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1

Maintaining a Positive Attitude: Ten Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

"Have a positive attitude." How many times have we heard that one? While our emotions can not cause fibromyalgia or chronic ... in the case of ongoing illness, seeing the positive presents a continuous struggle. Yet our moods are ...

2

Positive Attitude Linked to Longer Life in Heart Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Positive Attitude Linked to Longer Life in Heart Patients ... the death rate for those with the most positive attitudes was 42 percent lower than for those ...

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Positive patients' attitudes to prehospital care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to elucidate the patients' perceptions of the whole prehospital "chain-of survival" from the 1-1-2 call was made to arrival at the hospital; we wanted to study especially the impact different urgency levels had on patients' overall impression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on 1-1-2 medical emergency calls and forms a part of a larger postal survey among 6,535 patients who requested and received ambulance services. The answers were dichotomized into "problem scores" and "non-problem scores". The patients' overall impression was analysed in logistic regression models. RESULTS: The study was based on 1,419 answers (response rate 58%). Overall, 98% of 1-1-2-patients characterized the prehospital care as "Very good" (82%) or "Good" (16%). Patients' overall perceptions were dependent on age, evaluated urgency, and the information they received about expected response time. Patients' self-evaluated urgency level was lower than that assessed by the prehospital. CONCLUSION: The study shows that patients have a very positive attitude towards prehospital care, including criteria-based medical dispatch of ambulances. The overall impression of patients with urgency level A was significantly better than that of patients with urgency level B. The issues with most potential for improvement are: the assistance provided when calling 1-1-2 (first answered by the police and then the medical personnel), the prehospital personnel explaining what they were doing, the involvement of relatives and better information about expected ambulance response time. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

Hadsund J; Riiskjær E; Riddervold IS; Christensen EF

2013-09-01

4

Positive dissimilarity attitudes in multicultural organizations : The role of language diversity and communication frequency  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the field of diversity studies with novel insights on how language diversity and communication frequency influence dissimilarity attitudes. Design/methodology/approach – The authors examine language diversity and communication frequency as group-level antecedents for positive dissimilarity attitudes by use of questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic culturally diverse departments. Findings – The results showed that communication frequency has strong positive relationships with three variables depicting positive dissimilarity attitudes, namely openness to linguistic, visible and informational diversity. Contradicting our predictions, language diversity had positive associations with all variables portraying positive dissimilarity attitudes. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail. Originality/value – Few prior studies have dealt with the relations between language, communication and dissimilarity attitudes.

Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

2012-01-01

5

Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex. PMID:19086667

Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

2008-01-01

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Multi-platform Integrated Positioning and Attitude Determination using GNSS:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is trend in spacecraft engineering toward distributed systems where a number of smaller spacecraft work as a larger satellite. However, in order to make the small satellites work together as a single large platform, the precise relative positions (baseline) and orientations (attitude) of the e...

Buist, P.J.

7

Exterior Orientation By Direct Measurement Of Camera Position And Attitude  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Airborne attitude and position determination as a means of determining the exterior orientation of an airborne remote sensing system isinvestigated in this paper. The performance of an airborne data acquisition system consisting of receivers of the Global Positioning System(GPS) and a strapdown Inertial Navigation System (INS) together with an aerial camera is assessed using data of a 1:6000 large scalephotogrammetric test. The test was jointly conducted by the Institute for Photogrammetry, Stuttgart and The Department of GeomaticsEngineering, Calgary, with aircraft and logistics support by Rheinbraun AG - Department of Photogrammetry, Cologne. Multiple flight lineswere flown over a well controlled photogrammetric test field allowing the assessment of position and attitude repeatability, as well as theanalysis of gyro drift.

J. Skaloud; M. Cramer; K. P. Schwarz

8

Relative position and attitude estimation of spacecrafts based on dual quaternion for rendezvous and docking  

Science.gov (United States)

The capacity to acquire the relative position and attitude information between the chaser and the target satellites in real time is one of the necessary prerequisites for the successful implementation of autonomous rendezvous and docking. This paper addresses a vision based relative position and attitude estimation algorithm for the final phase of spacecraft rendezvous and docking. By assuming that the images of feature points on the target satellite lie within the convex regions, the estimation of the relative position and attitude is converted into solving a convex optimization problem in which the dual quaternion method is employed to represent the rotational and translational transformation between the chaser body frame and the target body frame. Due to the point-to-region correspondence instead of the point-to-point correspondence is used, the proposed estimation algorithm shows good performance in robustness which is verified through computer simulations.

Qiao, Bing; Tang, Shuren; Ma, Kexin; Liu, Zhenya

2013-10-01

9

Attitude toward obesity showed by the teacher-training pupils of the University of Huelva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study analyses the attitude toward the obesity and the overweight that show the pupils of first and third course of the University of Huelva (N= 299) comparing the students of physical education (N= 123) with the students of kindergarten and primary education (N= 176). This design supposes a replication of the investigation made by O’Brien, Hunter and Banks (2006), who compared the attitude toward the obesity between one group of students of physical education and another group that studies psychology. In order to measure the attitude toward the obesity, explicit and implicit instruments, together with a questionnaire of physical-sport habits were used. The results confirm that all the pupils present a negative attitude toward the obesity and the overweight, being higher in the students of physical education, and among these higher in the pupils of third course. On the other hand, the pupils that show more interest toward the sport, and those students that practice more sports, possess a higher negative attitude toward the obesity and the overweight that those students that are not interested in or don’t practice sport

Gago Sampedro, Juan; Tornero Quiñones, Inmaculada; Carmona Márquez, José; Sierra Robles, Ángela

2012-01-01

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Older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger adolescents as sexual partners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in Oslo. Some likelihood of having sex with a preadolescent (less than 12 years of age) was reported by 5.9% of the males. The 19.1% of the males who indicated some likelihood of having sex with a 13- to 14-year old, compared to those who did not, reported more high-frequency drinking, more alcohol-related problems, earlier sexual initiation, more conduct problems, and poorer psychosocial adjustment. This subgroup also reported more high-frequency use of pornography, having more friends with an interest in child pornography and violent pornography, and greater use of coercion to obtain sexual favors.

Hegna K; Mossige S; Wichstrøm L

2004-01-01

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Older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger adolescents as sexual partners.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in Oslo. Some likelihood of having sex with a preadolescent (less than 12 years of age) was reported by 5.9% of the males. The 19.1% of the males who indicated some likelihood of having sex with a 13- to 14-year old, compared to those who did not, reported more high-frequency drinking, more alcohol-related problems, earlier sexual initiation, more conduct problems, and poorer psychosocial adjustment. This subgroup also reported more high-frequency use of pornography, having more friends with an interest in child pornography and violent pornography, and greater use of coercion to obtain sexual favors. PMID:15727404

Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrøm, Lars

2004-01-01

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Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

2009-05-18

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Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

Kato J; Ide H; Kabashima I; Kadota H; Takano K; Kansaku K

2009-01-01

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Attitudes toward teen mothers among nursing students and psychometric evaluation of Positivity Toward Teen Mothers scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. PMID:23182309

Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon

2012-11-20

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Attitudes toward teen mothers among nursing students and psychometric evaluation of Positivity Toward Teen Mothers scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers.

Kim SC; Burke L; Sloan C; Barnett S

2013-09-01

16

[Negative and positive attitudes to EDP installation in Varkaus District Hospital  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was undertaken to describe the attitudes of the personnel of a hospital toward automatic data processing. We describe also the change in the attitudes during a four-year adp-system development. In 1984 123 persons were interviewed in Varkaus district hospital in Eastern Finland. The number of interviewed persons in the same hospital in 1988 was 125. During the four years the attitudes became more positive. Nearly all personnel groups changed their attitudes. Only the clerical staff on the wards had more negative attitudes in 1988 than in 1984. That was mostly due to ample amount of faults both in hardware and software at the time interviewing took place. That was even seen in the attitudes of the out-patient clinic personnel who had to work with the same problems. High level both in base and in data processing education had effect on positive attitudes.

Halttunen A; Halonen P

1990-01-01

17

An experimental study of the effect of green positioning on brand attitude  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reducing the environmental impact of a product or its manufacturing process not necessarily limits the company’s activities. In the context of a green branding strategy, it might as well open new business opportunities. Ecological positioning provides a strategic tool for the active implementation of green brands. The empirical study shows that more positive attitudes are developed towards a brand positioned by environmental attributes and that these effects vary as a result of the implementation of different types of ecological positioning strategies. Although most researchers in ecological marketing recommend rational persuasion strategies, in this study the effect of an ecological positioning by emotional brand benefits appears to be even stronger than effects of rational perceptions of functional benefits for the environment.

PATRIK HARTMANN; F. JAVIER FORCADA SAIZ; VANESSA APAOLAZA IBÁÑEZ

2004-01-01

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Technology of forming a positive attitude to physical training students of special medical group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Defined effective technology stages of forming a positive attitude towards physical education of students in special medical groups, stimulate motivation, epistemologically, informative, content-procedural, analytical and adjustment. For each stage technology offered special tools: lectures, seminars, analysis articles, mini conference on improving technique, racing games, mini-competitions, diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, analysis of log data on attendance. Selected criteria forming positive attitudes towards physical education: theoretical and practical, formed groups for research: experimental and control, analyzed results introduction of technology, efficiency of the proposed technology and means forming a positive attitude towards physical education students in special medical groups.

Mukhamediarov N.N.

2013-01-01

19

Patterns of healthy lifestyle and positive health attitudes in older Europeans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine (i) the extent to which recommended lifestyle healthy behaviors are adopted and the existence of positive attitudes to health; (ii) the relative influence of socio-demographic variables on multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health; (iii) the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health. DESIGN: Two distinct healthy behavioral measures were developed: (i) healthy lifestyles based on physical activity, no cigarette smoking, no/moderate alcohol drinking, maintaining a "healthy" weight and having no sleeping problems and (ii) positive health attitudes based on having positive emotional attitudes, such as: self-perceived good health status, being calm, peaceful and happy for most of the time, not expecting health to get worse and regular health check-ups. A composite healthy lifestyle index, ranging from 0 (none of behaviors met) to 5 (all behaviors met) was calculated by summing up the individual's scores for the five healthy lifestyle items. Afterwards, each individual's index was collapsed into three levels: 0-2 equivalent to 'level 1' (subjectively regarded as 'too low'), a score of 3 equivalent to 'level 2' ('fair') and 4-5 as 'level 3' satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' practices. The same procedure was applied to the positive health attitudes index. Multinomial logistic regression analyses by a forward selection procedure were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). PARTICIPANTS: A multi-national sample consisting of 638 older Europeans from 8 countries, aged 65-74 and 75+, living alone or with others. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining a "healthy" weight was the most frequently cited factor in the healthy lifestyles index and therefore assumed to be the most important to the older Europeans in the study; positive attitudes to health were relatively low; participants achieved a 'satisfactory' level for healthy lifestyles index (level 3) more frequently than a satisfactory level for positive attitudes to health; having a satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' was directly related to having a satisfactory level of positive attitudes to health based on the positive health attitudes index; income and geographical location in Europe appeared to be key predictors for meeting both the recommended healthy lifestyle factors in the index and having positive health attitudes however, the composition and nature of the study sample should be taken into consideration when considering the impact of the location on healthy lifestyles and attitudes to health across Europe.

Koz?owska K; Szczeci?ska A; Roszkowski W; Brzozowska A; Alfonso C; Fjellstrom C; Morais C; Nielsen NA; Pfau C; Saba A; Sidenvall B; Turrini A; Raats M; Lumbers M

2008-12-01

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Patterns of healthy lifestyle and positive health attitudes in older Europeans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: To determine (i) the extent to which recommended lifestyle healthy behaviors are adopted and the existence of positive attitudes to health; (ii) the relative influence of socio-demographic variables on multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health; (iii) the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health. Design: two distinct healthy behavioral measures were developed: (i) healthy lifestyles based on physical activity, no cigarette smoking, no/moderate alcohol drinking, maintaining a "healthy" weight and having no sleeping problems and (ii) positive health attitudes based on having positive emotional attitudes, such as: self-perceived good health status, being calm, peaceful and happy for most of the time, not expecting health to get worse and regular health check-ups. A composite healthy lifestyle index, ranging from 0 (none of behaviors met) to 5 (all behaviors met) was calculated by summing up the individual's scores for the five healthylifestyle items. Afterwards, each individual's index was collapsed into three levels: 0-2 equivalent to 'level 1' (subjectively regarded as 'too low'), a score of 3 equivalent to 'level 2' ('fair') and 4-5 as 'level 3' satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' practices. The same procedure was applied to the positive health attitudes index. Multinomial logistic regression analyses by a forward selection procedure were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Participants: a multi-national sample consisting of 638 older Europeans from 8 countries, aged 65-74 and 75+, living alone or with others. Results and conclusions: maintaining a "healthy" weight was the most frequently cited factor in the healthy lifestyles index and therefore assumed to be the most important to the older Europeans in the study; positive attitudes to health were relatively low; participants achieved a 'satisfactory' level for healthy lifestyles index (level 3) more frequently than a satisfactory level for positive attitudes to health; having a satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' was directly related to having a satisfactory level of positive attitudes to health based on the positive health attitudes index; income and geographical location in Europe appeared to be key predictors for meeting both the recommended healthy lifestyle factors in the index and having positive health attitudes however, the composition and nature of the study sample should be taken into consideration when considering the impact of the location on healthy lifestyles and attitudes to health across Europe.

Kozlowska, Katarzyna; Szczecinka, A.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Positive and null effects of interprofessional education on attitudes toward interprofessional learning and collaboration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interprofessional education (IPE) for health and social care students may improve attitudes toward IPE and interprofessional collaboration (IPC). The quality of research on the association between IPE and attitudes is mediocre and IPE effect sizes are unknown. Students at a college in Toronto, Canada, attended an IPE workshop. A comparison group of non-attenders was formed. Both groups completed pre- and post-workshop questionnaires and two measurement scales for IPE attitudes-the Interprofessional Education Perceptions Scale and the University of West England questionnaire. Eight multiple linear regressions modeled post-workshop attitude scores as a function of workshop attendance, pre-workshop attitudes, and background factors. Workshop effect sizes and relative importance of variables were estimated. Published results were used to calculate IPE effect sizes in other studies. Pre-workshop measures of post-workshop attitudes were dominant, positive predictors of outcomes; other predictors were subordinate to them. The relationship between workshop attendance and IPE attitudes was positive in seven models, statistically significant in four (P < 0.05), and not statistically significant in four. In hierarchical regressions the average workshop effect was small, about 0.08 in ?R(2) terms, amounting to about one-quarter of a model's explained variance. The workshop was associated with improved IPE and IPC attitudes in some domains but not others. The results should help educators focus IPE efforts on IPE/IPC attitudes where small, short-term improvements can be obtained.

Kenaszchuk C; Rykhoff M; Collins L; McPhail S; van Soeren M

2012-12-01

22

Positive attitudes towards priority setting in clinical guidelines among Danish general practitioners: A web based survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: Increasing focus on improvement and optimisation of the treatment in primary care and reduction of healthcare costs emphasize the need to understand which factors determines adherence and non-adherence to clinical guidelines. In the present study, we examined attitudes towards clinical guidelines in Danish general practitioners (GPs). Methods: We conducted a survey among Danish GPs from all five regions of Denmark. In total, 443 GPs answered the web-based questionnaire that contained questions about attitudes and barriers to clinical guidelines. Results: More than 90% of the GPs reported that they have good knowledge of the guidelines and in general follows the guidelines. A majority of the GPs (81%) found it acceptable that economic considerations are part of the guidelines. The most important factors for non- adherence to guidelines were “need of adjustment to clinical practice” and “lack of confidence in guidelines”. The attitudes to clinical guidelines were not significantly associated with practice characteristics such as gender, years of experience, practice organisation and localisation. Conclusions: Our findings show that clinical guidelines are an integrated or internalised part of everyday practice among GPs in Denmark. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Danish GPs are positive towards applying priority setting in their practice. This is decisive in the light of rising healthcare costs due to development of new expensive technologies and ageing populations that puts pressure on the healthcare system in general and primary healthcare in particular.

Ann Nielsen; Benedicte Carlsen; Pia K. Kjellberg

2013-01-01

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Time-varying Exponential Stabilization of the Position and Attitude of an Underactuated Autonomous Underwater Vehicle  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper considers feedback stabilization of the position and attitude of an autonomousunderwater vehicle (AUV) with a reduced number of actuators. A nonlinearmodel describing both the dynamics and the kinematics of an AUV is studied. The papershows that previous results on attitude stabilization of a spacecraft can be applied to exponentiallystabilize both the position and attitude of an AUV using only four, possiblythree, actuators. Simulation results are presented.1 IntroductionThe paper considers feedback stabilization of both the position and attitude of autonomousunderwater vehicles (AUVs) with a reduced number of available control inputs.The reduction may be the result of an actuator failure or of a deliberate decision1Corresponding authorto limit the number of actuators due to e.g. cost and weight considerations. One class ofAUVs has available control force in surge and control torques in roll, pitch and yaw, butno actuators in sway and heave. Another interes...

K. Y. Pettersen

24

An examination of procedures for determining body segment attitude and position from noisy biomechanical data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For the kinematic analysis of movement it is necessary to determine the position and attitude of rigid bodies in some specified reference frame. In biomechanics, these rigid bodies are usually segments of the human body, and the position of a distal segment is normally defined relative to a proximal segment. It was the purpose of this study to compare the accuracy of three approaches for the determination of the position and attitude of rigid bodies under four different noise conditions which were designed to model the conditions found in biomechanics studies. One technique investigated assumes the data are error free; another uses matrix algebra and employs matrix perturbation theory; and the third is a least-squares procedure. The evaluation was performed using a computer simulation which attempted to model 'typical' experimental conditions found in biomechanical studies. The attitude of the distal rigid body was defined using helical angles, with these angles being generated using a random number generator. All three techniques were assessed by their ability to predict a set of known helical angles and position vectors under different noise conditions. The study demonstrated that the least-squares technique was the most accurate for determining the attitude matrix and position vector for the cases investigated. None of the techniques investigated could allow for anisotropic noise conditions, yet anisotropic noise conditions are often obtained when using measurement procedures common in biomechanics. The study also highlighted the need to low-pass filter data prior to the computation of the position and attitude of rigid bodies.

Challis JH

1995-03-01

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Positive Attitude: A Guarantee for Success in Employment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Faced with the current severe employment situation, college students have passive psychology, which influences their employment. In order to have better employment, college students should have positive psychological quality.

Aiqing Meng

2010-01-01

26

Community attitudes towards childbearing and abortion among HIV-positive women in Nigeria and Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcomes of an HIV-positive woman's pregnancy - induced abortion or birth - to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper.

Kavanaugh ML; Moore AM; Akinyemi O; Adewole I; Dzekedzeke K; Awolude O; Arulogun O

2013-01-01

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Attitude Estimation and Position Control of VTOL UAVs using IMU and GPS Measurements  

CERN Multimedia

We address two fundamental problems associated with the control of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs): attitude estimation and position control. We propose two velocity-aided attitude observers which utilize a global-positioning system (GPS) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The `velocity-aided' class of observer uses an accelerometer to measure the system \\emph{apparent acceleration} (instead of the gravity vector), and is therefore better suited for applications where the rigid-body (aircraft) is subjected to significant linear accelerations (which is to be expected for VTOL UAVs). We also propose a position controller which utilizes the accelerometer in a similar fashion. More precisely, rather than using the system orientation (as is usually done in the existing position controllers), we use the vector measurements (accelerometer and magnetometer measurements) directly in the position control law. Consequently, the proposed position controller does not ...

Roberts, Andrew

2011-01-01

28

The attitudes of nurses towards HIV positive patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIDS is increasing in South Africa at an alarming rate. Registered nurses consequently have more frequent contact with HIV positive patients. Opsomming VIGS neem drasties toe in Suid-Afrika. Geregistreerde verpleegkundiges het gevolglik meer gereelde kontak met MIV-positiewe pasiënte. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

Estelle Deetlefs; M Greeff; M P Koen

2003-01-01

29

The Menstrual Joy Questionnaire Items Alone Can Positively Prime Reporting of Menstrual Attitudes and Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

Chrisler, Johnston, Champagne, and Preston (1994) reported that the title of the Menstrual Joy Questionnaire (MJQ) could prime participants to report positive changes on the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) and greater endorsement of "menstruation as a natural event" on the Menstrual Attitudes Questionnaire (MAQ). This study is a partial…

Aubeeluck, Aimee; Maguire, Moira

2002-01-01

30

Enhancing positive attitudes towards disability: evaluation of an integrated physiotherapy program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study explored whether attitudes towards disability in second year undergraduate physiotherapy students could be enhanced by an on-campus integrated curriculum program. METHODS: A pre-post design was used. Year 2 (pre-clinical) students participated in a 12-week program focused on optimising attitudes towards people with acquired or developmental neurological disability. The Discomfort subscale of the Interaction with Disabled Persons scale, rated on a six-point Likert scale, was applied prior to and at completion of the 12-week program, and compared to year 4 students, just prior to graduation. Qualitative data from year 2 reflective narratives was also gathered. RESULTS: Forty-seven second year and 45 fourth year physiotherapy students participated. The difference in Discomfort subscale scores between weeks 1 and 12 of year 2 was statistically significant (p = 0.0016). The difference in Discomfort subscale scores between year 2 week 1 and year 4 students was also statistically significant (p = 0.040). There was no significant difference in attitudes between students at the end of year 2 and the end of year 4 (p = 0.703). Qualitative data supported the development of more positive attitudes towards neurological disability across the 12 week year 2 pre-clinical program. CONCLUSION: Student attitudes towards people with acquired and/or developmental neurological disabilities can be enhanced through an on campus integrated curriculum program.

Morgan PE; Lo K

2013-02-01

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Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality.

Aggarwal A; Monsivais P; Cook AJ; Drewnowski A

2013-08-01

32

Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change. PMID:17430368

Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R

2007-04-01

33

Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change.

Svensen E; Neset G; Eriksen HR

2007-04-01

34

Methamphetamine Use, Attitudes About Condoms, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined attitudes about condoms as a moderator of the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 297 HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM). To test for a moderating effect of attitudes towards condoms, an interaction ter...

Nakamura, Nadine; Mausbach, Brent T.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Semple, Shirley J.; Patterson, Thomas L.

35

Nutritional knowledge, attitude, and practices among HIV-positive individuals in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This descriptive study investigated the nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in India. Data relating to nutritional KAP and sociodemographic profile were gathered from a sample of 400 PLHIV from New Delhi, India, using preset multiple-choice questionnaire. The knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low; nutritional knowledge was moderate as 80% of respondents could answer 4 out of 7 questions correctly. The attitude toward disease and food was positive but the application of nutritional knowledge was lacking as indicated by the moderate practice score of 8.1 +/- 2.3 out of a total score of 15. There were no significant differences in scores between genders. The PLHIV had knowledge about importance of nutrition during infection, had positive attitude toward the disease and the importance of nutrition during the course of the disease but translation of this knowledge into practice was low. Thus, there is a need for continuous interventions primarily aiming at behaviour change to convert knowledge into healthy dietary practices.

Anand D; Puri S

2013-06-01

36

Developing positive attitudes toward geriatric nursing among Millennials and Generation Xers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the increase of the older adult population, there exists a shortage of health care professionals trained to help this population remain independent as long as possible. Ageism, common among younger adults, affects the capacity building of health care for older adults. Research has indicated that increased knowledge about older adults, as well as exposure to the elderly, may alter nursing students' attitudes regarding careers in gerontological nursing. However, questions remain as to what are the most effective ways to provide gerontological content in nursing programs and enhance attitudes toward older adults.With the understanding that younger adults see a need to balance work and play, a baccalaureate nursing program provides examples of ways to accomplish this through integration of courses, simulations, positive images of aging, and learning activities that enhance empathy for both frail and healthy older adults.

Heise BA; Johnsen V; Himes D; Wing D

2012-05-01

37

Developing positive attitudes toward geriatric nursing among Millennials and Generation Xers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the increase of the older adult population, there exists a shortage of health care professionals trained to help this population remain independent as long as possible. Ageism, common among younger adults, affects the capacity building of health care for older adults. Research has indicated that increased knowledge about older adults, as well as exposure to the elderly, may alter nursing students' attitudes regarding careers in gerontological nursing. However, questions remain as to what are the most effective ways to provide gerontological content in nursing programs and enhance attitudes toward older adults.With the understanding that younger adults see a need to balance work and play, a baccalaureate nursing program provides examples of ways to accomplish this through integration of courses, simulations, positive images of aging, and learning activities that enhance empathy for both frail and healthy older adults. PMID:22860477

Heise, Barbara A; Johnsen, Vickie; Himes, Deborah; Wing, Debra

38

Positive Attitudes to Pediatric HIV Testing: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey from Zimbabwe  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Early HIV testing and diagnosis are paramount for increasing treatment initiation among children, necessary for their survival and improved health. However, uptake of pediatric HIV testing is low in high-prevalence areas. We present data on attitudes towards pediatric testing from a nationally representative survey in Zimbabwe. Methods All 18–24 year olds and a proportion of 25–49 year olds living in randomly selected enumeration areas from all ten Zimbabwe provinces were invited to self-complete an anonymous questionnaire on a personal digital assistant, and 16,719 people agreed to participate (75% of eligibles). Results Most people think children can benefit from HIV testing (91%), 81% of people who looked after children know how to access testing for their children and 92% would feel happier if their children were tested. Notably, 42% fear that, if tested, children may be discriminated against by some community members and 28% fear their children are HIV positive. People who fear discrimination against children who have tested for HIV are more likely than their counterparts to perceive their community as stigmatizing against HIV positive people (43% vs. 29%). They are also less likely to report positive attitudes to HIV themselves (49% vs. 74%). Only 28% think it is possible for children HIV-infected at birth to live into adolescence without treatment. Approximately 70% of people (irrespective of whether they are themselves parents) think HIV-infected children in their communities can access testing and treatment. Conclusions Pediatric HIV testing is the essential gateway to prevention and care services. Our data indicate positive attitudes to testing children, suggesting a conducive environment for increasing uptake of pediatric testing in Zimbabwe. However, there is a need to better understand the barriers to pediatric testing, such as stigma and discrimination, and address the gaps in knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS in children.

Buzdugan, Raluca; Watadzaushe, Constancia; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Mundida, Oscar; Langhaug, Lisa; Willis, Nicola; Hatzold, Karin; Ncube, Getrude; Mugurungi, Owen; Benedikt, Clemens; Copas, Andrew; Cowan, Frances M.

2012-01-01

39

The impact of Vocational, Education, Training and Employment Coordinator positions on attitudes and practices in a NSW mental health service.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine attitudes and practices of community mental health clinicians in relation to employment and education for consumers and to assess the impact of the establishment of Vocational, Education, Training and Employment (VETE) Coordinator positions. METHOD: A snapshot was conducted by surveying community mental health clinicians regarding every consumer on their caseload in 2007. This was repeated in 2010 and the results were compared. RESULTS: From 2007 to 2010, the overall rates of VETE interventions increased, including a doubling of the rate of linkage to employment agencies for job seekers. Services with the consistent presence of a VETE Coordinator showed a greater impact on a number of factors, highlighted by a positive shift in clinician attitudes regarding their consumers' capacity to work. CONCLUSION: The establishment of VETE Coordination positions in the mental health service appears to be an effective way of raising awareness of VETE issues and improving VETE service provision. An important role has been assisting clinicians to begin implementing the principles of the Individual Placement and Support model of Supported Employment and to incorporate support for employment and education as a routine part of practice.

Sommer J; Lunt B; Rogers J; Poole R; Singham A

2012-08-01

40

The effect of external factors on medical librarians' attitudes toward their position in the future of profession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: The utilization of information and communication technologies in medical librarianship would put librarians in new created conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of external factors on medical librarians' attitudes toward their future professional situation.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All libraries and affiliated with ministry of health, and medical education were included in the study. The research consisted of all medical librarians working in the mentioned centers. Data was collected through questionnaires including two major parts and an additional section pertaining to personal information. From total of 1368 cases, 1001 answered to the questions. Statistical measurements consisted of frequency distribution, mean, percentage, measures of dispersion, correlation coefficient, and two tailed tests analyzed by SPSS software. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance.Results: The results  showed that the mean score of external factors and attitude, were 3.25 and 4.18 respectively, at the scale of 5. There was a positive and significant relationship between external factors and attitude. Medical librarians did not consider the presence informaticians as a threat to their job security, and they have been able to adapt themselves to modern situations. Also, they were aware of the fact that if they can not succeed to match themselves with technological revolution, they will loose their jobs.Conclusion: Structural changes in staff and educational establishments are necessary to satisfy future needs and is a priority to improve the influence of external factors on medical librarians' attitude toward the future of their profession.

Ghazimirsaeed SJ.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo showing sequential translations of four types of nystagmus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We report a case of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) showing sequential translation of four types of nystagmus and discuss its pathophysiology. METHODS: The case was 65-year-old female. We analyzed her nystagmus three-dimensionally. RESULTS: At the first visit, she showed vertical-torsio nystagmus of the posterior canal type of BPPV (P-BPPV) and subsequently showed recently reported geotropic nystagmus with a long time constant. Two weeks later, she showed apogeotropic nystagmus of the horizontal canal type of BPPV (AH-BPPV) and subsequently a geotropic nystagmus with a short time constant of the horizontal canal type of BPPV (GH-BPPV). CONCLUSIONS: Three kind of nystagmus, namely P-BPPV, AH-BPPV and GH-BPPV can be explained by the otoconial debris hypothesis of the same ear. Finally, the recently reported geotropic nystagmus with a long time constant may be explained by a reversible lesion such as the denatured cupula or utricular imbalance of the same ear.

Imai T; Takeda N; Uno A; Horii A; Kitahara T; Nishiike S; Higashi-Shingai K; Inohara H

2012-10-01

42

Nonlinear control of marine vehicles using only position and attitude measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents new results on the design and analysis of nonlinear output feedback controllers for auto pilots and dynamic positioning systems for ships and underwater vehicles. Only position and attitude measurements of the vehicle are used in the control design. The underlying idea of the work is to use certain structural properties of the equations of motion in the controller design and analysis. New controllers for regulation and tracking have been developed and the stability of the resulting closed-loop systems has been rigorously established. The results are supported by simulations. The following problems have been investigated covering design of passive controller for regulation, comparison of two auto pilots, nonlinear damping compensation for tracking, tracking control for nonlinear ships, and output tracking control with wave filtering for multivariable models of possibly unstable vehicles. 97 refs., 32 figs.

Paulsen, Marit Johanne

1996-12-31

43

Predicting whether multiculturalism positively or negatively influences White Americans' intergroup attitudes: the role of ethnic identification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiculturalism, or the belief that racial and ethnic differences should be acknowledged and appreciated, has been met with both positive reactions (e.g., decreased prejudice) and negative reactions (e.g., perceptions of threat) from dominant group members. The present research proposes that multiculturalism can either positively or negatively influence White Americans' intergroup attitudes depending on their degree of ethnic identification. In Studies 1 and 2, White Americans primed with multiculturalism exhibited higher social dominance orientation (Study 1) and greater prejudice (Study 2), especially when they identified strongly with their ethnicity. In Study 3, perceptions of threat to group values were found to mediate the relation between multiculturalism, ethnic identification, and prejudice among White Americans. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for threat perceptions, ethnic identification, and conceptions of diversity. PMID:21041522

Morrison, Kimberly Rios; Plaut, Victoria C; Ybarra, Oscar

2010-11-01

44

Predicting whether multiculturalism positively or negatively influences White Americans' intergroup attitudes: the role of ethnic identification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multiculturalism, or the belief that racial and ethnic differences should be acknowledged and appreciated, has been met with both positive reactions (e.g., decreased prejudice) and negative reactions (e.g., perceptions of threat) from dominant group members. The present research proposes that multiculturalism can either positively or negatively influence White Americans' intergroup attitudes depending on their degree of ethnic identification. In Studies 1 and 2, White Americans primed with multiculturalism exhibited higher social dominance orientation (Study 1) and greater prejudice (Study 2), especially when they identified strongly with their ethnicity. In Study 3, perceptions of threat to group values were found to mediate the relation between multiculturalism, ethnic identification, and prejudice among White Americans. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for threat perceptions, ethnic identification, and conceptions of diversity.

Morrison KR; Plaut VC; Ybarra O

2010-12-01

45

FOXP2 targets show evidence of positive selection in European populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) is a highly conserved transcription factor that has been implicated in human speech and language disorders and plays important roles in the plasticity of the developing brain. The pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXP2 in modern populations suggests that it has been the target of positive (Darwinian) selection during recent human evolution. In our study, we searched for evidence of selection that might have followed FOXP2 adaptations in modern humans. We examined whether or not putative FOXP2 targets identified by chromatin-immunoprecipitation genomic screening show evidence of positive selection. We developed an algorithm that, for any given gene list, systematically generates matched lists of control genes from the Ensembl database, collates summary statistics for three frequency-spectrum-based neutrality tests from the low-coverage resequencing data of the 1000 Genomes Project, and determines whether these statistics are significantly different between the given gene targets and the set of controls. Overall, there was strong evidence of selection of FOXP2 targets in Europeans, but not in the Han Chinese, Japanese, or Yoruba populations. Significant outliers included several genes linked to cellular movement, reproduction, development, and immune cell trafficking, and 13 of these constituted a significant network associated with cardiac arteriopathy. Strong signals of selection were observed for CNTNAP2 and RBFOX1, key neurally expressed genes that have been consistently identified as direct FOXP2 targets in multiple studies and that have themselves been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders involving language dysfunction.

Ayub Q; Yngvadottir B; Chen Y; Xue Y; Hu M; Vernes SC; Fisher SE; Tyler-Smith C

2013-05-01

46

FOXP2 targets show evidence of positive selection in European populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) is a highly conserved transcription factor that has been implicated in human speech and language disorders and plays important roles in the plasticity of the developing brain. The pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXP2 in modern populations suggests that it has been the target of positive (Darwinian) selection during recent human evolution. In our study, we searched for evidence of selection that might have followed FOXP2 adaptations in modern humans. We examined whether or not putative FOXP2 targets identified by chromatin-immunoprecipitation genomic screening show evidence of positive selection. We developed an algorithm that, for any given gene list, systematically generates matched lists of control genes from the Ensembl database, collates summary statistics for three frequency-spectrum-based neutrality tests from the low-coverage resequencing data of the 1000 Genomes Project, and determines whether these statistics are significantly different between the given gene targets and the set of controls. Overall, there was strong evidence of selection of FOXP2 targets in Europeans, but not in the Han Chinese, Japanese, or Yoruba populations. Significant outliers included several genes linked to cellular movement, reproduction, development, and immune cell trafficking, and 13 of these constituted a significant network associated with cardiac arteriopathy. Strong signals of selection were observed for CNTNAP2 and RBFOX1, key neurally expressed genes that have been consistently identified as direct FOXP2 targets in multiple studies and that have themselves been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders involving language dysfunction. PMID:23602712

Ayub, Qasim; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yali; Hu, Min; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E; Tyler-Smith, Chris

2013-04-18

47

The common adolescent bipolar phenotype shows positive biases in emotional processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with abnormalities in emotional processing that persist into periods of remission. However, studies of euthymic bipolar disorder patients may be confounded by the experience of mood episodes and medication. We therefore assessed an adolescent group for vulnerability markers associated with the bipolar phenotype. METHODS: The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a screening tool for bipolar disorder that targets mood-elevation symptoms. We selected 32 high-scoring students (? 7 symptoms) with the adolescent bipolar phenotype and 30 low-scoring controls (? 3 symptoms) and screened them with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus for bipolar disorder and other psychiatric disorders. We investigated emotional processing by assessing facial expression recognition, emotional memory, emotion-potentiated startle, and a dot-probe task. RESULTS: Of the high-MDQ participants, 12 were in remission from bipolar disorder defined by DSM-IV-TR and interview (bipolar II disorder/bipolar disorder not otherwise specified) and 3 from major depressive disorder. High-MDQ participants had higher levels of neuroticism, low mood, and lifetime anxiety comorbidity and alcohol dependence compared with low-MDQ participants. The high-MDQ group showed facilitated recognition of surprised and neutral facial expressions and enhanced processing of positive versus negative information in emotional recognition memory and emotion-potentiated startle. There were no effects on emotional categorisation/recall memory or attentional bias in the dot-probe task. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that students with the common adolescent bipolar phenotype show positive emotional processing biases despite increased levels of neuroticism, low mood, and anxiety. Such effects may represent a psychological vulnerability marker associated with the bipolar phenotype.

Rock PL; Goodwin GM; Harmer CJ

2010-09-01

48

HIV-negative and HIV-positive gay men's attitudes to medicines, HIV treatments and antiretroviral-based prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We assessed attitudes to medicines, HIV treatments and antiretroviral-based prevention in a national, online survey of 1,041 Australian gay men (88.3% HIV-negative and 11.7% HIV-positive). Multivariate analysis of variance was used to identify the effect of HIV status on attitudes. HIV-negative men disagreed with the idea that HIV drugs should be restricted to HIV-positive people. HIV-positive men agreed and HIV-negative men disagreed that taking HIV treatments was straightforward and HIV-negative men were more sceptical about whether HIV treatment or an undetectable viral load prevented HIV transmission. HIV-negative and HIV-positive men had similar attitudes to pre-exposure prophylaxis but divergent views about 'treatment as prevention'.

