 m.t./year. In addition, Fina would either build or acquire another PP plant. In the second stage, the partners could bring in their overseas plants. Fina has plants in the US, and Hoechst has a combined 100,000 m.t./year in south Africa and Australia. Neste's board member Jukka Viinanen says the only talks between Nests and Statoil center on renegotiations of ethylene supply contract at Stenungsund, Sweden. Nests wants a more flexible deal on quantity and price. It needs 400,000 m.t./year of ethylene for its downstream plants. Viinanen adds that he is worried about the European petrochemical industry and producers need to do everything to improve margins through pricing policies and obtaining a balance between supply and demand. On the possibility of a future link with Statoil he comments, One can never say never. It would take time. We don't feel in a very vulnerable position right now.

Alperowicz, N.

1993-01-27

290

Type 2 Diabetic Patients' Attitudes about Care and Treatment and Factors Affecting the Attitudes  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This research was planned as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining attitudes of Type 2 diabetic patients towards their care and treatment. METHOD: The sample was comprised of 110 diabetic patients who came to the Turkish Diabetes Society, Denizli Office, Diabetes Center between March 1 and May 15, 2007. Data collection tools used in the study was a questionnaire to determine the illness-related descriptive characteristics and the Diabetes Attitude Scale to determine the attitudes towards care and treatment. Data were analyzed using SPSS 11.0 software. RESULTS: In this study 58.2% of the patients were female, 41.8% were male and 33.6% were primary school graduates. Their mean age was 56.44 ± 12.12 years. Compliance with treatment for 48.2% of the patients was at the average level. The patients had a low level of positive attitudes towards their care and treatment. The female patients' mean score from the tool was 3.42 ± 0.57 and the male patients' was 3.61 ± 0.29. As a result of the statistical analysis it was determined that there were statistically significant relationships between level of compliance with treatment and status of being careful with diet and their diabetes attitude (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In conclusion the male patients had more positive attitudes towards their care and treatment compared to the female patients. Statistically significant differences were found between diabetes attitude and level of compliance with treatment and status of being careful with diet. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 223-230

Asiye Kartal

2008-06-01

291

Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Focusing on measurement of attitude intensity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the present study was to 1) examine the differences of the perception between nuclear power generation (NPG) and electric power generation by nuclear fusion, 2) find the structural characteristics of the attitude toward NPG, 3) shed light on the characteristics of knowledge about NPG, and 4) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N = 1,582) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and were asked to answer a questionnaire including public attitudes toward NPG and related matters. The results were as follows: 1) the perception of electric power generation by nuclear fusion was less favorable than that of NPG; 2) Items which correlated with attitudes toward NPG were: 'sense of anxiety,' sensitivity to risk,' 'trust in science and technology,' 'evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy', 'evaluation of electric power companies,' and interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a better knowledge of NPG; 3) The evaluation of the amount of subjective knowledge concerning nuclear power and electric power generation was reliable as a measure of objective knowledge; 4) The measurement method used in this study was characterized by the use of biased questions(ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. An attempt was made to measure the attitude and its intensity taking into consideration gender, positive or negative attitude toward NPG, level of knowledge about NPG, age, and occupation. As a result, differences in intensity between different attributes were found. (author)

1999-09-01

292

Students' attitudes towards learning communication skills: correlating attitudes, demographic and metacognitive variables  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at exploring the relationship of students' attitudes towards learning communication skills to demographic variables, metacognitive skills, and to the appreciation of patient-oriented care. Methods: The cross-sectional survey study involved first- and third-term students from two traditional and two problem-based curricula (N= 351. Demographic variables, attitudes towards communication skills learning, patient orientation, and awareness of learning strategies were assessed. Differences in attitude measures were assessed with t-tests and univariate comparisons. With multiple linear regressions predictor variables of students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and patient-oriented care were identified. Results: A positive attitude towards learning communica-tion skills was predicted by a caring patient orientation, self-regulation of learning strategies, and female gender (R[sup]2[/sup]= 0.23; F [sub](9,310[/sub] = 9.72; p < 0.001. Students' caring patient orientation was predicted by their attitudes towards learning communication skills, female gender, and higher age (R[sup]2[/sup]= 0.23; F [sub](9,307[/sub] = 13.48; p < 0.001. Students from a traditional curriculum were least interested in learning communication skills (F[sub] (3, 346 [/sub] = 26.75; p <0.001. Conclusions: Students' attitudes towards learning communication skills and their caring patient orientation are interrelated. However, communication skills are considered as more positive by students with good self-regulatory skills. Early training of self-regulation and the training of communication skills in mixed-gender groups are recommended.

Antje Lumma-Sellenthin

2012-10-01

293

Multilingualism and Language Attitudes: Local versus Immigrant Students' Perceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

Spain took in more immigrants than any other European country in 2005, a fact which has had a clear impact on the education system. This paper examines the language attitudes held by 125 local or autochtonous (42.4%) and immigrant (57.6%) students in the Basque Country. The results showed that both groups of students held rather negative attitudes

Ibarraran, Amaia; Lasagabaster, David; Sierra, Juan Manuel

2008-01-01

294

The Relationship between Values and Attitudes toward Three Therapy Methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined relationships between value dimensions and attitudes toward therapy with a sample of 65 college students who chose which counseling method they thought would be most helpful. Results showed attitudes toward the behavioral and rational-emotive approaches were related to values to a small degree. (JAC)

Madell, Thomas O.

1982-01-01

295

The interactive impacts of high school gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on college student attitudes toward LGBT individuals: an investigation of high school characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although gay-straight alliances (GSAs) are becoming more popular in high schools across the U.S., empirical studies investigating GSAs and their impact are sparse. Utilizing a sample of college students drawn from a large Southern university (N = 805; 78% White; 61% female; average age 22), the current study investigates the ways that the presence of high school GSAs affect college student attitudes toward LGBT individuals and how these relationships may vary by high school GSA location (South vs. non-South), town type (rural/small town, suburban, large city), and high school student population size. Overall, results from the current study show that the presence of a GSA in high school is a robust positive predictor of supportive attitudes toward LGBT individuals, even when considering many control variables. Such results suggest that the presence of GSAs in high schools may have significant positive and potentially long-lasting effects on college students' attitudes toward LGBT individuals. PMID:24383856

Worthen, Meredith G F

2014-02-01

296

[Clinical nurses' attitudes toward the abilities to identify and help alcoholic patients].  

Science.gov (United States)

This descriptive-exploratory study aimed to investigate nurses' attitudes towards the abilities to identify and to help alcoholic persons. Data were collected through an attitude scale in a sample of 171 nurses at a university hospital in São Paulo State. The results evidenced that the nurses feel skilled to help these patients achieve recovery, demonstrating positive attitudes; however, conflict was identified in attitudes towards the alcoholic patients' desire, revealing the influence of the moral model to explain alcoholism. It is concluded that overcoming these conflicts in attitudes will only be possible when they are acknowledged by the nurses and when this problem receives greater attention during professional education. PMID:20520988

Vargas, Divane

2010-01-01

297

Caring for dying people: Attitudes among Iranian and Swedish nursing students  

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Full Text Available Aim: To compare the attitudes of Iranian and Swedish nursing students toward caring for dying persons. Materials and Methods: Their attitudes were measured with the Frommelt?s Attitude Toward Caring of the Dying and the Death Attitude Profile Revised. Results: The results indicated that the participating Iranian students were more afraid of death and less likely to give care to dying persons than the Swedish participants. Conclusion: It is suggested that theoretical education should be individualized and culturally sensitive in order to positively influence the students? attitudes, and promote professional development.

Iranmanesh Sedigheh

2010-01-01

298

Solar Light Show  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

De Nie, Michael W.