Holt M; Murphy D; Callander D; Ellard J; Rosengarten M; Kippax S; de Wit J

2013-07-01

49

Chefs' attitudes toward healthful food preparation are more positive than their food science knowledge and practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if chefs' and student chefs' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding healthful food preparation are consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. DESIGN: An analytical survey questionnaire was distributed to 4 chef groups. Sections 1 and 2 of the survey measured chefs' food science knowledge (13 questions) and likelihood of using food preparation practices (15 questions) necessary to meet the 1990 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Section 3 (22 questions) measured chefs' attitudes toward nutrition in general, toward the importance of healthful food preparation practices, and toward the US Dietary Guidelines. SAMPLE: Of 512 surveys distributed by mail, at culinary meetings, and in classes at 2 culinary schools, 447 (86%) were returned (158 from practicing chefs and 289 from student chefs). Practicing chefs included chef educators, foodservice chefs from a national corporation, and independent chef members of the American Culinary Federation of New York City. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics included frequencies, means, and standard deviations of survey items and of individual survey sections. Reliability and validity were determined using alpha coefficients and principal components analysis. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in practice, attitudes, and knowledge among chef groups. RESULTS: Both practicing chefs and student chefs answered more than 70% of the food science questions correctly; independent chefs scored significantly lower than educator and corporate chefs. More than two thirds of the chefs and student chefs correctly responded to questions about the nutrient composition of food and how cooking affects the nutrient content of food. All chef groups were confused about fat and cholesterol in food and in the body. Few healthful food preparation practices were likely to be used by any chef group more than two thirds of the time, although the subscale of the attitude toward the importance of these practices was very positive. The majority of practicing chefs thought that customers do not care about the US Dietary Guidelines and nutrition; student chefs thought that customers do care. Both groups strongly agreed that, as chefs, they are responsible for the nutritional content of the food they prepared. APPLICATION: Both chefs and student chefs are willing to learn about food science and recipe modification principles as they apply to healthful cooking practices. The opportunities are clear: Dietitians have the expertise to teach chefs healthful food preparation techniques, recipe modification, and food composition information.

Reichler G; Dalton S

1998-02-01

50

Computing the Attitude of Fixed-Wing Aircraft from Position Data.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes ANGLE, a computer program which computes the attitude of fixed wing aircraft, given flight-path data, several aircraft characteristics, and a negligible side force. Determination of attitude was identified by the HITVAL Project as nec...

J. R. Transue

1973-01-01

51

Sleep duration, positive attitude toward life, and academic achievement: the role of daytime tiredness, behavioral persistence, and school start times.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is mediated by increased daytime tiredness and lower self-discipline/behavioral persistence. Further, we address the question whether adolescents who start school modestly later (20 min; n = 343) receive more sleep and report better functioning. Sleeping less than an average of 8 h per night was related to more tiredness, inferior behavioral persistence, less positive attitude toward life, and lower school grades, as compared to longer sleep duration. Daytime tiredness and behavioral persistence mediated the relationship between short sleep duration and positive attitude toward life and school grades. Students who started school 20 min later received reliably more sleep and reported less tiredness.

Perkinson-Gloor N; Lemola S; Grob A

2013-04-01

52

Attitudes and attitude change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what are the psychological processes through which consumers evaluate new objects (attitude formation), retrieve evaluations from memory (attitude activation), and update evaluations in response to new information (attitude change)? The purpose of this chapter is to familiarise the reader with classical and contemporary attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types of attitudes. This is the reason why a thorough understanding of attitudes is one of the most important skills a marketer can have. That same is true in related areas such as communications research: concepts like public opinion, corporate reputation, and corporate image are nothing more than particular types of attitudes. Even the utility concept in economics can simply be regarded as a synonym for attitudes.

Scholderer, Joachim

2010-01-01

53

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 positive glioblastoma cells show brain tumor stem cell capacity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and is resistant to all therapeutic regimens. Relapse occurs regularly and might be caused by a poorly characterized tumor stem cell (TSC) subpopulation escaping therapy. We suggest aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) as a novel stem cell marker in human GBM. Using the neurosphere formation assay as a functional method to identify brain TSCs, we show that high protein levels of ALDH1 facilitate neurosphere formation in established GBM cell lines. Even single ALDH1 positive cells give rise to colonies and neurospheres. Consequently, the inhibition of ALDH1 in vitro decreases both the number of neurospheres and their size. Cell lines without expression of ALDH1 do not form tumor spheroids under the same culturing conditions. High levels of ALDH1 seem to keep tumor cells in an undifferentiated, stem cell-like state indicated by the low expression of beta-III-tubulin. In contrast, ALDH1 inhibition induces premature cellular differentiation and reduces clonogenic capacity. Primary cell cultures obtained from fresh tumor samples approve the established GBM cell line results. PMID:20627895

Rasper, Michael; Schäfer, Andrea; Piontek, Guido; Teufel, Julian; Brockhoff, Gero; Ringel, Florian; Heindl, Stefan; Zimmer, Claus; Schlegel, Jürgen

2010-07-13

54

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 positive glioblastoma cells show brain tumor stem cell capacity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and is resistant to all therapeutic regimens. Relapse occurs regularly and might be caused by a poorly characterized tumor stem cell (TSC) subpopulation escaping therapy. We suggest aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) as a novel stem cell marker in human GBM. Using the neurosphere formation assay as a functional method to identify brain TSCs, we show that high protein levels of ALDH1 facilitate neurosphere formation in established GBM cell lines. Even single ALDH1 positive cells give rise to colonies and neurospheres. Consequently, the inhibition of ALDH1 in vitro decreases both the number of neurospheres and their size. Cell lines without expression of ALDH1 do not form tumor spheroids under the same culturing conditions. High levels of ALDH1 seem to keep tumor cells in an undifferentiated, stem cell-like state indicated by the low expression of beta-III-tubulin. In contrast, ALDH1 inhibition induces premature cellular differentiation and reduces clonogenic capacity. Primary cell cultures obtained from fresh tumor samples approve the established GBM cell line results.

Rasper M; Schäfer A; Piontek G; Teufel J; Brockhoff G; Ringel F; Heindl S; Zimmer C; Schlegel J

2010-10-01

55

Geometric rectification of airborne sensor data using GPS-based attitude and position information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The geometric rectification of remotely sensed data, acquired using airborne platforms, is an essential prerequisite for quantitative processing and analysis, due to the complex distortions inherent in such imagery. The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) has implemented an Integrated Data System (IDS) on-board its survey aircraft to derive both attitude and position for use in a parametric solution to the geometric correction of data from two airborne sensors. This paper describes the elements of the NERC IDS and the complementary ground data processing system that carries out navigation pre-processing and geometric resampling of the airborne data. Test flights have been flown and processed to demonstrate the potential of this completely GPS-based solution to providing high quality, spatially referenced, data for use in environmental monitoring applications. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Wilson, A.K. [British National Space Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mockridge, W. [Celyn Farm, Herefordshire (United Kingdom)

1996-11-01

56

Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and constructivist approaches in e-learning, where efficient e-course and well-skilled mentors have an important role. This article describes the model of introducing e-learning in an organization, and its realization in praxis.

Julija Lapuh Bele; Matjaz Debevc; Irena Morel; David Rozman

2008-01-01

57

Positive parental attitudes to participating in research involving newborn screened infants with CF.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Information regarding recruitment of infants to research studies following the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) via newborn screening (NBS) is not currently available. This study aimed to assess parental attitudes and the feasibility of recruiting and retaining both NBS infants with CF and healthy control infants to a longitudinal, observational study. METHODS: All infants underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs) at ~3 and ~12months of age. Infants with CF had additional combined chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), bronchoscopy and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) at ~12months of age. Parental attitude questionnaires (PAQs) were administered to all parents following the ~3month PFTs and to parents of infants with CF after completion of all tests at ~12months. RESULTS: 86% (92/107) of families whose infant had CF consented to participate, of whom 92% had PFTs at ~3months of age with 99% of these having PFTs at ~12months of age. Recruitment of healthy controls was feasible but more challenging; 29% of those contacted agreed to participate; 73% of these had PFTs at ~3months of age; of whom 83% had repeated PFTs at ~12months of age. Completed PAQs were received from 71% of parents, (both of CF and healthy infants) at ~3months and from 58% parents of infants with CF at ~12months. Responses from the PAQs were generally positive, 95% of parents indicated they would recommend participation in such studies to other families. Discrepancies between responses at 3 and 12months suggested that parental understanding of what the research entailed developed during the course of the study. CONCLUSIONS: The high recruitment and retention rates for newly diagnosed CF NBS infants to this observational study are encouraging. These findings will help inform future study design both in the field of CF and other conditions diagnosed by NBS.

Chudleigh J; Hoo AF; Ahmed D; Prasad A; Sheehan D; Francis J; Buckingham S; Cowlard J; Thia L; Nguyen TT; Stocks J

2013-05-01

58

Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention : The role of positive sensory experience  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

European consumers are sceptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if actual sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence consumers' attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. An experiment was conducted in which subjects in the experimental group tasted cheeses, one of which was labelled as 'produced using GMOs.' The cheeses were selected in a way that ensured that the subject had a sensory preference for the GMO cheese. A control group tasted cheeses that were unlabelled. After the tasting, subjects completed a conjoint analysis task about cheese, in which the type of starter culture used (GMO/conventional) was one of the attributes. Subjects also were administered a set of items measuring attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. Results showed that for subjects in the experimental group (who believed that they had tasted a GMO cheese, with which they had a positive sensory experience) a) attitude towards GMO in food production was less negative, and b) type of starter culture used (GM/conventional) had less impact on their buying intentions with regard to cheese than for subjects in the control group.

Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

2004-01-01

59

Sleep Duration, Positive Attitude toward Life, and Academic Achievement: The Role of Daytime Tiredness, Behavioral Persistence, and School Start Times  

Science.gov (United States)

|Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is…

Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

2013-01-01

60

Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

US women's attitudes to false-positive mammography results and detection of ductal carcinoma in situ: cross-sectional survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective To determine women's attitudes and knowledge of both false-positive mammography results and the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ after screening mammography. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting United States. Participants A total of 479 women aged 18 to 97 years who did not report ...

Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven; Sox, Harold C; Fischhoff, Baruch; Welch, H Gilbert

62

Grey matter density and GABAA binding potential show a positive linear relationship across cortical regions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a widely used technique for studying the structure of the brain. Direct comparisons between the results obtained using VBM and the underlying histology are limited, however. To circumvent the problems inherent in comparing VBM data in vivo with tissue samples that must generally be obtained post-mortem, we chose to consider GABAA receptors, measured using (18)F-flumazenil PET (18F-FMZ-PET), as non-invasive neural markers to be compared with VBM data. Consistent with previous cortical thickness findings, GABAA receptor binding potential (BPND) was found to correlate positively across regions with grey matter (GM) density. These findings confirm that there is a general positive relationship between MRI-based GM density measures and GABAA receptor BPND on a region-by-region basis (i.e., regions with more GM tend to also have higher BPND).

Duncan NW; Gravel P; Wiebking C; Reader AJ; Northoff G

2013-04-01

63

Suture Granuloma Showing False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of a 33-year-old male with a mixed germ-cell testicular tumor. Postoperative follow-up FDG-PET revealed concentration of FDG in the left inguinal area which is not tumor metastasis or local recurrence but suture reactivity granuloma. In this paper, we reviewed suture granulomas associated with false-positive findings on FDG-PET after surgery. If FDG-PET will be used more frequently in the future, it will be necessary to refrain from using silk thread in order to prevent any unnecessary surgery.

Takahara K; Kakinoki H; Ikoma S; Udo K; Tobu S; Satoh Y; Tokuda Y; Noguchi M; Aoki S; Uozumi J

2013-01-01

64

Positive and Null Effects of Interprofessional Education on Attitudes toward Interprofessional Learning and Collaboration  

Science.gov (United States)

Interprofessional education (IPE) for health and social care students may improve attitudes toward IPE and interprofessional collaboration (IPC). The quality of research on the association between IPE and attitudes is mediocre and IPE effect sizes are unknown. Students at a college in Toronto, Canada, attended an IPE workshop. A comparison group…

Kenaszchuk, Chris; Rykhoff, Margot; Collins, Laura; McPhail, Stacey; van Soeren, Mary

2012-01-01

65

Positive Mood Risk Attitudes, and Investment Decisions : Field Evidence From Comedy Movie Attendance in the US.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Positive mood has been repeatedly shown to affect risk attitudes in laboratory settings, where subjects’ exposure to movie clips is among the most widely used and effective mood-induction procedures. Yet, conflicting lab results about the estimated sign of the mood effect have led researchers to formulate two alternative theories. The affect infusion model (AIM) argues that happy moods foster risk-prone behavior, whereas the mood-maintenance hypothesis (MMH) takes the opposite stance. In this paper I test the predictions of these two theories using real-world financial data and focusing on the same moodshifting mechanism commonly employed in lab studies. More specifically, I exploit the time-series variation in the domestic theatrical release of comedy movies as a natural experiment for testing the impact that happy mood (proxied by weekend comedy movie attendance) has on investment in risky assets (proxied by the performance of the U.S. stock market on the following Monday). My hypothesis rests upon the evidence that individual investors are more likely to ponder trading decisions during the weekend and trade on Mondays. To control for unobserved factors that may contemporaneously affect movie attendance and equity returns, I employ the percentage of theater screens dedicated to the comedy genre as an instrument. Using a sample of data from 1995 to 2010, I estimate that an increase in comedy attendance on a given weekend is followed by a decrease in equity returns on the subsequent Monday, which supports the MMH.

Lepori, Gabriele

66

Bias in medicine: a survey of medical student attitudes towards HIV-positive and marginalized patients in Russia, 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Russia has a substantial HIV epidemic which is poised to escalate in the coming years. The increases in prevalence of HIV will result in increased healthcare needs by a medical system with limited experience with HIV. A healthcare provider's attitude towards a patient plays a significant role in determining the patient's health-related behaviours and medical outcomes. Previous studies have identified negative attitudes of medical students towards people living with HIV. Studying the prevalence of such attitudes is of particular interest, as medical students represent the future workforce and also as the schooling years present a unique opportunity to nurture bias-free healthcare providers. The study measures prevalence of prejudicial attitudes towards HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients who belong to marginalized subgroups. Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students of a Russian medical university. Of 500 students surveyed, 436 provided sufficient data to be included in the analysis. Prejudicial attitudes were defined as reluctance to provide medical care to a specified hypothetical patient. Nine hypothetical HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were proposed: physicians, injecting drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men and a patient HIV-positive due to blood transfusion. A log-binomial regression solved using generalized estimating equations was utilized to identify factors associated with reluctance to treat. Results: Prevalence of reluctance to provide medical care to HIV-positive patients in marginalized subgroups was high (ranging from 26.4% up to 71.9%), compared to a maximum of 7.5% if a patient was an HIV-negative physician. Students in their clinical years reported more negative attitudes than preclinical students. In general, female students were less willing to provide care than their male counterparts. Conclusions: Prejudicial attitudes about HIV-positive patients and those in marginalized subgroups of the population are prevalent among medical students in Russia. Given the increasing prevalence of HIV in the country, reasons for this hesitance to treat must be identified and addressed. Educational programs for healthcare providers are urgently needed to eliminate bias in the delivery of critically needed medical care. These targeted interventions should be coupled with other programs to eliminate structural barriers to care.

Damir A Bikmukhametov; Vladimir A Anokhin; Anna N Vinogradova; Wayne R Triner; Louise-Anne McNutt*

2012-01-01

67

The positive correlation between DJ-1 and ?-catenin expression shows prognostic value for patients with glioma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between DJ-1 and ?-catenin, and its impact on the prognosis for glioma patients has not been fully understood. This study determined the effect of DJ-1 on ?-catenin and the prognostic significance of this interaction in glioma patients. We collected tumor specimens from 88 glioma patients and determined the expression of DJ-1, ?-catenin and PTEN by using immunohistochemical staining. The involvement of DJ-1 and ?-catenin in glioma cell lines was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. High DJ-1 expression (37.5%) and high ?-catenin expression (34.1%) in glioma specimens were significantly associated with high grade and poor prognosis in glioma patients. However, only high levels of DJ-1 (P?=?0.014) was a strong independent prognostic factor, correlated with a reduced overall survival time. In vitro?DJ-1 expression was positively correlated with the expression levels of ?-catenin and p-Akt, and negatively correlated with PTEN expression in U87, U251 MG, SWO-38 and SHG44 human glioma cell lines. After the knockdown of DJ-1, Akt, p-Akt or ?-catenin expression levels were not affected in the PTEN-null cell lines (U87 and U251 MG). However, in the SWO-38 cell line, which has wild-type PTEN protein, the level of PTEN increased while Akt/p-Akt and ?-catenin levels were reduced. Furthermore, ?-catenin staining weakened in SWO-38 cells after DJ-1 levels decreased according to immunocytochemical analysis. In conclusion, DJ-1 and ?-catenin may contribute to the development and recurrence of glioma and are valuable prognostic factors for glioma patients. DJ-1 may regulate ?-catenin expression via PTEN and p-Akt.

Wang C; Fang M; Zhang M; Li W; Guan H; Sun Y; Xie S; Zhong X

2013-05-01

68

Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid showing a positive enhancement upon metrizamide CT cisternography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A case of epidermoid tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle cistern is reported in a 43-year-old woman with left trigeminal neuralgia. Plain CT scan revealed a low density area at the left cerebellopontine angle and left ambient cisterns, which could not be differentiated from their enlargement. Metrizamide CT cisternography showed an irregular, high density pattern in the low density filling defect which was extending into the suprasellar and interpeduncular cisterns. The developmental mechanism of this specific finding in the metrizamide CT cisternography was discussed on the basis of morphological characteristics of epidermoid tumor.

Hasegawa, Takeshi; Wakamatsu, Koichi; Fujii, Toshiharu; Ito, Haruhide; Yamamoto, Shinjiro; Nagata, Izumi

1985-04-01

69

Supervisor communication and motivation to learn as a predictor of positive individual attitudes and behaviors: A study in one city-based local authority  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human resource development literature highlights that the ability of supervisor to use good communication styles in training programs may motivate positive individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., transfer of competency and job performance). Further, a careful observationof such relationships reveals that the effect of supervisor communication on individual attitudes and behaviors is indirectly affected by motivation to learn. The nature of thisrelationship is less emphasized in past research studies. Therefore, this study was conducted to gather data from 100 technical employees in one city-based local authority in East Malaysia (EMCBLAUTHORITY). Outcomes of stepwise regression analysis showed thatrelationship between motivation to learn and supervisor communication had been an important predictor of transfer of competency and job performance. This result confirms thatmotivation to learn does act as a full mediating role in the training model of the organizational sample. In addition, implications and limitations of the study, as well as directions of future research are discussed.

Azman Ismail; Sofiah Bongogoh; Sheela Chitra Chandra Segaran; Rabaah Tudin; Mohd Na’eim Ajis; Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail

2009-01-01

70

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This study examined the practices, knowledge, attitudes, and the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV-positive patients with regard to the disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Windhoek, Namibia.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding the disclosure of HIV status at Betesda Clinic in Namibia, and to determine the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study and 263 HIV-positive patients were enrolled in the study.Results: Analyses revealed that knowledge on disclosure was good, with 68% who thought it was important. The majority (73%) have disclosed and 60% disclosed within 1 week of receiving their results. The most common reasons for disclosure were that 32% needed help, 25% wanted his or her partner to go for testing, and 20% wanted to let relatives know. Reasons for non-disclosure were mainly the fear of gossip (79%). Seventy-three per cent had disclosed to their partners, and 23% had disclosed to more than one person. People’s reactions were supportive in 43%, whereas 29% understood, 9% accepted and 6% were angry. Upon disclosure 40% received help, 24% of partners were tested, 23% received psychological support and 5% were stigmatised. Disclosure was higher amongst the married and cohabitating.Conclusion: The attitude was positive with regard to knowledge of disclosure, with most participants thinking that disclosure was important and good. The attitudes and actual practices of disclosure were encouraging; however, people are disclosing only to trustedindividuals in the society and the fear of stigma is still present although the actual stigma was very low.

Penelope Tom

2013-01-01

71

[Students' knowledge about AIDS and their attitudes and behaviours towards HIV-positive or diseased persons in Nis, Serbia].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: to assess the level of knowledge about HIV infection among students of the city of Niš, Serbia, through the evaluation of what was their attitude towards social contacts with HIV-positive/diseased subjects, their opinion about the treatment of HIV-positive/diseased subjects, and the sanctions for their inadequate behavior. DESIGN: the study was performed in December 2010 as cross-sectional epidemiological survey on a sample of 260 families chosen randomly from telephone book of the City of Niš, Serbia. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study population was composed from 143 university students and 64 high-school students. A questionnaire made up of 53 questions about HIV infection and about attitudes towards HIV-positive/diseased subjects was administered to the participants. RESULTS: right answers about the sources of HIV infection ranged from 53.1% to 100%; right answers about mode of transmission of HIV infection ranged from 46.4% to 100%. 79.2% students expressed the opinion that HIV positive/ diseased persons should be treated by the society in the same way as other patients, but only 3.7% of them expressed the wish to have social relations with them. Only 28% of the students agreed that HIV infected subjects should be cured in the same medical institutions with other patients. Concerning the responses about possible sanctions towards HIV-positive/diseased subjects who spread the infection deliberately, 28% of the students agreed that they should undergo administrative or penal sanctions. CONCLUSIONS: student's level of knowledge (both from high schools and universities) about HIV is generally satisfactory, with some exceptions that may be corrected with a better sanitary education. Theoretical attitude of students towards HIV positive/diseased subjects is generally positive, but these results are in clear contrast with answers about relations with these persons in everyday life.

Blagojevic L; Petrovic B; Kocic B; Rancic N; Deljanin Z

2013-03-01

72

Olig2-positive cells in glioneuronal tumors show both glial and neuronal characters: the implication of a common progenitor cell?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glioneuronal tumors (GNTs) are rare neoplasms consisting of both glial and neuronal components. Among the GNTs, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs), papillary glioneuronal tumors (PGNTs), and rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle (RGNTs) share the character of being mainly composed of small round Olig2-positive tumor cells. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we examined a series of 35 GNT cases (11 DNTs, 15 PGNTs and 9 RGNTs) on the characteristics of Olig2-positive tumor cells. Histologically, Olig2-positive cells showed small round forms in most GNTs; however, there were a small number of Olig2-positive cells with neuronal morphology only in a PGNT case. These cells expressed both glial and neuronal markers by double immunostaining. With regard to labeling indices and intensity, only PGNT cells expressed neuronal markers, including ?-internexin and neurofilament. These findings also suggest that some Olig2-positive PGNT cells may show neuronal differentiation. In GNTs, a considerable number of Olig2-positive cells showed immunopositivity for cyclin D1 and/or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?), which are markers for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. These immunostainings were particularly strong in DNTs. In RGNTs, Olig2-positive cells formed "neurocytic rosettes". Furthermore, they were also immunopositive for glial markers, including GFAP, PDGFR? and cyclin D1. These findings indicate the heterogeneous characteristics of Olig2-positive cells in GNTs, and some of them also exhibited neuronal features. So it is possible that a part of Olig2-positive GNT cells have characteristics similar to those of progenitor cells.

Matsumura N; Yokoo H; Mao Y; Yin W; Nakazato Y

2013-06-01

73

Olig2-positive cells in glioneuronal tumors show both glial and neuronal characters: the implication of a common progenitor cell?  

Science.gov (United States)

Glioneuronal tumors (GNTs) are rare neoplasms consisting of both glial and neuronal components. Among the GNTs, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs), papillary glioneuronal tumors (PGNTs), and rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle (RGNTs) share the character of being mainly composed of small round Olig2-positive tumor cells. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we examined a series of 35 GNT cases (11 DNTs, 15 PGNTs and 9 RGNTs) on the characteristics of Olig2-positive tumor cells. Histologically, Olig2-positive cells showed small round forms in most GNTs; however, there were a small number of Olig2-positive cells with neuronal morphology only in a PGNT case. These cells expressed both glial and neuronal markers by double immunostaining. With regard to labeling indices and intensity, only PGNT cells expressed neuronal markers, including ?-internexin and neurofilament. These findings also suggest that some Olig2-positive PGNT cells may show neuronal differentiation. In GNTs, a considerable number of Olig2-positive cells showed immunopositivity for cyclin D1 and/or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?), which are markers for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. These immunostainings were particularly strong in DNTs. In RGNTs, Olig2-positive cells formed "neurocytic rosettes". Furthermore, they were also immunopositive for glial markers, including GFAP, PDGFR? and cyclin D1. These findings indicate the heterogeneous characteristics of Olig2-positive cells in GNTs, and some of them also exhibited neuronal features. So it is possible that a part of Olig2-positive GNT cells have characteristics similar to those of progenitor cells. PMID:23025580

Matsumura, Nozomi; Yokoo, Hideaki; Mao, Ying; Yin, Wang; Nakazato, Yoichi

2012-10-01

74

Safer sex as the bolder choice: testosterone is positively correlated with safer sex behaviorally relevant attitudes in young men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Higher testosterone (T) is tied to risk-taking, especially in financial domains but also in health domains relevant to acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, safer sex constructs could themselves carry the possibility of "social risk" due to sexual stigma or embarrassment, or could involve boldness or confidence because they could represent status displays of frequent sexual activity. AIM: To determine how T and behaviorally relevant attitudes about sexual risk-taking are linked, to better understand biopsychosocial aspects of sexual health related to STIs. METHODS: In 78 first-year male college students, we examined correlations between salivary T and behaviorally relevant safer sex attitudes assessed via questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: T, via saliva; safer sex attitudes, via a composite and the University of California, Los Angeles Multidimensional Condom Attitudes Scale (MCAS). RESULTS: Higher T was significantly correlated with higher scores on the following: safer sex likelihood composite, r(73)=0.33, P=0.003; the MCAS safer sex resilience, r(32)=0.36, P=0.037; and the MCAS condom purchase comfort, r(32)=0.37, P=0.031. Associations between T and safer sex likelihood and resilience were still robust after controlling for potential confounds, though the association between T and purchase comfort diminished to a trend. CONCLUSIONS: Higher T was positively linked with safer sex attitudes, especially those most closely tied to STI risk avoidance. Thus, future research and interventions for STI prevention should address the possibility that safer sex may be paradoxically perceived as a "bold" or "risky" choice even as it decreases STI risk.

van Anders SM; Goldey KL; Conley TD; Snipes DJ; Patel DA

2012-03-01

75

Practitioners' Views and Use of Evidence-based Treatment: Positive Attitudes but Missed Opportunities in Children's Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent evidence-based treatments (EBTs) are used in clinical practice within the Australian therapeutic child welfare sector is unknown. In this study, we investigated practitioners' knowledge, attitudes, and use of EBT when providing interventions to children and families and how the intended outcomes of interventions are evaluated. Practitioners (N = 112) from 41 non-government organizations were surveyed and reported few barriers to implementing EBTs and positive attitudes. While just over half the practitioners surveyed provided an accurate definition of EBT, 72 % of practitioners reported using EBTs in their clinical practice. Of those, 88 % reported modifying the EBT, however interventions were rarely evaluated systematically. Implications for the use of EBTs, how they are modified, and the role of systematic evaluation are discussed. PMID:23371263

Thomas, Rae; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Chaffin, Mark

2013-02-01

76

Practitioners' Views and Use of Evidence-based Treatment: Positive Attitudes but Missed Opportunities in Children's Services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extent evidence-based treatments (EBTs) are used in clinical practice within the Australian therapeutic child welfare sector is unknown. In this study, we investigated practitioners' knowledge, attitudes, and use of EBT when providing interventions to children and families and how the intended outcomes of interventions are evaluated. Practitioners (N = 112) from 41 non-government organizations were surveyed and reported few barriers to implementing EBTs and positive attitudes. While just over half the practitioners surveyed provided an accurate definition of EBT, 72 % of practitioners reported using EBTs in their clinical practice. Of those, 88 % reported modifying the EBT, however interventions were rarely evaluated systematically. Implications for the use of EBTs, how they are modified, and the role of systematic evaluation are discussed.

Thomas R; Zimmer-Gembeck MJ; Chaffin M

2013-02-01

77

Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autobiographical memories are retrieved as images from either a field perspective or an observer perspective. The observer perspective is thought to dull emotion. Positive affect is blunted in depressed mood. Consequently, are positive events recalled from an observer perspective in depressed mood? We investigated the relationship between memory vantage perspective and depressive symptoms in a student sample. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) and assessed the perspective accompanying each memory. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008) were administered. The results showed a small positive association between depressive symptoms and the use of an observer perspective for positive autobiographical memories, but not for negative memories. Furthermore, comparing a subgroup with clinically significant symptom levels (dysphoric students) with non-dysphoric individuals revealed that dysphoric students used an observer perspective more for positive memories compared with negative memories. This was not the case for non-dysphoric students. The observer perspective in dysphorics was associated with a dampening cognitive style in response to positive experiences.

Nelis S; Debeer E; Holmes EA; Raes F

2013-01-01

78

HPV vaccine information in the blogosphere: how positive and negative blogs influence vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research examines the impact of exposure to online blogs about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. In a controlled experiment (N = 341), college students were exposed to either a negative blog post about the HPV vaccine or a positive one. Compared to the control group, participants who had viewed the negative blog perceived the vaccine as less safe, held more negative attitudes toward the vaccine, and had reduced intentions to receive the vaccine. In contrast, exposure to the positive blog did not alter any vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, or intentions. Implications of the findings for online vaccine risk communication are discussed.

Nan X; Madden K

2012-11-01

79

The gradual threshold model of ambivalence: relating the positive and negative bases of attitudes to subjective ambivalence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research examined the relationship between the measured (Study 1) and manipulated (Studies 2 and 3) positive and negative bases of attitudes and the psychological experience of attitudinal ambivalence. On the basis of these studies, the gradual threshold model of ambivalence (GTM) was advanced. The GTM holds that: (a) ambivalence increases in a negatively accelerating manner as the number of conflicting reactions (whichever of the positive or negative reactions are fewer in number) increases, (b) ambivalence is a negative function of the extent of dominant reactions, and (c) as the number of conflicting reactions increases, the impact of dominant reactions on ambivalence gradually decreases such that at some level of conflicting reactions (i.e, the threshold), the number of dominant reactions no longer has an impact on subjective ambivalence.

Priester JR; Petty RE

1996-09-01

80

Evaluating learning and attitudes on tissue engineering: a study of children viewing animated digital dome shows detailing the biomedicine of tissue engineering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art-science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made them think, 75% enjoyed it, and 89% felt that they learned something. We discuss the potential impact the films might have on public knowledge, health literacy, and attitudes toward the science of tissue engineering.

Wilson AC; Gonzalez LL; Pollock JA

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Automated tracking of mitotic spindle pole positions shows that LGN is required for spindle rotation but not orientation maintenance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spindle orientation defines the plane of cell division and, thereby, the spatial position of all daughter cells. Here, we develop a live cell microscopy-based methodology to extract spindle movements in human epithelial cell lines and study how spindles are brought to a pre-defined orientation. We show that spindles undergo two distinct regimes of movements. Spindles are first actively rotated toward the cells' long-axis and then maintained along this pre-defined axis. By quantifying spindle movements in cells depleted of LGN, we show that the first regime of rotational movements requires LGN that recruits cortical dynein. In contrast, the second regime of movements that maintains spindle orientation does not require LGN, but is sensitive to 2ME2 that suppresses microtubule dynamics. Our study sheds first insight into spatially defined spindle movement regimes in human cells, and supports the presence of LGN and dynein independent cortical anchors for astral microtubules. PMID:23907121

Corrigan, Adam M; Shrestha, Roshan L; Zulkipli, Ihsan; Hiroi, Noriko; Liu, Yingjun; Tamura, Naoka; Yang, Bing; Patel, Jessica; Funahashi, Akira; Donald, Athene; Draviam, Viji M

2013-07-16

82

Automated tracking of mitotic spindle pole positions shows that LGN is required for spindle rotation but not orientation maintenance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spindle orientation defines the plane of cell division and, thereby, the spatial position of all daughter cells. Here, we develop a live cell microscopy-based methodology to extract spindle movements in human epithelial cell lines and study how spindles are brought to a pre-defined orientation. We show that spindles undergo two distinct regimes of movements. Spindles are first actively rotated toward the cells' long-axis and then maintained along this pre-defined axis. By quantifying spindle movements in cells depleted of LGN, we show that the first regime of rotational movements requires LGN that recruits cortical dynein. In contrast, the second regime of movements that maintains spindle orientation does not require LGN, but is sensitive to 2ME2 that suppresses microtubule dynamics. Our study sheds first insight into spatially defined spindle movement regimes in human cells, and supports the presence of LGN and dynein independent cortical anchors for astral microtubules.

Corrigan AM; Shrestha RL; Zulkipli I; Hiroi N; Liu Y; Tamura N; Yang B; Patel J; Funahashi A; Donald A; Draviam VM

2013-08-01

83

Subjective well-being, but not subjective mental functioning shows positive associations with neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of subjective quality of life as measured by the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment questionnaire (SWN-K) with neuropsychological functioning; to address interactions with the SWN-K domain mental functioning as a measure of subjective cognitive dysfunction; and to examine the interaction of subjective well-being and psychopathology ratings. METHODS: Forty-five patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) were assessed regarding subjective well-being (SWN-K), neuropsychological impairment, and psychopathology (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; BPRS). RESULTS: After controlling for multiple comparisons, SWN-K total score showed significant positive correlations with concentration/attention (r=.498), working memory (r=.537), verbal memory (r=.522), and global cognition (r=.459). No correlations of SWN mental functioning and neuropsychological impairment remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Correlations between SWN-K subscales and neuropsychological functioning were generally positive, indicating higher subjective well-being in patients with better neurocognition. In multivariate analyses, global cognition was a significant predictor (p=.011), accounting for 19.7% of SWN total score variance. Adding BPRS total score as predictor (p=.054) explained an additional 6.9% of SWN-K variance. Linear regression analyses with SWN-K mental functioning as dependent variable did not yield statistically significant models. CONCLUSION: Subjective well-being and objective neuropsychological functioning show only moderate associations and can be seen as largely independent parameters. In particular, subjective mental functioning cannot serve as a proxy for objective neuropsychological testing.

Schroeder K; Huber CG; Jelinek L; Moritz S

2013-04-01

84

Rethinking procrastination: positive effects of "active" procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals. PMID:15959999

Chu, Angela Hsin Chun; Choi, Jin Nam

2005-06-01

85

Rethinking procrastination: positive effects of "active" procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals.

Chu AH; Choi JN

2005-06-01

86

Coronary heart disease risk scales and reactivity in a prevention program assessment: failure to show positive relationships.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was designed to evaluate relationships among the Jenkins Activity Survey, the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and cardiovascular reactivity measured during a semistructured interview in a hospital setting. Subjects were 201 business persons participating in a cardiovascular risk assessment interview component of a fitness program. Correlation analysis showed little evidence of significant positive relationships between self-report scores and reactivity in the total sample and among subjects with high resting blood pressures. Graphic analysis of total sample bivariate distributions, however, demonstrated patterns suggestive of nonlinear relationships. Evaluation of scatterplots and residual plots in conjunction with nonlinear and weighted least squares regression analyses nonetheless failed to reveal significant nonlinear relationships. The authors discuss implications of these findings.

Spoth RL; Dush DM; Leonard TD

1992-01-01

87

Determination of spacecraft attitude and source position using non-aligned detectors in spin-stabilized satellites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modulation of high-energy transients' (or steadily emitting sources') light curves due to the imperfect alignment of the detector's view axis with the spin axis in a spin-stabilized satellite is derived. It is shown how the orientation of the detector's view axis with respect to the satellite's spin axis may be estimated using observed light curves. The effects of statistical fluctuations are considered. Using the estimated value of the inclination of the detector's view axis, the modulated light curve is demodulated and compared with the original one. Conversely, it is shown how the attitude of a spin-axis stabilized satellite as well as the unknown position of a celestial source of high-energy photons may be determined using a detector whose view-axis is intentionally kept inclined and is known accurately beforehand. The case of three-axes stabilized satellites is also discussed.

2010-01-01

88

Development of a Scale to Measure Attitudes toward Inclusive Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Attitudes toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) is a measure of positive and negative attitudes toward integrating children with disabilities into regular classes. Results with 445 teachers show that the ATIES defines a unidimensional attitudinal variable and yields interval measures of attitudes toward inclusive education. (SLD)

Wilczenski, Felicia L.