299

Knowledge of and attitudes toward complementary and alternative therapies; a national multicentre study of oncology professionals in Norway.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on oncology professionals' knowledge and attitude toward complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), classified according to their primary application as complementary or alternative methods. In June 2002, we conducted a national, multicentre survey of 828 Norwegian oncologists, nurses, clerks and therapeutic radiographers. A response rate of 61% was achieved. Only a few physicians (4%) described their reactions to alternative medicine as positive compared with nurses (33%), therapeutic radiographers (32%) and clerks (55%) (P<0.0001). Females showed a more positive view than males (33% versus 14%, P<0.0001). More participants expressed a positive attitude to complementary versus alternative medicines. Most respondents regarded healing by hand or prayer, homeopathy, and Iscador (mistletoe) as alternative therapies. In contrast, most respondents classified acupuncture, meditation, reflexology, music/art-therapy, aromatherapy and massage as complementary therapies. This survey demonstrates major differences, by gender as well as oncology health profession in views about and the classification of various CAM methods. PMID:14962719

Risberg, T; Kolstad, A; Bremnes, Y; Holte, H; Wist, E A; Mella, O; Klepp, O; Wilsgaard, T; Cassileth, B R

2004-03-01

300

Atitudes linguísticas e r-forte em Carambeí = Linguistics attitudes and strong-R in Carambeí  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considerando que o município de Carambeí é bastante complexo cultural e linguisticamente, este estudo pretende, de acordo com o método etnográfico: a fazer um levantamento das atitudes linguísticas que os ‘holandeses’ manifestam em relação às línguas holandesa e portuguesa; b analisar a variedade de português falada pelos‘holandeses’ de Carambeí no que diz respeito ao uso do r-forte; e c estabelecer que tipo de relação se dá entre atitudes linguísticas e uso de determinada variante de r-forte no português. No que diz respeito às atitudes em relação ao holandês, os Grupos 1M, 1F e2Fa manifestam atitudes positivas, ao passo que os Grupos 2M e 2Fb têm atitudes negativas, assim como os Grupos 3M e 3F. Já em relação ao português, a comunidade como um todo manifesta atitudes positivas. No que diz respeito ao uso de r-forte, os grupos 1M e 1F usam vibrante múltipla e tepe; o Grupo 2M também usa a vibrante e otepe; já o Grupo 2Fa usa somente vibrante e tepe e o Grupo 2Fb usa fricativa e vibrante. Os Grupos 3M e 3F usam somente fricativa. Enfim, pode-se dizer que determinadas atitudes contribuem para o uso de determinada variedade de r-forte.Considering that Carambeí Township is fairly complex, both culturally and linguistically, this study intends to: a survey the linguistic attitudes that the ‘Dutch’ reveal concerning the Dutch and Portuguese languages; b analyze the variety of Portuguese spoken by the ‘Dutch’ of Carambeí regarding the use of strong-R; c establish what sort of relationship takes place between linguistic attitudes and use of certain varieties of the strong-R in Portuguese. About the attitudes regarding the Dutch language, Groups 1M, 1F and 2Fa show positive attitudes, while Groups 2M, 2Fb, 3M and 3F show negative attitudes.Portuguese, on the other hand, elicits positive attitudes in the community as a whole. Regarding the use of strong-R, groups 1M and 1F use trill and tap; group 2M also uses trill and tap; Group 2Fa uses trill and tap and Group 2Fb uses fricative and trill. Groups 3M and 3F use only fricative. Finally, we can assume that specific attitudes contribute to the use of certain varieties of the strong-R.

Letícia Fraga

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive

Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

2010-01-01

302

A Systematic Study of "Adventures in Attitudes" Structured Human Relations Seminars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Adventures in Attitudes (AIA) program is a 30-hour structured experiential seminar developed to help participants create positive attitudes and overcome negative ones. Effectiveness of AIA in promoting a positive self concept and moving an individual from an external to an internal locus of control was investigated. Adult subjects (N=6) in the…

Eckstein, Judy Pettigrew; Eckstein, Daniel Gene

303

Catholic High School Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Snapshot of Incoming College Freshmen  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is a survey of incoming freshmen at a Midwestern Catholic university on their agreement with Church teachings on homosexuality. In general, females had more homo-positive attitudes than males, graduates of catholic high schools had more homo-positive attitudes than graduates from non-Catholic high schools, and graduates from…

Maher, Michael J.

2004-01-01

304

The impact on attitudes towards cultural difference of participation in a health focused study abroad program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The changes in attitudes towards cultural difference of seventeen participants in a three-week community health study abroad program to Nepal were compared with the changes in attitudes of a similar group who did not participate in the tour. Participants in the tour group were surveyed eight weeks prior to departure and in the last week of the tour using a twenty-six item questionnaire employing a six-point forced-choice response scale. The responses of participants in the tour group showed significant shifts in relation to eight items compared while the responses for the control group showed no significant shifts. Observed student advantages of participation in this study tour included the development of independent behaviour and positive cultural adjustment and adaptation. PMID:11855033

Inglis, A; Rolls, C; Kristy, S

2000-01-01

305

Attitude and Opinion of Parents about Sex Education of Adolescents and Its Contents in Kerman  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Sexuality is a factor that is influenced by and cultural norms and rules, and these rules and norms determine acceptable behaviors in any culture. Variations of cultures existing in the world produce considerable variety in sexual norms and extensive spectrum of values and beliefs in this regards. Methods: This descriptive study was done to determine the attitude of Kermaninan parents toward sex education for adolescents and their opinion about its contents of sex education for adolescents. The sample of study was 275 couples selected by cluster sampling method form 5 city regions. In this study, a research- made questionnaire was used for data collection after determining suitable validity and reliability. Data were analyzed by using central and tendency indexes, ANOVA, t. test and Post Hoc tests (Fisher, Tukey. Results: Findings showed that on comparing attitude of both parents, there was a significant difference only in two items (14, 16. Mean 42.57± 5/9 in husbands and 43/71± 9/56 in wives attitude score. In regard to the contents of sex education, the least important item, according to both men and women, with a slight significant diference atitued approximately 50% of the total score. This finding shows that parents have no positive attitude towards sex education for adolescents. Comparing men and women in regard to their opinions about the contents of sex education, showed no significant difference between them. In regard to the items emphasized by both parents as necessary items to the items emphasized by both parents as necessary items in sex education, the results were similar. Conclusion: Considering the results and importance of sexual health as claimed by WHO, we should promote knowledge and attitude of the community towards sex education.

S Mohammad-Alizadeh

2007-07-01

306

Showing Value (Editorial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

Denise Koufogiannakis

2009-06-01

307

A STUDY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGE STUDENTS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES & SPORTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to learn the students' attitude towards physical activities & sports in the various collages. The objective of the study was to know the attitude of students regarding physical activities and sports. A group of 300 students (Male =190 and Female = 110 were selected as samples using various competitive tests. A 23 items Likerts Type scale measuring Attitude towards Physical Activities was developed for use with engineering colleges' student. Major findings of the research were that both the male and female students have revealed positive attitude towards physical activities as social experience. The study also finds that physical fitness & strength can be greatly improved by taking part in physical activities & various sports. A positive attitude & excitement of the students towards physical activities & sports was found. The overall attitudes of the students towards physical activities & sports were found to be positive.

Mejar Singh

2014-04-01

308

Attitude controlling system for vehicle-supported equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an attitude controlling system for vehicle-supported equipment comprising: a vehicle-supported attitude controlling mechanism for setting an attitude of at least one vehicle-supported equipment such as a steering wheel or seat; an electric drive source for driving the vehicle-supported attitude controlling mechanism; attitude detection means for detecting the attitude of the vehicle-supported equipment; at least two vehicle stoppage detection means for outputting signals in response to the presence or absence of stopping of a vehicle and the boarding/alighting action of a driver; and electronic control means for controlling an automatic operation for energizing the electric drive source to automatically set the vehicle-supported equipment into a boarding/alighting position when the vehicle stoppage detection means outputs at least two signals indicative of stopping of the vehicle and alighting action of the driver and for energizing the electric drive source to automatically set the vehicle-supported equipment into a driving position when the vehicle stoppage detection means outputs signals indicative of release from stopping of the vehicle and boarding action of the driver and for controlling a manual operation energizing the electric drive source in accordance with a state of the manual attitude adjusting switch for inhibiting the automatic operation.

Nakashima, H.; Ishikawa, M.; Hiro, K.; Kuwana, K.

1988-10-04

309

Hypochondriacal attitudes comprise heterogeneous non-illness-related cognitions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypochondriacal attitudes were associated with cognitions not related to illness: Social fears, low self-esteem, and reduced warm glow effect, i.e. less positive appraisal of familiar stimuli. Only a single study had investigated the correlation of hypochondriacal attitudes with the warm glow effect so far and the present study aimed to corroborate this association. Particularly, the present investigation tested for the first time whether social fears, low self-esteem, and reduced warm glow effect represent distinct or related biases in hypochondriacal attitudes. Methods Fifty-five volunteers filled in the Hypochondriacal Beliefs and Disease Phobia scales of the Illness Attitude Scales, two scales enquiring social fears of criticism and intimacy, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The interaction of valence and spontaneous familiarity ratings of Chinese characters indicated the warm glow effect. Results A stepwise regression model revealed specific covariance of social fears and warm glow with hypochondriacal attitudes independent from the respective other variable. The correlation between low self-esteem and hypochondriacal attitudes missed significance. Conclusions Hypochondriacal attitudes are embedded in a heterogeneous cluster of non-illness-related cognitions. Each social fears and a reduced cognitive capacity to associate two features – positive appraisal and familiarity - could diminish the susceptibility to safety signals such as medical reassurance. To compensate for reduced susceptibility to safety signals, multifocal treatment and repeated consultations appear advisable.

Schwenzer Michael

2012-10-01

310

Attitude: A Determinant of Agricultural Graduates’ Participation in Videoconferencing Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study envisaged to evaluate the attitude of agricultural graduates towards Videoconferencing (VC technology. Study focused at persuasion stage of adoption process of innovations. A Likert-type-scale was developed, which consisted of 23-items. The scale instrument had four sections, viz., training, distance learning, agricultural communication and extension management. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (?=0.85 of reliability test was measured. Instrument was administered to randomly selected, seventy agricultural graduates of Punjab Agricultural University (PAU, Ludhiana, India during 2006-07 academic years. Attitude survey proved insightful with agricultural students. They had positive attitude in applied areas of VC technology, viz. training, distance learning, agricultural communication and extension management. Significant difference between users and non-users of VC technology was observed. Users had significant positive attitude towards VC technology. An enhanced understanding of attitudes is imperative before effective intervention strategies to moderate attitudes for enhancing acceptance and implementation of VC technology. Including transfer of agricultural innovations, VC can be encouraged in services like training, distance education, extension management, communication, administration, health, education and knowledge sharing. For these, infrastructure available within National Agricultural Research System (NARS, India can be effectively utilized for learning and technical counseling. This study adds value to the body of knowledge in evaluation and theory building from attitude perspective. As standard methodology is lacking to comprehend mindset of agricultural students, it will serve foundation for other future investigations.

M. S. Meena

2012-01-01

311

Structure and intensity of public attitudes toward nuclear power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose was to (1) find the structural characteristics of the public attitudes toward nuclear power generation (NPG), and (2) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N=1,582) were asked to answer a partly different questionnaire including attitude toward NPG and related matters. The results were: (1) Items which correlated with attitude toward NPG were: 'Sense of anxiety about NPG,' 'Sensitivity to risk,' 'Trust in science and technology,' 'Evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy,' Evaluation of electric power companies,' and 'Interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a detailed knowledge of NPG; (2) The measurement method used was characterized by the use of biased questions (ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. We compared the proportion of 'agree' answers to positively biased questions (P) and that of 'disagree' answers to negatively biased questions (N). The data analysis was done by the following measures: (1) 'Attitude toward NPG (P or N)', (2) 'Absolute Intensity (P - N)', and (3) Relative Intensity [(P - N)/{(P + N)/2}]'. As a result, differences in attitude and its intensity among different attributes were remarkably found. (author)

2000-09-01

312

An Implementation of Balance Beam Controller (New Construction Machinery) for an Attitude Control and Stabilization of an Unstructured Object  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the balance beam control subsystem, new type of construction machinery using the mechanism of CMG (control moment gyro), for the attitude control of an unstructured object such as a beam carried by a tower crane, is designed and implemented. The balance beam controller consists of a wheel spinning at high speed and an outer gimbal for controlling the attitude of the wheel. Two motors, one for the wheel and the other for the gimbal, are used. Applying force to the spin axis of the wheel, as an input of the system, leads the torque about the axis because of the gyro effects. This torque is used to control the attitude of the unstructured object in this study. For the stabilizer function, in addition, holding the load at the current position, the attitude of the wheel is freed by cutting the power applied to the gimbal motor of the balance beam controller, which result in the braking force to stop the load by gyro effect. The works presented here include the mechanical system of the balance beam controller, the remote controller, the servo controller and the control software for the system. We also present experimental results to show that the system we proposed is useful as a new construction machinery which can control the attitude of the beam hanging from a tower crane. (author). 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Yi, K.Y.; Kim, J.O. [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea)

2003-01-01

313

What Do Librarians Think about Marketing? A Survey of Public Librarians' Attitudes toward the Marketing of Library Services  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes of public librarians toward the marketing of library services and relate these attitudes to selected independent variables. A questionnaire was mailed to individual members of the New Jersey Library Association. Although most of the respondents had generally positive attitudes toward library…

Shontz, Marilyn L.; Parker, Jon C.; Parker, Richard

2004-01-01

314

Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

1980-01-01

315

An Investigation of Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Disinfection Procedures in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisepsis/disinfection procedures; and sources of information. Results Only 29% acknowledged that urinary and respiratory tract infections were the two most common HAIs and this knowledge was significantly higher in those with a higher level of education. Attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols for disinfection procedures showed a mean score of 9.1. The results of the linear regression model indicated a more positive attitude in female nurses, in those with a lower number of years of activity, and in those needing additional information about disinfection procedures. Nurses with higher educational level and with a higher perception of risk of transmitting an infectious disease while working were more likely to perform appropriate antisepsis of the surgical wound and handwashing before and after medication. Conclusions Plan of successful prevention activities about HAIs and provide pointers to help optimize disinfection procedures and infection prophylaxis and management are needed.

Albano Luciana

2011-05-01

316

Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems : A study from mainland China  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In many Western countries, consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies on Western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about the level of Chinese consumers' attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 472 participants in six Chinese cities. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where traditional pig breeds are raised, over large-scale and small family farms. Farms with maximum attention to food safety which furthermore can provide lean meat with consistent quality are also preferred. Imported pig breeds and tasty, but variable meat were rejected. A 3-cluster solution found that consumers from Cluster 1 focus almost exclusively on the food safety aspect (food safety focused). Consumers from cluster 2 (indifferent) show generally weak attitudes to pig production systems in general. Cluster 3 (industrial production oriented) stands out by being very positive about industrial, large size farms and consistent quality. From a Chinese consumer's perspective, the industrial approach seems to represent values such as achievement, evolution, quality and safety, since pig production is moving away from low-cost, low-quality and low-safety family scale systems. A complex set of rural and environmental development, quality aspects and food safety measures are challenges that must be met by the stakeholders of pig production systems in China.

de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G

2013-01-01

317

Assessing Attitudes of Female Freshman Agricultural Undergraduates towards Entering Agricultural Majors  

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Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing attitudes and perceptions of female freshman agricultural undergraduate students toward entering agricultural majors using survey and correlation methodologies. The statistical population consisted of 326 female freshman undergraduate students of agricultural fields in agricultural college at Bu-Ali-Sina University between 2008 and 2009. Among them, a number of 141 samples were selected randomly. Research tool was a questionnaire. Reliability of the questionnaire was tested during a pretest process by using Cronbach's Alpha test. The calculated Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was 86% (? = 0.86 that shows a high reliability of the research tool. Results of the study revealed that 53.3% of target females have agreed to agriculture by positive attitude, 24.5% by neutral attitude, and finally 21.1% of the students have been disagreed to agriculture by negative attitude. The most important factor affecting entering agricultural majors were respectively: the role and importance of agriculture in both food security and self-sufficiently, getting university certification, and reaching to a better social status.

Reza Movahedi

2011-11-01

318

PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS USING CYBER RESOURCES.  

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Full Text Available This study is aimed to investigate the effect of computer training workshop on pre service teachers' attitude towards using cyber resources. The sample of 100 B.Ed. trainees was selected. The equivalent group design was used. The trainees in experimental group were exposed to computer training. The effectiveness of computer training was determined by comparing the scores of pretest and post test. The preservice teachers were found to possess positive attitude towards using cyber resources. The significant effect of computer training workshop on pre service teacher's attitude towards using cyber resources was found. Implications for teacher training and suggestion for further research are provided.

GUNWANT DHATRAK

2013-03-01

319

Front line workers' attitudes towards psychiatric advance directives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have begun to explore provider attitudes' toward psychiatric advance directives (PADs) and how those attitudes are related to provider characteristics. The study gathered attitudinal data from a sample of 193 social workers serving mentally ill adults. Social workers with pro-healthcare power of attorney (HCPA) attitudes were likely to have prior experience with an HCPA and to believe that involuntary treatment violates the NASW Code of Ethics. Social workers are more favorable of HCPAs than advance instructions. The findings suggest that clinical experiences with PADs may positively impact social worker's perceptions of the law. PMID:17721821

Kim, Mimi M; Scheyett, Anna M; Elbogen, Eric B; Van Dorn, Richard A; McDaniel, Laura A; Swartz, Marvin S; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Ferron, Joelle

2008-02-01

320

Chinese-Inspired Products: Value-Attitude-Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This studyemployed a value-attitude-behavior model to investigate whether global anddomain-specific values affect US consumers’ attitudes and purchase behaviorstoward a Chinese-Inspired Product, with theperceived level of cultural design influence as a moderator between culturalopenness and domain-specific values. The results indicated that global values (i.e., cultural openness and need todifferentiate positively influenced domain-specific values (i.e., esthetic andemotional values and attitudes, which in turn affected US consumers’ behaviors(i.e., word of mouth and purchase intention; and theeffect of cultural openness on emotional value perception was greater forconsumers who had stronger perceptions of cultural design influence.