1995-01-01

89

Measuring the body position, attitude and wing deformation of a free-flight dragonfly by combining a comb fringe pattern with sign points on the wing  

Science.gov (United States)

The simultaneous measurements of the body position, attitude and the wing kinematics of a free-flight insect are very important for analysing the flight performance. In this paper, a method based on combining a comb fringe pattern with sign points on the dragonfly wing has been developed to improve the accuracy in body position and attitude measurement or in construction of a local body-fixed coordinate system. Meanwhile, the wing kinematics can be measured simultaneously by the comb fringe pattern method. The method has been used successfully in the measurement of a free-flight dragonfly.

Wang, Hao; Zeng, Lijiang; Yin, Chunyong

2002-06-01

90

HPV vaccine information in the blogosphere: how positive and negative blogs influence vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examines the impact of exposure to online blogs about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. In a controlled experiment (N = 341), college students were exposed to either a negative blog post about the HPV vaccine or a positive one. Compared to the control group, participants who had viewed the negative blog perceived the vaccine as less safe, held more negative attitudes toward the vaccine, and had reduced intentions to receive the vaccine. In contrast, exposure to the positive blog did not alter any vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, or intentions. Implications of the findings for online vaccine risk communication are discussed. PMID:22452582

Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly

2012-03-27

91

"Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders  

Science.gov (United States)

|Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2008-01-01

92

"Challenging Disabling Attitudes, Building an Inclusive Society": Considering the Role of Education in Encouraging Non-Disabled Children to Develop Positive Attitudes towards Disabled People  

Science.gov (United States)

|In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty…

Beckett, Angharad E.

2009-01-01

93

Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods.

SØndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.

2005-01-01

94

Social attitudes modulate automatic imitation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In naturalistic interpersonal settings, mimicry or ‘automatic imitation’ generates liking, affiliation, cooperation and other positive social attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find out whether the relationship between social attitudes and mimicry is bidirectional: Do social attitudes have ...

Bird, G.; Heyes, C.; Leighton, J.; Orsini, C.

95

MD Anderson study shows targeted agent addition to herceptin has positive effect on metastatic HER-2 breast cancer:  

Science.gov (United States)

Adding Afinitor (everolimus) to Herceptin (trastuzumab), the main treatment for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, helps some women with disease that has been resistant to previous Herceptin-based therapies, according to a study led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

96

Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 cultured from Swedish sheep showing serologically false-positive reactions for Brucella melitensis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a herd of 20 sheep in Sweden, a country where brucellosis has never been diagnosed in sheep or goats, a total of six sheep were found serologically positive to Brucella melitensis in two different rounds of sampling. Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 could at the time of the second sampling be...

Chenais, Erika; Bagge, Elisabeth; Lambertz, Susanne Thisted; Artursson, Karin

97

Rate-adaptive pacing using intracardiac impedance shows no evidence for positive feedback during dobutamine stress test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Inos2 DDDR pacemaker senses unipolar intracardiac impedance signals for adapting heart rate to meet the haemodynamic needs of physical activity. Theoretically, such pacing devices could be limited by positive feedback since increase in beating frequency per se enhances contractility. We have addressed this problem in patients with chronotropic incompetence who were subjected to a pharmacological stress test. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve patients with chronically implanted Inos2 DDDR pacemakers were studied using the standard protocol of stress echocardiography. Most of the patients reached the programmable maximum closed-loop rate during the incremental dobutamine challenge. The time courses for increase in as well as for recovery of heart rate were not different from control patients receiving routine diagnostic stress echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: In patients implanted with the Inos2 DDDR pacemaker acute stimulation with intravenous dobutamine leads to a robust increase in paced heart rate without any evidence of positive feedback.

Christ T; Schier M; Brattström A; Muth G; Hartmann A; Dobrev D; Ravens U

2002-07-01

98

Opposition to enlargement as a symbolic defence of group position: multilevel analyses of attitudes toward candidates' entries in the EU-25.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the sociological and geopolitical significance of EU enlargement and opinion toward it, extant literature is lacking a theory of enlargement opinion and an examination of opinion in the wake of the 2004 enlargement. This paper fills these gaps by developing a symbolic defence of group position model to explain opposition to the entries of candidate states (as of 2005: Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, and Turkey) and to examine how these explanations differ for post-Communist EU members. Results of hierarchical multinomial logistic models of Eurobarometer (European Commission 2005) data from the EU-25 support the notion that the symbolic nature of enlargement shapes the effects of interests, threat, and other factors on opinion depending on candidates' position in a culturally and historically-rooted hierarchy of 'European-ness'. Attitudes toward Turkey's entry are less shaped by material interests than attitudes toward other candidates' entries, which is explained by Turkey's position at the bottom - and post-Communist countries' position in the middle - of this hierarchy in the post-Cold War era. Attitudes toward Turkey's entry are rather a function of the perceived threat that it poses to the group position and identity of Europeans, which is defended by the politically knowledgeable. While the lower levels of threat in post-socialist EU member countries help to account for their lower levels of opposition to candidates' entries, people in these countries to a greater extent use European identity as a way of symbolically distancing themselves from Turkey. Implications are discussed. PMID:20377600

Dixon, Jeffrey C

2010-03-01

99

Opposition to enlargement as a symbolic defence of group position: multilevel analyses of attitudes toward candidates' entries in the EU-25.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the sociological and geopolitical significance of EU enlargement and opinion toward it, extant literature is lacking a theory of enlargement opinion and an examination of opinion in the wake of the 2004 enlargement. This paper fills these gaps by developing a symbolic defence of group position model to explain opposition to the entries of candidate states (as of 2005: Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, and Turkey) and to examine how these explanations differ for post-Communist EU members. Results of hierarchical multinomial logistic models of Eurobarometer (European Commission 2005) data from the EU-25 support the notion that the symbolic nature of enlargement shapes the effects of interests, threat, and other factors on opinion depending on candidates' position in a culturally and historically-rooted hierarchy of 'European-ness'. Attitudes toward Turkey's entry are less shaped by material interests than attitudes toward other candidates' entries, which is explained by Turkey's position at the bottom - and post-Communist countries' position in the middle - of this hierarchy in the post-Cold War era. Attitudes toward Turkey's entry are rather a function of the perceived threat that it poses to the group position and identity of Europeans, which is defended by the politically knowledgeable. While the lower levels of threat in post-socialist EU member countries help to account for their lower levels of opposition to candidates' entries, people in these countries to a greater extent use European identity as a way of symbolically distancing themselves from Turkey. Implications are discussed.

Dixon JC

2010-03-01

100

Mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations of the head and neck show a clinicopathologic spectrum similar to cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are classified as cutaneous (primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis) or systemic. As extent of disease dictates prognosis and treatment, patients with skin involvement need clinical staging to determine whether systemic lymphoma also is present. Similar processes may involve mucosal sites of the head and neck, constituting a spectrum that includes both neoplasms and reactive conditions (eg, traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia). However, no standard classification exists for mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations. To improve our understanding of these processes, we identified 15 such patients and examined clinical presentation, treatment and outcome, morphology, phenotype using immunohistochemistry, and genetics using gene rearrangement studies and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The 15 patients (11 M, 4 F; mean age, 57 years) had disease involving the oral cavity/lip/tongue (9), orbit/conjunctiva (3) or nasal cavity/sinuses (3). Of 14 patients with staging data, 7 had mucosal disease only; 2 had mucocutaneous disease; and 5 had systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Patients with mucosal or mucocutaneous disease only had a favorable prognosis and none developed systemic spread (follow-up, 4-93 months). Three of five patients with systemic disease died of lymphoma after 1-48 months. Morphologic and phenotypic features were similar regardless of extent of disease. One anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive case was associated with systemic disease. Two cases had rearrangements of the DUSP22-IRF4 locus on chromosome 6p25.3, seen most frequently in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Our findings suggest mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations share features with cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, and require clinical staging for stratification into primary and secondary types. Primary cases have clinicopathologic features closer to primary cutaneous disease than to systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, including indolent clinical behavior. Understanding the spectrum of mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations is important to avoid possible overtreatment resulting from a diagnosis of overt T-cell lymphoma.

Sciallis AP; Law ME; Inwards DJ; McClure RF; Macon WR; Kurtin PJ; Dogan A; Feldman AL

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations of the head and neck show a clinicopathologic spectrum similar to cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are classified as cutaneous (primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis) or systemic. As extent of disease dictates prognosis and treatment, patients with skin involvement need clinical staging to determine whether systemic lymphoma also is present. Similar processes may involve mucosal sites of the head and neck, constituting a spectrum that includes both neoplasms and reactive conditions (eg, traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia). However, no standard classification exists for mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations. To improve our understanding of these processes, we identified 15 such patients and examined clinical presentation, treatment and outcome, morphology, phenotype using immunohistochemistry, and genetics using gene rearrangement studies and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The 15 patients (11 M, 4 F; mean age, 57 years) had disease involving the oral cavity/lip/tongue (9), orbit/conjunctiva (3) or nasal cavity/sinuses (3). Of 14 patients with staging data, 7 had mucosal disease only; 2 had mucocutaneous disease; and 5 had systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Patients with mucosal or mucocutaneous disease only had a favorable prognosis and none developed systemic spread (follow-up, 4-93 months). Three of five patients with systemic disease died of lymphoma after 1-48 months. Morphologic and phenotypic features were similar regardless of extent of disease. One anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive case was associated with systemic disease. Two cases had rearrangements of the DUSP22-IRF4 locus on chromosome 6p25.3, seen most frequently in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Our findings suggest mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations share features with cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, and require clinical staging for stratification into primary and secondary types. Primary cases have clinicopathologic features closer to primary cutaneous disease than to systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, including indolent clinical behavior. Understanding the spectrum of mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations is important to avoid possible overtreatment resulting from a diagnosis of overt T-cell lymphoma. PMID:22388754

Sciallis, Andrew P; Law, Mark E; Inwards, David J; McClure, Rebecca F; Macon, William R; Kurtin, Paul J; Dogan, Ahmet; Feldman, Andrew L

2012-03-02

102

Ship management attitudes and their relation to behavior and performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to adapt the Crew Resource Management (CRM) Attitudes Questionnaire (CMAQ) to the maritime domain, to assess the ship management attitudes of junior naval officers, and to determine the extent to which these attitudes correlate with behavior and performance in a naval exercise. BACKGROUND: CRM attitudes have been shown to be associated with performance in aviation, but it is unclear whether this construct is applicable and relevant to the maritime domain. METHOD: Participants were 121 active seafarers and 101 junior officers of the German Navy who completed the Ship Management Attitudes Questionnaire-German Navy (SMAQ-GN). Ratings of nontechnical skills and ratings of mission success of the junior officers were collected during a real-world naval exercise. RESULTS: Internal consistencies of SMAQ-GN were similar to those of the original CMAQ and retest reliability was rather high. Attitudes of junior officers toward communication and coordination were positive. Regarding command responsibility and the recognition of stressor effects, positive as well as neutral and negative attitudes were found. Overall, attitudes did not correlate with behavior and performance. Separate analysis of those participants reporting negative to neutral ship management attitudes showed substantial positive correlations of attitudes with behavior and performance. CONCLUSION: Ship management attitudes play a significant role in commanding ships. The attitude-performance linkage is not linear. Behavior and performance are less effective in officers with negative attitudes and equally effective in officers with slightly positive and very positive attitudes. APPLICATION: Ship management attitudes can be used to assess training needs for nautical teams.

Röttger S; Vetter S; Kowalski JT

2013-06-01

103

The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS), a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a) the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b) the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common ancestor of all the Deuterostomia.

Mashanov Vladimir S; Zueva Olga R; Heinzeller Thomas; Aschauer Beate; Naumann Wilfried W; Grondona Jesus M; Cifuentes Manuel; Garcia-Arraras Jose E

2009-01-01

104

Fuzzy measure of secondary students’ attitude towards Mathematics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we proposed a fuzzy concept for measuring Likert type scale to measure students’ attitude towards mathematics with an example of small sample. Students’ attitude towards mathematics has been a factor that is known to influence students’ achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to find out the students attitude towards mathematics in a selected school of Midnapore (Rural). A total of 20 secondary students were administered with a questionnaire to find out their attitudes towards mathematics. The students answered questions regarding their personal confidence to mathematics and perceived usefulness of mathematics. The results show that the students’ positive attitude towards mathematics is medium.

Bhowmik, Monoranjan; Banerjee, Bharati

2013-01-01

105

Implicit attitudes, emotions, and helping intentions of mental health workers toward their clients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The attitudes of mental health care workers toward their clients may influence the quality of care they provide. There is growing recognition of the role of implicit attitudes in behavior toward people with stigmatized illnesses, such as mental illness, and of the need to measure these separately from explicit attitudes. Seventy-four mental health workers completed implicit and explicit measure of attitudes toward people with mental illness. The participants were also asked about their intention to help people with mental illness and their emotional reactions toward people with a mental illness. The findings show that the implicit attitudes of the health workers toward clients with a mental illness are somewhat negative despite the fact that their explicit attitudes are somewhat positive. Although both implicit and explicit attitudes predicted negative emotions, only implicit attitudes were related to helping intentions. This study highlights the association between implicit attitudes and behavioral intentions and confirms the importance of addressing implicit attitudes in mental health research.

Brener L; Rose G; von Hippel C; Wilson H

2013-06-01

106

Position and attitude control of a spacecraft by sliding mode control; Sliding mode seigyo ni yoru uchuki no ichi shisei seigyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large debris removers, orbital maneuvering vehicles, etc., which have to be equipped with high maneuverability, are expected to perform various missions that will accompany large-angled changes in attitude and position. Since the equation of motion for such a space vehicle that will carry out motions of 6 degrees of freedom in the 3-dimensional space is a non-linear equation in which translation and rotation are compounded, it is difficult to apply the ordinary linear control theory. So, application is discussed of a sliding mode control that can handle directly the non-linearly controllable objects without converting them. In this method, the attitude and position of a space vehicle will be controlled for its attitude to match that of a tumbling large debris or malfunctioning satellite and to orbit around the large debris or malfunctioning satellite with a certain distance between them. Upon some control signal inputted, the state of the object under control will be caused to reach a predetermined hyperspace and constrained there, and the thus-achieved state is caused to slide to the point of equilibrium for the stabilization of the object under control. How to design the control system and its structure and functions are stated, and the system is tested for robustness. 30 refs., 2 figs.

Terui, F. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

1997-07-01

107

Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. ?(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (P<0.001), more dietary fiber (P<0.001), fewer added sugars (P<0.001), fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.001), and less fat (P=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (P<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality.

Pelletier JE; Laska MN; Neumark-Sztainer D; Story M

2013-01-01

108

Attitudes toward statistics in medical postgraduates: measuring, evaluating and monitoring  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In medical training, statistics is considered a very difficult course to learn and teach. Current studies have found that students’ attitudes toward statistics can influence their learning process. Measuring, evaluating and monitoring the changes of students’ attitudes toward statistics are important. Few studies have focused on the attitudes of postgraduates, especially medical postgraduates. Our purpose was to understand current attitudes regarding statistics held by medical postgraduates and explore their effects on students’ achievement. We also wanted to explore the influencing factors and the sources of these attitudes and monitor their changes after a systematic statistics course. Methods A total of 539 medical postgraduates enrolled in a systematic statistics course completed the pre-form of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics ?28 scale, and 83 postgraduates were selected randomly from among them to complete the post-form scale after the course. Results Most medical postgraduates held positive attitudes toward statistics, but they thought statistics was a very difficult subject. The attitudes mainly came from experiences in a former statistical or mathematical class. Age, level of statistical education, research experience, specialty and mathematics basis may influence postgraduate attitudes toward statistics. There were significant positive correlations between course achievement and attitudes toward statistics. In general, student attitudes showed negative changes after completing a statistics course. Conclusions The importance of student attitudes toward statistics must be recognized in medical postgraduate training. To make sure all students have a positive learning environment, statistics teachers should measure their students’ attitudes and monitor their change of status during a course. Some necessary assistance should be offered for those students who develop negative attitudes.

Zhang Yuhai; Shang Lei; Wang Rui; Zhao Qinbo; Li Chanjuan; Xu Yongyong; Su Haixia

2012-01-01

109

Deterministic and Recursive Approach in Attitude Determination for InnoSAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attitude determination system (ADS) was indispensable in attitude control of satellite. Especially for InnoSAT due to the limitation of budget, weight, and power, the attitude was determined using onboard position sensors. Previous research has successfully implemented the attitude determination using only Earth's magnetic field sensors for small attitude angle, but the approach produced quite big error for large attitude angle. This paper presents attitude determination for InnoSAT using combination of sun sensors and earth's magnetic field for large attitude angle. The attitude was determined using a deterministic (QUEST) and recursive (EKF) approach. A problem arises when using the sun sensors while the satellite experiencing eclipse. Consequently, the accuracy of both approaches was analyzed at eclipse and no eclipse conditions. The result shows that deterministic approach produced better accuracy at no eclipse but recursive approach produced better accuracy at eclipse. The strategy to apply the both approaches and eclipse conditions also discussed in this paper.

M. Fadly; Othman Sidek; Md Azlin Md Said; Harijono Djojodihardjo; Adam Ain

2011-01-01

110

Attitudes of university precalculus students toward mathematics.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics. PMID:15941096

Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Mji, Andile

2005-04-01

111

Attitudes of university precalculus students toward mathematics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the attitudes of 200 university students (83% freshmen) toward mathematics, a questionnaire was administered to report on their attitudes toward mathematics. Analysis indicated that students studying precalculus had a somewhat positive attitude toward mathematics.

Alkhateeb HM; Mji A

2005-04-01

112

Invasive breast carcinoma cases showing both estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity and c-erb B2 overexpression (a clinicopathologic study of 66 cases)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We analyzed clinicopathologic characteristics of invasive breast carcinomas, where both hormone receptor positivity and c-erb B2 overexpression were detected by immunohistochemical methods. The rate of hormone receptor positivity for invasive breast carcinomas with c-erb B2 overexpression was 27.61% (66/239). The majority of the cases showed high levels of immunopositivity for hormone receptors. The mean age of patients was 52.96 while pre and postmenopausal patients were equal in number. The vast majority of the cases were high grade-invasive ductal carcinomas of low stages. Of 36 cases with available clinical follow-up, 8 displayed either local recurrence or distant metastasis in a relatively short duration (1-17 months). Our findings reveal that invasive breast carcinomas with both hormone receptor positivity and overexpression of c-erb B2 have a tendency to occur in premenopausal patients and have adverse prognostic characteristics even at low stages.

Ali BAli BA?; Ekrem YAVUZ; S?tk? TUZLALI; R?dvan ?LHAN; Oktar ASO?LU; Ne?e GÜNEY

2006-01-01

113

Social attitudes modulate automatic imitation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In naturalistic interpersonal settings, mimicry or ‘automatic imitation’ generates liking, affiliation, cooperation and other positive social attitudes. The purpose of this study was to find out whether the relationship between social attitudes and mimicry is bidirectional: Do socia...

114

Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus vivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia.Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

Diego Carrera Martínez; Beatriz Braña Marcos; Estefanía Vegas Pardavila; Mónica de la Villa Santoveña

2011-01-01

115

Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente/ Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus vivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, (more) nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia. Abstract in english Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over he (more) r illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

Carrera Martínez, Diego; Braña Marcos, Beatriz; Vegas Pardavila, Estefanía; Villa Santoveña, Mónica de la

2011-06-01

116

Students’ Attitudes towards the English Proficiency Enhancement Programme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines students’ attitudes towards the English Proficiency Enhancement Programme (EPEP) carried out in one of the public universities in Malaysia. It draws on a study of 167 participants of the inaugural programme in 2010. A questionnaire was administered to evaluate their attitudes towards four categories of the programme: facilitators, schedule, activities and benefits. Analysis of data was done quantitatively. A main finding is that the EPEP impacted positively on the participants. Other findings show no significant differences in attitudes between gender but attitudes between diploma and undergraduate participants were significantly different. Resultant suggestions include continuing with this programme but with some modifications.

Engku Suhaimi Engku Atek; Zailani Jusoh; Alia Nabila Alias; Wahidah Abdul Wahid; Izah Mohd Tahir

2012-01-01

117

Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of scandinavia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians. PMID:23952927

Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

2013-09-01

118

Food and the relation between values and attitude characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This survey showed that the values power (dominance over nature and resources) and universalism (respect for people and for nature) are related to attitudes toward genetically modified food (GMF) and organically grown food (OGF). Furthermore, these values have an influence on the centrality, commitment and ambivalence of these attitudes. Values that are positively related to an attitude influence how central this attitude is to a person. However, values that are negatively related to an attitude have a larger effect on the commitment of this attitude. No such pattern of effects was found for the relationship between ambivalence and values. These data suggest that centrality, commitment, and ambivalence are structurally different constructs that have a distinct relationship with specific values.

Dreezens E; Martijn C; Tenbült P; Kok G; de Vries NK

2005-08-01

119

[Social attitude towards health participation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The community health participation is an important issue for all health systems based on a Primary Health Care, which emphasizes prevention and promotion, as a complement to assistance. In this survey, the social attitude towards health participation is studied, taking into account the different research paradigms on Social Sciences, the models of health behaviours, the meaning of participation and the meaning of the own attitudes. METHODS: A Likert scale of 18 items, which constitutes a part of a general health survey of 128 variables, is elaborated and validated. It is complemented with a personal interview to 1371 persons in a random sample from four health areas. RESULTS: The data obtained show that there are neither statistical significant differences among areas in relation with having or not a Health Council, nor between men and women. The attitudes towards participation are more favourable among young people, bachelors and persons from a high socioeconomic status, hig degree studies, white collar professions, and the persons going to the doctor with the lowest frequency, show a positive tendency. The factorial analysis identifies three dimensions: a) Self-care, b) political and c) community health agent. The discriminant analysis shows that variables (age, civil, status, socioeconomic level, studies...) classify correctly 74% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The personal profile, showing a health participative attitude, is consistent, in most variables, with that published by previous reports.

Sánchez Moreno A; Ramos García E; Marset Campos P

1993-05-01

120

Intrathyroid epithelial thymoma (ITET) and carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE): CD5-positive neoplasms mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carcinoma of possible thymic epithelial origin may occur within the thyroid gland, which was first reported by Miyauchi et al. as intrathyroid epithelial thymoma (ITET). ITET is a rare tumor comprising about 0.08% of all primary thyroid malignancies. It is a low-grade thyroid carcinoma with squamous cell differentiation whose overall survival rate was found to be 71%. Lymph node metastasis at surgery was found in 40% and hematogenous metastases developed in bones, liver and lungs. This tumor grows within the thyroid gland and invades into the thyroid parenchyma as well as into the extrathyroid structures. It is a well-circumscribed solid tumor with a sharp tumor border, but is not capsulated. After fixation, the cut surface of the tumor is gray-white in color and is a solid tumor with lobulation. Tumor calcification was not detected in our 15 cases. The tumor cells show solid sheets of growth with occasional keratinization without follicular or papillary structures. Lymphocytic infiltration in the stroma is one of the most characteristic features of this tumor. The tumor cells are polygonal epithelial cells with distinct nucleoli and ill-defined cell border. Positive immunoreactivity for CD5 is a key feature to differentiate it from undifferentiated carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, medullary (C cell) carcinoma and high-grade squamous cell carcinoma (so-called primary squamous cell carcinoma) of the thyroid. Negative immunoreactivity for calcitonin, TTF1 and thyroglobulin, and positive immunoreactivity for p63 and KIT are also helpful for differential diagnosis. Nuclear atypia is mild and mitoses are less frequent, with an intermediate proliferation index (MIB-1 labeling index is usually less than 20%), which are also helpful to differentiate it from high-grade primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. The tumors in our 15 cases demonstrate 3 histological subtypes: keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma type, non-keratinizing basaloid cell carcinoma (lymphoepithelioma-like) type and neuroendocrine carcinoma type, which correspond to subtypes of the mediastinal thymic carcinomas.

Kakudo K; Bai Y; Ozaki T; Homma K; Ito Y; Miyauchi A

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT) usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

Wole M. Olatokun; Isioma N. Elueze

2012-01-01

122

Ethnic composition of school classes, majority-minority friendships, and adolescents' intergroup attitudes in the Netherlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority adolescents, both ethnic majority and ethnic minority adolescents reported more negative out-group attitudes. Moreover, in these school classes, ethnic majority adolescents showed more positive in-group attitudes, whereas ethnic minority adolescents showed less positive in-group attitudes. The proportion of majority-minority friendships was related to less negative out-group attitudes for ethnic majority adolescents only. The quality of majority-minority friendships was related to less negative out-group and in-group attitudes for both the ethnic majority and ethnic minority adolescents. The results are discussed in the light of contact theory and ethnic competition theory.

Vervoort MH; Scholte RH; Scheepers PL

2011-04-01

123

A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10?11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations.

Acuna-Alonzo, Victor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hunemeier, Tabita; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Ortiz-Lopez, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramirez, Hugo; Leon-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramirez-Jimenez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Angeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, Jose; Cedillo-Barron, Leticia; Gomez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodriguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Catira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

2010-01-01

124

Genotype and growing environment interaction shows a positive correlation between substrates of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) biosynthesis and their accumulation in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To develop genetic improvement strategies to modulate raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) concentration in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO and their precursor concentrations were analyzed in 171 chickpea genotypes from diverse geographical origins. The genotypes were grown in replicated trials over two years in the field (Patancheru, India) and in the greenhouse (Saskatoon, Canada). Analysis of variance revealed a significant impact of genotype, environment, and their interaction on RFO concentration in chickpea seeds. Total RFO concentration ranged from 1.58 to 5.31 mmol/100 g and from 2.11 to 5.83 mmol/100 g in desi and kabuli genotypes, respectively. Sucrose (0.60-3.59 g/100 g) and stachyose (0.18-2.38 g/100 g) were distinguished as the major soluble sugar and RFO, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between substrate and product concentration in RFO biosynthesis. In chickpea seeds, raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose showed a moderate broad sense heritability (0.25-0.56), suggesting the use of a multilocation trials based approach in chickpea seed quality improvement programs.

Gangola MP; Khedikar YP; Gaur PM; Båga M; Chibbar RN

2013-05-01

125

Genotype and growing environment interaction shows a positive correlation between substrates of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) biosynthesis and their accumulation in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop genetic improvement strategies to modulate raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) concentration in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO and their precursor concentrations were analyzed in 171 chickpea genotypes from diverse geographical origins. The genotypes were grown in replicated trials over two years in the field (Patancheru, India) and in the greenhouse (Saskatoon, Canada). Analysis of variance revealed a significant impact of genotype, environment, and their interaction on RFO concentration in chickpea seeds. Total RFO concentration ranged from 1.58 to 5.31 mmol/100 g and from 2.11 to 5.83 mmol/100 g in desi and kabuli genotypes, respectively. Sucrose (0.60-3.59 g/100 g) and stachyose (0.18-2.38 g/100 g) were distinguished as the major soluble sugar and RFO, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between substrate and product concentration in RFO biosynthesis. In chickpea seeds, raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose showed a moderate broad sense heritability (0.25-0.56), suggesting the use of a multilocation trials based approach in chickpea seed quality improvement programs. PMID:23621405

Gangola, Manu P; Khedikar, Yogendra P; Gaur, Pooran M; Båga, Monica; Chibbar, Ravindra N

2013-05-13

126

Two recombinant peptides, SpStrongylocins 1 and 2, from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, show antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cysteine-rich strongylocins were the first antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) discovered from the sea urchin species, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Homologous putative proteins (called SpStrongylocin) were found in the sister species, S. purpuratus. To demonstrate that they exhibit the same antibacterial activity as strongylocins, cDNAs encoding the 'mature' peptides (SpStrongylocins 1 and 2) were cloned into a direct expression system fusing a protease cleavage site and two purification tags to the recombinant peptide. Both recombinant fusion peptides were expressed in a soluble form in an Escherichia coli strain tolerant to toxic proteins. Enterokinase was used to remove the fusion tags and purified recombinant SpStrongylocins 1 and 2 showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The results of membrane integrity assays against cytoplasmic membranes of E. coli suggest that both recombinant SpStrongylocins 1 and 2 conduct their antibacterial activity by intracellular killing mechanisms because no increase in membrane permeability was detected.

Li C; Blencke HM; Smith LC; Karp MT; Stensvåg K

2010-03-01

127

Two recombinant peptides, SpStrongylocins 1 and 2, from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, show antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cysteine-rich strongylocins were the first antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) discovered from the sea urchin species, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Homologous putative proteins (called SpStrongylocin) were found in the sister species, S. purpuratus. To demonstrate that they exhibit the same antibacterial activity as strongylocins, cDNAs encoding the 'mature' peptides (SpStrongylocins 1 and 2) were cloned into a direct expression system fusing a protease cleavage site and two purification tags to the recombinant peptide. Both recombinant fusion peptides were expressed in a soluble form in an Escherichia coli strain tolerant to toxic proteins. Enterokinase was used to remove the fusion tags and purified recombinant SpStrongylocins 1 and 2 showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The results of membrane integrity assays against cytoplasmic membranes of E. coli suggest that both recombinant SpStrongylocins 1 and 2 conduct their antibacterial activity by intracellular killing mechanisms because no increase in membrane permeability was detected. PMID:19852980

Li, Chun; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Smith, L Courtney; Karp, Matti T; Stensvåg, Klara

2009-10-30

128

Intrathyroid epithelial thymoma (ITET) and carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE): CD5-positive neoplasms mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcinoma of possible thymic epithelial origin may occur within the thyroid gland, which was first reported by Miyauchi et al. as intrathyroid epithelial thymoma (ITET). ITET is a rare tumor comprising about 0.08% of all primary thyroid malignancies. It is a low-grade thyroid carcinoma with squamous cell differentiation whose overall survival rate was found to be 71%. Lymph node metastasis at surgery was found in 40% and hematogenous metastases developed in bones, liver and lungs. This tumor grows within the thyroid gland and invades into the thyroid parenchyma as well as into the extrathyroid structures. It is a well-circumscribed solid tumor with a sharp tumor border, but is not capsulated. After fixation, the cut surface of the tumor is gray-white in color and is a solid tumor with lobulation. Tumor calcification was not detected in our 15 cases. The tumor cells show solid sheets of growth with occasional keratinization without follicular or papillary structures. Lymphocytic infiltration in the stroma is one of the most characteristic features of this tumor. The tumor cells are polygonal epithelial cells with distinct nucleoli and ill-defined cell border. Positive immunoreactivity for CD5 is a key feature to differentiate it from undifferentiated carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, medullary (C cell) carcinoma and high-grade squamous cell carcinoma (so-called primary squamous cell carcinoma) of the thyroid. Negative immunoreactivity for calcitonin, TTF1 and thyroglobulin, and positive immunoreactivity for p63 and KIT are also helpful for differential diagnosis. Nuclear atypia is mild and mitoses are less frequent, with an intermediate proliferation index (MIB-1 labeling index is usually less than 20%), which are also helpful to differentiate it from high-grade primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. The tumors in our 15 cases demonstrate 3 histological subtypes: keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma type, non-keratinizing basaloid cell carcinoma (lymphoepithelioma-like) type and neuroendocrine carcinoma type, which correspond to subtypes of the mediastinal thymic carcinomas. PMID:23233417

Kakudo, Kennichi; Bai, Yanhua; Ozaki, Takashi; Homma, Kei-ichi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Akira

2012-12-11

129

The tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism gene shows locus homogeneity on chromosome 15q11-q13 and evidence of multiple mutations in southern African negroids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the melanin pigmentary system. South African ty-pos OCA individuals occur with two distinct phenotypes, with or without darkly pigmented patches (ephelides, or dendritic freckles) on exposed areas of the skin. These phenotypes are concordant within families, suggesting that there may be more than one mutation at the ty-pos OCA locus. Linkage studies carried out in 41 families have shown linkage between markers in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region on chromosome 15q11-q13 and ty-pos OCA. Analysis showed no obligatory crossovers between the alleles at the D15S12 locus and ty-pos OCA, suggesting that the D15S12 locus is very close to or part of the disease locus, which is postulated to be the human homologue, P, of the mouse pink-eyed dilution gene, p. Unlike caucasoid [open quotes]ty-pos OCA[close quotes] individuals, negroid ty-pos OCA individuals do not show any evidence of locus heterogeneity. Studies of allelic association between the polymorphic alleles detected at the D15S12 locus and ephelus status suggest that there was a single major mutation giving rise to ty-pos OCA without ephelides. There may, however, be two major mutations causing ty-pos OCA with ephelides, one associated with D15S12 allele 1 and the other associated with D15S12 allele 2. The two loci, GABRA5 and D15S24, flanking D15S12, are both hypervariable, and many different haplotypes were observed with the alleles at the three loci on both ty-pos OCA-associated chromosomes and [open quotes]normal[close quotes] chromosomes. No haplotype showed statistically significant association with ty-pos OCA, and thus none could be used to predict the origins of the ty-pos OCA mutations. On the basis of the D15S12 results, there is evidence for multiple ty-pos OCA mutations in southern African negroids. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Kedda, M.A.; Stevens, G.; Manga, P.; Viljoen, C.; Jenkins, T.; Ramsay, M. (South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg (South Africa) Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

1994-06-01

130

Perceived motivational climate, sportsmanship, and students' attitudes toward physical education classes and teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among students' perceptions of motivational climate, sportsmanship attitudes, and attitudes toward content and teachers in physical education. 910 secondary school students ages 13 to 16 years (M=14.3, SD=1.1) completed Spanish translations of L'Echelle de Perception du Climat Motivational by Biddle, et al., the Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientations Scale by Vallerand, et al., and the Student Attitudes toward Teacher and Program in Physical Education by Luke and Cope. Structural equation modeling showed that perceived mastery climate is a predictor of students' attitudes toward teacher and content and positive sportsmanship attitudes. In contrast, perceived performance climate was not a predictor or mainly predicted negatively the students' attitudes toward the physical education teacher, content, and sportsmanship attitudes. These findings are discussed with regard to the implications for physical educators. PMID:19425471

Gutiérrez, Melchor; Ruiz, Luis Miguel

2009-02-01

131

Perceived motivational climate, sportsmanship, and students' attitudes toward physical education classes and teachers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among students' perceptions of motivational climate, sportsmanship attitudes, and attitudes toward content and teachers in physical education. 910 secondary school students ages 13 to 16 years (M=14.3, SD=1.1) completed Spanish translations of L'Echelle de Perception du Climat Motivational by Biddle, et al., the Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientations Scale by Vallerand, et al., and the Student Attitudes toward Teacher and Program in Physical Education by Luke and Cope. Structural equation modeling showed that perceived mastery climate is a predictor of students' attitudes toward teacher and content and positive sportsmanship attitudes. In contrast, perceived performance climate was not a predictor or mainly predicted negatively the students' attitudes toward the physical education teacher, content, and sportsmanship attitudes. These findings are discussed with regard to the implications for physical educators.

Gutiérrez M; Ruiz LM

2009-02-01

132

How and when do personal values guide our attitudes and sociality? Explaining cross-cultural variability in attitude-value linkages.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines how and when personal values relate to social attitudes. Considering values as motivational orientations, we propose an attitude-value taxonomy based on Moral Foundation Theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2007) and Schwartz's (1992) basic human values theory allowing predictions of (a) how social attitudes are related to personal values, and (b) when macro-contextual factors have an impact on attitude-value links. In a meta-analysis based on the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992) and the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; k = 91, N = 30,357 from 31 countries), we found that self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values relate positively to fairness/proenvironmental and care/prosocial attitudes, and conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values relate to purity/religious and authority/political attitudes, whereas ingroup/identity attitudes are not consistently associated with value dimensions. Additionally, we hypothesize that the ecological, economic, and cultural context moderates the extent to which values guide social attitudes. Results of the multi-level meta-analysis show that ecological and cultural factors inhibit or foster attitude-value associations: Disease stress is associated with lower attitude-value associations for conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values; collectivism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for conservation values; individualism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values; and uncertainty avoidance is associated with stronger attitude-values links, particularly for conservation values. These findings challenge universalistic claims about context-independent attitude-value relations and contribute to refined future value and social attitude theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23339521

Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald

2013-01-21

133

How and When Do Personal Values Guide Our Attitudes and Sociality? Explaining Cross-Cultural Variability in Attitude-Value Linkages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article examines how and when personal values relate to social attitudes. Considering values as motivational orientations, we propose an attitude-value taxonomy based on Moral Foundation Theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2007) and Schwartz's (1992) basic human values theory allowing predictions of (a) how social attitudes are related to personal values, and (b) when macro-contextual factors have an impact on attitude-value links. In a meta-analysis based on the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992) and the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; k = 91, N = 30,357 from 31 countries), we found that self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values relate positively to fairness/proenvironmental and care/prosocial attitudes, and conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values relate to purity/religious and authority/political attitudes, whereas ingroup/identity attitudes are not consistently associated with value dimensions. Additionally, we hypothesize that the ecological, economic, and cultural context moderates the extent to which values guide social attitudes. Results of the multi-level meta-analysis show that ecological and cultural factors inhibit or foster attitude-value associations: Disease stress is associated with lower attitude-value associations for conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values; collectivism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for conservation values; individualism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values; and uncertainty avoidance is associated with stronger attitude-values links, particularly for conservation values. These findings challenge universalistic claims about context-independent attitude-value relations and contribute to refined future value and social attitude theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Boer D; Fischer R

2013-01-01

134

Young Men, Religion and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explains attitudes towards gays and lesbians, and explores the complex relationship of religiosity, youth, masculinity and support for gay rights. Based on a large, reliable and nationally representative study (n=1405) from PEW Center carried out in 2006, we estimate three logistic regression models predicting approval for gay marriage, gay adoption and gays in the military, which helps us to observe the differences. We conclude that while religiosity and fundamentalism negatively affect support for all three issues, the relationship varies by age and gender. Generally, young men do not show differences in their views of gay marriage, but men, especially religious, young men do show more negative attitudes than their female counterparts in support for gay adoption. Finally, men show more positive attitudes towards gays in the military.