Wei Fu

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
321

Attitudes towards risk and insurances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents the attitudes towards risk and their influence in insurance theory. Based on these attitudes, the insurance companies can distinguish between agents with inclinations towards risks and the ones with aversion towards risk, who interest them.

2007-01-01

322

Physicians’ Implicit and Explicit Attitudes About Race by MD Race, Ethnicity, and Gender  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent reports suggest that providers’ implicit attitudes about race contribute to racial and ethnic health care disparities. However, little is known about physicians’ implicit racial attitudes. This study measured implicit and explicit attitudes about race using the Race Attitude Implicit Association Test (IAT) for a large sample of test takers (N = 404,277), including a sub-sample of medical doctors (MDs) (n = 2,535). Medical doctors, like the entire sample, showed an implicit preferen...

Sabin, Janice A.; Nosek, Brian A.; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Rivara, Frederick P.

2009-01-01

323

SMM attitude control recovery  

Science.gov (United States)

A description is given of the way in which the Modular Attitude Control System (MACS) onboard computer of the NASA Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) laboratory was reprogrammed, to restore attitude control for the SMM, after fuse failures permanently disabled all three of the MACS primary reaction wheels. Algorithms were developed which provided both a thermal- and power-safe, spin-stabilized mode and three-axis sun pointing, using the damaged primary wheels' backup skew wheel in a momentum-bias control scheme. Magnetic torquing was used in these algorithms for angular momentum vector magnitude and directional control.

Hoffman, H. C.; Donohue, J. H.; Flatley, T. W.

1981-01-01

324

Assessing Employee Attitudes towards Organizational Commitment and Change: The Case of King Faisal Hospital in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the attitudes of employees toward organizational commitment and change. It was conducted at King Faisal Hospital in Al-Taif Governorate, KSA. It is the first empirical work in the field of Human Resources Management aiming at analyzing the attitudes of employees toward organizational commitment and change. The study tackles the linkage between employees’ attitudes towards organizational commitment and change which is one of the most significant constructs in organizational behavior. The present study investigates the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards organizational commitment and change. It will also illustrate the relationship between organizational commitment and change. Three groups of employees were examined. Of the 350 questionnaires that were distributed, 295 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 84%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards organizational commitment and change. Also, this study showed that there is an association between organizational commitment and change. Organizational commitment is one of the important elements that have impact on organizational change. It plays an important role in employee’s acceptance of change. It will result in willingness to accept organizational change. In sum, employees with high organizational commitment are more willing to exert more effort in a change project. Therefore, it is more likely to develop positive attitudes towards organizational change. Finally, the implications of this study are discussed.

Wageeh A. Nafei

2014-02-01

325

Attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of special needs children in general education classroom: the case of teachers in some selected schools in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attitudes about inclusion are extremely complex and vary from teacher to teacher and schoolto school. This article explores the attitudes of teachers about inclusion of special needschildren in their secondary schools in general education. This study adopted a descriptivesurvey research design, with 60 teachers as participants from selected secondary schools inOyo State, Nigeria. Four hypotheses were postulated at the significant level of .05. Theinstrument, a questionnaire with question items on demographic information like gender,marital status, professionalism and teaching experience has a general reliability coefficientalpha of .83. A t-test method of analysis was the main statistical method used to test the 4generated hypotheses. The findings revealed that the attitude of male teachers is 39.4, whilethat of female teacher is 43.3, thus, the t-test analysis shows that the calculated t-test is2.107, which is greater than the critical t (t=1.960. This implies that female teachers havemore positive attitude towards the inclusion of special needs students than their malecounterparts. Furthermore, the results reveal that significant difference exists betweenmarried and single teachers in their attitude towards special need students. And thatprofessionally qualified teacher tends to have a more favourable attitude towards theinclusion of special need students than their non-professional qualified teachers. It wasrecommended that teachers should attend seminars and conferences to improve theirknowledge about ways of practicing and accepting inclusion for a better tomorrow for ourspecial needs children in Nigeria.

Samuel Olufemi ADENIYI

2009-06-01

326

Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age.

Larsen, Birthe

2012-01-01

327

Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica

2007-01-01

328

Family physician enabling attitudes: a qualitative study of patient perceptions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Family physicians frequently interact with people affected by chronic diseases, placing them in a privileged position to enable patients to gain control over and improve their health. Soliciting patients’ perceptions about how their family physician can help them in this process is an essential step to promoting enabling attitudes among these health professionals. In this study, we aimed to identify family physician enabling attitudes and behaviours from...

2013-01-01

329

Ethnic Identification, Attitudes, and Group Relations in Guatemala  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite many studies that address relations between the two major ethnic groups—Indigenous and Ladino—in Guatemala, there are no scales devised specifically to measure ethnic attitudes. Participants (196 university students) indicated agreement or disagreement on a four-point scale with a large pool of items expressing positive and negative attitudes towards the two groups, and, on a line from pure Indigenous to pure Ladino, their own ethnic identification (the label they use to describe ...

Gibbons, Judith L.; Ashdown, Brien K.

2010-01-01

330

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding smoking cessation among Chinese affiliates of women's organisations in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volunteers and staff of women's organisations who are highly active in engaging and providing community service can be recruited to motivate female smokers to quit. We described the knowledge and attitudes regarding tobacco control and smoking cessation among these affiliates in Hong Kong and identified factors associated with the practices of cessation interventions. Eight of 14 women's organisations joining the Women Against Tobacco Taskforce agreed to participate. All staff, volunteers, and members of the eight organisations were invited to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire during July and August 2006. A total of 623 out of 771 (80.8%) affiliates responded. Their knowledge on smoking and health (mean = 3.91, SD = 1.44 on a range of 0-7), smoking related diseases (mean = 2.91, SD = 0.97 on a range of 0-4), and women-specific diseases (mean = 2.93, SD = 1.87 on a range of 0-6), was considered to be inadequate. They had positive attitudes towards tobacco control (mean = 3.31, SD = 0.55) and their own role in smoking cessation counselling (mean = 3.19, SD = 0.56) on a 4-point Likert scale and 39.3% reported had attempted to offer quitting advice. Logistic regression analysis found that participants having direct contact with smokers who had a positive attitude towards their own role in smoking cessation counselling (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.67-3.95) and better knowledge of smoking and smoking-related diseases (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.06-1.71) were more likely to provide cessation counselling after controlling for gender; knowledge on smoking and health, and women-specific diseases; attitude towards tobacco control, negative and positive attitudes towards female smokers, and perceived self-efficacy in smoking cessation counselling. Women's organisations showed limited support towards tobacco control and their affiliates had a limited knowledge on smoking and health but had positive attitudes. Appropriate training, capacity building and establishing rapport with women's organisations are needed to promote smoking cessation and to support tobacco control in the community. PMID:21129069

Leung, Doris Y P; Chan, Sophia S C; Fu, Idy C Y; Lam, Tai-hing

2011-03-01

331

Marital Attitude Trajectories across Adolescence  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study seeks to address the implicit assumption in the developmental literature that marital attitudes are static by investigating how various marital attitudes might change across adolescence. Longitudinal change for three marital attitudes in relation to family structure, educational aspirations, race and gender are examined.…

Willoughby, Brian J.

2010-01-01

332

Asserting a Positive Role: HIV-Positive People in Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

The best HIV prevention programs--those that effect change on a multiplicity of levels by changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and that are sustained over time--are also those that place HIV-positive people at the center of program design, implementation, and evaluation.

Allan, Brent; Leonard, William

2005-01-01

333

Attitude and Willingness towards Tissue Donation in  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Tissue donation has been promising in prolonging the lives of people with life-threateningdiseases.Objective: To assess the attitude and willingness of high school students towards bone marrow (BM andblood (as tissue donation for maintaining a safe and adequate pool.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the high school girls, aged 15–18 years, whostudied in natural sciences, mathematics and humanities. All participants filled a questionnaire consistingof age, religion, education levels and study branch, attitude and willingness towards BM and blooddonation according to a Likert scale.Results: Out of 416 students, with the mean±SD age of 16.3±1.2 years, 31% studied in grade I, 27% ingrade II (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics, and 48% humanities, 26% in grade III (30% naturalsciences, 34% mathematics, and 36% humanities, and 16% in pre-university level (college (32% naturalsciences, 42% mathematics, and 6% humanities. The students had highly positive attitudes towardBM and blood donation (mean±SD score of 4.2±0.54. The willingness for BM and blood donation wasdeclared respectively, in 87% and 71% of respondents. Moreover, 16% of students wanted to donate onlyto their relatives and 84% to all persons in need of therapy. There was no significant correlation betweenthe donation willingness and educational levels and study branch; however, these variables significantlycorrelated with attitude towards tissue donation (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively.Conclusion: Despite positive attitude towards BM and blood donation, willingness for BM donation is lesserthan blood which may be attributed to insufficient information about this type of tissue donation. An organizededucational program for high school students in all aspects of tissue donation seems necessary.