Yasemin Besen; Gilbert Zicklin

2007-01-01

135

Surveys Assessing Students' Attitudes toward Statistics: A Systematic Review of Validity and Reliability  

Science.gov (United States)

Students with positive attitudes toward statistics are likely to show strong academic performance in statistics courses. Multiple surveys measuring students' attitudes toward statistics exist; however, a comparison of the validity and reliability of interpretations based on their scores is needed. A systematic review of relevant electronic…

Nolan, Meaghan M.; Beran, Tanya; Hecker, Kent G.

2012-01-01

136

The investigation of the reading attitudes of second grade students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level primary school students in respect to several variables using the “Reading Attitude Scale towards Primary School Second Grade Students” which is developed by Özbay and Uyar (2009). Study group consists of 508 students studying in the 6th, 7th and 8th levels of state primary schools in Ni?de city centre. Thus, the reading attitudes of 6th, 7th and 8th level students in accordance with gender and school variables are intended to be defined. At the end of the study, the reading attitude levels of the second grade students are seen positive. It is concluded that the reading attitude score averages of second grade students show a significant difference with regard to genders, schools and classes at which they study.

Kamil ??eri

2010-01-01

137

Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China : A hierarchical value-attitude model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology. The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism and attitudes towards technology points towards the belief of Chinese people that technology is a positive determinant of food safety, and that interest in technology steams from altruistic predispositions.

Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G

138

NURSING STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS ALCOHOL, ALCOHOLISM AND ALCOHOLICS: A STUDY OF A BRAZILIAN SAMPLE  

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Full Text Available Objective:Various international studies have reported on negative attitudes of nurses and nursing students towards substance misusers and have found that this issue receives little attention in professional nursing education. This research examined attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics in a Brazilian nursing student sample and analyzed associations between these attitudes and participants’ socio-demographic characteristics.Methods: Study participants were 144 last-year undergraduate students from two private colleges. A scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics was used for data collection.Results: The results showed that most participants had positive attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts. In addition, gender, age and the number of hours participants spent in lectures on alcohol and other drugs during their education were associated with positive attitudes towards their work and interpersonal relationships with alcoholics. This association was stronger in females (OR = 3.42), younger participants (OR = 2.18) and students who received more lecture hours on alcohol and other drugs during their education (OR = 3.53).Conclusion: In conclusion, the authors suggest that education and preparation in coping with drug problems increase nurses’ abilities at work and support more positive attitudes towards clients with drug problems. In addition, this study demonstrated that a significant part of students had negative attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts, despite the fact that positive attitudes prevailed in their schools. These results reflect the lack of importance granted to drug issues in undergraduate nursing curricula in Brazil.

Divane de Vargas

2012-01-01

139

Recurrent Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in Treatment with Dasatinib in a Patient Showing SMAD4 Mutation with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Philadelphia Positive and Juvenile Polyposis Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

Sartor C; Papayannidis C; Chiara Abbenante M; Iacobucci I; Broccoli A; Venturi C; Testoni N; Ferrari A; Martinelli G

2013-06-01

140

Recurrent Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in Treatment with Dasatinib in a Patient Showing SMAD4 Mutation with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Philadelphia Positive and Juvenile Polyposis Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

Sartor, Chiara; Papayannidis, Cristina; Chiara Abbenante, Maria; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Broccoli, Alessandro; Venturi, Claudia; Testoni, Nicoletta; Ferrari, Anna; Martinelli, Giovanni

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Triethyl-n-Hexylammonium Triethyl-n-Hexylboride: a New Antimicrobial Showing Activity Against Candida albicans and Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The organic salt triethyl-n-hexylammonium triethyl-n-hexylboride (N2226B2226) has biostatic effects against two gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus, and the yeast Candida albicans. Escherichia coli and chicken embryo fibroblasts grown in tissue culture are more refractor...

Rosenthal, K. S.; Storm, D. R.; Ford, W. T.

142

Attitudes without objects: evidence for a dispositional attitude, its measurement, and its consequences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction.

Hepler J; Albarracín D

2013-06-01

143

Incidence of having dreamed and conservative political attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The association of political attitudes of conservatives and reports of their having had a dream was investigated. 48 female graduate students in counseling psychology were given the KJP Dream Inventory and the Kerlinger Social Attitude Scale II. Scores on conservative political attitudes were positively correlated with having had Dreams of Falling (.40), Dream Discontentedness (.31), Dreams of Being Chased (.40), and Dreams of Being Famous (.30). Negative correlations were observed between scores showing a conservative political tendency and scores on Openness (-.35), and Uninhibitedness (-.50), as well as incidence of Dreams of Sex (-.29). The character of conservative dreaming is discussed along with the study's relevance to past and subsequent issues in research.

Kroth J; Bautista C; Bess J; Cruickshank K; Stashak J

2006-06-01

144

A mixed-method approach to sense of coherence, health behaviors, self-efficacy and optimism: towards the operationalization of positive health attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study discusses the results of a cross-sectional survey of healthy college students in Poland. More specifically, it describes, explores, and explains the relationships between psychological variables/models such as health behaviors (HB), sense of coherence (SOC), level of optimism (LOO), and self-efficacy (SE) among college students. These separate constructs have also been used to operationalize a positive health attitude (PHA) as a novel construct. The social survey was carried out at three higher education institutions in Poland in January 2006. The random sample of 455 undergraduate students was taken from five different faculties: Physiotherapy, Physical Education, Tourism and Recreation, English Philology and Polish Philology. Four reliable and validated research tools were used to collect the data: Juczynsky's Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI); Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Questionnaire (SOC-29); Schwarzer & Jerusalem's Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES); and Seligman's Scale (SS). The results indicate statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) between these four variables: for example, the healthier health behaviors the stronger the sense of coherence, level of optimism and self-efficacy. It was also demonstrated that LOO, SOC, SE, and HB correlate with one another. Finally, these variables create an explicit empirical-theoretical pattern. All the research results from REGWQ tests, Pearson's correlation coefficient and cluster analysis suggest the existence of conceptual similarities between these four variables and/or the existence of some broader scientific construct such as PHA. However, this needs to be examined further. These results could be a good indicator for future research among different faculties or age groups.

Posadzki P; Stockl A; Musonda P; Tsouroufli M

2010-06-01

145

Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

Chiara Sartor; Cristina Papayannidis; Maria Chiara Abbenante; Ilaria Iacobucci; Alessandro Broccoli; Claudia Venturi; Nicoletta Testoni; Anna Ferrari; Giovanni Martinelli

2013-01-01

146

Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans.

Andretta JR; Worrell FC; Mello ZR; Dixson DD; Baik SH

2013-04-01

147

Health workers’ attitudes toward immigrant patients: a cross-sectional survey in primary health care services  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Health workers’ attitudes toward immigrant patients influence behaviour, medical decisions, quality of care and health outcomes. Despite the increasing number of immigrant patients in health services and the potential influence of health workers’ attitudes, there is little research in this area. This study aimed to examine attitudes of different health workers’ groups toward immigrant patients and to identify the associated factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 400 health workers from primary health care services in the Lisbon region, Portugal. Among those, 320 completed a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for the evaluation of data. Results Most participants did not agree that immigrant patients tend to behave like victims, but about half considered that some are aggressive and dangerous. Doctors and nurses showed more positive attitudes than office workers. Among doctors, the older ones reported less positive attitudes compared to the younger ones. Health workers who have less daily contact with immigrants revealed more positive attitudes. Most participants evaluated their knowledge and competencies to work with immigrants as moderate or low. Conclusions Although health workers reveal positive attitudes, this study reinforces the need to develop strategies that prevent negative attitudes and stereotyping in health services. Efforts should be made to improve workers’ competencies to deal with culturally diverse populations, in order to promote quality of health care and obtain positive health outcomes among immigrant populations.

Dias Sónia; Gama Ana; Cargaleiro Helena; Martins Maria O

2012-01-01

148

The attitudes of older adults living in institutions and their caregivers to ageing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of older people living in institutions and their caregivers to ageing. Recent outcomes showed prevailing negative social stereotype to ageing in CR. METHODS: The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ-24) was used in two waves of data collection to measure attitudes of 400 randomly selected residents of 19 Senior Residential Homes. The reduced sample of 220 seniors and 276 professional carers employed at twelve Senior Residential Homes completed 12 items of general form (AAQ-12). All respondents expressed their agreement or disagreement with the statements presented in the questionnaire regarding positive or negative attitudes to ageing. RESULTS: The AAQ total score proved significant influence of gender, having children, self-perceived health, depression, and quality of life. Subscale scores (psychosocial losses, physical changes, psychological growth) were significantly influenced by gender, age, activities limitations, having own children, depression, self-perceived health status, and quality of life. Globally, the attitudes of professional caregivers to ageing were more positive compared to the attitudes of older people living in institutions. Older adults showed higher agreement with negative statements about ageing. There was no difference between professional caregivers and older people in the positive attitudes to ageing expressed as the growth potential. Physical activity, wisdom, better ability to cope with life and contacting young generation were effective in the positive attitudes of both groups.

Janecková H; Dragomirecká E; Holmerová I; Vanková H

2013-06-01

149

Evaluation of three tumor markers (CEA, CA19-9, nm-23) in tumor tissues of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma showing positive peritoneal lavage solution for malignant cells  

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Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of patients with serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma develop peritoneal recurrence and die of this disease during the first 2 years, even if curative resection is performed. Peritoneal lavage samples (PLS) from 31 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were obtained at laparotomy and the free cancer cells in the lavage solution were investigated. The aim of this study was to compare positive peritoneal lavage solution compare with expression in gastric carcinoma CEA, CA19-9, nm23 immunohistochemically and CEA and CA19-9 levels of systemic and portal venous blood.Materials and Methods: Peritoneal lavage samples from 31 patients with gastric carcinoma were obtained at laparotomy. To identify the free cancer cells in the samples, cytopathologic examinations were performed. Systemic venous blood samples were taken from all diagnosed gastric malignancy patients. In addition, portal blood samples were taken in order to measure CEA and CA 19-9 levels in the blood samples. By immunohistochemical analyses for CEA, CA19-9 and nm23 were performed all gastric operation specimens. For statistical analyses, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used.Results: The study group was comprised of 31 advanced gastric carcinoma patients. Of these patients, 16 were diffuse and the remaining 15 were diagnosed with intestinal type gastric carcinoma. Serosal invasion of tumor cells were established in 24 patients and of those patients, 6 had positive peritoneal lavage solutions. There were no patients with positive peritoneal lavage solution without serosal involvement. There was no significant correlation of immunohistochemical expression of CEA, CA19-9 and nm23 and PLS, although correlation of PLS and systemic CEA, CA19-9 and venous CEA levels were found to be significant (p<0.05).Discussion: Cytologic examination for malignant cell investigation in PLS is a simple, inexpensive and quick method, however the sensitivity of this method is not very high. Additional methods could be used for the investigation of malign cells in PLS.

Hülya Akgün; I??n Soyuer; Fatma Tokat; Mehmet Aslan; Mustafa Kula

2007-01-01

150

Alpha-conotoxin analogs with additional positive charge show increased selectivity towards Torpedo californica and some neuronal subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpha-conotoxins from Conus snails are indispensable tools for distinguishing various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and synthesis of alpha-conotoxin analogs may yield novel antagonists of higher potency and selectivity. We incorporated additional positive charges into alpha-conotoxins and analyzed their binding to nAChRs. Introduction of Arg or Lys residues instead of Ser12 in alpha-conotoxins GI and SI, or D12K substitution in alpha-conotoxin SIA increased the affinity for both the high- and low-affinity sites in membrane-bound Torpedo californica nAChR. The effect was most pronounced for [D12K]SIA with 30- and 200-fold enhancement for the respective sites, resulting in the most potent alpha-conotoxin blocker of the Torpedo nAChR among those tested. Similarly, D14K substitution in alpha-conotoxin [A10L]PnIA, a blocker of neuronal alpha7 nAChR, was previously shown to increase the affinity for this receptor and endowed [A10L,D14K]PnIA with the capacity to distinguish between acetylcholine-binding proteins from the mollusks Lymnaea stagnalis and Aplysia californica. We found that [A10L,D14K]PnIA also distinguishes two alpha7-like anion-selective nAChR subtypes present on identified neurons of L. stagnalis: [D14K] mutation affected only slightly the potency of [A10L]PnIA to block nAChRs on neurons with low sensitivity to alpha-conotoxin ImI, but gave a 50-fold enhancement of blocking activity in cells with high sensitivity to ImI. Therefore, the introduction of an additional positive charge in the C-terminus of alpha-conotoxins targeting some muscle or neuronal nAChRs made them more discriminative towards the respective nAChR subtypes. In the case of muscle-type alpha-conotoxin [D12K]SIA, the contribution of the Lys12 positive charge to enhanced affinity towards Torpedo nAChR was rationalized with the aid of computer modeling. PMID:16956365

Kasheverov, Igor E; Zhmak, Maxim N; Vulfius, Catherine A; Gorbacheva, Elena V; Mordvintsev, Dmitry Y; Utkin, Yuri N; van Elk, René; Smit, August B; Tsetlin, Victor I

2006-09-05

151

Pharmacists' attitudes toward diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To assess pharmacists' attitudes toward diabetes, to evaluate the measurement properties of the Diabetes Attitude Scale (DAS) in a sample of pharmacists, and to estimate the number and attitudes of pharmacists certified as diabetes educators (CDE). DESIGN: Mail survey. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A systematic sample of 522 hospital, community, and other pharmacists registered with the professional pharmacy association in Alberta, Canada. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The survey contained the 31 items of the DAS with 4 additional items that addressed attitudes toward the role of the pharmacist. RESULTS: Response rate was 65%. Pharmacists' mean attitude scores were positive to strongly positive toward the Special Training, Control/Complications, Team Care, and Pharmacist's Role factors and neutral toward the Compliance, NIDDM, Difficult to Treat, and Outpatient Education factors. Pharmacists' attitudes varied based on practice setting, year of graduation, and whether they had diabetes or a CDE designation. Most factor scores had good reliability. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists agree that they should be part of the health care team for managing diabetes, should be required to have specialized training to provide primary diabetes care, and that they have the skills to become diabetes educators.

Schapansky LM; Johnson JA

2000-05-01

152

Pollen-specific, but not sperm-specific genes show stronger purifying selection and higher rates of positive selection than sporophytic genes in Capsella grandiflora.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Selection on the gametophyte can be a major force shaping plant genomes as 7 to 11% of genes are expressed only in that phase and 60% of genes are expressed in both the gametophytic and sporophytic phases. The efficacy of selection on gametophytic tissues is likely to be influenced by sexual selection acting on male and female functions of hermaphroditic plants. Moreover, the haploid nature of the gametophytic phase allows selection to be efficient in removing recessive deleterious mutations and fixing recessive beneficial mutations. To assess the importance of gametophytic selection, we compared the strength of purifying selection and extent of positive selection on gametophyte and sporophyte-specific genes in the highly outcrossing plant Capsella grandiflora. We found that pollen-exclusive genes had a larger fraction of sites under strong purifying selection, a greater proportion of adaptive substitutions, and faster protein evolution compared to seedling-exclusive genes. In contrast, sperm cell-exclusive genes had a smaller fraction of sites under strong purifying selection, a lower proportion of adaptive substitutions and slower protein evolution compared to seedling-exclusive genes. Observations of strong selection acting on pollen-expressed genes are likely explained by sexual selection resulting from pollen competition aided by the haploid nature of that tissue. The relaxation of selection in sperm might be due to the reduced influence of intrasexual competition, but reduced gene expression may also be playing an important role.

Arunkumar R; Josephs EB; Williamson RJ; Wright SI

2013-08-01

153

Intergenerational transmission of gambling: links between young adult and perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined associations between the gambling attitudes and behavior of 213 young adults and their perceptions of the gambling attitudes and behavior of their closest grandparent. Regression analyses showed that young adult gambling attitudes mediated the relations between perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior and young adult gambling behavior. Grandparent-grandchild relationship quality experienced while growing up did not moderate the relations between young adult and perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior. Men experienced gambling at a younger age and reported more positive gambling attitudes, more frequent gambling activity, higher levels of gambling pathology, and higher levels of gambling affinity than women. Implications of results and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Lang AM; Randall BA

2013-09-01

154

A Comparison of Traditional and Holistic Instructional Methods in Developing Positive Attitudes Toward Mathematics Instruction in Students at Malcolm X College.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of this study was to explore whether "holistic" instruction is an effective way to improve student attitudes toward instruction. Study participants were students in two Mathematics 111 classes at Malcolm X College (Illinois), 27 in the experimental and 27 in the control group. The experimental group received holistic instruction,…

Williams, Richard W.

155

Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT) usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.

Wole M. Olatokun; Elueze I. Nneamaka

2012-01-01

156

Consumer attitude towards store brands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The consumption of store brands is increasing in the European Union. In Spain it represents 12.4% of the total food shopping. In order to understand this phenomenon better a consumer study was undertaken using 610 consumers from all over Catalonia. The consumers filled in a questionnaire made up of 32 questions based on a simplified model of the Theory of Reasoned Action of Fishbein and Ajzen. The components included in the model were Past Behavior (2 questions), Attitudes (5 questions), Beliefs (9 questions) and their Evaluations, simplified Neophobia/Neophilia scale (4 questions) and the importance of the special offers. The salient beliefs were obtained from two previous focus groups: one group of professionals and one group of consumers. The results obtained showed a good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha coefficient) in all the multi-item components of the model except for the beliefs. A non-unitary structure of beliefs was detected, although it does nto represent a serious problem since consumers do not necessarily have to show consistent beliefs. Most consumers believe that store brands are reliable, different from the brands of the manufacturer and are good value for money. Their quality perception depends on the store, and in general, when the price is the same, the brand of the manufacturer is chosen in accordance with its higher quality image. In several components of the model a clear consumer segmentation was observed depending on the sex of the consumer. In general, women showed a more positive attitude towards store brands than men. Beliefs were bad predictors of attitude, probably due to their non-unitary structure. The most important component in the model predicting behavioural intention was attitude, special offers also being a significant factor. Based on the results obtained, it seems that consumers have clear beliefs about store brands, but probably at the supermarket they will behave in ways that do not necessarily correspond with their beliefs.

Guerrero L; Colomer Y; Guardia MD; Xicola J; Clotet R

2000-09-01

157

RURAL CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS KHADI PRODUCTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the consumers? attitude towards khadi products is reviewedthrough Fishbein?s attitude model. The influence of personal characteristics and purchasepreference factors on the attitude as well as the association between attitude andconsumer?s satisfaction are examined. This study shows that, overall, the consumers havepositive attitude towards khadi product and also that the consumers who have higherattitude get more satisfaction.

Mrs.Padmasani; S. Muruganandan; M. Yazhini

2011-01-01

158

Implementing energy education focusing on attitudes and concerns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forty-two secondary science and social studies teachers from 11 high schools in Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska administered the Youth Energy Survey (Michigan Energy Extension Service) to their classes (N = 3129), received survey results and interpretive data, and were invited to request innovative energy-education materials from the Nebraska State Energy Office. All teachers completed a modified form of the Youth Energy Survey (Adult Energy Survey) and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire. (1) Comparison of 1981 student energy attitude scores with 1979 scores showed more positive scores on five scales, more negative scores for one scale (nuclear energy), and no change on three scales. (2) With no exceptions, mean teacher attitude scores were more positive than were student attitude scores. Teachers classified in the impact concern stage had consistently more positive attitude scores than did teachers in either the self or task concern groups. (3) There appears to be little or no relationship between teacher and student energy attitudes. (4) Teachers with impact concerns about energy education had the most negative energy attitudes. (5) The ratio of request/no request responses for energy-education materials was uniformly consistent across all teacher concern states. Three out of four teachers in the study requested no energy-education materials. (6) Teacher search behavior for alternatives to existing curriculum materials was significantly increased when the Youth Energy Survey was administered to classes and the results of the survey returned to teachers.

Ulmer, D.C. Jr.

1983-01-01

159

Affect, Cue-Giving and Political Attitude Formation: Survey Evidence in Support of a Social Conditioning Interpretation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a political socialization model which applied social conditioning principles to the understanding of political attitudes. Findings show political attitudes depend on positive responses to persons in one's environment. Journal available from Manning J. Dauer, Department of Political Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida,…

Cundy, Donald T.

1979-01-01

160

The Human Endometrium Expresses the Glycoprotein Mucin-1 and Shows Positive Correlation for Thomsen-Friedenreich Epitope Expression and Galectin-1 Binding  

Science.gov (United States)

Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a glycoprotein in human endometrium and is abundant at the luminal epithelial surface in the receptive phase. It has a highly glycosylated ecto-domain that contains keratan sulfate chains, that disappears at the time of implantation. In addition, the glycoforms on MUC1 differ in fertile and infertile women. Therefore the aims of this study were investigations on glycosylation of MUC1 with the Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) epitope on normal human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and binding of galectin-1 on the TF epitope in the endometrium and the expression of galectin-1 on the human oocyte. Human endometrial tissue was obtained from 54 premenopausal patients and was immunohistochemically analyzed with monoclonal antibodies against MUC1, TF epitope, galectin-1, and biotinylated galectin-1. In addition, human oocytes were analyzed for TF, galectin-1 expression, and galectin-1 binding. We identified a significant upregulation of MUC1 and TF epitope and, in addition, galectin-1 binding in glandular epithelium and epithelial apical surface tissue from proliferative to secretory phase. With double staining experiments, we identified a coexpression of TF and MUC1 in the early secretory phase and galectin-1 binding to TF during the same period of time. In addition we identified TF epitope and galectin-1 expression plus binding on the human oocyte and irregularly fertilized oocytes. Upregulation of TF epitope on the glandular epithelium and epithelial apical surface tissue in the secretory phase and binding of galectin-1 at the same time show the possibility of galectin-1–mediated trophectoderm binding to the endometrium within the window of implantation. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:871–881, 2009)

Jeschke, Udo; Walzel, Hermann; Mylonas, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Panos; Shabani, Naim; Kuhn, Christina; Schulze, Sandra; Friese, Klaus; Karsten, Uwe; Anz, David; Kupka, Markus S.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).  

CERN Document Server

GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

2004-01-01

162

Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

2008-01-01

163

Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

164

Rural environmental attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

Two frequent beliefs about rural environmental attitudes are examined conceptually and empirically: (1) the common conception that rural environmental concerns are expressed predominantly by wealthy community newcomers; and (2) the related position that long-time rural residents are hostile to the environmental cause. We argue conceptually, through the use of a 2×2 community matrix, that environmental attitudes are equally likely to be expressed by what we term “upper middle income newcomers,” “lower middle income newcomers,” “upper middle income locals,” and “lower middle income locals.” Empirically, we find that although wealthy newcomers express the strongest environmental attitudes in the community, their concerns represent only a small percentage of rural environmental attitudes consisting of respondents who make less than 40,000 a year in household income are over 40 years of age, possess less than a college education, and work in a nonprofessional occupation. This new category expresses environmental concerns at least equal to the rest of the community on three of four measures of environmental attitudes. The findings provide insight into the widespread and cross-sectional nature of rural environmental concern. The implication is that environmental groups will find significant sources of political support in rural communities, provided they craft their environmental message in a language consistent with rural attitudes and values. Things are gettin' bad fast. Easterners and environmentalists comin' down here from the big cities are tryin' to turn our way of life completely upside down. A western US rancher quoted in Krakauer (1991)

McBeth, Mark K.; Foster, Richard H.

1994-05-01

165

Multivariate Effects of Level of Education, Computer Ownership, and Computer Use on Female Students’ Attitudes towards CALL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating Iranian female students’ attitude towards CALL and its relationship with their level of education, computer ownership, and frequency of use. One hundred and forty-two female students (50 junior high-school students, 49 high-school students and 43 university students) participated in this study. They filled in A-CALL questionnaire that assessed their attitudes towards CALL with respect to four factors: effectiveness of CALL vs. non-CALL, surplus value of CALL, teacher influence, and degree of exhibition to CALL. The findings revealed that the sample had a general positive attitude towards CALL while they showed the highest positive attitudes towards teacher influence and the lowest positive attitudes towards effectiveness of CALL vs. non-CALL. Students’ attitude toward CALL across level of education was found to be significantly different just in degree of exhibition to CALL; while university students had the highest level of positive attitudes in this regard. Further, computer ownership could make a difference in students’ attitude towards teacher influence. No statistically significant difference was found between the attitudes of those students who used computer more frequently and those students who did not use it quite often.

Mehrak Rahimi; Samaneh Yadollahi

2012-01-01

166

[Attitudes toward epilepsy in Majorca  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We created a questionnaire in order to evaluate the attitude toward epilepsy among the general population in Majorca Island, Spain. We made 1,164 interviews, divided fifty per cent between city and rural inhabitants. We studied the level of epilepsy knowledge in the population, and we compared the evolution of positive attitude of our study with others from Spain and the USA. We also studied the relationship between the variables considered and the two basic attitudes (integration-positive and stigmatization-negative). These two patterns were suggested to be associated with several trends of the population.

García-Mas A; Rossiñol Far; Tsackos Moratalla A; Roca Bennasar M

1989-07-01

167

Implicit Attitudes toward Smoking: How the Smell of Cigarettes Influences College-Age Smokers and Non-Smokers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305

Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

2013-03-11

168

CAN LEARNING THEORETICAL APPROACHES ILLUMINATE THE WAYS IN WHICH ADVERTISING GAMES EFFECT ATTITUDE, RECALL, AND PURCHASE INTENTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study demonstrates how learning approaches (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and cognitive learning) can be incorporated in the design of advergames to influence the attitudes, recall of brand, recall of product information, and purchase intention. The results show that cognitive learning results in the best recall of brand name and product information, followed by classical and then operant conditioning. The learning approaches adopted in the games have a significant effect on overall attitude, with the classical conditioning inducing the most positive attitude followed by operant conditioning and then cognitive learning. Finally, hedonic attitude is shown to be a more influential factor underlying purchase intention. Implications of the findings are addressed.

Mengkuan Lai; Ya-Shin Huang

2011-01-01

169

Implicit Attitudes toward Smoking: How the Smell of Cigarettes Influences College-Age Smokers and Non-Smokers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance.

Glock S; Kovacs C; Unz D

2013-03-01

170

An Examination of Democratic Attitudes of Primary School Teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As democracy can develop better in a society of democratic people, democracy education can also get its intended goals better in a democratic school environment. As the most influential people in a school environment were teachers, this study, too, aimed to determine their levels of democratic attitudes. In the present study, 60 primary school teachers working in the schools attached to the Bursa Metropolitan Municipality were surveyed. The relationships between their attitudes and some variables were studied. These variables included school they work, age, gender, marital status, number of children they have, education level, teaching experience and number of broth-ers or sisters. The questionnaire used for this study was validated by Aydogan & Kukul (2003) based on previous studies made by Gomleksiz (1988), Yildirim (1994) and Atasoy (1997). For the validity of the questionnaire, Cronbach Alpha coefficient (0.829) was calculated. The results suggest that teachers show very positive attitude with a score of 103. When the items were examined individually, some significant relationships were found with the variables. Teachers should have positive democratic attitudes in order to give lessons of democracy to their students. An appropriate and encouraging environment should be prepared in order for students to gain desired democratic outcomes. In a democratic environment, teachers’ positive attitudes will help their students to gain critical thinking skills, effective discussion skills, capability for fighting against inequity, cooperation and collaboration skills, and showing empathy and respect for diversity.

S. Gulec; E.G. Balcik

2009-01-01

171

The predictive utility of attitudes toward hookah tobacco smoking.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between positive and negative attitudes and hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) among college students. METHODS: Among a random sample of university students (N = 852), multivariable logistic regression models assessed associations between positive and negative attitudes toward HTS. RESULTS: Positive attitudes were associated with adjusted odds of 4.32 (95% CI = 3.20, 5.82) for current HTS, whereas negative attitudes were associated with lower adjusted odds for current smoking HTS (AOR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.53, 0.76). Positive attitudes were also associated with adjusted odds of 9.31 (95% CI = 6.77, 12.80) for intention for future hookah use among non-HTS users. CONCLUSION: Positive attitudes toward HTS were more strongly associated with HTS compared to negative attitudes. It may be particularly valuable for future research and interventions to focus on decreasing positive attitudes toward HTS.

Barnett TE; Shensa A; Kim KH; Cook RL; Nuzzo E; Primack BA

2013-07-01

172

Effects of knowledge and persuasion on high-school students' attitudes toward nuclear power plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers report finding correlational data to identify a positive relationship between nuclear knowledge and positive attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy. This study investigated the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. This quasi-experimental study tested the causal relationship between knowledge about nuclear power plants and attitudes toward their use in electrical generation. Subjects were presented with systematically designed communications developed to change either their knowledge about or attitude toward nuclear plants. The Standard Events of Instruction was the basis of the knowledge instruction, whereas the Learning Theory Approach and the Theory of Reasoned Action were the theoretical bases of the persuasive communication. The principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, this study shows no evidence of a cause-effect relationship.Received: 4 May 1994; Revised: 14 July 1994;

Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.

173

How Chinese Face Perception Influences Consumer’s Implicit and Explicit Attitude towards Brand Country of Origin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chinese people pay much attention to their faces. Face plays a very important role in Chinese daily life. Chinesepeople usually do kinds of Face Works in order to earn face, enhance face, or save face. Face work influencesconsumer’s attitude toward brand country of origin (BCO) in China market. What’s more, face work makes itdifferent between implicit and explicit attitudes towards a certain brand. Although existing literatures haveverified some factors that affect implicit and explicit attitudes towards BCO, few research study the effect offace perception on BCO. The study uses both questionnaire and IAT technique to measure the effect of faceperception on the implicit and explicit attitudes toward BCO. Results showed that: (1) consumers with high faceperception have a more positive explicit attitude toward Japanese /American brands, and (2) face perceptionmoderates the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes towards BCO.

Zhuomin Shi; Linlin Wen; Lijie Fan

2012-01-01

174

Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Intervention Program to Influence Attitudes of Students Towards Peers with Disabilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study we examine the effectiveness of an intervention program to influence attitudes of elementary school students towards peers with intellectual, physical and severe physical and intellectual disabilities. A quasi-experimental longitudinal study was designed with an experimental group and a control group, both comprising two rural schools. An intervention program was developed for kindergarten (n experimental = 22, n control = 31) and elementary school students without disabilities (n experimental = 91, n control = 127) (age range 4-12 years old). This intervention consisted of a 3 weeks education project comprising six lessons about disabilities. The Acceptance Scale for Kindergarten-revised and the Attitude Survey to Inclusive Education were used to measure attitudes at three moments: prior to the start of the intervention, after the intervention and 1 year later. The outcomes of the multilevel analysis showed positive, immediate effects on attitudes of kindergarten students, but limited effects on elementary school students' attitudes.

de Boer A; Pijl SJ; Minnaert A; Post W

2013-08-01

175

Nonlinear Robust Control for Spacecraft Attitude  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nonlinear robust control of the spacecraft attitude with the existence of external disturbances is considered. A robust attitude controller is designed based on the passivity approach the quaternion representation, which introduces the suppression vector of external disturbance into the control law and does not need angular velocity measurement. Stability conditions of the robust attitude controller are given. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the attitude controller.

Wang Lina; Li Zhi

2013-01-01

176

Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: The importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu - Fotolia.com; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen - Fotolia.com). PMID:23857924

Aerni, Philipp

2013-07-15

177

Resistance to agricultural biotechnology: The importance of distinguishing between weak and strong public attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Empirical research shows that European governments and retailers are unlikely to be directly punished by taxpayers and consumers if they move away from their anti-GMO positions and policies. However, it is ultimately not the weak attitudes of taxpayers and consumers that matter to governments and retailers but the strong attitudes of the noisy anti-biotech movement. (Image: Highway signs: ©maxmitzu - Fotolia.com; woman and balance: ©lassedesignen - Fotolia.com).

Aerni P

2013-07-01

178

An analysis of factors affecting attitudes toward same-sex marriage: do the media matter?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed.

Lee TT; Hicks GR

2011-01-01

179

Managerial attitude toward quality assurance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will present what relationships exist between the attitude toward quality assurance and the variables of training and experience on the part of managers within the nuclear power industry. Managerial attitude toward quality assurance was measured via questionnaires submitted to managers within architect-engineering, nuclear steam supplier, and constructor firms throughout the United States. The data from the completed questionnaires were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and conclusions were drawn. Additional study results related to major factors for positive and negative attitudes toward quality assurance will be presented.

Kirschenmann, H.J.

1983-01-01

180

Tweenagers in the Church: An Empirical Perspective on Attitude Development  

Science.gov (United States)

|A sample of 10,153 churchgoing young people between the ages of 8 and 14 years completed the Scale of Attitude toward Church, together with a range of other indices. The data demonstrated that even among churchgoing young people: attitude toward church became less positive between the ages of 8 and 14; girls held a more positive attitude toward…

Francis, Leslie J.; Craig, Charlotte L.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion  

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Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN). Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001) and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004), has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.

André Kunz; Reto Luder; Marta Moretti

2010-01-01

182

Fulltime employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore the employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia in order to contribute to the efforts for positive changes in the Serbian economy. Qualitative survey of attitudes was realized through the use of focus groups. Participants were fulltime employees from five developed and underdeveloped locations in Serbia. The results showed that the main obstacle to improving the working culture of employees is massive failure of the labour inspections and unfavorable political environment. Until the state does not ensure effective implementation of ratified ILO Conventions and labour related adopted legislative, there are no conditions for developing quality working culture and economic progress in Serbia.

Kordi? Ljiljana

2012-01-01

183

Factors Influencing South African Attitudes toward Digital Piracy  

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Full Text Available Digital piracy has become an important issue in today’s technology-driven world. This research looks at the factors that cause South Africans to choose digital piracy as a means of obtaining digital media. We tested a revised Digital Piracy Attitude Model incorporating individual and situational constructs using quantitative data. Constructs showing significant correlation to an individual’s attitude toward digital piracy were age, Machiavellianism, cognitive beliefs, positive affective beliefs and perceived importance. Interestingly, no gender influence was found. The paper concludes with practical suggestions for South African educational, government and business institutions to reduce digital piracy based on our findings.

Kimi van der Byl; Jean-Paul Van Belle

2008-01-01

184

The Potential Positive Impact of Sup-ported Employment on the Oral Health Status, Attitudes and Behavior of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) con-stitute a unique but heterogeneous population, which includes a great variety of mental and developmental disorders, as well as congenital syndromes. Nowadays, many persons with mild or moderate ID, with specific training, can make considerable efforts to improve their lives, by having a job in either open or supported employment. On the other hand, since dental caries and periodontal diseases are among the most common secondary conditions affecting people with ID, oral diseases may detract the quality of life from disabled persons.The hypothesis: Employment (sheltered workshop, open or supported employment) of persons with ID, may enable these individuals to improve their oral health status, attitudes and behavior, compared to the ID individuals who are not working, due to the development of specific socio-emotional characteristics and dexterities.Evaluation of the hypothesis: According to previous reports, employed people with ID demonstrated better self-esteem and greater autonomy, more satisfaction with their vocational/non-vocational ac-tivities and higher quality of life.

Vasileios Margaritis; Haroula Koletsi-Kounari; Eleni Mamai-Homata; Juliana Kiriakou

2012-01-01

185

Comparing Multicarrier Ambiguity Resolution Methods for Geometry-Based GPS and Galileo Relative Positioning and Their Application to Low Earth Orbiting Satellite Attitude Determination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of several GNSS multicarrier ambiguity (MCAR) resolution techniques for the purpose of attitude determination of low earth orbiting satellites (LEOs). It is based on the outcomes of the study performed by the University of Calgary and financed by the European 6th Framework Programme for Research and Development as part of the research project PROGENY. The existing MCAR literature is reviewed and eight possible variations of the general MCAR processing scheme are identified based on two possible options for the mathematical model of the float solution, two options for the estimation technique used for the float solution, and finally two possible options for the ambiguity resolution process. The two most promising methods, geometry-based filtered cascading and geometry-based filtered LAMBDA, are analysed in detail for two simulated users modelled after polar orbiting LEOs through an extensive covariance simulation. Both the proposed Galileo constellation and Galileo used in conjunction with the GPS constellation are tested and results are presented in terms of probabilities of correct ambiguity resolution and float and fixed solution baseline accuracies. The LAMBDA algorithm is shown to outperform the cascading method, particularly in the single-frequency dual-GNSS system case. Secondly, more frequencies and multiple GNSS always offer improvement, but the single-frequency dual-system case is found to have similar performance to the dual-frequency single-system case.