S. Sanavi

2011-10-01

334

Attitude Determination from Single-Antenna Carrier-Phase Measurements  

CERN Multimedia

A model of carrier phase measurement (as carried out by a satellite navigation receiver) is formulated based on electromagnetic theory. The model shows that the phase of the open-circuit voltage induced in the receiver antenna with respect to a local oscillator (in the receiver) depends on the relative orientation of the receiving and transmitting antennas. The model shows that using a {\\it single} receiving antenna, and making carrier phase measurements to seven satellites, the 3-axis attitude of a user platform (in addition to its position and time) can be computed relative to an initial point. This measurement model can also be used to create high-fidelity satellite signal simulators that take into account the effect of platform rotation as well as translation.

Bahder, T B

2002-01-01

335

Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Preventive Oral Health Care at an Iranian Population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice toward preventive oral health care. Also a question was considered about the respondent’s resource for oral health prevention information. Mean score of knowledge was 0.54±0.56 (full score: 3. Higher scores were significantly more prevalent in women, younger’s, people with more income and higher level of education. Mean attitude score was 1.6±0.7 (full score: 3. only 17.6% of the respondents showed positive attitude. It showed significant correlation with level of education and monthly income. Mean of behavior score was 4.5±2.07 (full score: 8. Dental flossing was more reported in more educated (OR = 2.27 and non smoker people (OR = 1.85. Dental visit was more prevalent in more educated ones (OR = 1.34. The most important source of information was semiprofessional source (mass media and health care center staff. As conclusion knowledge of Mashhad’s people about preventive oral health care was low. Their mean attitude shifted to negative score and the average of behavior was moderate. This study certainly serves local health policy making. Reinforcing collaboration between dentist and semiprofessional sources could be suggested.

Taraneh Movahhed

2014-01-01

336

Working Memory and Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

2009-01-01

337

Attitudes towards Business Plans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose - This paper aims to analyze different groups, such as venture capitalists’, banks’, governmental support agencies’ and incubator managers’ attitudes toward business plans. Approach – The interviews have been conducted within the following institutions: Jönköping Business Development (JBD, Handelsbanken and Swedbank, Jönköping, ALMI and NyföretagarCentrum (Government Support Agencies (GSAs) and Business Incubator Science Park Jönköping (BISPJ). The author has chosen t...

Joa?o, Domingos Herminio Chico

2009-01-01

338

Brand placement in music videos: the effect of brand prominence and artist connectedness on brand recall and brand attitude  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study uses a 2 by 2 between subjects factorial design to investigate the impact of brand prominence and artist connectedness on brand placement effectiveness in music videos. The results show that brand prominence has a positive effect on brand recall, regardless of the respondents’ connectedness to the artist. Furthermore, when respondents do not identify themselves with the artist, brand prominence does not influence brand attitude, but when respondents identify themselves with the a...

Hudders, Liselot; Cauberghe, Veroline; Panic, Katarina; Faseur, Tine; Zimmerman, Eva

2012-01-01

339

Consumers' values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Consumers' attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more â??traditionalistâ?? values prefer fresh, whilst those with â??adventurousâ?? values prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain

de Barcellos, M.D; Perin, Marcelo G.

2012-01-01

340

Consumersâ?? values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Consumersâ?? attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more â??traditionalistâ?? values prefer fresh, whilst those with â??adventurousâ?? values prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain.

de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, M.G.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Perceived intergroup threat and attitudes of host community members toward immigrant acculturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors expected the extent to which host community members (a) perceive immigrants as threatening, (b) believe that the immigrants are able to assimilate to the host community (permeability), and (c) consider their presence in the host community as legitimate to predict attitudes towards immigrant acculturation. The authors designed Study 1 to examine attitudes of Germans toward Turkish immigrants. Participants were 227 German white-collar and blue-collar workers. As expected, ethnocentric acculturation attitudes positively correlated with perceived threat and negatively correlated with perceived legitimacy and perceived permeability. However, only perceived threat contributed uniquely to the prediction of the attitudes. In Study 2, the authors applied an experimental manipulation of perceived threat. Before answering attitude questions, participants read magazine articles with a threatening, enriching, or irrelevant content. The manipulation had the predicted impact on the self-reported attitudes toward immigrants. However, the salience of threatening or enriching aspects of the Turkish culture did not affect implicitly measured attitudes. PMID:14609057

Florack, Arnd; Piontkowski, Ursula; Rohmann, Anette; Balzer, Tanja; Perzig, Steffi

2003-10-01

342

PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL: ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS' ATTITUDE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Study investigated the attitude of students towards Problem Solving Assessment. Descriptive research design of the survey type was used. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A total of 200 secondary school students were selected through stratified random sampling technique. Avalidated questionnaire vetted by experts in measurement and research was used as an instrument for data collection. Independent t-test statistic was used for data analysis. The study revealed that students' attitude towards Attitude of Problem Solving Assessment were significantly positive; that gender and school location significantly influenced students' attitude towards Attitude of Problem Solving Assessment . The results further revealed that there are significant differences between attitude of male and female students in rural and urban schools towards Attitude of Problem Solving Assessment Based on these findings, the researchers recommended that school education board should open well equipped teaching with problem solving assessment in both urban and rural schools .

PRASHANT THOTE

2013-04-01

343

A study of undergraduate science education major students' attitudes towards science and science teaching at four-year teachers colleges in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated undergraduate students' attitudes toward science and science teaching who were majoring in science education at four-year teachers colleges in Turkey. Furthermore, the study examined pre-service Turkish science teachers' attitudes toward science and science teaching based on genders, class levels, teachers colleges, and several socio-demographic factors. The subjects for this study were 309 female and 303 male pre-service Turkish science teachers, who were freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors, from teachers colleges of Ataturk, Dokuz Eylul, Gazi, and Karadeniz Technical Universities in Turkey during the 1998 spring semester. The instrument used in this study was "Science Teaching Attitude Scale-II" (STAS-II) developed by Moore (1973) and revised by Moore and Foy (1997). The reliability coefficient of the Turkish translation of STAS-II was found to be .795 using test-retest method. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression analysis were the statistical techniques utilized to test the null hypotheses of the study. The results of the study showed that all of the subjects have positive attitudes toward science and science teaching. There was a statistically significant mean difference between class levels on attitudes of pre-service Turkish science teachers toward science and science teaching. This was primarily due to a statistically higher attitudinal mean of juniors than that of freshmen using three-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. However, when data were analyzed according to gender and teachers colleges, attitudes of pre-service Turkish science teachers toward science and science teaching did not indicate statistically significant mean differences. The subjects of families having higher level incomes had statistically significant higher mean on attitudes toward science and science teaching than other subjects. Therefore, the uniqueness of a nationwide science curriculum and the unification of the education system may develop substantially similar attitudes among pre-service science teachers in Turkey.

Turkmen, Lutfullah

1999-11-01

344

Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering  

Science.gov (United States)

The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

345

The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on children's food attitudes and preferences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Television (TV) food advertising has attracted criticism for its potential role in promoting unhealthy dietary practices among children. Content analyses indicate junk food advertising is prevalent on Australian children's TV; healthy eating is rarely promoted. This paper presents (a) a cross-sectional survey examining associations between children's regular TV viewing habits and their food-related attitudes and behaviour; and (b) an experiment assessing the impact of varying combinations of TV advertisements (ads) for unhealthy and healthy foods on children's dietary knowledge, attitudes and intentions. The experimental conditions simulated possible models for regulating food ads on children's TV. Participants were 919 grade five and six students from schools in Melbourne, Australia. The survey showed that heavier TV use and more frequent commercial TV viewing were independently associated with more positive attitudes toward junk food; heavier TV use was also independently associated with higher reported junk food consumption. The experiment found that ads for nutritious foods promote selected positive attitudes and beliefs concerning these foods. Findings are discussed in light of methodological issues in media effects research and their implications for policy and practice. It is concluded that changing the food advertising environment on children's TV to one where nutritious foods are promoted and junk foods are relatively unrepresented would help to normalize and reinforce healthy eating. PMID:17587474

Dixon, Helen G; Scully, Maree L; Wakefield, Melanie A; White, Victoria M; Crawford, David A

2007-10-01

346

Determinants of Attitude towards Information and Communication Technology Usage among Rural Administrators in using Structural Equation Modeling  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Village Development and Security Committee members play a vital role in enhancing the village development programs in Malaysia and ICT is deemed as an important mechanism to further boost rural development. But do the rural community in Malaysia especially their leaders have a positive attitude towards it? Hence, this study is designed to identify the constructs that significantly influence the attitude of Village Development and Security Committee members in using ICT. Approach: This is a quantitative study where a total of 240 respondents have been selected based on the stratified random sampling done. AMOS and SPSS were used to gain the required analyses. Results: The structural equation modelling showed that there were three constructs that significantly predict the attitude and these constructs were perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and job relevance. Conclusion/Recommendation: It is recommended that more technology investment in the form of providing ICT facilities and trainings should be made by the government to encourage the development of a positive attitude among VDSC members. The findings of this study would be useful for policy makers to further boost the usage of ICT in rural areas.