Kyle O'Keefe; Mark Petovello; Wei Cao; Gérard Lachapelle; Eric Guyader

2009-01-01

186

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics. PMID:16546293

Saher, Marieke; Lindeman, Marjaana; Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

2006-03-20

187

Attitudes towards genetically modified and organic foods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.

Saher M; Lindeman M; Hursti UK

2006-05-01

188

Analysis of Consumer Attitude Using Fishbein Multi-Attributes Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of today's economy growing rapidly, accompanied byincreasingly sophisticated technological advances that led to the emergence of competition among firms.Increasing number of motorcycle brand in circulation led to a very tight competition in the motorcycle market, particularly in the type of motorcycle. This makes the consumer faced with various choices of brands, so the motorcycle manufacturers need to know the tastes and desires of consumers tocreate and sell a motorcycle can be favored by consumers. The purpose of this study were to determine what attributes are considered important by consumers to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, and to assess consumer attitudes toward product attributes motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, The model used is multi-attribute attitude model of Fishbein Attitude Toward to Object Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The results of this study indicate that (1) that are considered important attributes are attached to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki is the attribute Price has the highest positive score compared with a score of other attributes for each of the Honda brand motorcycle, Yamaha, and Suzuki. (2) consumer attitudes showed a positive attitude in which the score for the Honda is +60.03, +56.14 Yamaha, and Suzuki is +55.00. (3) the dominant factor influencing purchasing decisions motorcycle products for the Honda brand is a member of the family,while for the brand Yamaha, and Suzuki are the others.

Abdullah Ramdhani; Dini Turipanam Alamanda; Hendri Sudrajat

2012-01-01

189

Low-attitude Oxfordian position of the oravic crustal segment (Pieniny Klippen Belt, western Carpathians). Was it a slow drift or a big jump?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Complete text of publication follows. Bajocian and Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian limestones and Bathonian- Callovian neptunian dykes which cut the limestones from the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB) were samples for rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study. The samples were measured in the Paleomagnetic Laboratory in the Institute of Geophysics, Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava and in the Paleomagnetic Laboratory of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. SIRM(T) curves show that limestone and dykes from Mestecko contain hematite with blocking temperature about 650-670 deg C. Babina limestone and dykes contain magnetite with Tb between 470 and 570 deg C, usually accompanied by small hematite tail. Sometimes goethite with Tb about 80-100 deg C is seen. Dykes and limestone from Vrsatec contain magnetite with Tb 570 deg C or hematite with unblocking temperature of 670 deg C. After cleaning of recent soft component by temperature of 200 deg C and a field of 10-20 mT, hard component was revealed. After tilt correction mean directions found in Bajocian and Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian limestones have scattered declination but similar reversed inclination between 35 deg and 49 deg. Exceptions is mean direction for Bajocian limestone from Boleslav which have normal polarity. Mean directions for Bathonian- Callovian dykes are scattered in situ and after tilt correction. Fold test for inclination only showed pre-folding inclination for Bajocian and Oxfordian-Kimmeridgain limestone and scattered inclination for in situ and tilt corrected directions for dykes. Mean paleoinclination calculated for Bajocian and Oxfordian-Kimmeridgain limestone are 38.5 deg and 42.5 deg, respectively, which corresponds to 22 degN and 25 degN of paleolatitude. This is about 10 deg - 15 deg lower than the value of inclination expected for that age for Pieniny Klippen Belt from Jurassic poles for Stable Europe. As positive fold test prove pre-folding age of isolating directions other possibility - flattening of inclination should be considered. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and magnetic remanence (AARM) can be used to evaluation of origin and deviation of NRM in sedimentary rocks. Axes of AMS are scattered for all localities. The degree of anisotropy is weak. Shape parameter T shows equal distribution of oblate and prolate fabric. On the contrary, ARM maximum axes are well clustered, especially for Mestecko and Vrsatec. Maximum axes are distributed in a vertical plane for Mestecko and in horizontal plane for Babina and Vrsatec. This evidences that the AAMR fabric is not related to the sedimentation and compaction processes but it was controlled by magnetization process and ambient field direction. However, anisotropy axes are not close to NRM directions. For Mestecko they are steeper. This exclude an effect of shallowing of NRM. On this basis we can assume that more southern paleolatitude of the Pieniny Klippen Belt than expected is demonstration of paleogeography and tectonics and points to the close vicinity of PKB to African plate in Jurassic.

2009-01-01

190

Trust in social actors and attitudes towards genetically modified organisms in Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article tries to fulfil the research gap left by the fact that no study to date has examined how trust in social actors affects attitudes towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Therefore, two key hypotheses were posited: a) trust in social actors is a more important factor of attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs; and b) trust in certain social actors is a more important factor than trust in other social actors. Telephone survey data of adult Slovenians were used. The analyses show that: a) general trust in social actors has a positive effect on attitudes towards GMOs; b) trust in various social actors has different effects; and c) trust in social actors has a stronger effect on attitudes towards GMOs than knowledge about GMOs.

Mitja Hafner Fink; Jožica Zajc; Karmen Erjavec; Samo Uhan

2013-01-01

191

Free the animals? Investigating attitudes toward animal testing in Britain and the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 185 British and 143 American undergraduates completed a battery of tests that measured attitudes toward animal testing and various individual difference variables. Attitudes toward animal testing factored into two interpretable factors: general attitudes toward animal testing, and animal welfare and conditions of testing. Overall, there was support for animal testing under the right conditions, although there was also concern for the welfare of animals and the conditions under which testing takes place. There were small but significant national difference on both factors (with Americans more positive about testing and less positive about animal welfare), and a significant sex difference on the first factor (women were more negative about testing). Correlation and regression analyses showed that there were few significant individual difference predictors of both factors. These results are discussed in relation to past and future work on attitudes toward animal testing. PMID:18419591

Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Christopher, Andrew N

2008-06-01

192

Free the animals? Investigating attitudes toward animal testing in Britain and the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, 185 British and 143 American undergraduates completed a battery of tests that measured attitudes toward animal testing and various individual difference variables. Attitudes toward animal testing factored into two interpretable factors: general attitudes toward animal testing, and animal welfare and conditions of testing. Overall, there was support for animal testing under the right conditions, although there was also concern for the welfare of animals and the conditions under which testing takes place. There were small but significant national difference on both factors (with Americans more positive about testing and less positive about animal welfare), and a significant sex difference on the first factor (women were more negative about testing). Correlation and regression analyses showed that there were few significant individual difference predictors of both factors. These results are discussed in relation to past and future work on attitudes toward animal testing.

Swami V; Furnham A; Christopher AN

2008-06-01

193

Changes in undergraduate attitudes toward medical ethics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To detect any change in medical students' attitudes toward medical ethics, students from the same class were given a questionnaire on their first day of medical school and again near the end of their fourth year of study. The results showed a strong shift away from the students' initial expectations that they would rely on specialists or scholarly sources in the future; the need for a medical ethics course in the curriculum, while still felt, was less important to them by the fourth year. The reasons for these changes were not apparent, for the students' levels of knowledge and perceptions of the role of ethics in medicine in the first and fourth years did not differ. It is recommended that medical school faculty actively reinforce the initially positive attitudes of students during clinical supervision.

Tiberius RG; Cleave-Hogg D

1984-03-01

194

Changes in undergraduate attitudes toward medical ethics.  

Science.gov (United States)

To detect any change in medical students' attitudes toward medical ethics, students from the same class were given a questionnaire on their first day of medical school and again near the end of their fourth year of study. The results showed a strong shift away from the students' initial expectations that they would rely on specialists or scholarly sources in the future; the need for a medical ethics course in the curriculum, while still felt, was less important to them by the fourth year. The reasons for these changes were not apparent, for the students' levels of knowledge and perceptions of the role of ethics in medicine in the first and fourth years did not differ. It is recommended that medical school faculty actively reinforce the initially positive attitudes of students during clinical supervision. PMID:6697281

Tiberius, R G; Cleave-Hogg, D

1984-03-15

195

Knowledge, attitudes, perceived vulnerability of Chinese nurses and their preferences for caring for HIV-positive individuals: a cross-sectional survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The study was to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and perceived vulnerability with potential factors. BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS is a public health catastrophe in China. Nurses are expected to care for nurture, comfort and advocate for all patients regardless of their condition. However, in the area of HIV/AIDS, nurses suffer as a result of expectations put on them by their professional roles. DESIGN: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional design that used a survey approach. METHOD: Data were collected from Summer 2003-Winter 2004. RESULTS: Nurses reported significant perceived severity of risk from occupational exposure. Many nurses were frequently exposed to being stuck by needles (86%) and being splashed by body fluids and more than half of them (59.7%) were concerned about contracting HIV/AIDS. Nurses who had experience of finger pricks worried about potentially contacting HIV and being unaware of it (odds ratio= 0.444, p = 0.004). Nurses demonstrated a lack of knowledge and training in infectious diseases which may be a result of the fact that the study location is not considered a 'concentrated area' for infectious disease transmission; therefore, the need for the infectious diseases training has not been considered urgent. CONCLUSIONS: A well-designed educational programme on occupational hazards and risk behaviour should be implemented to educate nurses in suburban cities and the general public. Hospital administrators should implement on-site continuing education on HIV/AIDS throughout China. Armed with better knowledge of both transmission routes and precautions, nurses can protect themselves while providing care to patients. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses in China urgently need psychosocial and physical supports from families, friends, communities and their working environments while combating HIV epidemic. With good support system, nurses will better educate patients and their family members on how to prevent transmission not only of HIV/AIDS but of a wide range of other infectious diseases as well.

Chen WT; Han M

2010-11-01

196

Attitudes of children and adolescents toward persons who are deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to explore Dutch students' attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and 144 university students were determined with two questionnaires, the CATCH and MAS. Only the CATCH was applicable with all four disabled groups. Two factors were found: behavior-positive affect and cognition-negative affect. With regard to the first factor respondents had more positive attitudes toward deaf, blind and paralyzed persons than toward intellectually disabled persons. The cognition and negative affect factor showed that respondents had more positive attitudes toward deaf and blind persons than toward paralyzed and intellectually disabled persons. Being older and familiarity with a disabled person had a significant positive effect on attitudes, while self-esteem and gender had only a partial effect and having religious beliefs was not a significant predictor in this study.

de Laat S; Freriksen E; Vervloed MP

2013-02-01

197

Attitudes towards suicidal behaviour in outpatient clinics among mental health professionals in Oslo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To investigate attitudes of professionals working in mental health care outpatient clinics in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) (for children and adolescents aged 0-18 years) and District Psychiatric Centres (DPC) (for adults aged 18-67 years). METHODS: Professionals in four outpatient units in Oslo were enrolled (n = 229: 77%). The Understanding of Suicidal Patient scale (USP) (11 = positive to 55 = negative) and Attitudes Towards Suicide questionnaire (ATTS) (1 = totally disagree to 5 = totally agree) were used to assess professionals' attitudes. Questions explored competence, religion, experiences of and views on suicidal behaviour and its treatment. RESULTS: All the professionals indicated positive attitudes (USP 18.7) and endorsed the view that suicide was preventable (ATTS 4.3). Professionals who had received supervision or were specialists had attitudes that were more positive. Professionals in CAP were less satisfied with available treatment. Psychiatric disorders were considered the most common cause of suicidal behaviour, and psychotherapy the most appropriate form of treatment. The professionals confirmed that patients with other disorders of comparable severity are followed up more systematically. CONCLUSIONS: The professionals showed positive attitudes with minor differences between CAP and DPC.

Norheim AB; Grimholt TK; Ekeberg Ø

2013-01-01

198

Adolescents’ Attitudes toward Ecstasy Using  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & Aim: Using illicit drugs such as Ecstasy is a deviant behavior in adolescents. Attitude toward using illicit drugs can predict its usage. This study was carried out in order to determine the adolescents' attitude toward using Ecstasy in 2006. Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, eight hundred adolescents aged 16-18 years who lived in the west of Tehran recruited from public regions of municipality. Data was gathered using authors-structured questionnaire. After filling in informed consents, the questionnaires were completed by the respondents. Results: Findings revealed that 78.9 % of the adolescents had negative attitudes and 17.5% had positive attitudes toward using Ecstasy. Boys and girls attitudes were not significantly different. Conclusion: Regarding relatively high negative attitudes among the adolescents toward Ecstasy using, it seems that investments in health promoting programs were appropriate. Nevertheless, along with these programs, parents and teachers should pay more attention to the issue.   Key words: adolescent, attitude, drug abuse, Ecstasy

N Seyedfatemi; F Khoshnavaye Foomani; N Behbahani; F Hoseini

2008-01-01

199

Atitudes de alunos e enfermeiros frente ao diagnóstico de enfermagem: attitudes of nurses and nursing students Actitudes de alumnos y enfermeros frente al diagnóstico de enfermería Positions on nursing diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No processo de enfermagem proposto por Horta, o termo diagnóstico de enfermagem (DE) foi substituído por problemas de enfermagem, reaparecendo na literatura brasileira no final da década de 80. Desde então, as enfermeiras vêm se apropriando do conhecimento sobre os conceitos diagnósticos, especialmente a classificação de DE da North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. OBJETIVOS: Descrever as atitudes de enfermeiros e estudantes de enfermagem em relação ao conceito DE e analisar as associações entre atitudes frente ao DE e o grau de experiência com o tema. MÉTODOS: Para esta pesquisa foi utilizado o instrumento Positions on Nursing Diagnosis. A amostra foi constituída de 81 participantes de três universidades do estado do Paraná. RESULTADOS: A análise das respostas mostrou que o grupo dos alunos obteve melhores escores em atitudes que o grupo de enfermeiros e o grupo com média de contato maior apresentou melhores escores em atitudes que o grupo com médias de contato menores. CONCLUSÃO: Maior intensidade de contato com DE e ser estudante estão associados a melhores atitudes frente ao DE quando comparados a enfermeiros.INTRODUCCIÓN: En el proceso de enfermería propuesto por Horta, el término diagnóstico de enfermería (DE) fue sustituido por problemas de enfermería, reapareciendo en la literatura brasileña a fines de la década de los 80. Desde entonces, las enfermeras se vienen apropiando del conocimiento sobre los conceptos diagnósticos, especialmente la clasificación de los DE de la North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. OBJETIVOS: Describir las actitudes de enfermeros y estudiantes de enfermería en relación al concepto DE y analizar las asociaciones entre actitudes frente al DE y el grado de experiencia con el tema. MÉTODO: Para esta investigación se utilizó el instrumento Positions on Nursing Diagnosis. La muestra estuvo constituida por 81 participantes de tres universidades del Estado de Paraná. DISCUSIÓN: El análisis de las respuestas mostró que el grupo de los alumnos obtuvo mejores escores en actitudes que el grupo de enfermeros y, el grupo con media de mayor contacto presentó mejores escores en actitudes que el grupo con medias de menor contacto. CONCLUSIÓN: La mayor intensidad de contacto con el DE y el ser estudiante están asociados a mejores actitudes frente al DE cuando se comparó con enfermeros.BACKGROUND: In the nursing process proposed by Wanda Horta in the 1960s, the term nursing diagnosis was replaced by the term nursing problems. The term nursing diagnosis returned to the Brazilian literature at the end of the 1980's. Since then, nurses are becoming more and more familiar with the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) classification of nursing diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the attitudes of professional nurses and nursing students regarding nursing diagnoses, as well as to evaluated the association between professional nurses and nursing students' attitudes regarding their knowledge and use of nursing diagnoses to improve patient care. METHODS: A descriptive and correlational design was used. Data were collected from 81 subjects from three universities in Parana State, Brazil, using the Positions on Nursing Diagnosis (PND) Portuguese version. RESULTS: Nursing students had higher scores on the PND than professional nurses. Higher scores on the knowledge and use of nursing diagnoses were associated with higher scores on PND. Nursing students also had more favorable attitudes toward nursing diagnosis than professional nurses. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that nursing students had a better attitude, more knowledge, and used nursing diagnoses more often than professional nurses.

Ana Paula Vilcinski Oliva; Diná de Almeida Lopes; Márcia Paschoalina Volpato; Alda Aparecida Mastelaro Hayashi

2005-01-01

200

Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Examining Life Satisfaction Levels of High School Student in term of Parental Attitude and Some Variables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the correlation between life satisfaction levels of high school students with parental attitude. Life satisfaction levels of high school students was also investigated in terms of perceived academic achievement, perceived economic status, grade level, grown place, age, gender and parents’ education level. The participants of study consist of 245 students, 107 girls, 138 boys, between ages 15 and 19. The data were collected through the Satisfaction with Life Scale developed by Diener, Emmons, Laresen ve Griffin (1985) and adopted in Turkish by Köker (1991); Parentel Attitude Scale developed by Kuzgun and Eldeleklio?lu (1996) and Personal Information Form developed by researcher. Correlation analysis, regression analysis and t- test were used to analyze data. Results show that there were positive medium level correlation between democratic mother attitude and democratic father attitude with life satisfaction. There were also negative level correlation authoritarian and protective mother and father attitude and grade level with level of life satisfaction. In the direction of these relational findings; in regression analysis used method of enter mothers’ democratic attitude determined that perceived high academic achievement and perceived high socio-economic status are positively predictive whereas mother’s authoritarian attitude and grade level are negatively predictive of life satisfaction (F(1, 245)= 12.002, p.05).© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

Sedef Ünsal Seydoo?ullar?; Nermin Çiftçi Ar?da?

2012-01-01

202

Mexican beliefs and attitudes toward menopause and menopausal-related symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes toward menopause among young and middle-aged Mexican women and men, as well as the menopausal-related symptoms that middle-aged women report or expect and that other participants think a menopausal woman experiences. The beliefs about and attitudes toward Menopause Questionnaire and the Greene Climacteric Scale were answered by 395 Mexicans between the ages of 20 and 60 years. Comparing middle-aged participants, the most negative attitudes toward menopause were held by surgically menopausal women, and the most positive attitudes by naturally postmenopausal women. Younger participants showed more negative attitudes when compared to those in middle age (with exception of surgically menopausal women). There was a positive correlation between negative attitudes and menopausal-related symptoms either experienced by perimenopausal and naturally postmenopausal women, or expected by young and premenopausal women. No significant correlation was found between attitudes and symptoms in the groups of surgically menopausal women or the men. These findings are discussed in light of differences between genders and age cohorts.

Marvan ML; Castillo-López RL; Arroyo L

2013-03-01

203

Attitudes to mental illness in the u.k. Military: a comparison with the general population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To compare attitudes to mental illness in the U.K. military and in the general population in England. METHODS: Using data from a cross-sectional survey of 821 U.K. military personnel and a separate cross-sectional survey of 1,729 members of the general population in England, levels of agreement with five statements about mental illness were compared in the military and the general population. RESULTS: The majority of respondents from both populations showed positive attitudes toward mental illness. The general population showed slightly more positive attitudes toward integrating people with mental illness into the community (68.0% [65.7%-70.1%] agreed that "People with mental illness have the same rights to a job as everyone else," vs. 56.7% [51.5%-61.7%] of the military). However, the general population showed more negative attitudes about the causes of mental illness (62.4% [60.1%-64.6%] disagreed that "One of the main causes of mental illness is a lack of self-discipline and willpower," vs. 81.3% [77.0%-84.9%] of the military). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, attitudes toward mental illness are comparable in the general population in England and the U.K. military. Differences included the military holding more positive attitudes about the causes of mental illness, but more negatives attitudes about job rights of those with mental illness. Strategies aiming to improve attitudes toward mental illness could focus particularly on personnel's concerns around mental illness impacting on their career.

Forbes HJ; Boyd CF; Jones N; Greenberg N; Jones E; Wessely S; Iversen AC; Fear NT

2013-09-01

204

Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010), by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

Mark Brimble1; Victoria Vyvyan; Chew Ng

2013-01-01

205

SDRE Based Attitude Control Using Modified Rodriguez Parameters  

CERN Document Server

The purpose of this paper is to present an application of the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) method to satellite attitude control where the satellite kinematics is modeled by Modified Rodriguez Parameters (MRP). The SDRE methodology is applicable on special forms of nonlinear systems where satellite model is one of the candidates. It is not easy to find an analytical solution from the SDRE. Thus point wise solutions are interpolated with respect to the operating conditions. The point wise solutions are obtained from the MATLAB algorithms which are derived from the positive definite solutions of the SDRE. The global stability analysis is difficult due to the nature of the methodology. The resultant attitude controllers outside the breakpoints (the selected operating conditions for interpolation) are suboptimal. The performance of the designs is examined by simulations on MATLAB - Simulink environment. The simulation results show that, the designed attitude controllers are working satisfactorily even i...

Doruk, R Ozgur

2011-01-01

206

Psychological values as protective factors against sexist attitudes in preadolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sexist attitudes are one of the factors that justify domestic violence. Positive psychology can provide keys to prevent sexist violence at an early age. Psychological values are a group of psychological strengths in a person's development. They provide important clues for the prevention of gender-based violence. METHOD: This study presents an assessment of two groups of variables, sexist attitudes and beliefs and psychological values, in a sample of 449 (213 boys and 236 girls) preadolescents from various schools (mean age: 12). We analyze the relationship between these variables. We used the Values in Action Inventory (VIA-Y), the Questionnaire of Attitudes towards Diversity and Violence (CADV) and the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). RESULTS: The results show that sexism variables are related to each other and negatively to the psychological values in boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the importance of prevention programs being appropriately developed and, probably, different programs for each sex.

Ferragut M; Blanca MJ; Ortiz-Tallo M

2013-02-01

207

Incidence of having dreamed and conservative political attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association of political attitudes of conservatives and reports of their having had a dream was investigated. 48 female graduate students in counseling psychology were given the KJP Dream Inventory and the Kerlinger Social Attitude Scale II. Scores on conservative political attitudes were positively correlated with having had Dreams of Falling (.40), Dream Discontentedness (.31), Dreams of Being Chased (.40), and Dreams of Being Famous (.30). Negative correlations were observed between scores showing a conservative political tendency and scores on Openness (-.35), and Uninhibitedness (-.50), as well as incidence of Dreams of Sex (-.29). The character of conservative dreaming is discussed along with the study's relevance to past and subsequent issues in research. PMID:16933699

Kroth, Jerry; Bautista, Christine; Bess, Joy; Cruickshank, Kristen; Stashak, Janet

2006-06-01

208

"Assessing the Rlationship Between Knowledge, Attitude and Healthy Behaviour Among Menopaused Women in Tehran in 2000 assessed ."  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to determine the relationship between knowledge, attitude and health behaviour among menopausud women, a random sample of 250 menopaused women was studied. The data was collected by using a questionnaire and analysed by the SPSS programe. The study showed that seventy woman (28%) had good Knowledge, only twenty seven women (11%) had a positive attitude, and forty women (16%) had good healthy behaviours regarding menopause duration. Also the results of this study revealed that there is a positive correlation between knowledge, attitude and healthy behaviour (P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, the menopausal women must be educated about correct health behaviour because by increasing their knowledge, they will develope a positive attitude and have a healthy behaviour in menopausal years.

D Shojaeizadeh; M Gashtaee

2002-01-01

209

Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term of the lambda calculus possibly containing lexical and/or logical constants. Such combinators seem promising from both a cognitive and computational point of view. There is approximately one lexical combinator for each word, but just eleven logical combinators for the present fragment. The partiality is only used for embedded sentences expressing propositional attitudes, thereby allowing for inconsistency without explosion (also called paraconsistency), and is based on a few key equalities for the connectives giving four truth values (truth, falsehood, and undefinedness with negative and positive polarity; only the first truth value is designated, i.e. yields the logical truths).

Villadsen, JØrgen

2001-01-01

210

Reference and Attitude in Infant Pointing  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated two main components of infant declarative pointing, reference and attitude, in two experiments with a total of 106 preverbal infants at 1;0. When an experimenter (E) responded to the declarative pointing of these infants by attending to an incorrect referent (with positive attitude), infants repeated pointing within trials to…

Liszkowski, Ulf; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2007-01-01

211

Egyptian ever-married women's attitude toward discontinuation of female genital cutting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to examine Egyptian ever-married women's beliefs and attitude toward the discontinuation of female genital cutting (FGC). We also examined the significant sources of information which the women with positive attitude were exposed to the year prior to the survey. METHODS: In a national representative community-based sample of 15,573 ever-married Egyptian women, the intention to continue the practice of FGC and other sociodemographical variables were collected from the 2000 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey data. A secondary in-depth analysis was conducted on the data in order to investigate the women's attitude and its associated factors. RESULTS: Only 12.4 percent of the sample intended to discontinue the practice. The logistic regression models showed that women with a positive attitude to discontinue the practice believed that FGC was not an important part of religious traditions, that husbands did not prefer a cut wife, and that FGC reduced sexual desire. The most significant sources of information related to a positive attitude to discontinue the practice were community discussions, the mosques or churches and the newspapers. CONCLUSION: The aforementioned sources of information are related to the social and religious aspects of women in the Egyptian community. In order to change women's attitude toward the discontinuation of this unhealthy practice, communication rather than passive learning is needed.

Afifi M

2010-01-01

212

Extending positive C-LASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction  

CERN Multimedia

We report on a multi year study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (C-LASS) in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed improved attitudes from pre to post course. Cohen's d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d = 0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26 to 0.64). These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.

Brewe, Eric; de la Garza, Jorge; Kramer, Laird H

2013-01-01

213

Exposure to threat of war and terror, political attitudes, stress, and life satisfaction among teenagers in Israel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study examines the pattern of relations between level of threat, political attitude (willingness for political compromise), and well-being (level of stress and life satisfaction) among Israeli teenagers in reaction to Israel's withdrawal from Lebanon. Participants were 419 teenagers from two residential areas: the Northern area (close to the Israeli-Lebanese border) and the Central area (distant from the border). The results show: (a) significant differences between the two groups on: political attitude (Center scored higher), on level of stress (North scored higher), and on life satisfaction (North scored lower); (b) a significant negative correlation between exposure to threat and political attitude; (c) significant negative correlations between political attitude and measures of stress, and a significant positive correlation with life satisfaction; (d) political attitude mediates between level of threat and well-being. Political and educational implications, and mental health policy are discussed.

Shamai M; Kimhi S

2006-04-01

214

Are attitudes towards medication adherence associated with medication adherence behaviours among patients with psychosis? A systematic review and meta analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown patient attitudes to be an important predictor for health related behaviours including medication adherence. It is less clear whether patient attitudes are also associated with medication adherence among patients with psychoses. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review and meta analysis of the data of studies that tested the association of attitude measures with medication adherence among patients with psychoses. 14 studies conducted between 1980 and 2010 were included. RESULTS: Results show a small to moderate mean weighted effect size (r (+) = 0.25 and 0.26 for Pearson and Spearman correlations, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Theory based interventions that target potentially modifiable attitude components are needed to assess the relationship between positive patient attitudes and adherence behaviours among patients with psychoses.

Richardson M; McCabe R; Priebe S

2013-04-01

215

Development and validation of the attitudes about sadomasochism scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development and validation of a new measure, the Attitudes about Sadomasochism Scale (ASMS). Exploratory factor analysis with 213 participants yielded four subscales (Socially Wrong, Violence, Lack of Tolerance, and Real Life). Confirmatory factor analysis with a different sample (n = 258) indicated that this four-factor model fit the data well. Validation analyses using all 471 participants showed that the ASMS positively correlated with other measures of social and sexual conservatism (right-wing authoritarianism, attitudes about lesbians and gay men, sexual conservatism, rape myth acceptance). However, a multiple regression analysis showed that the majority of the variance in the ASMS was not explained by the four measures of conservatism, indicating that the ASMS measures a unique attitudinal construct. Further validation analyses revealed that participants who had prior knowledge about sadomasochism (SM), participants who have engaged in SM, and participants who knew a friend involved in SM all endorsed more positive attitudes on the ASMS. Thus, this study presents a reliable and valid measure of stereotypical and prejudicial attitudes about individuals involved in these nontraditional sexual practices. PMID:19499457

Yost, Megan R

2010-01-01

216

Development and validation of the attitudes about sadomasochism scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes the development and validation of a new measure, the Attitudes about Sadomasochism Scale (ASMS). Exploratory factor analysis with 213 participants yielded four subscales (Socially Wrong, Violence, Lack of Tolerance, and Real Life). Confirmatory factor analysis with a different sample (n = 258) indicated that this four-factor model fit the data well. Validation analyses using all 471 participants showed that the ASMS positively correlated with other measures of social and sexual conservatism (right-wing authoritarianism, attitudes about lesbians and gay men, sexual conservatism, rape myth acceptance). However, a multiple regression analysis showed that the majority of the variance in the ASMS was not explained by the four measures of conservatism, indicating that the ASMS measures a unique attitudinal construct. Further validation analyses revealed that participants who had prior knowledge about sadomasochism (SM), participants who have engaged in SM, and participants who knew a friend involved in SM all endorsed more positive attitudes on the ASMS. Thus, this study presents a reliable and valid measure of stereotypical and prejudicial attitudes about individuals involved in these nontraditional sexual practices.

Yost MR

2010-01-01

217

Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge. PMID:17312628

Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili

2006-04-01

218

ATTITUDES TOWARD ONLINE COMMUNICATIONS IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article intended to reveal the results of a survey study in which the students’ attitudes toward online communication in open and distance learning were investigated. In the study, affects of the students’ gender and computer experience on their attitudes were also examined. A total of 626 subjects participated in the study and ‘Online Communication Attitude Scale’, developed by Ledbetter, was adapted as the data collection instrument. Mean, standard deviation, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests were used to analyze the data gathered. The results of the study indicated that students have in general positive attitudes toward online communication in ODL. Also, it showed that there is a significant difference in ‘miscommunication’, ‘social connection’ and ‘ease’ dimensions of online communication between the males and the female students. The female students see online environments as open to communication errors. On the other hand, the study supported the literature about the affect of the students’ computer experience and their attitudes toward online communication in ODL.

Irem ERDEM AYDIN

2012-01-01

219

Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.

Barnoy S; Ehrenfeld M; Sharon R; Tabak N

2006-04-01

220

Self-Directed Learning and Student Attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is a commonly held belief that students who enjoy their experience of school perform better academically. Thus, educators often struggle with the questions of how best to motivate students and how to make learning fun. Some parents and educators, however, have simply moved away from traditional educational practices and are choosing to let students take charge of their own learning. The intent of this study is to evaluate the attitudes of students in two Sudbury model schools - schools in which students from ages 4-19 are completely responsible for their own education - and to show the positive correlation between freedom and choice in the learning environment and positive student attitudes. This study involves the opinions of 23 students from two Sudbury model schools, forming a small focus group. The schools both volunteered for the study, and students were asked if they would like to participate. The students who participated ranged in age from 4-16. Each completed a questionnaire that included both scaled questions and open-ended questions. Overall, students reported having a very positive experience of school as assessed by the questionnaire. There were also recognizable trends in their narrative answers that pointed towards an overall appreciation for the level of freedom in their schools. In general, the study proved that in the group surveyed there is a positive correlation between freedom in the educational environment and the students' attitudes about school. This study points to the validity of self-direction in the learning environment, and notes several options for follow-up studies.

Jennifer Schwartz

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes; Attityd till slutfoervar av anvaent kaernbraensle. Struktur och orsaker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

Sjoeberg, Lennart (Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research)

2008-09-15

222

The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

Vandermoere, Frederic, E-mail: Frederic_Vandermoere@hks.harvard.ed [Program on Science, Technology and Society, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Blanchemanche, Sandrine [INRA Paris, Metarisk Department (France); Bieberstein, Andrea [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany); Marette, Stephan [INRA, UMR Economie publique (France); Roosen, Jutta [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer BWL - Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany)

2010-02-15

223

The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

2010-01-01

224

Baby walkers: paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and health promotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paediatricians were surveyed about baby walker knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Advising about walkers was associated with working in community paediatrics, treating walker related injuries, knowledge about walkers, and positive attitudes towards walker health promotion. Greater knowledge about walkers was associated with more negative attitudes to walkers. Educating paediatricians and parents about the risks of, and alternatives to using walkers is important. PMID:14670775

Rhodes, K; Kendrick, D; Collier, J

2003-12-01

225

Baby walkers: paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and health promotion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paediatricians were surveyed about baby walker knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Advising about walkers was associated with working in community paediatrics, treating walker related injuries, knowledge about walkers, and positive attitudes towards walker health promotion. Greater knowledge about walkers was associated with more negative attitudes to walkers. Educating paediatricians and parents about the risks of, and alternatives to using walkers is important.

Rhodes K; Kendrick D; Collier J

2003-12-01

226

Some feelings are more important: cognitive attitudes, affective attitudes, anticipated affect, and blood donation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The present research assessed the simultaneous effects of four attitude variables (cognitive attitudes, affective attitudes, anticipated negative affective reactions, and anticipated positive affective reactions) in the context of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on blood-donation intentions and behavior. METHODS: Experienced blood donors (N = 1108) completed questionnaires measuring attitude variables plus components of the TPB and a measure of attitudinal ambivalence in relation to giving blood again in the next six months. Records were used to assess whether participants subsequently donated blood again in the six months after completing the questionnaire. The main outcome measures were objectively assessed blood donation and intentions to make an additional donation of blood. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis supported a distinction between cognitive attitudes about giving blood, affective attitudes about giving blood, anticipated negative affective reactions about not giving blood, and anticipated positive affective reactions about giving blood. Multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived behavioral control, anticipated negative affective reactions, cognitive attitude, anticipated positive affective reactions and subjective norms were significant simultaneous predictors of intentions to donate blood. Logistic regression analyses indicated that intentions, perceived behavioral control, and anticipated positive affective reactions were significant, simultaneous predictors of blood donation. Attitudinal ambivalence significantly moderated the effects of cognitive attitudes on intentions, and the effects of anticipated negative affective reactions on both intentions and donation behavior. CONCLUSION: The findings point to the value of considering different types of attitudes, and anticipated negative affective reaction in particular, for predicting health behaviors.

Conner M; Godin G; Sheeran P; Germain M

2013-03-01

227

[Attitude of hemophilic adult individuals towards their disease].  

Science.gov (United States)

The mental health of hemophilic individuals and their families play an important role on the integral treatment of the disease. The knowledge of the beliefs and attitudes perceived by the patients toward their disease will make possible a positive influence in their clinical improvement, their response to the treatment, as well as their quality of life. On the basis of the Azjen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action, a questionnaire was applied to 43 adult hemophilics to determine the salient beliefs about their disease. These beliefs permitted to elaborate a main structured questionnaire named Attitude Model in Patients with Hemophilia (Modelo de Actitud en Pacientes con Hemofilia, MAPACHE, in spanish), which was administered to the individuals and thus, the attitude toward their disease was obtained. Seventy two percent (72%) gave a major importance to the clinical aspects of the disease (hemorrhage, joint discomfort and trauma), 40% knew the general concepts of hemophilia (heredity, care and seriousness of the disease), 20% mentioned the implications of the psychosocial factors and only 18% had knowledge concerning the coagulation factors deficiency and the appropriate treatment. The MAPACHE showed a slightly positive score attitude (4.44 +/- 1.12 SEM) towards the disease in the majority of the groups (74.5%); with 26% of the hemophilics with a negative attitude. There were no significant differences between attitude and clinical parameters. It is recommended that a multidisciplinary team of caregivers should focus their efforts toward education and preventive measures in order to avoid the complications and consequences of the disease, to make possible a better quality of life in individuals with hemophilia. PMID:15469070

Carruyo-Vizcaíno, Cecilia; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Carrizo, Edgardo; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis; Sarmiento, Sandra; Vizcaíno-Carruyo, Jennifer

2004-09-01

228

[Attitude of hemophilic adult individuals towards their disease].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mental health of hemophilic individuals and their families play an important role on the integral treatment of the disease. The knowledge of the beliefs and attitudes perceived by the patients toward their disease will make possible a positive influence in their clinical improvement, their response to the treatment, as well as their quality of life. On the basis of the Azjen and Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action, a questionnaire was applied to 43 adult hemophilics to determine the salient beliefs about their disease. These beliefs permitted to elaborate a main structured questionnaire named Attitude Model in Patients with Hemophilia (Modelo de Actitud en Pacientes con Hemofilia, MAPACHE, in spanish), which was administered to the individuals and thus, the attitude toward their disease was obtained. Seventy two percent (72%) gave a major importance to the clinical aspects of the disease (hemorrhage, joint discomfort and trauma), 40% knew the general concepts of hemophilia (heredity, care and seriousness of the disease), 20% mentioned the implications of the psychosocial factors and only 18% had knowledge concerning the coagulation factors deficiency and the appropriate treatment. The MAPACHE showed a slightly positive score attitude (4.44 +/- 1.12 SEM) towards the disease in the majority of the groups (74.5%); with 26% of the hemophilics with a negative attitude. There were no significant differences between attitude and clinical parameters. It is recommended that a multidisciplinary team of caregivers should focus their efforts toward education and preventive measures in order to avoid the complications and consequences of the disease, to make possible a better quality of life in individuals with hemophilia.