Jeffrey L. D'Silva

2011-01-01

347

Attitudes toward community mental health care: the contact paradox revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contact with people with mental illness is considered to be a promising strategy to change stigmatizing attitudes. This study examines the underlying mechanisms of the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. Data are derived from the 2009 survey "Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study", using the Community Mental Health Ideology-scale. Results show that people who received mental health treatment themselves or have a family member who has been treated for mental health problems report more tolerant attitudes toward community mental health care than people with public contact with people with mental illness. Besides, the perception of the effectiveness of the treatment seems to matter too. Furthermore, emotions arising from public contact are associated with attitudes toward community mental health care. The degree of intimacy and the characteristics of the contact relationship clarify the association between contact and attitudes toward community mental health care. PMID:23179045

Pattyn, E; Verhaeghe, M; Bracke, P

2013-06-01

348

Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an out group hand on implicit attitudes towards that outgroup.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin colour and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes towards black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of different skin colour affected the participants’ implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin colour as shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes towards black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude towards black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes towards black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes.

HarryFarmer

2014-01-01

349

Self-reported competence, attitude and approach of physicians towards patients with dementia in ambulatory care: Results of a postal survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Caring for patients with dementia is a demanding task. Little is known as to whether physicians feel competent enough to perform this task or whether a lack of self-perceived competence influences attitudes and professional approach. Even less is known with respect to potential differences between general practitioners (GPs and specialists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between the self-perceived competence, attitude and professional approach of physicians in ambulatory care in Germany. A further aim was to compare GPs and specialists with regard to differences in these areas. Methods A standardised postal survey was sent to 389 GPs and 239 neurologists and psychiatrists in six metropolitan areas in Germany. The 49-item questionnaire consisted of attitudinal statements to be rated on a Likert-type scale. Return rates were 54 percent for GPs and 40 percent for specialists. Statistical methods used to analyze data included correlation analysis, cluster analysis and ordinal regression analysis. Results No differences were found between GPs and specialists with regard to their general attitude towards caring for patients with dementia. Approximately 15 percent of both disciplines showed a clearly negative attitude. Self-reported competence was strongly associated with general attitude. In particular among GPs, and less so among specialists, a strong positive association was found between self-reported competence, general attitude and professional approach (e.g. early detection, active case finding and cooperation with caregivers. Differences between GPs and specialists were smaller than expected and appear to predominantly reflect task differences within the German health care system. Conclusion Training opportunities which enable in particular GPs to enhance not only their competence but also their general attitude towards dementia care would appear to be beneficial and might carry positive consequences for patients and their caregivers.

van den Bussche Hendrik

2008-03-01

350

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND RESIDENTS’ ATTITUDE: A CASE STUDY OF YAZD, IRAN  

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Full Text Available The Yazd residents look at tourism development with a promising future to bring more income to the area that can be shared. Investors search to find new attractive business and middle and low classes in the community look to find better job opportunities. This paper assesses the attitude and perception of local residents toward this fast growing industry and also their expectation of authority regarding tourism development in Yazd city. A questionnaire was designed based on five point Likert scale and total 320 usable questionnaires were collected from local residents. Though the result shows positive attitude of local people towards tourism development but they are not totally satisfied with tourism management in the area.

Hamidreza Rastegar

2010-10-01

351

Cognitive Strategies Instruction: Attitudes Toward Learning and Academic Functioning of Science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cognitive strategies instruction on students’ attitude toward learning and academic functioning of science. This research method was semi-experimental with pretest, post-test, experimental and control groups. The statistical population consisted of all boys of grade 3 in Lordegan city. The samples were 126 students, who were selected with cluster sampling method, and then 64 students were randomly set in the experimental group and 62 in control one. The experimental group had seven sessions of cognitive strategies. The results of covariance analysis showed that cognitive strategies instruction has a positive effect on academic functioning of science. Also, attitude toward learning has been increased through cognitive strategies instruction.

M. Ganbari-Taleb

2013-05-01

352

Survey Result for the Safety Culture Attitude of HANARO in 2008  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the important aims of a nuclear management system is to foster a strong safety culture. The safety culture activities for HANARO have been implemented and the importance of safety management in nuclear activities has also been emphasized since its first operation. HANARO developed its own safety culture indicators by referring to the IAEA's documents for the purpose of the evaluation of the safety culture attitude. In June 2008 a survey on the safety culture was conducted based on the new safety culture indicators. The result of the survey shows that the safety culture activities contribute positively to its safe operation. But it is necessary to encourage some activities like training, resources and organizational culture. The survey was helpful to understand the general trends of the safety attitudes and to set the safety culture activities necessary for the improvement of its safe operation.

Wu, Jong Sup; An, Seok Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

353

The Attitude of Iranian Nurses About Do Not Resuscitate Orders  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders are one of many challenging issues in end of life care. Previous research has not investigated Muslim nurses’ attitudes towards DNR orders. Aims: This study aims to investigate the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR orders and determine the role of religious sects in forming attitudes. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, 306 nurses from five hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS) in East Azerbaijan Province and three hospitals in Kurdistan province participated. Data were gathered by a survey design on attitudes on DNR orders. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software examining descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Participants showed their willingness to learn more about DNR orders and highlights the importance of respecting patients and their families in DNR orders. In contrast, in many key items participants reported their negative attitude towards DNR orders. There were statistical differences in two items between the attitude of Shiite and Sunni nurses. Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.

Mogadasian, Sima; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Rahmani, Azad; Ferguson, Caleb; Pakanzad, Fermisk; Pakpour, Vahid; Heidarzadeh, Hamid

2014-01-01

354

Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect public discourse accurately. However, focus group responses did not simply reflect media coverage. PMID:17449156

Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

2007-07-01

355

Preservation of the Environment through Sustainable Agriculture Practices: A Case Study on the Attitude of Crop Farmers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Undoubtedly agriculture over the years has been a remarkable source of income generator for the rural community to achieve a higher standard of living and to live on par with their urban brethren that are mostly involved in industrialization. The quest for a greater income should, however, not deter farmers from paying attention toward the preservation of the environment in terms of protecting the quality of land, air and water so that our present and future generation will be able to have sufficient resources for their survival. Thus, having a positive attitude toward practicing the elements of sustainable agriculture without doubt will help farmers to emphasize on the need to protect the environment. As such, this study is designed to understand contract farming entrepreneurs? attitude toward the preservation of the environment through sustainable agriculture practices and the issues involved in determining their level of attitude. Approach: The study employed qualitative methodology in the form of a focus group discussion and the data was collected from seven contract farming entrepreneurs in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. In the data collection process, the researcher played the role as the instrument and an interview guide that was developed prior to it enabled the researcher to achieve the objectives of the study. A couple of voice-recorders assisted in recording the discussion and it was later transformed into verbatim transcripts for data analysis. Results: The outcome of the study showed that in general, crop farmers face an upheaval task in possessing a positive attitude toward practicing sustainable agriculture in spite of having a sound knowledge about it. They perceive that much support is needed from the respective stakeholders that would enable them to embrace sustainable agriculture practices. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is recommended that various stakeholders could play more important roles such as providing trainings to farmers and having a tighter control on prices of crops that will enable farmers to hold a positive attitude on sustainable agriculture practices.

Jeffrey L. D?Silva

2011-01-01

356

Knowledge and the attitude of the nurses in Imam Khomeini Complex Hospital about pre and post-death cares  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Death of a patient is an unavoidable stage of nursing and in many cases nurse is the only person who takes care of the patient at the time of death. An experienced and committed nurse obliges her/himself to care for the patient before and after death in the best way possible. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive study that carried out in order to determine knowledge and attitude of the nurses about pre and post-death cares. The samples were 227 nurses of Imam Khomeini Complex Hospital. The number of subjects chosen from each hospital was proportional to the number of nurses of that hospital. The samples were selected randomly. Data were collected by a questionnaire, validity of which was confirmed by content validity and reliability of it was confirmed by test-retest method. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: Results showed that in majority of the nurses level of knowledge about pre-death cares was moderate and was poor about post-death cares. The majority of the nurses had a positive attitude about pre-death cares and a relatively positive attitude about post-death cares. There was not any sample with negative attitude about pre or post-death cares. Conclusion: Regarding the undesirable level of knowledge and positive attitude of the nurses under study concerning pre and post-death cares and considering that the necessity for improving the knowledge is training and education, the results of this research can help authorities to provide training and educational programs for enhancing nurses’ knowledge regarding pre- and post-death cares.

Vasegh Rahimparvar F

2004-11-01

357

Knowledge of and attitudes towards periodontal health among adults in Tehran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining what people know and believe about periodontal health and disease is important in order to establish prevention practices. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards periodontal health among adults in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey in 2011 of 791 adults aged 18-50 years using a stratified, multistage sampling method. We recorded demographic characteristics including age, sex, education, marital status, employment and economic status (housing density). The lowest percentage of correct answers was related to the definition of dental plaque (11.6%) and the highest was for the role of the dental visit in prevention (92.8%). Female sex, university education and higher economic status were significantly associated with a higher mean score on periodontal health knowledge. The regression analysis showed that positive attitudes were associated with higher periodontal health knowledge and having university education. In this study positive attitudes towards prevention were related to better knowledge. PMID:24950078

Gholami, M; Pakdaman, A; Jafari, A; Virtanen, J I

2014-01-01

358

Eating Attitude, Body Image, Body Composition and Dieting Behaviour among Dancers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dancers are prone to have high risk of eating disorder, obsess to be physically thin and generally will have body image distortion. This research has studied the prevalence of risk of eating disorder among dancers, comparison of the body composition between dancers and control subjects and to examine the relationship between eating attitude, body image concern, body composition and dieting behaviour. A set of self-administered questionnaires that consist of Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26, Body Attitude Test (BAT and Dieting Behaviour were conducted on 23 dancers and 50 lean subjects. Measurement on weight, height, mid upper arm circumference and skinfold thickness of triceps, abdomen, suprailiac and thigh was taken. The result showed dancers have high prevalence of risk of eating disorder (21.74% compared to control subjects (12.00%. There were also significant mean differences in percentage of fats and percentage of lean body weight, when p<0.05. In addition, there were significant positive strong correlation between eating attitude and body image concern (p = 0.002, r = 0.606 as well as correlation between dieting behaviour and body image concern (p = 0.012, r = 0.515. Moreover, the relationship between BMI and dieting behaviour showed positive strong correlation when p = 0.002 and r = 0.614 where dancers choosed to use diet pills (p = 0.001, vomit and taken laxatives (p = 0.016 for dieting. In conclusion, dancers were very concern about body figure, appearnce and fear of gaining weight which can lead to unhealthy dieting habits.

A.H. Syahrul Bariah

2011-01-01

359

Attitudes Towards Euthanasia among University Students: A Sample Based on Turkish Population  

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Full Text Available In Turkey, euthanasia has not become a subject of public debate and concern. This study gives the results of Turkish university students on attitudes to euthanasia. The main aims of the study were: to assess the impact of type of education on attitudes towards euthanasia and to determine the influence of socio-demographics on attitudes of the students towards euthanasia. In total, 878 volunteered undergraduate registered students with the mean age of 21.13±1.92 year from six universities were surveyed. Attitudes of the students towards euthanasia were determined using by a self-completed questionnaire. Response rate was 92.2%. The students were divided into two groups according to education program as follows: Health Science students (HS and Liberal Arts and Business students (LAB.Two students major groups-Health Science (n = 421 and Liberal Arts and Business (n = 457, were compared. 48.4% of the students were positive to euthanasia. The socio-demographic factors, including mother`s education level, family`s socio-economic background, religious belief and religiosity were seen to be influenced on attitudes towards euthanasia among the overall students. No significant difference regarding the acceptance of euthanasia between the Health Science majors and the Liberal Arts and Business majors. Mainly, 40% of the Muslim students are opposed to euthanasia, whereas 86.7% of the atheist students are the most in favour of euthanasia. The religion was selected as the most important reason for being negative to euthanasia. The results showed that resistance to euthanasia is apparently associated with demographics and non-scientific reasoning among Turkish undergraduate students

Ummuhan Bas Aslan

2007-01-01

360

Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working ...

Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

2010-01-01

362

Corporate Social Responsibility in Branding : A Study of The Body Shop's Visitor's Attitudes and Purchase Decisions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Title Corporate Social Responsibility in Branding - A study of The Body Shop's visitors' attitudes and  purchase decisions Authors Sara Lundgren El-Salhy & Amanda Lundmark Seminar Date 2009-06-02 Level C-level Thesis Tutor Malin Näsholm Keywords CSR, The Body Shop, Corporate Identity, Corporate Image, Associations, Attitudes, Purchase Decision Problem Previous research suggests that by using well known CSR as a branding tool, companies can create positive consumer attitudes, and t...

Lundgren El-salhy, Sara; Lundmark, Amanda

2009-01-01

363

Faculty Attitudes towards Computer Assisted Instruction at the University of Gaziantep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims at revealing faculty attitudes towards computer assistedinstruction at University of Gaziantep, Turkey in a multifaceted way. Additionally, ittries to determine underlying factors that shape these attitudes. After a pilot study, thequestionnaire was applied to a sample population of 145 faculty that were chosenrandomly. The results revealed that faculty attitudes towards computer assistedinsruction are positive. Age, sex, teaching experience, level of proficiency in Englishand...

2006-01-01

364

Low risk and high return: Affective attitudes and stock market expectations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This experimental study investigates the impact of affective attitudes on risk and return estimates of stocks. Participants rate well-known blue-chip firms on an affective scale and forecast risk and return of the firms' stock. We find that positive affective attitudes lead to a prediction of high return and low risk, while negative attitudes lead to a prediction of low return and high risk. This bias increases with participants' confidence in their ratings and decreases with financial litera...

Kempf, Alexander; Merkle, Christoph; Niessen-ruenzi, Alexandra

2012-01-01

365

Client and Counselor Attitudes Toward the Use of Medications for Treatment of Opioid Dependence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attitudes, perceived social norms and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1083 clients from outpatient, methadone and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, while their counterparts in residential and outpatient...

Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E.; Thomas, Cindy P.; Mccarty, Dennis

2007-01-01

366

The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…

Fah, Lay Yoon

2008-01-01

367

Contribution of parents' adult attachment and separation attitudes to parent-adolescent conflict resolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences. PMID:24117437

García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa

2013-12-01

368

Turkish Language Teaching Students’ Attitudes towards Teaching Profession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attitude can be described as a feature that is an indicator of individual’s point of view and feelings towards a subject and that motivates him/her to behave in a positive or negative way. The aim of the research is to analyze attitudes of the students who are studying in Turkish Language Teaching department towards teaching profession in terms of socio-demographic features. Students who are studying in Turkish Language Teaching departments of the universities in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 2009-2010 academic years constitute population of the study. Result of the study presented that attitudes of the students of Turkish Language Teaching departments towards teaching profession are positive in general. It is determined that attitudes of the students of Turkish Language Teaching departments towards teaching profession differentiate significantly in terms of gender, situation of being satisfied in their department, their parents’ attitudes towards them, desire to become a teacher and do not differentiate significantly in terms of grade, mother’s attitude towards them, income variables.

Hülya YE??L

2011-04-01

369

GPS IIF yaw attitude control during eclipse season  

Science.gov (United States)

On May 27, 2010, the first satellite of the Block II "follow-on" (Block IIF) series, the fourth generation of Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft, has been successfully placed into orbit. GPS IIF-1, also referred to as space vehicle number (SVN) 62, has been injected into orbital plane B, slot position 2 of the GPS constellation. After completing three months of comprehensive in-orbit testing, the satellite entered service for the US Air Force (USAF) on August 26, 2010. A little over a year after the inaugural launch of GPS IIF-1, the USAF has now launched the second spacecraft of the IIF series (SVN-63). The IIF series includes a total of 12 satellites: SVN-62 through SVN-73. Despite having many technical advances over their predecessors such as enhanced rubidium frequency standards, more precise and powerful signals and an extended design life, the three-axis stabilized Block IIF satellites follow a completely different yaw attitude scheme, when passing through the Earth's shadow, to the Block IIA and IIR spacecraft. We will describe how high-rate carrier phase and pseudo-range measurements from a global GPS tracking network can be exploited to precisely monitor the yaw attitude behavior of SVN-62 and SVN-63 during their solar eclipse phases. The insights gained from this study have led to the development of a new GPS Block IIF yaw attitude model. We will show that the yaw rate of a Block IIF space vehicle is kept constant to the value needed to get the satellite back to near its nominal attitude when leaving the Earth's shadow and that a IIF satellite being in deep eclipse therefore needs to yaw significantly faster than an eclipsing IIF space vehicle passing only partly through the Earth's shadow. How the satellites' attitude control system (ACS) exactly computes this dynamical yaw rate parameter will be discussed here as well. Moreover, we will report on yaw attitude anomalies occurring when the GPS Block IIF satellites are shaded from the Sun by the Moon and outline the consequences of a mis-modeled yaw angle in the presence of a horizontal satellite antenna phase center eccentricity. Since the Block IIF navigation antenna is about 39.4 cm off from the rotation axis ("yaw-axis"), neglecting errors in yaw may have serious impacts on the satellite antenna phase center modeling. Depending on the azimuth and the nadir angle under which a tracking station on ground is seen from the spacecraft, a error in yaw of ±180° may cause a range error in the satellite antenna phase center correction of up to ±19.0 cm. GPS data collected by low Earth orbiting (LEO) receivers such as those on-board Jason-1/2 may even be biased by up to ±23.0 cm.