Carruyo-Vizcaíno C; Vizcaíno G; Carrizo E; Arteaga-Vizcaíno M; Sarmiento S; Vizcaíno-Carruyo J

2004-09-01

229

Assessment of change in conservation attitudes through zoo education  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and 2) does learning experience, free-choice or formal, affect conservation attitudes? A criterion group design was used and the instrument used to measure conservation attitudes was Tool 4 from the Visitor Evaluation Toolbox produced by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums MIRP study (Falk, J., Bronnenkant, K., Vernon, C., & Heimlich, J., 2009). Group one (N=110) engaged in a free-choice (field trip only) experience and group two (N=367) engaged in a formal conservation education class. The survey was administered retrospectively to both groups upon completion of their learning experience at the zoo. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 17.0. A paired sample t-test showed the overall mean within both groups increased in a positive direction from 67.965 (retrospective) to 72.345 (present). With alpha set at .05 the two-tailed probability was <0.001, therefore confirming that the change in conservation attitudes was significant. An independent sample t-test of the change in scores between the groups produced p values of 0.792 and 0.773 and revealed that the change was not significant. Findings did illustrate that a trip to the zoo did positively and significantly affect conservation attitudes among teens and that the type of learning experience did not significantly affect change in conservation attitude scores.

Randall, Teresa

230

Turkish pharmacists' counseling practices and attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess Turkish pharmacists' counseling practices and attitudes regarding emergency contraception pills (ECPs). SETTING: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted via a web-based survey in Turkey. METHODS: Pharmacists registered at a professional web site (n = 822) were invited to fill in the study questionnaire; 624 questionnaires were completed and further analyzed. Pharmacists who agreed to participate in the study completed the questionnaire which was structured to elicit their demography, professional experience, counseling practices and attitudes regarding ECP. Attitudes were measured by 18 items under four domains: "reproductive health; information and availability; risk behavior and regulatory restrictions". The answer choices consisted of five items as: "totally agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and totally disagree". MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The rate of counseling on various aspects of the ECPs and the rate of negative/positive attitudes. RESULTS: The aspects most frequently counseled on by the pharmacists were dosage, timeframes, efficacy and pregnancy testing. Less frequently counseled aspects were mechanism of action, methods of contraception and side-effects. In general, the pharmacists displayed positive attitudes towards all domains of the survey; while they were negative to the items suggesting that ECP should be sold only to women and only on prescription. Another interesting finding is that 58 % of the pharmacists agreed with the item suggesting limiting the ECP sales to those over 18 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the pharmacists served the clients in need of emergency contraception more frequently than the other health-care providers and in general had favorable attitudes towards ECP. Some aspects of their counseling practices need to be improved. This can be accomplished through continuous education programs that would equip them with the competence to provide counseling on emergency contraception which will in turn help prevent unintended pregnancies and reduce abortion rates.

Apikoglu-Rabus S; Clark PM; Izzettin FV

2012-08-01

231

Evaluation of relationship between metacognition components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metacognitive components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II. Methods: Thirty-six young adult outpatients with current diagnoses of BMD II(20 females and 16 males) were recruited from Esfahan Counseling Center. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder-Clinical Version(SCID-CV). A battery of questionnaires including Metacognition Questionnaire and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale(DAS) were self-assessed by patients before medical therapy. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the components of metacognition and its relationship with dysfunctional attitudes is positive and significant(r= 28/0, p<0/05). Multiple regression analysis showed that two of the metacognitive components emerged as potentially useful in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes(negative beliefs about uncontrollability, danger and thoughts control). Also, results indicated that those two components have a significant positive relationship with vulnerability, perfectionism and effectiveness)R²= 0/29, 0/35; p<0/05). Components of positive beliefs about worry and beliefs about cognitive self-consciousness related to cognitive confidence in predicting the criterion variable and its components showed no significant contribution. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that DSM-IV BMD II outpatients with metacognitive distortions have shown higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes.

H Kazemi; M Ghorbani

2012-01-01

232

????????????????????????? A case study of faculty attitudes toward collaboration with librarians to integrate information literacy into the curriculum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Faculty-librarian partnership in information literacy (IL) instruction through subject course has been advocated within LIS field over years. In order to understand faculty attitudes toward collaboration with librarians to integrate IL into their curriculum, a survey was conducted at Feng Chia University. Findings show positive attitudes from faculty while differences were observed among ages. Meanwhile, different attitudes were revealed between teaching higher order thinking skills and lower order thinking skills. Librarian Domain Knowledge, Librarian Professionalism, Curriculum Strategies, and Student Learning were identified as factorial dimensions influencing faculty-librarian collaboration.

Tien-Yu Cha; Pao-Nuan Hsieh

2009-01-01

233

Comparison of Attitudes towards suicide and its Prevention in Medical Students before and after the Apprenticeship Course  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Doctor patient relationship is directly overshadowed by physician’s attitude toward suicide. This study was aimed to compare the attitudes towards suicide and its prevention in medical students before and after the apprenticeship course.Subjects and Methods: In this study 96 medical students participate (44 before and 50 after apprenticeship course (were selected using the available sampling in University of medical sciences of Ahvaz. A questionnaire on attitudes towards suicide ATTS (Attitudes towards Suicide) was used to measure suicide related attitudes and thoughts. The ATTS items address attitudes, knowledge, and personal beliefs toward suicide and suicide prevention. Also, this questionnaire includes six subscales. Permissiveness, preventability, incomprehensibility, avoidance of talking, unpredictability and loneliness& appeal. Results: The results showed that medical students who had passed the training course in comparision with students who had not passed; there were no significant difference in subscales of incomprehensibility, avoidance of talking, unpredictability and loneliness& appeal. But there were significant difference in subscales of permissiveness and preventability.Conclusion: Results showed that the total student views towards prevention of suicide and the relationship with these patients is positive. The views of students who had passed the course is more negative than other groups. Therefore, perhaps, the training in the attitude of students who have passed the course has not a positive effect.

Nilufar Khajeddin; Mohamad Ali Ghasemi Nezhad; Farzaneh Hooman

2013-01-01

234

Chinese primary care physicians and work attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

China passed a landmark health care reform in 2009, aimed at improving health care for all citizens by strengthening the primary care system, largely through improvements to infrastructure. However, research has shown that the work attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) can greatly affect the stability of the overall workforce and the quality and delivery of health care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between reported work attitudes of PCPs and their personal, work, and educational characteristics. A multi-stage, complex sampling design was employed to select a sample of 434 PCPs practicing in urban and rural primary care settings, and a survey questionnaire was administered by researchers with sponsorship from the Ministry of Health. Four outcome measures describing work attitudes were used, as well as a number of personal-, work-, and practice-related factors. Findings showed that although most PCPs considered their work as important, a substantial number also reported large workloads, job pressure, and turnover intentions. Findings suggest that policymakers should focus on training and educational opportunities for PCPs and consider ways to ease workload pressures and improve salaries. These policy improvements must accompany reform efforts that are already underway before positive changes in reduced disparities and improved health outcomes can be realized in China.

Shi L; Hung LM; Song K; Rane S; Tsai J; Sun X; Li H; Meng Q

2013-01-01

235

Can singular examples change implicit attitudes in the real-world?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or "IAT" revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes toward African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or "ALPS" and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words-similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

Roos LE; Lebrecht S; Tanaka JW; Tarr MJ

2013-01-01

236

Exploring the Relationship between Teaching Staff' Age and Their Attitude towards Information and Communications Technologies (ICT)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Current research seeks to understand the relationship between teaching staff' age and their attitude toward ICT. Survey methodology is facilitated through the use of the questionnaires. The survey domain is a random sampling of teaching staff in Egyptian HEI. The population for this study was 500 full-time Faculty staff, and only 412 returned and completed questionnaires are considered as the study sample. The results showed that there is a moderate and positive relationship between the age of participants and their attitude towards ICT; thus, when considering attitude towards ICT by teaching staff members in Egyptians HEI, age is a significant factor. The result of this research has significant implications to HEI when they plan, develop, and adopt ICT. HEI has to consider that teaching staff' attitude towards ICT is related to their age.

Mohamed Abdelaziz Elsaadani

2013-01-01

237

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE AND EXPERIENCE of USING A MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE PROGRAM (MATLAB)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This correlation study examined the relationship between gender and the students’ attitude and prior knowledge of using one of the mathematical software programs (MATLAB). Participants were selected from one community college, one state university and one private college. Students were volunteers from three Calculus I classrooms (one class from each school) in which MATLAB was used extensively. A survey regarding students’ attitude and experience on using the MATLAB program was administered to classes. The findings of the study indicated that gender differences are not related to students’ attitude and experience on the program. The results revealed slightly positive correlation between and students’ attitude and experience on the program. The implications of this study shows that teachers who use MATLAB in their instruction and classroom practices must pay attention on how much students use it, the obstacles students had to overcome to succeed in its use, and their general issues and concerns regarding MATLAB use.

Mehmet A. OCAK

2006-01-01

238

[Cognitive alterations of the elderly in home settings and the attitudes of children towards aging].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Children develop attitudes towards aging from birth and are influenced by everyday factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards aging of children living with elderly individuals with and without cognitive changes. Home interviews were performed with 54 children from five Family Health Units, 25 of whom lived with seniors with cognitive changes (group 1), and 29 living with seniors without cognitive changes (group 2). All ethical precautions were observed. The Scale for Children's Attitudes Towards Aging was used. The mean scores obtained were 1.66 (group 1) and 1.52 (group 2). One point represented the most positive possible score, and three points the most negative. The comparison between groups, cognition domains, and social relationships presented significant rates, showing that children living with seniors with cognitive changes have more negative attitudes in these domains. Primary healthcare professionals should pay close attention to multigenerational families and invest in their education.

Luchesi BM; Pavarini SC; Viana AS

2012-04-01

239

[Evaluation of the attitudes of children living with seniors toward aging].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the aging of the population, it is important to identify how other age groups perceive the elderly. The objective of this quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was to evaluate the attitude of children living with seniors toward aging. Interviews were conducted with 54 children, aged between seven and ten years old, living with elderly people. After sociodemographic data were collected, the Todaro Scale for the Assessment of Attitudes of Children Toward the Elderly was applied. It assesses the domains of persona, cognition, social interaction, and agency. Most children were nine years old, male and had lived with an elderly individual for at least five years. The results showed positive attitudes. The persona domain was associated with 'time living with a senior.' This study's results support health professionals in planning educational interventions, designed to maintain and improve the attitudes of children toward the elderly.

Luchesi BM; Dupas G; Pavarini SC

2012-12-01

240

Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

Lannutti PJ; Lachlan KA

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

[Nurse's attitudes to pain in children and their relation to continuing].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Broadly speaking, attitude can be defined as one of the basic elements in personality development, which shapes a person's behavior. OBJECTIVE: To determine the attitude of nursing professionals to pain in children. MATERIAL: The universe of subjects consisted of 121 male and female nurses who worked in pediatric services at secondary-level health facilities in the province of Cienfuegos (Cuba). METHOD: A descriptive observational study was performed in the pediatric services of these health centers. The subjects were given a questionnaire to identify their attitude towards pain in children. This attitude was related to the variables, work experience and continuing education. The differences between response frequencies of the groups of participants were analyzed by means of the chi square test. Mean values were compared by using the Anova t-test for independent groups. The value regarded as statistically significant was p < 0.05. RESULTS: The results obtained showed that 71.1% of the participants have a negative attitude towards pediatric pain, and that this attitude is significantly related to their training. Conclusions: As nurses received more training, their attitude towards pain in children was found to be more tolerant and positive.

Aguilar Cordero MJ; Mur Villar N; Padilla López CA; García Espinosa Y; García Aguilar R

2012-11-01

242

ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATIONS OF STUDENTS TOWARDS LEARNING OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS IN ENGLISH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the policy of teaching science and mathematics in English in the Malaysian educational system by focusing on the attitudes and achievement orientations of secondary school students towards the learning of these two subjects. Attitudes and achievement are two important outcomes of learning that will determine the effectiveness of an education policy. This study is based on a sample of 400 secondary school students selected from four non-premier schools. It looks into the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics as well as their variations according to four background variables, i.e., gender, ethnicity, types of feeder school and English achievement grades. It also examines the inter-correlations between the students’ attitudes and achievement orientations. Findings from statistical analyses of collected data were supplemented by more in-depth interviews. This study shows that the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics in English do not indicate that the policy has achieved its objective. However, their attitudes and achievement motivations vary according to the four background variables. The significant and positive inter-correlations between attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics further confirm the causal relationship between these two important dimensions of learning.

Tan Yao Sua

2007-01-01

243

Relationship Between The Professional Attitudes Of Secondary School Teachers With Their Teaching Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem under research was “Relationship between the Professional Attitudes of Secondary School Teachers with Their Teaching Behavior”. Teaching is considered to be the noblest of all the profession. It is termed as the profession of the prophets. A person serving in any profession must have Positive attitude and competence in his profession. This study may be significant for knowing to major sessions of teachers training in relation to their attitude towards their profession. The research hypothesis that, there is no significant relationship between the professional attitude and teaching behaviors of secondary school teachers was tested. All theSecondary School students and teachers comprise the population of the study. A sample of 100 students from the 10 High and Higher secondary schools of DIKhan City was selected. Five male Schools and five female schools were selected. 10 students from each male and female school were taken. 50 teachers from the 10 high and higher secondary school of DIKhan city. 5 teachers each from male and female schools were selected. Two attitude scales, one for professional attitude and another for teaching behavior of the teachers were used for data collection. The co-relation statistic was used. The results show that there is a high co-relation between the professional attitude and teaching behavior of the teachers.

Liaquat Hussain; Asif Jamil; Allah Noor; Muhammad Sibtain; Syed Muhammad Ali Shah

2011-01-01

244

Ovarian involvement by desmoplastic small round cell tumor with leydig cell hyperplasia showing an unusual immunophenotype (cytokeratin negative, calretinin and inhibin positive) mimicking poorly differentiated sertoli leydig cell tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare aggressive tumor primarily involving serosal surfaces in adolescents and young men. Diagnosis is based on specific clinicomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features. We report here a variant of DSRCT involving the ovaries that mimics the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a 21-year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a right adnexal mass. She had a slightly raised serum CA-125 level. Frozen section examination identified the right ovarian mass as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. The surgically resected tumor and left ovary and omentum implants found during laparoscopy were diagnosed as DSRCT with Leydig cell hyperplasia. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were negative for epithelial markers but were positive for calretinin and inhibin. The patient is still undergoing chemotherapy at 8 months after initial presentation with partial response. This case showed that DSRCT with unusual immunohistochemical profiles and Leydig cells hyperplasia pose a diagnostic challenge. Molecular genetic techniques may help in these cases. PMID:19851210

Engohan-Aloghe, Corinne; Aubain Sommerhausen, Nicolas de Saint; Noël, Jean-Christophe

2009-11-01

245

Ovarian involvement by desmoplastic small round cell tumor with leydig cell hyperplasia showing an unusual immunophenotype (cytokeratin negative, calretinin and inhibin positive) mimicking poorly differentiated sertoli leydig cell tumor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare aggressive tumor primarily involving serosal surfaces in adolescents and young men. Diagnosis is based on specific clinicomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features. We report here a variant of DSRCT involving the ovaries that mimics the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a 21-year-old woman complaining of abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a right adnexal mass. She had a slightly raised serum CA-125 level. Frozen section examination identified the right ovarian mass as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. The surgically resected tumor and left ovary and omentum implants found during laparoscopy were diagnosed as DSRCT with Leydig cell hyperplasia. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were negative for epithelial markers but were positive for calretinin and inhibin. The patient is still undergoing chemotherapy at 8 months after initial presentation with partial response. This case showed that DSRCT with unusual immunohistochemical profiles and Leydig cells hyperplasia pose a diagnostic challenge. Molecular genetic techniques may help in these cases.

Engohan-Aloghe C; Aubain Sommerhausen Nde S; Noël JC

2009-11-01

246

Danish University lecturers’ attitudes towards English as the medium of instruction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing use of English in research and higher education has been the subject of heated debate in Denmark and other European countries over the last years. This paper sets out the various positions in the national debate in Denmark, and then examines the attitudes towards these positions among the teaching staff at the country’s largest university. Four topics are extracted from the debate – one which expresses a positive attitude towards English and three independent but interrelated topics which express more negative attitudes. The responses from the university lecturers show that a majority agree with all positions, negative as well as positive. This finding indicates that the attitude may not form a simple one-dimensional dichotomy. The responses are broken down according to lecturer age and the proportion of teaching the lecturer conducts in English. The results show that younger lecturers and lecturers with a higher teaching load in English are more positive towards the increase in English medium instruction.

Christian Jensen; Jacob Thøgersen

2011-01-01

247

Consumer attitudes towards electricity conservation in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the second half of 1996 until October 1997 the Brazilian Program to Combat the Waste of Electric Energy (PROCEL) carried out various market research studies, covering 2/3 of the country. These researches include six qualitative inquiries (focus groups), fifteen quantitative surveys and a weekly Tracking Waves to monitor an energy conservation campaign launched by PROCEL in September 1997. These studies showed contradictory positions among the Brazilian consumers regarding the efficient use of electricity. Even though the need to save was recognized by most of the interviewed households, this recognition was rarely converted into positive actions. This paper discusses the main results of these studies with a focus on a better understanding of some of the contradictions detected, in order to show how the traditional market segmentation made by the utilities, based on income groups and level of electricity consumption, is no longer sufficient to explain consumers' attitudes regarding energy conservation.

Pimentel, G.; Zaltzman, C.; Leonelli, P.A.; Principe, C.A.; Geller, H.; Souza, R.C.

1998-07-01

248

"Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification. Participants were randomly assigned to either the reread independently or the reread plus discussion group. Results showed that students in both groups experienced attitude change and that change was sustained over time. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions at pretest. Emotions, which became more positive after intervention, were predictive of students' attitudes and attitude change. Implications for the role of emotions when learning about controversial topics are discussed.

Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

2013-04-01

249

[Study on the attitudes toward suicide among university students in Chongqing].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the attitudes on suicide and their related factors among university students in Chongqing. METHODS: A total of 9808 students from 11 universities in Chongqing, were chosen under stratified cluster random sampling method and had completed a questionnaire survey through the Scale of Public Attitudes on Suicide(SPAS). RESULTS: Data showed that the scores of university students having negative or neutral attitudes towards questions including "suicide is not preventable", "suicidal behavior is not controllable or is caused by outside forces" and "suicidal behavior can(or is used to)affect the behavior of others'" were 34.28±16.44, 35.64±19.14 and 36.94±16.05 respectively. The scores of students taking neutral attitude towards questions as:"similarity of attempted and completed suicide", "negative attitudes on the behavior or on the person him/her self", "positive aspects of suicide and positive feelings about suicides"were 47.38±22.01, 51.78±17.05 and 37.77±18.12 respectively but 70.77±17.21 went to the students who had agreed with "suicide is an important social/health problem". Factors as gender, nationality, religion, history of attempted suicide and suicide exposure to others appeared having had important effects on the attitude towards suicide among college students. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to consider above mentioned factors when developing related suicide crisis intervention strategy.

Xu XM; Kuang L; Ai M; Chen JM; Wang W; Gan Y; Zeng Y; Lou DD; Liu WT; Niu YJ; MR P

2013-06-01

250

Development of a low-cost attitude sensor for agricultural vehicles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this research was to develop a low-cost attitude sensor for agricultural vehicles. The attitude sensor was composed of three vibratory gyroscopes and two inclinometers. A sensor fusion algorithm was developed to estimate tilt angles (roll and pitch) by least-squares method. In the algorithm, the drift error of the gyroscopes was estimated using the inclinometers. In addition to tilt angles, the attitude sensor also estimated the absolute heading angle and position with inclination error correction by integrating a GPS. Tests were conducted on a flat field, a sloping ground and a bumpy road. Results showed that the attitude sensor was able to estimate the roll angle with the maximum root mean square error of 0.43°, the pitch angle with 0.61° and the heading angle with 0.64°. Moreover, the attitude sensor dramatically improved the positioning accuracy from 25.9cm to 3.0cm in the sloping ground test and from 8.4cm to 3.7cm in the bumpy road test. The proposed technology used in the attitude sensor will help to develop advanced agricultural applications.

Mizushima Akira; Ishii Kazunobu; Noguchi Noboru; Matsuo Yousuke; Lu Renfu

2011-05-01

251

Factors Associated With Attitudes Toward Suicide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Pharmacists could play a significant role in providing care for suicidal individuals. Previous studies reported that gatekeeper attitudes toward suicide could affect caregiving behaviors toward people at risk for suicide. Nevertheless, only few studies have examined the attitudes of pharmacists toward suicide. Aims: This study explores the factors associated with the attitudes of pharmacists toward suicide. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire and written explanation of the study were mailed to 541 pharmacists who had registered for the Board Certified Psychiatry Pharmacy Specialist Seminar in Tokyo, Japan. A Japanese version of the Attitudes Toward Suicide questionnaire was used to assess participant attitudes toward suicide. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess relationships between participant attitudes toward suicide as well as demographics, occupational, and personal factors. Results: Participants who had previously received suicide-related education were more likely to have positive attitudes toward suicide prevention. Conversely, those with a lifetime history of suicidal thoughts had more permissive attitudes toward one's right to commit suicide. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that pharmacist suicide prevention training programs should aim to alter permissiveness attitudes of trainees toward suicide.

Kodaka M; Inagaki M; Yamada M

2013-07-01

252

Study of attitudes towards technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to assess rural attitudes towards technology, using a growth-ethos model to explain perceptions. The philosophical roots of the growth ethos and three specific theoretical orientations towards growth were discussed in detail. Social-exchange theory was used to formulate specific hypotheses for testing. Age, employment status, lengh of residence, occupational status, and education were elected to represent personal investments associated with the theoretical model. The attitude-towards-technology variable was operationalized as a Likert-type attitude scale. The statistical analyses revealed the theoretical model was not supported. Respondents had only slightly favorable attitudes towards technology as indicated by the mean score for the aggregated scale. The response frequencies of the individual attitude-scale items showed considerable variations in the respondents' attitudes towards technology. Six alternative factors which represented other dimensions of the model were analyzed. Statistical analyses demonstrated that none of these supplemental variables was shown to be an important explanatory factor. The findings are discussed in the context of the findings, model, and future research.

Berry, M.A.

1982-01-01

253

Greek Nurses Attitudes towards Death  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies explore the attitudes of nurses caring for dying patients but this is the first oneexploring Greek nurses’ attitude toward death.Purpose/Objectives: To assess how Greek nurses feel about death and examine any relationships between theirattitudes and demographic factors.Design: Descriptive quantitative. The sample comprised of 150 hospital nurses (response rate 64%).Method: Voluntary and anonymous completion of the Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R), and ademographic questionnaire. The Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R) (Wong, Reker, & Gesser, 1994) is a32-item scale that uses a seven-point Likert scale to measure respondents' attitudes toward death. Demographicdata, including gender, age, previous experience working with terminally ill patients, work setting (inpatientversus outpatient), years practising as an RN were collected. No identifying information was collected from theparticipants, ensuring the results were anonymous.Results: 82% of respondents were female with a mean age of 35.54 years (19 min 48 max). The mean nursingexperience was 12.1 years. Average scores on the DAP-R sub-scales ranged from 2.90 (escape sub-scale) to 5.63(neutral sub-scale). Statistically significant relationships were noted among gender, and scores on the DAP-R.Nursing experience and age were the variables most likely to predict nurses' attitudes toward death. Nurses withspecific education on palliative care had less difficulty talking about death and dying. The existence ofHospital-based teams (known as palliative care teams, supportive care teams, or symptom assessment teams) hadstatistically significant relationship with fear of death and neutral acceptance scoresConclusions: In Greek hospitals nurses with more work experience tended to have more positive attitudes towarddeath and caring for dying patients.

Malliarou Maria; Sarafis Pavlos; Sotiriadou Kiriaki; Serafeim Tatiana; Karathanasi Kostantinia; Moustaka Eleni; Theodosopoulou Eleni

2011-01-01

254

Attitudes of physical therapist students toward physical therapist assistants before and after full-time clinical internships.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Development of attitudes of physical therapists (PTs) toward physical therapist assistants (PTAs) begins during their professional education, and attitudes are influenced further by clinical experiences. The purpose of this study was to understand attitudes of student PTs toward PTAs. We surveyed 66 clinical intern students enrolled in an entry-level master of physical therapy program. PT students received the same survey before and after their full-time clinical internship. Eleven Likert scale items were used to assess students' attitudes toward PTAs in the areas of competence, financial remuneration, and job security. One item was designed to determine whether PT students' level of contact with PTAs influenced attitudes. A random sample of 13 (20.9%) students who returned surveys were asked to participate in a telephone interview designed to enrich the quantitative data. After item analysis, five of the scale items were eliminated from the analyses due to poor internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha of the remaining six scale items was 0.75. Survey results reveal that PT students maintain an overall positive attitude toward PTAs before and after full-time clinical internship. Qualitative interview data support this finding. Students' attitudes in specific areas of PTA competence were negative and positive, however. The negative attitude may have been based on the students' beliefs that PTAs are not competent to perform physical therapy in situations that are changing or unpredictable. Positive attitudes may have been reflective of the students' beliefs that PTAs are competent to implement established plans of care. Student ranking of four professional issues showed a significant difference before and after full-time clinical internships.

Cavallo CL; Richter RR

2004-01-01

255

Alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e hísticas hepáticas en donantes de sangre con anticuerpo al VHC positivo Clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and hystic hepatic alterations in blood donors showing positive hepatitis virus C antibody test results  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de 69 donantes de sangre, con anticuerpos al virus C positivo detectados en el Banco de Sangre Provincial, remitidos a la consulta provincial del Hospital Universitario Provincial "Vladimir Ilich Lenin", entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2006, y a quienes se le realizó biopsia hepática translaparoscópica. Con el objetivo de estimar las alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e histopatológicas hepáticas se revisaron las boletas de solicitud de biopsia. Hubo predominio de las hepatitis crónicas con actividad mínima (12; 33,33 %) y ligera (13; 36,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes estaban asintomáticos (62; 89,9 %, y con transaminasas normales (47; 68,1 %). La laparoscopia constituyó una prueba muy específica, con un 84,4 % de especificidad, con un considerable valor de una prueba positiva, 75 %, para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica. Sin embargo, las bajas cifras de la sensibilidad (41 %) y del valor predictivo de una prueba negativa (57,1 %) para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica, reafirman que la biopsia hepática sigue siendo la prueba de oro para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad.An observational and descriptive study was made on 69 blood donors, who had positive C virus antibodies detected by the provincial blood bank and had been referred to "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" provincial university hospital from January 2000 to December 2006. They were performed translaparoscopic hepatic biopsy. For the purpose of estimating clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and histopathological hepatic disorders, the biopsy request forms were checked. Chronic hepatitis predominated, with minimal activity (12; 33.335) and slight activity (13; 36.1 %). Most of patients were asymptomatic (62; 89.9 %) and their transaminase values were normal (47; 68.1 %). Laparoscopy was a very specific test showing 84.4 % specificity, with a high value (75 %) in a positive test for chronic hepatitis diagnosis. However, low figures of sensitivity (41 %) and of the predictive value in a negative test (57.1 %) for chronic hepatitis diagnosis reaffirmed that hepatic biopsy continues to be the golden test for the diagnosis of this disease.

Agustín Mulet Pérez; Évora Arencibia Vidal; Martha Gámez Escalona; Menelio Pullés Labadié; Marlen Pérez Lorenzo; Agustín Mulet Gámez

2009-01-01

256

Public attitudes and beliefs about genetics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The existing research base on public attitudes about genetics shows that people's attitudes vary according to the specific technologies and purposes to which genetic knowledge is applied. Genetic testing is viewed highly favorably, genetically modified food is viewed with ambivalence, and cloning is viewed negatively. Attitudes are favorable for uses that maintain a perceived natural order and unfavorable for uses that are perceived to change it. Public concerns about control of genetic information and eugenics are evident, but their strength and relevance to policy preference are unclear. The pattern of attitudes can be explained by theories of attitude formation, and the existing base of information can be deepened and given more explanatory and predictive power by integrating future research into the various traditions that theorize attitude formation.

Condit CM

2010-09-01

257

Sex roles and attitudes toward gender roles of people with higher education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of relation of sex and gender roles, more precisely, how much the degree of egalitarianism in attitudes toward gender roles depends on the category and the level of adopted sex role. The sample included 236 subjects of both sexes with high education between the ages of 25 to 65, in central and south Serbia. For the evaluation of gender role BSRI (Bem) was used and for egalitarianism in attitudes SRES (Raboteg-Šari?, Ravli?). The results show that egalitarianism of attitudes is positively correlated with femininity (p<0.01) and negatively with masculinity (p<0.05). The adoption of androgyne sex role is evident in men (p<0.01) and the adoption of feminine but also of masculine role in women which correlates positively with egalitarianism in attitudes (p<0.05). Younger respondents show more femininity and more egalitarianism, but also androgyny which correlates negatively with egalitarianism (p<0.05). Considering the location of respondents we found that those who grew up in urban areas show greater egalitarianism in attitudes (p<0.01), but greater masculinity as well (p<0.05). [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

Stefanovi? Jelena; Vidanovi? Snežana; Todorovi? Dušan

2012-01-01

258

Positive regulation of the beta-galactosidase gene from Kluyveromyces lactis is mediated by an upstream activation site that shows homology to the GAL upstream activation site of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In contrast to the Escherichia coli lac operon, the yeast beta-galactosidase gene is positively regulated. In the 5'-noncoding region of the Kluyveromyces lactis LAC4 gene, we mapped an upstream activation site (UAS) that is required for induction. This sequence, located between positions -435 and -...

Ruzzi, M; Breunig, K D; Ficca, A G; Hollenberg, C P

259

Attitudes to teamwork and safety among Italian surgeons and operating room nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that surgical team members' attitudes about safety and teamwork in the operating theatre may play a role in patient safety. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess attitudes about teamwork and safety among Italian surgeons and operating room nurses. METHODS: Fifty-five surgeons and 48 operating room nurses working in operating theatres at one hospital in Italy completed the Operating Room Management Attitudes Questionnaire (ORMAQ). RESULTS: Results showed several discrepancies in attitudes about teamwork and safety between surgeons and operating room nurses. Surgeons had more positive views on the quality of surgical leadership, communication, teamwork, and organizational climate in the theatre than operating room nurses. Operating room nurses reported that safety rules and procedures were more frequently disregarded than the surgeons. CONCLUSIONS: The results are only partially aligned with previous ORMAQ surveys of surgical teams in other countries. The differences emphasize the influence of national culture, as well as the particular healthcare system. This study shows discrepancies on many aspects in attitudes to teamwork and safety between surgeons and operating room nurses. The findings support implementation and use of team interventions and human factor training. Finally, attitude surveys provide a method for assessing safety culture in surgery, for evaluating the effectiveness of training initiatives, and for collecting data for a hospital's quality assurance programme.

Prati G; Pietrantoni L

2013-09-01

260

[A group of adolescents and its attitude towards loud music  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this paper is to measure attitudes towards loud music and to evaluate the influence of some variables on such attitudes. The scale of attitudes towards loud music was administered to a sample of 173 sixteen-year old subjects. The majority of the adolescents show neutral or favorable attitudes towards loud music. The sex and environmental noise variables have a non significant influence on this attitude. The majority of the sampled group attend dancing places (clubs, discotheques, etc.) once or twice a month and sometimes listen to loud music at home or at friends' home. Finally, adolescents showing favorable attitudes attend dancing places or listen to loud music more often than those showing unfavorable attitudes. This paper is a first approach to a deeper research to evaluate the possibility of modifying experimentally the attitude towards loud music by means of a message displaying both physical and psychological damage this fashion has caused.

Stefani D; Rodríguez Feijoo N; Shufer de Paikin ML; Calvo de Couget L

1987-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Student Attitudes, Conceptions, and Achievement in Introductory Undergraduate College Statistics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure student attitudes toward and conceptions about statistics, both before and after an introductory undergraduate college statistics class. Relationships between those attitudes and conceptions, as well as their relationships to achievement in statistics, were also studied. Significant correlations were found between student attitudes and achievement, both at the beginning and end of the course. A low, but significant, correlation was found between positive attitudes toward statistics and accurate conceptions about statistics in the posttest but not in the pretest. Although it was found that there was no change in student attitudes and conceptions over the course of the semester, students did have more positive attitudes and correct conceptions than expected. Additionally, instructor interviews revealed that the most common technique employed to improve student attitudes and conceptions was the use of real-world applications.

Brian Evans

2007-01-01

262

Analyzing online game players: from materialism and motivation to attitude.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The online game market has been growing rapidly and has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years. The results of a survey conducted in China to explore online game players' attitude formation reveal that (a) the online game player's level of materialism positively influences the motivation for playing, (b) motivation positively influences attitude toward online games, and (c) motivation fully mediates the effects of materialism on attitude.

Chang JH; Zhang H

2008-12-01

263

Analyzing online game players: from materialism and motivation to attitude.  

Science.gov (United States)

The online game market has been growing rapidly and has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years. The results of a survey conducted in China to explore online game players' attitude formation reveal that (a) the online game player's level of materialism positively influences the motivation for playing, (b) motivation positively influences attitude toward online games, and (c) motivation fully mediates the effects of materialism on attitude. PMID:18783344

Chang, Ju-Hui; Zhang, Hongxia

2008-12-01

264

Tissue microarray-based study of patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer shows tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (tyrosine705-STAT3) is a marker of good prognosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although lymph node-positive breast cancers are associated with poorer prognosis, individual patients may have different clinical outcomes. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a point of convergence for numerous oncogenic signalling pathways. The goal of this study was to determine the prognostic value of phosphorylated (tyrosine705)-STAT3 in node-positive breast cancer patients. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of Phospho- STAT3 was performed on a tissue microarray of breast cancer specimens. The expression pattern of Phospho-STAT3 was correlated with survival outcome, and clinical and pathological parameters. RESULTS: Out of 125 interpretable tumours, positive Phospho- STAT3 nuclear expression was seen in 35 (28%) of tumours. There was no significant relationship between Phospho-STAT3 expression and clinical-pathological parameters including age, hormonal receptor status, grade and tumour size. Interestingly positive tumours had a significantly improved disease-free survival at 5 years (p=0.035). Additionally, positive Phospho-STAT3 nuclear expression was correlated with significantly improved survival at both 5 years (p=0.023) and 10 years (p=0.026). Finally, in multivariate analyses Phospho-STAT3 was found to be an independent prognostic marker of overall survival in node-positive breast cancer patients. CONCLUSION: These findings support the role of Phospho- STAT3 as an important independent prognostic marker in node-positive breast cancer patients.

Sonnenblick A; Shriki A; Galun E; Axelrod JH; Daum H; Rottenberg Y; Hamburger T; Mali B; Peretz T

2012-03-01

265

A binational comparison of HIV provider attitudes towards the use of complementary and alternative medicine among HIV-positive Latino patients receiving care in the US-Mexico border region.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common among Latinos living with HIV in the United States (US)-Mexico border region. Health providers may vary in their approach to communicating acceptance or non acceptance of CAM use, which can undermine patient confidence in disclosing CAM use. Patient-provider communication about CAM is important because certain types of CAM can affect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We undertook the present binational study to understand US and Mexican provider beliefs, and perceptions surrounding CAM use among Latino patients, and to learn if and how CAM communication occurs. Between July and December 2010, we conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews in Tijuana and San Diego. Analysis procedures drew upon principles of Grounded Theory. The sample was comprised of 19 HIV-health care providers, including 7 women and 12 men. Emerging CAM-related themes were: Provider's perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about CAM; CAM types and modalities; and patient-provider CAM communication. Many clinicians were uncomfortable supporting CAM use with their patients. San Diego providers reported more frequent instances of CAM use among Latino patients than Tijuana providers. Providers from both cities reported that patients infrequently disclose CAM use and almost half do not routinely ask patients about CAM practices. Most of the providers acknowledged that they lack information about CAM, and are concerned about the drug interaction as well as the effects of CAM on adherence. Our findings have important implications for understanding provider communication surrounding CAM use in a highly transnational population and context. Because CAM use may undermine ART adherence and is highly prevalent among Latinos, provider communication about CAM is critical to improved health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos. Considering the significant growth of US Latinos, especially in the US-Mexico border region, assessment of Mexican and US provider training and communication needs surrounding Latino patient CAM use is warranted.