Dilssner, F.; Springer, T.; Enderle, W.

2011-12-01

370

Attitude that Matters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, I compare the operativity of radical avant-garde and new dialogical art forms from one selected viewpoint. I discuss the issue of the artist's attitude as a significance-producing element in the artwork. For decades, artist-issued interpretation of art has been problematic. Thus it is interesting to question the significance of the strong definition of the artist's attitude, inherent in the theories of the new dialogical art. New dialogical art-forms are for example new genre public art, community art, socially engaged art, public engaged art, littoral art, activist art, dialogical art, and conversational art. In the Finnish discussion, the concept of community art is the one most commonly used.

Tiina Purhonen

2007-05-01

371

ATTITUDES OF MALAYSIAN EXTENSION WORKERS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The challenge of producing enough food for growing population increasingly affected Malaysian agricultural sector. Intensive farming system and increase in fertilizer used by farmers has led the agricultural sector to some environmental damage. The Department of Agriculture (DOA has earmarked Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP to transfer unsustainable agriculture into a sustainable manner. The SAP should be transferred by extension workers to the farmers. However little is known about Malaysian extension workersâ?? attitudes towards SAP. Front line extension workers in the DOA were surveyed to identify their attitudes on SAP. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results revealed that extension workers have positive attitudes on SAP concepts. It is recommended to find out to what extent extension workers attitudes has played significant role to transfer information to the farmers.

Jegak Uli

2013-01-01

372

Attitudes Towards Immigration : Does Economic Self-Interest Matter  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direct test of whether economic self-interest mattersfor people's attitudes towards immigration. We find that whilethe "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more directtest.

Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Skaksen, Jan Rose

2006-01-01

373

Attitudes Towards Immigration : Does Economic Self-Interest Matter?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping peopleâ??s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more direct test of whether economic self-interest matters for peopleâ??s attitudes towards immigration. We find that while the "original" relationship between education and attitudes found in the literature is unlikely to reflect economic self-interest, there is considerable evidence of economic self-interest when using the more direct test

Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland

2006-01-01

374

Value goals as factors of youth political attitudes and opinions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims at establishing the relation between the degree of acceptance and preferences of relatively general personal and social goals (18 of each and attitudes toward a set of politically relevant issues. The sample consisted of 243 18-year-old high school students. The resulting correlations between goals and attitudes are shown to be slight to moderate. Socially and politically relevant attitudes are connected more strongly with preferred social than personal goals. Two opposite groups of values (goals have been found - conditionally speaking, modernism and traditionalism. They correlate positively or negatively with a number of attitudes, social identifications, trust in institutions and readiness for activism. This tendency has been confirmed by canonical correlation analysis.

Kuzmanovi? Bora

2008-01-01

375

ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTION IN CONSUMER’S INSURANCE DECISION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumers attitudes are both an obstacle and an advantage in the decision proccess. Choosing to discount or ignore consumers’ attitudes of a particular product or service, while developing a marketing strategy,guarantees limited success of a campaign.Differences in attitudes dependes also by the gender of decidents.the different features between men and women in the perception of risk and decisional process of making an insurance. Women are more risk averse than men. Over an initial range, women require no further compensation for the introduction of ambiguity but men do.Differences appear also in which concerns risk taking, overconfidence and information processing.Perhaps the attitude s formed as the result of a positive or negative personal experience and by other psychological factors outside the common market manipulation.

Mihaela Andreea Stroe

2013-11-01

376

ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTION IN CONSUMER’S INSURANCE DECISION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumers attitudes are both an obstacle and an advantage in the decision proccess. Choosing to discount or ignore consumers’ attitudes of a particular product or service, while developing a marketing strategy,guarantees limited success of a campaign.Differences in attitudes dependes also by the gender of decidents. the different features between men and women in the perception of risk and decisional process of making an insurance. Women are more risk averse than men. Over an initial range, women require no further compensation for the introduction of ambiguity but men do. Differences appear also in which concerns risk taking, overconfidence and information processing. Perhaps the attitude s formed as the result of a positive or negative personal experience and by other psychological factors outside the common market manipulation.

MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

2013-05-01

377

Patients' attitudes towards trainees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of a study of patients' attitudes towards trainees in a training practice are reported. Data were collected through a questionnaire administered to 258 patients over a period of two weeks. The majority view was that trainees give satisfactory care. However, a minority of patients (17 per cent) felt that trainees are not proper doctors and almost half did not want chronic illness managed by a trainee. Nearly a third did not find trainees easy to talk to.

Allen, H.; Bahrami, J.

1981-01-01

378

Consumers’ Attitude towards Advertising  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advertising is a growing business and with advances in the Internet technology, the dynamics and landscape ofthe business has changed as well. Prior findings on consumers’ attitude towards advertising are mixed. Thispaper is an attempt to examine young adults’ attitude towards advertising. We conceptualized a framework toexamine the influence of six independent variables namely consumer manipulation, product information,hedonic/pleasure, economic condition, social integration, and materialism on consumers’ attitude towardsadvertising. Participants were selected from the southern region of Malaysia. The data were collected throughpersonal administration, and had 217 valid responses. The analysis reveals that four of the six hypotheses weresupported. Consumer manipulation emerged negative, which is consistent with past findings. These findingswould enable practitioners to be more consumer-sensitive to ensure that the advertising campaigns are properlyconceived to avoid adverse effects on a firm’s performance. The findings would also benefit consumers ingaining additional understanding on the roles of social networks in persuading specific purchase. This paper alsocontributes contextual literature on the perspectives of consumers’ in Malaysia.

Uchenna Cyril Eze

2012-06-01

379

Attitudes towards wind power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planning permission for the construction of a small 'farm' of wind turbines at Delabole (Deli windfarm) had been obtained and it was intended to use this source of renewable energy by generating electricity and selling it to the electrical power companies for distribution through the National Grid. It was important, therefore, to establish just what the attitudes of local residents were to the proposed development. A programme of research was discussed with the developer and it was agreed that an attitude survey would be conducted in the local area in the summer of 1990, before the turbines were erected, and before the tourist season was completely spent in order to obtain the views of visitors as well. A similar survey would then be done one year later, when the Deli windfarm was established and running. In addition, control samples would be taken at these two times in Exeter to give baseline information on attitudes toward this topic. This proposal was put to the developer and agreement was reached with him and the UK Department of Energy who were providing financial support for the research. The results of the research are reported. (author)

1993-01-01

380

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Nurses' attitudes to euthanasia: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of the scarce international literature concerning nurses' attitudes to euthanasia. Studies show large differences with respect to the percentage of nurses who are (not) in favour of euthanasia. Characteristics such as age, religion and nursing specialty have a significant influence on a nurse's opinion. The arguments for euthanasia have to do with quality of life, respect for autonomy and dissatisfaction with the current situation. Arguments against euthanasia are the right to a good death, belief in the possibilities offered by palliative care, religious objections and the fear of abuse. Nurses mention the need for more palliative care training, their difficulties in taking a specific position, and their desire to express their ideas about euthanasia. There is a need to include nurses' voices in the end-of-life discourse because they offer a contextual understanding of euthanasia and requests to die, which is borne out of real experience with people facing death. PMID:15253571

Verpoort, Charlotte; Gastmans, Chris; De Bal, Nele; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette

2004-01-01

382

Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of the article is to analyse the Danish policies used to promote entrepreneurship during the last 30 years. The initiatives to promote entrepreneurship have been implemented as part of Danish industrial policy. The initiatives are presented and ordered according to a model of planned social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether the target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action.

Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per

2003-01-01

383

Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, 'openness' and 'conscientiousness' were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with 'negative affectivity' showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there is a relationship between the BF dimensions of personality traits and anxiety towards the dissection room experience (at the start of the course, 'negative emotionality' was related to an increased level of anxiety). We conclude that medical students agree on the importance to their studies of both science in general and gross anatomy in particular, and that some personality traits relate to their attitudes that could affect clinical competence. PMID:23594196

Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

2014-03-01

384