Muñoz FA; Servin AE; Kozo J; Lam M; Zúñiga ML

2013-08-01

266

A binational comparison of HIV provider attitudes towards the use of complementary and alternative medicine among HIV-positive Latino patients receiving care in the US-Mexico border region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common among Latinos living with HIV in the United States (US)-Mexico border region. Health providers may vary in their approach to communicating acceptance or non acceptance of CAM use, which can undermine patient confidence in disclosing CAM use. Patient-provider communication about CAM is important because certain types of CAM can affect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We undertook the present binational study to understand US and Mexican provider beliefs, and perceptions surrounding CAM use among Latino patients, and to learn if and how CAM communication occurs. Between July and December 2010, we conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews in Tijuana and San Diego. Analysis procedures drew upon principles of Grounded Theory. The sample was comprised of 19 HIV-health care providers, including 7 women and 12 men. Emerging CAM-related themes were: Provider's perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about CAM; CAM types and modalities; and patient-provider CAM communication. Many clinicians were uncomfortable supporting CAM use with their patients. San Diego providers reported more frequent instances of CAM use among Latino patients than Tijuana providers. Providers from both cities reported that patients infrequently disclose CAM use and almost half do not routinely ask patients about CAM practices. Most of the providers acknowledged that they lack information about CAM, and are concerned about the drug interaction as well as the effects of CAM on adherence. Our findings have important implications for understanding provider communication surrounding CAM use in a highly transnational population and context. Because CAM use may undermine ART adherence and is highly prevalent among Latinos, provider communication about CAM is critical to improved health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos. Considering the significant growth of US Latinos, especially in the US-Mexico border region, assessment of Mexican and US provider training and communication needs surrounding Latino patient CAM use is warranted. PMID:23088506

Muñoz, Fátima A; Servin, Argentina E; Kozo, Justine; Lam, Mario; Zúñiga, María Luisa

2012-10-23

267

CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOBILE MARKETING AND MOBILE COMMERCE IN CONSUMER MARKETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in information and communication technologies are not only offering new marketing channels to companies but also significantly influencing the ways in which companies conduct their businesses and marketing activities. This paper analyses the possible significant impacts of mobile phone technology developments on marketing, and offers insights into mobile commerce and mobile marketing, which have not previously been investigated in Turkey. In the survey, mobile phone users’ attitudes towards mobile commerce and mobile marketing and their intentions to benefit from mobile phones are searched. The empirical results show that the mobile phone users’ adoption of mobile shopping is low, and apart from mobile shopping, mobile phone users have positive attitudes towards mobile advertising, entertainment, discount coupons and mobile marketing. Moreover, the demographics characteristics (age, income, occupation and employment) of mobile phone users who have more positive attitudes towards mobile marketing tools are determined and managerial implications and recommendations are also given to increase mobile commerce and marketing adoption rates.

Süleyman BARUTÇU

2008-01-01

268

Attitudes toward suicide prevention in front-line health staff.  

Science.gov (United States)

A questionnaire assessing attitudes toward suicide prevention was constructed and shown to have satisfactory reliability and internal consistency. The determinants and distribution of these attitudes were investigated in four groups of health professionals who are in contact with suicidal patients: general practitioners, accident and emergency nurses, psychiatrists in training, and community psychiatric nurses. Attitudes toward suicide prevention were shown to differ significantly between professional groups. More positive attitudes were associated with mental health professionals, working in the community, and previous training in suicide risk assessment. Negative attitudes should be assessed and targeted in training designed to improve the management of suicide risk. PMID:11577918

Herron, J; Ticehurst, H; Appleby, L; Perry, A; Cordingley, L

2001-01-01

269

Swedish registered nurses' and nurse managers' attitudes towards patient advocacy in community care of older patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To describe and compare registered nurses' (RNs) and nurse managers' (NMs) attitudes towards patient advocacy in the community care of older patients. BACKGROUND: RNs may act as patients' advocates in the care of older patients. NMs should support patient advocacy in order to make the best care available to patients. METHOD: A modified Attitudes towards Patient Advocacy Scale was used to collect data from 207 RNs and 23 NMs in the Swedish community care of older patients. The response rate was 52%. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. RESULTS: Both RNs and NMs showed positive attitudes towards patient advocacy. They were more positive towards patient advocacy for patients unable to help themselves than for competent patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that RNs and NMs did not differ in their attitudes towards patient advocacy. This result is consistent with the idea of giving the neediest and vulnerable patients greater care. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: It is important for NMs to clarify their own and RNs attitudes towards patient advocacy as disparities may affect cooperation between the groups. Any effects on cooperation may, by extension, affect the quality of care.

Josse-Eklund A; Petzäll K; Sandin-Bojö AK; Wilde-Larsson B

2013-07-01

270

Employee’s Job Performance: The Effect of Attitude toward Works, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job and job experiences. The happier the individual, the higher is level of job satisfaction. It is assumed that positive attitude towards work and greater organizational commit­ment increases job satisfaction which in return enhances performance of the individual. Based on this phenomenon, this study is aimed to explain and empirically test the effect of attitude toward work, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment to the employee’s job performance at PT. Intech Anugrah Indonesia (PT. Intech). Data used in this study was primary data which were collected through closed questionnaires with 1-5 Likert scale. A sample of this study was 200 managerial and non-managerial staff of PT. Intech. Research carried out by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) which was run by AMOS 20.0 program. The results of this study showed that attitude towards work have positive but not significant effect to job satis­faction and employee performance. Different with attitude towards work, the organization's commitment has positive and significant effect on job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech. It means every improvement in organization’s commitment has a positive effect toward job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech.

Aries Susanty; Rizqi Miradipta

2013-01-01

271

[Attitude towards immigration a study among nursing professionals].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Somewhat more than 5 million foreigners reside in Spain; they make up 11.3% of the total population, their presence implies an increase in the cultural diversity of the people who make use of public health services. By means of a descriptive quantitative study which used interviews, we have been able to discover the attitudes towards immigration which nursing professionals in the three public hospitals in the province of Almeria hold; and to analyze whether or not significant differences exist among them. After analyzing the results of more than 200 questionnaires collected, we can conclude that there are few clearly positive or negative attitudes while almost 75% of this sample show moderate attitudes and there are no statistically significant differences based on work place; therefore, we can suppose that the percentage of foreigners attended to does not determine the attitude toward immigration by personnel in each hospital. This research project was financed by the Andalucian Government's Health Council as part of those Biomedical and Health Sciences Research Projects subsidized in Andalucia in 2007, according to the official Andalucian Government publication "BOJA no 149 de fecha 30 de julio. Expediente: Pl 424-2007".

Plaza del Pino FJ

2009-12-01

272

Modelling Entrepreneurial Attitudes in Women Entrepreneurs with Bayesian Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The entrepreneurial attitude model is nowadays getting more attention as a framework to explain and describe new business creation. In short, the attitude model posits that the entrepreneurial behavior is a planed action conditioned by the potential entrepreneur’s attitudes which depends on desirability and feasibility beliefs. We have developed and compared three different Bayesian net models taking into account the principles of the Shapero’s entrepreneurial event model. We have also modeled feasibility using two different dimensions. Firstly, we considered opportunity feasibility dimension referring to the degree in which a business would be successful attending to the market opportunities or demands. Secondly, we included a dimension of resources feasibility referring to the feasibility of the business in terms of the availability of possible resources to make the company a reality. The first model contained both feasibility dimensions whereas the other two only contained one dimension. Our results show that the Bayesian model containing the two forms of feasibility is better to predict entrepreneurial intentions. Implications in the context of promoting entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors amongst women are finally discussed.

Jorge López; Alicia Ramírez; Pilar Casado

2012-01-01

273

Attitude toward money modulates outcome processing: an ERP study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Love of money (LOM) is concerned with the attitude toward money, which can be measured by the LOM scale through affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions. Research has observed that monetary attitude was tightly related to reward processing and could affect economic behavior. This study examined how monetary attitude modulated risky behavior and the underlying neural mechanisms of reward processing using event-related potential (ERP) technique. We compared both the risk level and brain responses of a high-level LOM (HLOM) group to a low-level LOM (LLOM) group using a simple gambling task. The behavioral results showed that the HLOM group was more risky than the LLOM group, particularly after loss. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) was measured as the difference wave (gain-related ERP was subtracted from loss-related ERP). The FRN difference wave was larger in the HLOM group than that in the LLOM group. The P3 in the HLOM group was more positive than that in the LLOM group. These results suggest that monetary attitude can modulate both the underlying neural mechanisms and behavioral performance in a reward-related task. The HLOM participants are more sensitive to gain/loss than the LLOM participants.

Jia S; Zhang W; Li P; Feng T; Li H

2013-01-01

274

[Community health workers' attitudes and beliefs toward the elderly].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe community health workers' attitudes and beliefs toward the elderly. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in with 213 community health workers (CHWs) at 12 primary care units and 29 family health centers in the city of Marília, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. Data were collected by means of a sociodemographic questionnaire, a scale of attitudes toward aging (Neri Scale), and a questionnaire to assess gerontological knowledge (the Palmore-Neri-Cachioni Aging Quiz). The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences v. 16.0 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Community health workers predominantly consisted of young female adults, married, with more than 12 years of schooling and who worked in this activity for over 6 years. Most CHWs reported having experience with elderly people and having elderly people in the family. However, less than half of them received training on the topic of aging. As for attitudes towards the elderly, CHWs stressed both positive aspects such as their wisdom and generosity and negative aspects such as slowness and strictness. They showed low gerontological knowledge, which was directly associated with the training received. Many CHWs stereotyped the elderly as dissatisfied and dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Changing attitudes and improving knowledge on aging are critical for meeting health care demands of elderly people. More appropriate training of CHWs is key for providing adequate primary care to elderly population.

Ferreira VM; Ruiz T

2012-10-01

275

An Investigation of Students’ Attitudes and Motivations Toward Online Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated students’ attitudes and motivations toward online learning. Students in the online course, Introduction to the Visual Arts, were asked to complete questionnaires administered during the first and last week of the online course. A group of questions on Attitude was asked on both surveys. Questions on Interest, Self-management, and Locus of Control were asked only at the beginning of the course. The end of class survey included questions on Study Process Approach. Students in the study were found to have a strong internal Locus of Control. A significant correlation was found between a more internal locus of control and relying on surface strategies for learning. Another significant result was found on the Attitude pre- and post-course comparison regarding missing interaction with other students and getting more information through an online course. Generally, students’ attitude toward online learning was more positive during the last week of the course than in the first week. The study showed that this online course provided a sufficient amount of student to instructor interaction, a high amount of student to material interaction, and a low amount of student to student interaction.

Evelyn Knowles; Dennis Kerkman

2007-01-01

276

[Construction and validation of a scale to assess attitudes toward patients with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Patients suffering from dementia are often subjected to discriminatory attitudes, but there are few instruments able to measure these. OBJECTIVE: the construction and validation of a scale to detect negative attitudes toward patients with dementia and determine its psychometric properties, reliability criteria, and convergent and divergent validity. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Fifty subjects were recruited for item selection. The scale was validated using 296 subjects of both genders, and included psychology, medical and nursing students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Likert-type attitudes scale of 30 items with 7 answers options was developed. After the pilot analysis of the scale and total item-item correlation a definitive tool of 20 items was developed, with a Cronbach's alpha index of 0.89. After the main component analysis, a 3 factors solution was preferred (rejection, effect and experience), which alone could explain the 65.7% of the total variance. Confirmatory factorial analysis with structural equations showed good fitting indexes (CFI=0.92; GFI=0.94; AGFI=0.90; PGFI=0.91; RMSEA=0.05). Convergent validation showed a positive correlation with scales measuring attitudes toward dementia, handicapped people, aging, and a questionnaire on negative stereotypes toward aging. RESULTS: Higher education and previous contact with the elderly were associated with more positive attitudes (F=29.16 and z=12.45, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The attitudes toward dementia scale is a valid and reliable instrument to detect these in the general population.

Serrani D

2012-01-01

277

The self-organization of explicit attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How do minds produce explicit attitudes over several hundred milliseconds? Speeded evaluative measures have revealed implicit biases beyond cognitive control and subjective awareness, yet mental processing may culminate in an explicit attitude that feels personally endorsed and corroborates voluntary intentions. We argue that self-reported explicit attitudes derive from a continuous, temporally dynamic process, whereby multiple simultaneously conflicting sources of information self-organize into a meaningful mental representation. While our participants reported their explicit (like vs. dislike) attitudes toward White versus Black people by moving a cursor to a "like" or "dislike" response box, we recorded streaming x- and y-coordinates from their hand-movement trajectories. We found that participants' hand-movement paths exhibited greater curvature toward the "dislike" response when they reported positive explicit attitudes toward Black people than when they reported positive explicit attitudes toward White people. Moreover, these trajectories were characterized by movement disorder and competitive velocity profiles that were predicted under the assumption that the deliberate attitudes emerged from continuous interactions between multiple simultaneously conflicting constraints.

Wojnowicz MT; Ferguson MJ; Dale R; Spivey MJ

2009-11-01

278

New attitudes toward wind  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite highly vocal opposition to specific projects near Los Angeles, opinion surveys still found strong support for wind energy. The first, a mail survey Consumer Attitude and Choice in Local Energy Development, was conducted by Robert Thayer at the University of California's Davis campus. The other survey, conducted by Dr. Phyllis Bosley at Towson State University targeted national environmental leaders. The Thayer survey examined how people view four energy technologies - biomass, nuclear, fossil, and wind - and where they would find them most acceptable. Of the six factors Thayer measure - safety, reliability, environmental impacts, cost, dependence on foreign oil, and visual impacts - wind energy's big bugaboo, visual impact, was the least important. Wind turbines do produce a strong NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) response among customers, however. The Bosley study of national environmental leaders found, somewhat surprisingly, that the Sierra Club held slightly more positive views toward wind energy than environmental leaders in general. Nationally, solar was seen as the most cost effective energy source, followed by wind. The survey compared attitudes toward four energy technologies: solar, wind, fossil fuels, and nuclear power. There was general agreement among the environmentalists that both wind and solar were environmentally superior energy sources to fossil fuels and nuclear power.

Gipe, P.

1990-03-01

279

Bar??a Yönelik Tutumlar?n Özsayg? ve Cinsiyet De?i?kenleriyle ?ncelenmesi(Investigating the Peace Attitudes with Respect to Self -Esteem and Gender)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigating the Peace Attitudes with Respect to Self -Esteem and GenderProblem Statement: It can be seen that studies which are about subjective well-being, optimism and peace have increased since positive psychology was developed. Societies can get better positions by means of positive psychology and peace psychology. We need scientific studies so as to establish this structure. The Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the peace attitudes with respect to self esteem and gender. Method: 471 persons (249 male; 222 female) who are adolescents, emerging adults, adults, middle adults and old adults were participated. Peace Attitudes Li’Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. In the study Independent-Samples T-Test and Pearson Correlation methods were used. Results / Findings: Female’s peace attitudes were more positive (p<.01, t= -2.61) than male’s attitudes. Positive correlation was found between peace attitudes and self- esteem ( p<.01,.28). The results were discussed. Conclusions / Recommendations: This study shows that woman has an important role at peace process. For sustainable peace process, we need their support. In addition to this, it can be useful to have moderately self-esteem for peace.

Ali Ery?lmaz

2009-01-01

280

Age-related attitudes: the influence on relationships and performance at work.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This paper aims to examine the influence of age and age-related attitudes on relationship factors. In addition, it seeks to assess how both factors affect care service work performance. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The paper explores the influence of age and age-related attitudes on the relationship quality among employees, affecting performance in mentally and physically demanding work settings. The authors conducted the research in six residential homes for the elderly in Germany (152 respondents) and collected the data with questionnaires. Data are analyzed by multi-hierarchical regression analyses. FINDINGS: Results show that age-related attitudes (intergenerational cooperation and the perception of older employees' capabilities) are important factors influencing the perceived quality level of in-group cooperation. Both age-related attitudes and relationship factors influence perceived employee performance, and job satisfaction. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The findings contribute to understanding how age-related attitudes influence relationships among employees, the relationship between employees and supervisor, and the effect on service performance. The mono-cultural sample might be a limitation, as well as the composition of the sample: The majority of respondents were female. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: For leaders, supervisors and managers the results contribute to understanding how employees' age-related attitudes, in mentally and physically demanding work settings, influence the quality level of relationships and outcomes. This is relevant in the context of leaders/supervisors promoting followers' individual development and group/team development. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The paper shows that in care service work with an increasing number of older employees, the positive perception of age-related attitudes influences relationship quality and performance positively.

Gellert FJ; Schalk R

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The relationship of age to nurses' attitudes toward abortion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An attitude questionnaire was distributed to 200 nurses to study the relationship of age to nurses' attitudes toward abortion. Of 139 responses, 128 were usable. The data showed that for this sample a combination of age and religion had the greatest influence on attitudes. With the exception of Catholic nurses, nurses 30 years of age and over were found to have attitudes at least as approving as those of nurses under 30.

Berger JM

1979-07-01

282

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION  

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Full Text Available Providing Quality Education for All children in inclusive setting has beenidentified as the most challenging, yet the most important issue in education across theworld Inclusive Education is the practice of educating students with disabilitiesalongside children without disabilities in general classrooms. Right to Education (RTE)Act, 2009 attempts to provide an enabling environment for all disabled children to enterschool, attend and complete elementary education on par with other children. Successfuland effective implementation of Inclusive Education depends upon teachers' knowledgeand positive attitudes towards it. The main aim of this study was to find out the attitudesof elementary school teachers towards Inclusive Education. The Attitude TowardsInclusive Education Scale (ATIES) was administered to 78 teachers working inelementary schools in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. It was found thatelementary school teachers had a positive attitude towards Inclusive Education.Significant differences were found in the scores of attitude towards Inclusive Educationwith respect to gender, locality ,age, educational qualification and teaching experienceetc.

KANDIPALLI RAMAKRISHNARAO

2013-01-01

283

Carers' hope, wellbeing and attitudes regarding recovery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carers are important to the recovery of their relatives with serious mental disorder however, it is unclear whether they are aware of, or endorse recent conceptualisations of recovery. This study compared carers' and mental health workers' recovery attitudes, and undertook multivariate predictions of carers' wellbeing, hopefulness and recovery attitudes. Participants were 82 Australian family members caring for a relative with psychosis. Carers' average recovery attitudes were less optimistic than for previously surveyed staff. Carers' recovery attitudes were predicted by perceptions that their relative's negative symptoms were more severe. Hopefulness and wellbeing was predicted by more positive and less negative caregiving experiences. Hopefulness was also predicted by less frequent contacts with their affected relative, and unexpectedly, by perceptions of more severe psychotic symptoms. Carers' wellbeing was further predicted by having a partner and having no lifetime history of a mental disorder. Hope and wellbeing are affected by everyday challenges and positive experiences of caregiving.

Marshall S; Deane F; Crowe T; White A; Kavanagh D

2013-06-01

284

Community leaders' attitudes toward family planning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four separate samples of lawyers, businessmen, ministers, and physicians were requested to complete four separate non-overlapping attitude questionnaires in an effort to assess their attitudes toward sterilization, individual responsibility for contraception, family size, social responsibility, overpopulation, and contraception in the lower class. The data indicated that the four professional groups differed in their attitudes and those differences provided the impetus for suggestions focused on developing and maintaining a positive relationship between the influential members of the community and the family planning clinic.

Cole SG

1976-07-01

285

A Turkish study on menarche and menstrual experiences and their effects on attitudes towards menopause.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate women's menarche and menstrual experiences and their effects on attitudes towards menopause. This research was planned as cross-sectional. A total of 300 women who had applied for a physical examination at the Maternity and Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Ordu province of Turkey were recruited for the study using the convenience sampling method. The study was conducted between 16 April and 28 May 2008. The research data were gathered using the Menopause Attitude Scale and a questionnaire. The average score for women on the Menopause Attitude Scale was 37.85 ± 10.34. Significant differences were found between attitudes of women towards menopause and the information they had received before menarche about menstruation (P = 0.024), the meaning of menstruation (P = 0.014), the interval time between menstrual periods (P = 0.017), problems experienced before menstruation (P = 0.035) and the desire of some women to continue menstruating and delay menopause (P = 0.005). Results of this study showed that more than half of the women had negative attitudes towards menopause. In order to help girls and women develop positive attitudes about menarche, menstruation and menopause, they need to have access to information during all phases of these important physical changes. PMID:22435973

Erbil, Nülüfer; Boyac?, Serap; Kurt, Ipek; Akdo?an, Yasemin; Kaya, Ilknur

2012-04-01

286

A Turkish study on menarche and menstrual experiences and their effects on attitudes towards menopause.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate women's menarche and menstrual experiences and their effects on attitudes towards menopause. This research was planned as cross-sectional. A total of 300 women who had applied for a physical examination at the Maternity and Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Ordu province of Turkey were recruited for the study using the convenience sampling method. The study was conducted between 16 April and 28 May 2008. The research data were gathered using the Menopause Attitude Scale and a questionnaire. The average score for women on the Menopause Attitude Scale was 37.85 ± 10.34. Significant differences were found between attitudes of women towards menopause and the information they had received before menarche about menstruation (P = 0.024), the meaning of menstruation (P = 0.014), the interval time between menstrual periods (P = 0.017), problems experienced before menstruation (P = 0.035) and the desire of some women to continue menstruating and delay menopause (P = 0.005). Results of this study showed that more than half of the women had negative attitudes towards menopause. In order to help girls and women develop positive attitudes about menarche, menstruation and menopause, they need to have access to information during all phases of these important physical changes.

Erbil N; Boyac? S; Kurt I; Akdo?an Y; Kaya I

2012-04-01

287

Assessment of the attitude of nursing students about obesity in the Semnan University of Medical Sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Anecdotes abound about obesity and obese person being ridiculed and society attitudes about obese persons are clearly negative and many of health care workers, also believes these myths. This study was performed to determine the attitudes of nursing students of Semnan University of medical sciences about obesity myths. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive-analytic study and was performed on 115 of the nursing students of the Semnan University of Medical Sciences in May 2006. Data was collected with researcher-made questionnaire, which it was composed of demographic data and 25 common myths about obesity. The myths were selected from the internet using key word "Obesity myths". We used 5-point Likert scale for the assessment of nursing student's attitude. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS program using chi-square and spearman correlation test. Results: The result of study showed that nursing students have anti-fat bias towards obese individuals and some of their attitudes need corrections, however, 59/1% of the students have positive attitudes about obesity myths (disagreement with obesity myths). Conclusion: Nurses are at first line of confrontation with clients and patients. Beliefs and attitudes of nurses can contribute to providing care of obese individuals. More education about obesity concept is necessary.

N. Raees Dana; A. Raees Dana

2006-01-01

288

Attitudes toward menopause in HIV-infected and at-risk women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study attitudes toward menopause in women with or at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aged 35 to 60 in New York City, NY, USA. DESIGN: Data were obtained at the baseline interview in a cohort study of menopause. Of 502 participating women, 92 were postmenopausal and 162 were perimenopausal. RESULTS: Overall, 37.5% of women had a relatively favorable attitude toward menopause. African Americans had a 72% greater odds of a positive attitude (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.16-2.57) than all other groups after adjusting for covariates. Hispanic women had the least favorable view of menopause. Experience of > 3 menopausal symptoms and negative life events-being a witness to a murder, and the death ofa child-were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards menopause (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93 and OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.43-0.93, respectively). Depressive symptoms, street drug use, and having a domestic partner, which is significant in single variable analyses, did not remain independent predictors in multivariate results. HIV status, menopause status, and age at interview were not associated with menopause attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected, drug-using, low-income women showed generally unfavorable attitudes towards menopause. High stress life events coupled with a high prevalence of depressive symptoms indicate this population has special needs marked by the menopause transition into older age.

Hartel D; Lo Y; Bauer C; Budner N; Howard AA; Floris-Moore M; Arnsten JH; Santoro N; Schoenbaum EE

2008-01-01

289

Attitudes toward advertisements of the older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the empirical research, a total of 183 personal surveys were carried out with people aged over 65 taking as reference 2 products with different prices and durabilities. Analysis of the results indicated that in products involving little economic effort, older adults showed the same attitude toward both trope and explicit advertisements. However, with products requiring greater economic effort, older adults showed differences in their attitudes to trope ads and to explicit ads depending on their degree of involvement with the product. These differences had a strong effect on their attitudes to the brands of the products analyzed.

Estrada M; Moliner MA; Sánchez J

2010-01-01

290

Transmission of social attitudes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance.

Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

291

Obstetrical nurses' attitude toward fetal monitoring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 24-item tool, using a Likert attitudinal scale, was developed to measure labor and delivery nurses' attitudes toward fetal monitoring and was administered to 124 nurses. For each of the 24 attitude statements, cumulative responses were over 50% positive at least. Fifty-two percent of the nurses felt that routine continuous monitoring of all labor patients would be ideal, and 88% felt that the fetal surveillance achieved by monitoring cannot be matched by intermittent auscultation.

Cranston CS

1980-11-01

292

Clinical practitioner's attitudes towards the use of Routine Outcome Monitoring within Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services: A qualitative study of two Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) is held as a greatly important part of practice across many Health Care Services, both in the NHS and in private practice. Yet despite this, there has been little research into the attitudes of practitioners towards ROM. This paper looks at the attitudes of 50 clinicians from two Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in greater London. The findings showed that although the practitioners were not overwhelming positive in their attitudes to ROM, neither were they overwhelming negative, and many of their concerns involved practical issues surrounding ROM that are potentially soluble. Practitioner engagement in ROM is key if ROM is to be used constructively to reflect on practice.

Norman S; Dean S; Hansford L; Ford T

2013-06-01

293

The complexity and ambivalence of immigration attitudes: Ambivalent stereotypes predict conflicting attitudes toward immigration policies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Reyna C; Dobria O; Wetherell G

2013-07-01

294

Performance Information, Blame Avoidance, and Politicians’ Attitudes to Spending and Reform: Evidence From an Experiment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Performance information has been argued to assist politicians in decision making on budgeting and reform, but research on how political decision makers respond to performance information is sparse. Building on blame-avoidance theory, we develop novel hypotheses concerning the impact of performance information on politicians’ attitudes to spending and reform. To isolate the causal effect of performance information, we conducted a randomized survey experiment among 844 Danish city councilors. Information treatments showing high and low performance had a positive effect on attitudes to spending, whereas information on average performance had a negative effect on spending attitudes. Moreover, information showing high performance rendered politicians less willing to pursue reform. We discuss the implications of these findings for the role of performance information in public administration.

Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Bækgaard, Martin

2013-01-01

295

Satellite Attitude Determination Filter using Square Root based Spherical Simplex Unscented Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A square root based spherical simplex unscented transform was adopted in micro satellite attitude determination filter. The filter computation cost was reduced evidently by means of spherical simplex unscented transformation (SSUT) and the square root technique with modified Rodrigues parameters (MRPs). The filter performance and numerical stability were guaranteed by unscented transformation with positive-semi definiteness of the state covariance propagation. The simulation results of some micro-satellite showed that this algorithm could insure accuracy, fast convergence and high robustness with high computation efficiency, which was suitable for the attitude estimation of micro-satellite.

Kaichun Zhao; Zheng You

2011-01-01

296

Persuading consumers with social attitudes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes persuasive advertising and pricing in oligopoly if firms sell differentiated products and consumers have heterogeneous social attitudes towards the consumption by others. Deriving product demand from primitives, we show that the demand-enhancing effect of persuasive advertising v...

Buehler, Stefan; Halbheer, Daniel

297

Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees an...

Kjelsberg, Ellen; Skoglund, Tom Hilding; Rustad, Aase-Bente

298

Type of Birth, Depression and Anxiety as determinates of Breastfeeding Attitude among Nursing Mothers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined Type of Birth, Depression and Anxiety as determinates of Breastfeeding attitude among Nursing Mothers in Edo and Kogi State Nigeria. A total of two hundred (200) currently Breastfeeding mothers participated in the study. This comprises of a hundred and twenty breastfeeding mother drawn from the General Hospital Auchi Edo State and eighty drawn from Ajaokuta Steel Medical Centre Kogi State. A questionnaire was used in collecting data. The questionnaire consisted of four sections. The demographic variables, Breastfeeding attitude scale, Depression and Anxiety sub-scales. Results of the study revealed that mothers who had normal delivery reported positive attitude towards breastfeeding than mothers who gave birth through caesarian section (t=3.38, df 198 P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the reported attitude of mothers scoring high and low on the Zung depression inventory towards breastfeeding. Likewise there were no significant differences in the reported attitude of mothers scoring high or low towards breastfeeding. Results obtained also shows that there was an interaction effect between type of delivery and depression on breastfeeding attitude among nursing mothers. An interaction existed also between type of Delivery and anxiety; Depression and anxiety but surprisingly, type of delivery, depression and anxiety did not have an interaction effect on the prediction of breastfeeding attitude among nursing mothers. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that there is need for counseling and enlightenment campaign embarked upon by government, and non-governmental organization as well as all health professional concerned within Nigeria to eliminate this wrong attitude and belief about Caesarean section birth as well as campaign on the nutritional values of breastfeeding milk to children. The need for mothers who went through CS to be counseled on the need to believe in themselves as well as the benefit of breastfeeding to the child and mother is very important.

Imhonde H. O.; Shaibu H; Imhonde J. E.; Lina Handayani

2012-01-01

299

Attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in mass media in the Polish adult population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyle promotion in mass media is a very important way to diminish cardiovascular diseases morbidity and mortality. Effectiveness of healthy lifestyle promotion can, among others, depend on people's attitudes towards it. Aim: To characterise the Pole's attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in mass media and identify their socio-demographic predictors. METHODS: A research project consisted of qualitative and quantitative studies. Qualitative research containing 30 individual in-depth interviews was carried out from June 2007 to April 2008. A survey on national Polish sample including 934 adults was conducted in November 2008. In the study there was used the scale to estimate the attitudes towards healthy lifestyle promotion in mass media containing four subscales: appraisal of the idea of healthy lifestyle promotion in mass media (regarding a need of healthy lifestyle promotion in mass media), appraisal of its practice (which means credibility as well as effectiveness manifested in the change of people's behaviour), propensity to receive messages and propensity to avoid messages promoting healthy lifestyle. RESULTS: Above 71% of Poles is characterised by a positive attitude towards healthy lifestyle promotion in mass media. As much as 87% of people positively evaluate its idea; about 70% have high propensity to receive messages promoting healthy lifestyle and only 21% is characterised by high propensity to avoid them. On the contrary, only 29% of the respondents positively evaluate the practice of healthy lifestyle promotion in mass media. The results of multivariable linear regression analysis show that being a woman and having higher education are the predictors of relatively positive attitude towards healthy lifestyle promotion in mass media while living in the biggest cities and being executives or intellectuals are related to more negative attitude. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate the need to enhance credibility of messages promoting healthy lifestyle as well as create ones that would better reach men and low-educated people.

Borowiec A; Lignowska I; Drygas W

2012-01-01

300

Image Positioning Accuracy Analysis for the Super Low Altitude Remote Sensing Satellite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Super low altitude remote sensing satellites maintain lower flight altitudes by means of ion propulsion in order to improve image resolution and positioning accuracy. The use of engineering data in design for achieving image positioning accuracy is discussed in this paper based on the principles of the photogrammetry theory. The exact line?of?sight rebuilding of each detection element and this direction precisely intersecting with the Earth’s elliptical when the camera on the satellite is imaging are both ensured by the combined design of key parameters. These parameters include: orbit determination accuracy, attitude determination accuracy, camera exposure time, accurately synchronizing the reception of ephemeris with attitude data, geometric calibration and precise orbit verification. Precise simulation calculations show that image positioning accuracy of super low altitude remote sensing satellites is not obviously improved. The attitude determination error of a satellite still restricts its positioning accuracy.

Ming Xu; Nan Zhou

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

The impact of party on nuclar power attitudes in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mass attitudes to nuclear power in general and to the more specific problems having to do with the management of nuclear waste are related to each other. People with anti-nuclear attitudes tend to view many of the nuclear waste problems differently than persons who are positive to the use of nuclear power. Hence, the study of mass attitudes to nuclear power is of relevance for the study of attitudes to nuclear waste. The present study analyse attitudes to nuclear power as well as attitudes to nuclear waste. The emphasis, however, is on the development of mass attitudes to nuclear power. The setting is Sweden and the time-frame the last 20 years. (author)

1991-01-01

302

The Attitudes of Pre-service Teachers towards EFL Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of the previous studies indicate that no consensus exists on either the attitudes towards EFL writing or the factors that affect these attitudes. In addition, the studies mainly focused on the attitudes of language learners, rather than teachers. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the attitudes of pre-service teachers towards writing in English as a foreign language and the relationship between their attitudes and certain variables. A background questionnaire and a scale intending to measure the attitudes were administered to a sample group of 162 pre-service teachers of English. The collected data were used to provide a descriptive and correlational analysis. The results of the study indicated that pre-service teachers mainly have positive attitudes towards writing in English as a foreign language. Furthermore, it was found that age, gender, educational background and language proficiency significantly correlate with some statements in the scale.

Selami Ayd?n; Tutku Ba?öz

2010-01-01

303

Knowledge and attitude of Rafsanjan physicians about complementary and alternative medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Alternative or complementary medicine includes models for treatment or prevention of disease, which are different in method or efficacy from current biologic medicine. Interest in alternative and complementary medical practices have increased in recent years. This study has been conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of the general physicians about complementary and alternative medicine.Materials and method: This descriptive study was done on all general physicians of Rafsanjan city (n=80) in a census method. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, which included three parts; demographic, knowledge and attitude questions about complementary and alternative medicine. After collecting, the questionnaires, data were collected and entered in SPSS-16 software and were analyzed statistically by means of descriptive statistics (charts and tables) and analytical statistics (Chi-squared and Fisher statistical tests).Results: The findings of this study (n=80) showed 53.8% (n=43) had a good knowledge and 5% (n=4) had a positive attitude about complementary and alternative medicine. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, knowledge and positive attitude of general physicians of Rafsanjan about complementary and alternative medicine is low. For promotion of their knowledge, continuous education is needed for proper attitude to be developed

Vahid Mirzai; Ahmad R. Saiadi; Mehdi Heydarinasab

2011-01-01

304

An Investigation into EFL Instructors’ Attitudes towards Using Instructional Technology in Language Classes: A Case Study  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining EFL instructors’ attitudes towards using technology in language classes. The participants of the study were 40 male and female EFL instructors at Guilan Province, Iran during the spring semester of 2010. The Technology Attitude Scale (TAS) was utilized to collect the relevant data. The TAS consists of twenty items with responses provided on a Likert scale. The participants were also asked to respond to three open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the respondents’ attitude towards technology use. The findings of the study revealed that both male and females had an almost highly positive attitude towards technology. However, based on the descriptive statistics, the male instructors had a more positive attitude towards technology use compared to their female counterparts. To determine the role of gender, an independent-samples t-test was run which revealed no significant difference. One-way ANOVA showed that the responses of three groups of participants who were distinguished based on their teaching experience were not statistically different from each other. Based on the qualitative section of the study, the most important obstacles enumerated by the respondents were lack of facilities in language classes, teachers’ lack of skills and relevant knowledge and students’ preference of traditional methods and their lack of familiarity with technology use, respectively.

A. Tahriri; Z. Azim Dokht; O. Derakhshan

2013-01-01

305

Relationship of Community Leaders Knowledge and Attitude in Role of Dengue Fever Control in Kawalu Tasikmalaya  

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Full Text Available Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. If not treated quickly, it can develop into a lethal hemorrhagic disease. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design aimed to determine the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever in Kawalu Public Health Centre Tasikmalaya City. The study population is all public jigures who are in the Kawalu Public Health Centre, with sample size of 68 respondents. Sampling technique was purposive sampling. The results were analyzed with chi­square (X2) to see the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between knowledge of the role of community leaders in the control of dengue fever (p = 0.578), as well as the attitude of no significant relation to the role of community leaders (p = 0.177). The role of society is not based on the knowledge and a positive attitude, or a positive attitude and know it but not yet reflected in its role in the control of dengue fever; may be one cause of the dengue fever problem is difficult of resolve so far. Health care workers are expected to approach and field studies in more depth so that people contribute more significantly in the control of dengue fever.

Yanyan Bahtiar

2012-01-01

306

High school and university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology: A Turkish experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and Biotechnology Attitude Questionnaire (BAQ) with 37 items were used as data collection instruments. The statistically significant correlation was observed between the level of biotechnology knowledge and the subdimensions of attitudes toward biotechnology. We found no statistically significant difference between high school and university students' knowledge of biotechnology. In contrast, university students showed more positive attitudes toward biotechnology than did high school students. However, the effect of gender was equivocal; therefore, it did not support a "gender paradox" hypothesis. Our results suggest that although students' appreciation of (agricultural) biotechnology is relatively positive, the understanding of biotechnology processes is superficial and attitudes toward shopping genetically modified products are therefore negative. The possible impact of current science and biology curriculum, and also biotechnology news given in media on Turkish students' views of biotechnology is discussed.

Usak M; Erdogan M; Prokop P; Ozel M

2009-03-01

307

Knowledge, attitude and practices of diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of diabetes care. However, many diabetics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) lack sufficient knowledge about their disease due to illiteracy. Thus, before considering any possible intervention it was imperative to assess present knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients towards the management of diabetes. METHODS: A random sample of 575 DM patients was selected from diabetes outpatient's clinics of Tawam and Al-Ain hospitals in Al-Ain city (UAE) during 2006-2007, and their knowledge attitude and practice assessed using a questionnaire modified from the Michigan Diabetes Research Training Center instrument. RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of patients had poor knowledge of diabetes. Seventy-two had negative attitudes towards having the disease and 57% had HbA(1c) levels reflecting poor glycemic control. Only seventeen percent reported having adequate blood sugar control, while 10% admitted non-compliance with their medications. Knowledge, practice and attitude scores were all statistically significantly positively, but rather weakly, associated, but none of these scores was significantly correlated with HbA(1c). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed low levels of diabetes awareness but positive attitudes towards the importance of DM care and satisfactory diabetes practices in the UAE. Programs to increase patients' awareness about DM are essential for all diabetics in the UAE in order to improve their understanding, compliance and management and, thereby, their ability to cope with the disease.

Al-Maskari F; El-Sadig M; Al-Kaabi JM; Afandi B; Nagelkerke N; Yeatts KB

2013-01-01

308

PSYCHOSOCIAL SPORT MARKETING ATTITUDES OF  

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Full Text Available One of the strategy implementations in the achievement of the Nigeria Sport policy development is effective sport marketing (Onifade, 1999). The Nigerian government has been said to be solely responsible for funding and marketing sports hence, achieving the sports developmental goal is at its lowest ebb (Esuku, 2003).This study examined the socio- psychological sports marketing attitudes of the stakeholders in the achievement of sports goal by 2020. It also determined attitudes of stakeholders towards sports marketing. The participants for the study consisted 1,200 Nigerian sampled from twelve States and from the various professions, who are stakeholders to sports marketing (corporate and private organizations, sports Journalists, sports psychologists, sports councils, ministry of sports, coaches, labour unions, University and athletes). They were purposively sampled. The main research tool was the questionnaire that was used to obtain information on the different variables. The descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages were used for the analysis of the demographic information, while inferential statistics of one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance. The results confirmed that Nigerian government is solely responsible for marketing sports which ought not to be if effective sports marketing must be realized toward the attainment of the millennium goals. Also revealed are fair positive socio- psychological attitudes of few corporate organizations, and negative socio- psychological attitudes from individuals of most corporate organizations. Suggestions were advanced towards the improvement of achieving the sports developmental goals.

Tomas E. Boye

2011-01-01

309

Attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS among medical practitioners and nonmedical specialists in Ukraine  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: AIDS is the disease that has been stigmatized since its development; stigmatization of people living with HIV is an important barrier to using HIV testing and treatment. It is well known, that stigma is associated with mental disorders including depression and anxiety. Ukraine is a country with one of the highest number of annual HIV infection cases. GOALS: The goal of this study was to evaluate medical practitioners’ (surgeons, psychiatrists, therapists and students) and nonmedical specialists’ attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS.METHODS: A total of 180 individuals participated in the study. Acceptance of people who have AIDS or are infected with HIV was assessed with the help of the “Attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS”. Total scores range from 50 to 10, higher scores indicate high acceptance of persons with HIV/AIDS.RESULTS: Younger participants reported higher acceptance of persons with HIV or AIDS (p.05). Medical practitioners showed greater total score, compare to nonmedical specialists (38.0 ± 6.0 vs. 34.0 ± 5.5, respectively, p<.05). A one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of medical specialty on levels of positive attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS. The actual difference in mean scores between the 4 groups was moderate (.06). Students and psychiatrists reported more positive attitudes (higher acceptance) toward people with HIV and AIDS, but analyses showed, that there was not a statistically significant difference at the level in total score for the groups.CONCLUSION: In this study we evaluated the level of attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS in Ukraine. Young age and medical education were significantly associated with the positive attitudes toward people with HIV and AIDS. Our findings are important for the programs reducing the stigma and discrimination that should be addressed to the wide layers of the society.

Zhabenko, Nataliya; Zhabenko, Olena

2012-01-01

310

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and diabetic foot ulcers: knowledge and attitudes of Canadian primary care physicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore physicians' knowledge of and attitudes toward hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in order to better understand current diabetic foot ulcer management practices and to determine potential barriers to HBOT use. DESIGN: A 24-item questionnaire. SETTING: Primary Care Today conference in Toronto, Ont, in May of 2006. PARTICIPANTS: Physician attendees, 313 of whom completed the survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported knowledge of and attitudes toward HBOT. RESULTS: Less than 10% of respondents had a good knowledge of HBOT, but 57% had a good attitude toward HBOT. Knowledge of and attitude toward HBOT were positively correlated (P < .0001). Good knowledge of HBOT was associated with sex (P = .0334), age younger than 40 years (P = .0803), years in medical practice (P = .0646), patient requests for HBOT referrals (P = .0127), and having previously referred patients for HBOT (P < .001). Twenty years or more in medical practice (P = .0593) and receiving patient requests for HBOT (P = .0394) were multivariate predictors of having good knowledge of HBOT. Good attitude toward HBOT was associated with age younger than 40 years (P = .0613) and having previously referred patients for HBOT (P = .0013). Multivariate analysis showed that male physicians (P = .0026) received more patient requests for HBOT (P < .0001), had good knowledge (P = .0129) and a good attitude (P = .0488), and were more likely to refer patients for HBOT. CONCLUSION: Primary care physicians have underdeveloped knowledge of HBOT, but their generally positive attitudes toward its use suggest that they might be receptive to educational interventions. Educating both physicians and patients about HBOT, specifically its cost-effectiveness, might encourage future use.

Evans AW; Gill R; Valiulis AO; Lou W; Sosiak TS

2010-05-01

311

Sexuality attitudes: the impact of trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the relationship between traumatic events and attitudes toward sexuality. Our results show that suffering trauma is related to more accepting attitudes concerning sexuality. Generally, people who suffer negative events, many of which are traumatic, are more likely to see both pornography and having a homosexual friend or family member as acceptable. Traumatic events that are sex-related or related to other physical assault proved to be most significant in the prediction of sexuality attitudes for women only. The results are specified by gender: Trauma predicts attitudes toward pornography for women but not for men, and traumatic events are associated with attitudes concerning homosexuality for women. These results are discussed in light of the previous research, and suggestions for future research made. PMID:14735409

Broman, Clifford L

2003-11-01

312

Sexuality attitudes: the impact of trauma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the relationship between traumatic events and attitudes toward sexuality. Our results show that suffering trauma is related to more accepting attitudes concerning sexuality. Generally, people who suffer negative events, many of which are traumatic, are more likely to see both pornography and having a homosexual friend or family member as acceptable. Traumatic events that are sex-related or related to other physical assault proved to be most significant in the prediction of sexuality attitudes for women only. The results are specified by gender: Trauma predicts attitudes toward pornography for women but not for men, and traumatic events are associated with attitudes concerning homosexuality for women. These results are discussed in light of the previous research, and suggestions for future research made.

Broman CL

2003-11-01

313

Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively.

Poortinga W; Pidgeon NF

2006-12-01

314

Measuring attitudes towards three values that underlie sustainable development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature and shared responsibility are, according to UN (2000), specific and fundamental values. According to Shepherd et al. (2009), there is a lack of knowledge about the nature of these sustainability values and more research on these values and how they can be measured are needed. The purpose of this article is to present results from a study that aims to develop more knowledge about young people’s attitudes towards sustainability. The study focused on three of these fundamental values: respect for nature, solidarity and quality.The methodology was a questionnaire answered by 918 upper secondarystudents. A new scale was constructed to measure attitudes towards solidarity and equality. The results show significant differences related to gender, urban or rural living and upper secondary program attended. There is also a positive correlation between solidarity and willingness to preserve nature.

Tomas Torbjörnsson; Lena Molin; Martin Karlberg

2011-01-01

315

Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively. PMID:17184407

Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F

2006-12-01

316

Attitudes of pre-service teachers about computer supported education  

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Full Text Available A lot of technologies can be used in education environment. Computer has an important place in these technologies. The aim of this study is to investigate the attitude of the students of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education Department towards computer supported education in terms of class level, income level, and gender. 120 pre-service teachers from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education at Kazim Karabekir Educational Faculty participated in the survey. The results showed that the participants have a high level positive attitude about Computer Supported Education (CSE). No significant differences obtained depending on class level, income level, and gender. However, differences among groups obtained in terms of the questionnaire items which are creativity skills, preferring traditional teaching CSE, encouraging computer usage, using computer actively, reconciled computer with education, educational addition of CSE according to spent work; and enjoying.

Serkan Y?ld?r?m; Abdullatif Kaban

2010-01-01

317

Experiments with small helicopter automated landings at unusual attitudes  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes a set of experiments involving small helicopters landing automated landing at unusual attitudes. By leveraging the increased agility of small air vehicles, we show that it is possible to automatically land a small helicopter on surfaces pitched at angles up to 60 degrees. Such maneuvers require considerable agility from the vehicle and its avionics system, and they pose significant technical and safety challenges. Our work builds upon previous activities in human-inspired, high-agility flight for small rotorcraft. However, it was not possible to leverage manual flight test data to extract landing maneuvers due to stringent attitude and position control requirements. Availability of low-cost, local navigation systems requiring no on-board instrumentation has proven particularly important for these experiments to be successful.

Bayraktar, S

2007-01-01

318

Euthanasia Attitude; A Comparison of two Scales  

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Full Text Available The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term "euthanasia" influences people's support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors.In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared.197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman's Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the The HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised.Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness.It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it.

Naser Aghababaei; Hojjatollah Farahani; Javad Hatami

2011-01-01

319

Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term "euthanasia" influences people's support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman's Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term "euthanasia", the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it.

Aghababaei N; Farahani H; Hatami J

2011-01-01

320

Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term “euthanasia” influences people’s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman’s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term “euthanasia”, the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it.

Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The Impact of a Palliative Care Educational Component on Attitudes toward Care of the Dying in Undergraduate Nursing Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 6-week experiential course based on a model of death education and transformative learning prepared nursing students to care for dying patients. Pretest/posttest scores for 45 who received the intervention and 59 controls showed the intervention contributed to a significant positive increase in attitudes toward care of the dying. (Contains 27…

Mallory, Judy L.

2003-01-01

322

Attitudes Toward and Perceived Use of Textbook Reading Strategies Among Junior and Senior High School Social Studies Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports the results of a study which surveyed 237 junior and senior high school teachers' endorsement and use of selected content area reading strategies. Results showed a substantial gap between the teachers' generally positive attitude toward the reading practices and their level of use of the practices in the classroom. (JDH)

Tixier y Vigil, Yvonne; Dick, James

1987-01-01

323

Attitude and knowledge change in response to sexuality education training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers of human sexuality classes are one of the most important factors in the success of school based programs; until recently, professionals involved in sex education acquired their expertise randomly and informally. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of a 16 week sexuality education training program on attitudes and knowledge about human sexuality among teachers in a public school district. 39 participants (teachers, school nurses, and psychologists) were enrolled in a University of South Carolina course which consisted of lectures, group discussions, role playing, and films. The evaluation instrument used was the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), and was administered to each participant before and after the course was given. Results show that there are significant changes in knowledge, acceptance and rejection of sexual myths, and attitudes concerning abortion and autoeroticism. The training course resulted in a shift deemed positive and conducive for teacher effectiveness in teaching sex education. There was a significant shift in a more liberal direction in all of the attitudinal scales except heterosexual relations. This positive change in attitudinal scores is essential for teachers who will be instructing students from a variety of family backgrounds. PMID:12314199

Vincent, M L; Bartley, G L; Clearie, A F

1985-01-01

324

Finnish adolescents' attitudes towards wholegrain bread and healthiness  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Wholegrain food may have an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases, and therefore its consumption should be increased. However, wholegrain products have a low consumption because of unfamiliar taste and poor understanding about the health benefits. Generally, adolescents unfamiliar with wholegrain bread dislike it. Food use in childhood correlates positively with practices in adult life, and therefore adolescents are an important target group for research. The aim was to study adolescents' attitudes towards wholegrain bread in a society where wholegrain products are widely used.RESULTS: A qualitative focus group method (n = 61) and a quantitative procedure (n = 104) with 13-15-year-old secondary school students indicated that Finnish adolescents considered wholegrain breads healthier and more acceptable than refined breads. The motives for wholegrain bread consumption were taste, feeling of fillingness and weight control. Girls were more interested in bread healthfulness than boys (P < 0.01), and participants who showed a more positive attitude towards general health interest reported using more rye and wholegrain breads than participants with negative attitudes.CONCLUSION: Adolescents familiar with the sensory properties and healthfulness of rye and wholegrain breads consumed them regularly and perceived them as pleasant and very acceptable. Copyright

Pohjanheimo Terhi; Luomala Harri; Tahvonen Raija

2010-07-01

325

Examining Implicit Attitudes towards Exercisers with a Physical Disability  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Using measures of explicit attitudes, physical activity status has been established as a factor that reduces the stigma able-bodied people hold towards people with physical disabilities. This phenomenon is called the exerciser stereotype. However, whether the exerciser stereotype exists when using measures of implicit attitudes remains unknown. Objective. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of negative implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities and determine whether implicit attitudes towards people with physical disabilities were influenced by the exerciser stereotype. Methods. One hundred able-bodied participants (82 females, 18 males) completed two implicit association tests (IATs): the Disability-Attitudes IAT and the Disability-Activity IAT. The Disability-Attitudes IAT measured implicit attitudes towards people who were not disabled relative to disabled; the Disability-Activity IAT measured attitudes towards people with a physical disability who were active relative to inactive. Results. Results revealed that 83.8% of participants had negative implicit attitudes towards people with a disability. Participants held more positive attitudes towards active versus inactive people with a physical disability. Conclusions. The study findings indicate that the exerciser stereotype exists implicitly and may undermine negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities.

Dionne, Cassandra D.; Gainforth, Heather L.; O'Malley, Deborah A.; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.

2013-01-01

326

Danish consumers' attitudes towards functional foods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. "Functional foods" is a relatively new term used to describe food products which have been enriched with natural substances/components with a specific physiological preventive and/or health-promoting effect. As yet, there are few actual functional foods in the Danish market, but in Japan and the USA, where these products are relatively common, sales are enjoying growth rates far above those for conventional products. 2. The aim of this study is to examine Danish consumers' attitudes to functional foods, including: whether enrichment with health-promoting substances results in a higher value perception among consumers; the relative importance consumers attach to enrichment compared with other product attributes; which beliefs consumers associate with enrichment; and, which beliefs influence and determine consumers' purchasing intentions and the relative importance of these beliefs. 3. The study consists of three analyses: focus-group interviews, the aim of which is to get an overview of the issue and generate input for the quantitative analyses. The quantitative analyses consist of a conjoint analysis and a survey based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. These analyses are based on concrete, non-existent examples of functional foods, a dairy product and a bread product, each of which has been enriched with three different substances: a) soluble food fibre, b) omega-3, and c) calcium and vitamin D. 4. The focus-group interviews show that the main beliefs which consumers associate with functional foods are the convenience of enrichment through daily diet, (un)naturalness, apprehension about changes in taste, higher price, uncertainty about belief in the effect of enrichment, dosage (when is there enough/ too much of the enrichment substance), own ignorance and uncertainty about manufacturers' knowledge of the health effects of eating enriched products. The respondents have very little knowledge of functional foods and were fairly sceptical. However, attitudes to concrete examples of functional foods were much morepositive than attitudes to the concept of functional foods. 5. The conjoint analyses show that, in general, consumers preferred the non-enriched variety, though with the exception of bread enriched with fibre, since the benefit of this is greater than for the conventional product. About 75% of consumers attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. For about 30% of consumers in the case of the dairy product and 50% in the case of the bread product, enrichment in one of the three forms resulted in a higher value perception, while about 25% and 40% respectively attached a lot of importance to the products not being enriched. 6. The cluster analysis identified several segments with a preference for the various enriched products. Two relatively large segments (25% and 20% of respondents respectively) had a higher value perception for the enriched than for the conventional product, especially as regards the calcium and vitamin D-enriched dairy product and the fibre-enriched bread product, and these segments also attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. The analysis also identified a large segment with a preference for the calcium and vitamin D-enriched bread product, about 30% of respondents saying they preferred this product variety and 35% saying they attached relatively great importance to enrichment. Only very few respondents preferred enrichment with omega-3, which was also the case for enrichment with fibre in the dairy product. 7. In general, attitudes to enrichment are more positive as regards the bread product and product varieties enriched with substances already present in the conventional product. However, attitudes are generally more negative as regards enrichment with omega-3 than with the two other substances. On the whole, consumers' attitudes to functional foods depend on both the type of product enriched, the enrichment substance and the combination of these. 8. The questionnaire survey shows that consumers' purchasing int

Poulsen, Jacob

1999-01-01

327

Perceived social stigma and attitudes towards seeking therapy in training: a cross-national study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Given the potential value of undergoing psychological therapy when training as a therapist, it is important to understand what influences students' decisions regarding seeking therapy. The study examined the relationship between clinical psychology students' perception of the social stigma attached to receiving therapy and their attitudes toward seeking therapy. Students from Argentina (n = 121), England (n = 211), and the United States (n = 130) completed measures of demographic characteristics, perceived social stigma, attitudes, and other variables associated with therapy-seeking. The results revealed significant cross-national differences, with Argentinean students showing the lowest levels of perceived social stigma for receiving therapy, followed by English and Americans. English students showed relatively less positive attitudes toward seeking therapy than their Argentinean and American counterparts. Social stigma predicted students' attitudes toward seeking therapy among English and American but not Argentinean students. The relationship between perceived social stigma and attitudes was moderated by nationality. Implications for training are discussed, including English and American clinical psychology courses encouraging their students to reflect on the effect of perceived social stigma on their decision-making.

Digiuni M; Jones FW; Camic PM

2013-06-01

328

Attitudes among nurse educators toward homosexuality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Homosexual populations have unique and specific cultures, psychosocial characteristics, health issues, and health care disparities that are currently ignored or insufficiently addressed in nursing education. To understand the reasons for these omissions, this descriptive study explores the attitudes of nurse educators (N = 1,282) toward homosexuality and the extent to which demographic, educational, and occupational factors are related to their attitudes. Responding to a direct online survey solicitation, self-selected participants completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) and a supplementary data questionnaire. Results indicate that the majority of participants have positive attitudes toward homosexuality, which is consistent with prior findings. Most participants believe it is important to teach nursing students about homosexuality, but they consider themselves unprepared to teach this content. Effects of various demographic and occupational factors on participants' ATLG scores and implications of the findings for nursing education and nursing health care policy are discussed.

Sirota T

2013-04-01

329

Attitudes among nurse educators toward homosexuality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Homosexual populations have unique and specific cultures, psychosocial characteristics, health issues, and health care disparities that are currently ignored or insufficiently addressed in nursing education. To understand the reasons for these omissions, this descriptive study explores the attitudes of nurse educators (N = 1,282) toward homosexuality and the extent to which demographic, educational, and occupational factors are related to their attitudes. Responding to a direct online survey solicitation, self-selected participants completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) and a supplementary data questionnaire. Results indicate that the majority of participants have positive attitudes toward homosexuality, which is consistent with prior findings. Most participants believe it is important to teach nursing students about homosexuality, but they consider themselves unprepared to teach this content. Effects of various demographic and occupational factors on participants' ATLG scores and implications of the findings for nursing education and nursing health care policy are discussed. PMID:23506172

Sirota, Theodora

2013-03-20

330

Towards estimation of HIV-1 date of infection: a time-continuous IgG-model shows that seroconversion does not occur at the midpoint between negative and positive tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimating date of infection for HIV-1-infected patients is vital for disease tracking and informed public health decisions, but is difficult to obtain because most patients have an established infection of unknown duration at diagnosis. Previous studies have used HIV-1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels as measured by the IgG capture BED enzyme immunoassay (BED assay) to indicate if a patient was infected recently, but a time-continuous model has not been available. Therefore, we developed a logistic model of IgG production over time. We used previously published metadata from 792 patients for whom the HIV-1-specific IgG levels had been longitudinally measured using the BED assay. To account for patient variability, we used mixed effects modeling to estimate general population parameters. The typical patient IgG production rate was estimated at r?=?6.72[approximate 95% CI 6.17,7.33]×10(-3) OD-n units day(-1), and the carrying capacity at K?=?1.84[1.75,1.95] OD-n units, predicting how recently patients seroconverted in the interval (?) t?=?(31,711) days. Final model selection and validation was performed on new BED data from a population of 819 Swedish HIV-1 patients diagnosed in 2002-2010. On an appropriate subset of 350 patients, the best model parameterization had an accuracy of 94% finding a realistic seroconversion date. We found that seroconversion on average is at the midpoint between last negative and first positive HIV-1 test for patients diagnosed in prospective/cohort studies such as those included in the training dataset. In contrast, seroconversion is strongly skewed towards the first positive sample for patients identified by regular public health diagnostic testing as illustrated in the validation dataset. Our model opens the door to more accurate estimates of date of infection for HIV-1 patients, which may facilitate a better understanding of HIV-1 epidemiology on a population level and individualized prevention, such as guidance during contact tracing. PMID:23613753

Skar, Helena; Albert, Jan; Leitner, Thomas

2013-04-16

331

Relationship between Drug Attitudes of Schizophrenic Patients on Discharge and Re-hospitalization  

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Full Text Available "n "nObjective: Non-compliance is one of the major problems in treatment of patients with schizophrenia. It is also the most significant risk factor for relapse and re-hospitalization. Previous studies showed that 25-70% of all patients with schizophrenia have negative attitudes to drugs. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the relationship between drug attitude and discharge and the rate of re-hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia. "nMethod: This cohort study was carried out on 200 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) was completed for all the patients at the time of discharge. All patients were followed-up for one year for ehospitalization. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between drug attitude and specific risk factors. "nResults: The Mean age of patients was 37.34±10.74 years. Positive and negative drug attitudes were 68%.5 and 27% respectively. The rate of rehospitalization was 41.5% during the one year follow-up. The rate of negative attitude was not significantly different between the two groups with and without re-hospitalization. However, the mean DAI score was significantly lower in the re-hospitalized patients. Multivariate analysis showed that lower DAI score and being female were significant and independent risk factors for re-hospitalization. "n "nConclusion: The more negative attitude the patients with schizophrenia had towards drugs, the more rate of re-hospitalization they had. Moreover, female patients are at higher risk for re-hospitalization.

Fatemeh Ranjbar; Hannaneh Taghizadeh

2008-01-01

332

The Relationship between Depression and Religious Attitudes in Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Depression is one of the main causes of debility all over the world. Its prevalence is reported to be 10% -64% in students. Various researches indicate that utilizing religious approaches play an efficient and effective role in treating mental disorders. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between depression and religious attitudes in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences (QUMS), Qom, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive– analytical study, 250 students of QUMS were assessed by means of three questionnaires; a standard depression test questionnaire, and religious attitude questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical procedures of Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal- Wallis test and Spearman Correlation Coefficient and P<0/05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: The study showed that 44.8%of the subjects had no depression, 37.2% had minor depression, 14.8% were moderately depressed, and 0.8% were intensely depressed while 2.4% very intensely depressed. The study also showed that 82% of the cases had positive attitudes toward religious beliefs and 18% had negative ones. Moreover, results showed that there was a meaningful but negative relationship between depression and religious attitudes (P<0/02).Conclusion: Regarding the positive effects of religious beliefs and practices on mental health, it is recommended to use this potential in community health planning especially when dealing with young adults.Keywords: Depression; Attitude; Religious; University Students.

Ahmari Tehran H.; Heidari A.; Kachooie A.; Moghise M.; Irani A.

2009-01-01

333

Social Identity Complexity, Cross-Ethnic Friendships, and Intergroup Attitudes in Urban Middle Schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated contextual antecedents (i.e., cross-ethnic peers and friends) and correlates (i.e., intergroup attitudes) of social identity complexity in seventh grade. Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap among social groups with which youth identify. Identifying mostly with out-of-school sports, religious affiliations, and peer crowds, the ethnically diverse sample (N = 622; Mage in seventh grade = 12.56) showed moderately high complexity. Social identity complexity mediated the link between cross-ethnic friendships and ethnic intergroup attitudes, but only when adolescents had a high proportion of cross-ethnic peers at school. Results are discussed in terms of how school diversity can promote complex social identities and positive intergroup attitudes.

Knifsend CA; Juvonen J

2013-09-01

334

Ethical ideology, animal rights activism, and attitudes toward the treatment of animals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In two studies, we used the Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ) to investigate the relationship between individual differences in moral philosophy, involvement in the animal rights movement, and attitudes toward the treatment of animals. In the first, 600 animal rights activists attending a national demonstration and 266 nonactivist college students were given the EPQ. Analysis of the returns from 157 activists and 198 students indicated that the activists were more likely than the students to hold an "absolutist" moral orientation (high idealism, low relativism). In the second study, 169 students were given the EPQ with a scale designed to measure attitudes toward the treatment of animals. Multiple regression showed that gender and the EPQ dimension of idealism were related to attitudes toward animal use.

Galvin SL; Herzog HA

1992-01-01

335

Attitude reconstruction for the Gaia spacecraft  

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Context. The Gaia mission will produce a stereoscopic map of the Milky Way by collecting highly accurate positions, parallaxes and proper motions for about 1 billion stars. These astrometric parameters will be determined through the astrometric core solution of the Gaia mission which will employ about 108 primary sources (a subset of the observed sources with the best astrometric properties). The attitude of the spacecraft is reconstructed as part of the astrometric solution and provides the reference frame relative to which the astrometric measurements are obtained. This implies extreme demands on the accuracy of the attitude reconstruction. Aims: This paper presents an analysis of the capabilities and limitations of the Gaia attitude reconstruction, focusing on the effects on the astrometry of bright (V ? 11) stars and the implications of employing cubic B-splines in the modelling of the attitude measurements. Methods: We simulate the attitude of the spacecraft using a realistic and very detailed model that considers not only physical effects but also technical aspects like the control system and thruster noise. We include the effect of shorter integration times for the bright stars on the effective attitude and we estimate the residual modelling noise in the reconstruction of the attitude. Results: We provide an analysis of the dependency of the residual modelling noise in the reconstructed attitude with respect to the following parameters: integration time, B-spline knot interval, micro-propulsion system noise, and number of observations per second. Conclusions: The final noise in the attitude reconstruction for Gaia is estimated to be ?20 ?as, and the main source will be the micro-propulsion system. However its effect on the astrometric performance will be limited, adding up to 7 ?as rms to the parallax uncertainties. This is larger than the 4 ?as from previous estimations and would affect the performance for the brightest (V ? 11) stars.

Risquez, D.; van Leeuwen, F.; Brown, A. G. A.

2013-03-01

336

Developing a Biology Attitude Scale  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a likert-style reliable and valid biology attitude scale. Before developing the biology attitude scale, the current scales had been carefully scrutinized, the views of experts taken, and the first draft of scale prepared by choosingstatements. The validity and reliability studies of the scale were carried out by applying the first draft on 168 students as a pilot study. The content validity of the scale was confirmed by the panel of judges. The factor analysis of the scale provided the construction validity of the scale. There are 36 statements as positive and negative statements. The value of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin is 0.91, Barlet’s value is 5415.115 and Cronbach alpha coefficient is 0.941 for the reliability.

Melih KOÇAKO?LU; Lütfullah TÜRKMEN

2010-01-01

337

Second Language Learners’ Attitudes towards the Methods of Learning Vocabulary  

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Full Text Available The paper aims at investigating students’ learning attitudes after they are exposed to three vocabulary learning methods, namely Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy and ComputerAssistedLanguageLearning (CALL). The study involves 123 undergraduates, who were surveyed to identify the factors that affect their attitudes in learning vocabulary using these methods. Findings from the study using ANOVA revealed that students who were exposed to CALL showed more positive attitudes in learning vocabulary compared to other methods. This is due to the tools matching their aptitude for learning. In fact, the tools are regarded as ‘part and parcel’ of the students’ lives. The results of the study also showed that the usefulnessand limitation of the respective methods depend on students’ approaches in using them to learn vocabulary. The implications for language teaching and learning of vocabulary demand practitioners to incorporate the use of computers in their lessons. Nonetheless, they may also integrate the use of Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy and CALL in their teaching to accelerate the expansion of students’ vocabulary.

Zuraina Ali; Jayakaran Mukundan; Roselan Baki; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Ayub

2012-01-01

338

Consumer attitude toward food irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person.

Bruhn, C.M.M.

1986-01-01

339

Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students  

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There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

2011-01-01

340

Changes in Attitudes toward Mainstreaming among Undergraduate Education Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Attitudes toward Mainstreaming Scale was administered to 233 undergraduate education majors, 110 of whom participated in a follow-up study. Students were generally willing to teach the disabled. Attitudes toward mainstreaming became more positive during professional preparation but declined after student teaching. Implications for teacher…

Wilczenski, Felicia L.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

Manley, Marilyn S.

2008-01-01

342

Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students  

Science.gov (United States)

|There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

2011-01-01

343

Hospital doctors' attitudes towards older people.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ageism among health professionals is increasingly recognized, but few studies investigated hospital doctors' attitudes towards older people. The aims of this study were to investigate hospital doctors' attitudes towards older people and to determine whether factors, which were identified in studies on other health professionals, influence hospital doctors' attitudes. METHODS: Hospital doctors who worked in General Medicine or Aged Care units in two tertiary public hospitals in metropolitan Victoria, Australia, in 2008 were surveyed with Fraboni's Scale of Ageism (FSA), a validated instrument used to investigate attitudes towards older people. Demographic data from participants were collected. RESULTS: Of the 235 questionnaires distributed, 122 were returned (overall response rate 51.9%). Response rate was highest among consultants (80.4%), followed by registrars (64.1%) and lowest among interns and residents (35.2%). The mean FSA score attained by the respondents was 61.5 (SD 11.0), representing a point between a neutral and a positive disposition. Doctors' characteristics that were associated with more positive attitudes towards older people included age of 30years or older (P < 0.001), female gender (P= 0.003), more senior in position (P < 0.001), postgraduate years of 10 or more (P < 0.001), previous working experience in Aged Care (P < 0.001), interest in Aged Care (P < 0.001) and more frequent social contacts with healthy older people (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Hospital doctors of different demographic features and background characteristics display different attitudes towards older people. These findings can be used to inform future development of undergraduate and postgraduate medical curricula and form a basis for future studies on the effectiveness of these interventions in improving doctors' attitudes.

Leung S; Logiudice D; Schwarz J; Brand C

2011-04-01

344

Perceived relationship with God fosters positive body image in college women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Positive body image is defined as healthy body-related attitudes that go beyond the absence of distressful symptoms. A warm and secure relationship with an important other person has been linked with attitudes of acceptance and appreciation toward one's body as well as adaptive eating patterns. This study tested whether a warm and secure relationship with God was similarly related to positive body image. Undergraduate women completed self-report measures of religiosity, life satisfaction, body appreciation, body acceptance by others, functional orientation, and intuitive eating. Multiple regression analyses showed that relationship with God contributed variance to most of the well-being variables.

Homan KJ; Cavanaugh BN

2013-01-01

345

Home visiting nurses' attitudes toward caring for dying patients, and related workplace factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To identify workplace factors related to home visiting nurses (HVNs) positive attitudes toward caring for dying patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 343 HVNs working in 62 agencies across Chiba prefecture, eastern Japan, received an anonymous self-administered questionnaire from July to August 2012. RESULTS: 304 questionnaires (88.6%) were returned, and the data of 206 HVNs (60.1%) in 54 different agencies was analysed. Multiple regression analysis showed that attendance at terminal care seminars, agency support of schedule organisation enabling attendance at terminal care seminars, and positive feedback from patients and families were significantly positively associated with HVNs' attitudes toward terminal care. CONCLUSION: These results may give useful interventional methods for nursing managers to enhance HVNs terminal care practices.

Sakai M; Naruse T; Nagata S

2013-04-01

346

Self-perceived origins of attitudes toward homosexuality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Undergraduate students (N = 417) at a large southern university responded to open-ended questions designed to assess self-perceived origins of attitudes toward homosexuality and circumstances that may prompt a shift in attitudes. Inductively coded responses pointed to a positive correlation between attitudes toward homosexuality and experience interacting with gay men or lesbians; this is discussed in the context of Allport's (1954 ) contact hypothesis and Herek's (1984 , 1986 ) theory of functional attitudes. Implications are discussed for education and intervention efforts aimed at facilitating understanding and tolerance of gay men and lesbians.

Hans JD; Kersey M; Kimberly C

2012-01-01

347

An animal rights attitude survey of undergraduate psychology students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An animal rights attitude survey of 46 statements on various issues related to animal rights was given to 112 freshmen who were near the end of their first college course in introductory psychology and to 63 junior and senior psychology majors. A factor analysis yielded a multidimensional structure with attitudes toward animal research, nonresearch, environment, and evolution as factors. Beginning psychology students had a more negative attitude toward animal research than did psychology majors; however, psychology majors displayed a more positive attitude toward the environment and toward animal rights issues not involving animal research.

Vigorito M

1996-08-01

348

The Influence of Social and Individual Variables on Ethnic Attitudes in Guatemala  

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Full Text Available Ethnic attitudes may be a consequence of both group membership, as posited by Social Identity Theory (SIT), and of individual difference characteristics, as posited by Social Dominance Theory. University students in Guatemala (N = 196) reported their ethnic identity and completed a battery of surveys including Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), social distance, gender role attitudes, and social desirability scales. Results indicated that similar ethnicity, low SDO, close social distance and egalitarian gender role attitudes accurately predicted positive attitudes toward the Indigenous group. Similar ethnicity, close social distance, and high social desirability predicted positive attitudes toward the super-ordinate (Ladino) group. These results imply that many factors affect attitudes toward ethnic groups, such as SDO, gender role attitudes and social desirability. These results have implications for theories of inter-group relations and also for potential interventions to improve ethnic relations in Guatemala.

Brien K. Ashdown; Judith L. Gibbons; Jana Hackathorn; Richard D. Harvey

2011-01-01

349

Does Your Library Have an Attitude Problem towards "Marketing"? Revealing Inter-Relationship between Marketing Attitudes and Behaviour  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behaviour of librarians in thirty-three different libraries of Finland. Based on market-oriented behaviour, three kinds of libraries were found: "strong," "medium" and "weak." The findings indicate a positive relation between the marketing attitudes and…

Singh, Rajesh

2009-01-01

350

Measuring medical student attitudes and beliefs regarding patients who are obese.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Research shows obesity bias to undermine the patient-doctor relationship and lead to substandard care. The authors developed and tested an instrument to measure medical students' attitudes and beliefs about obese patients. METHOD: The authors conducted a literature search to identify validated measures of obesity bias. Because they identified no appropriate scale, they decided to design a novel survey instrument: the Nutrition, Exercise and Weight Management (NEW) Attitudes Scale. An expert panel generated items which focus groups of third-year medical students then discussed. Next, experienced medical educators judged and weighted the remaining revised items. Then, second- and fourth-year medical students completed the scale alongside two previously validated measures of obesity bias, the Anti-Fat Attitudes Questionnaire (AFA) and Beliefs About Obese Persons Scale (BAOP). Third-year students completed the NEW Attitudes Scale before and after a simulated encounter with an obese standardized patient instructor. The authors tested the validity and reliability. RESULTS: The final instrument comprised 31 items. A sample of 201 judges rated the items. A sample of 111 second- and fourth-year medical students completed the survey (mean score 24.4, range -37 to 76 out of a possible -118 to 118; higher scores indicate more positive attitudes). Pearson correlations between the NEW Attitudes Scale and AFA and BAOP were, respectively, -0.47 and 0.23. Test-retest reliability was 0.89. Students scored 27% higher after completing the standardized patient-instructor encounter (P < .001). CONCLUSION: The NEW Attitudes Scale has good validity and reliability and may be used in future studies.

Ip EH; Marshall S; Vitolins M; Crandall SJ; Davis S; Miller D; Kronner D; Vaden K; Spangler J

2013-02-01

351

Attitudes toward menopause in HIV-infected and at-risk women  

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Full Text Available Diana Hartel1, Yungtai Lo1, Carolyn Bauer2, Nancy Budner1, Andrea A Howard1, Michelle Floris-Moore1, Julia H Arnsten1,2, Nanette Santoro3, Ellie E Schoenbaum1,2,31Departments of Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Medicine, and 3Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women’s Health, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAObjective: To study attitudes toward menopause in women with or at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aged 35 to 60 in New York City, NY, USA.Design: Data were obtained at the baseline interview in a cohort study of menopause. Of 502 participating women, 92 were postmenopausal and 162 were perimenopausal.Results: Overall, 37.5% of women had a relatively favorable attitude toward menopause. African Americans had a 72% greater odds of a positive attitude (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.16–2.57) than all other groups after adjusting for covariates. Hispanic women had the least favorable view of menopause. Experience of >3 menopausal symptoms and negative life events—being a witness to a murder, and the death of a child—were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards menopause (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.42–0.93 and OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.93, respectively). Depressive symptoms, street drug use, and having a domestic partner, which is significant in single variable analyses, did not remain independent predictors in multivariate results. HIV status, menopause status, and age at interview were not associated with menopause attitudes.Conclusions: HIV-infected, drug-using, low-income women showed generally unfavorable attitudes towards menopause. High stress life events coupled with a high prevalence of depressive symptoms indicate this population has special needs marked by the menopause transition into older age.Keywords: menopause, attitudes, HIV, street drug users

Diana Hartel; Yungtai Lo; Carolyn Bauer; Nancy Budner; Andrea A Howard; et al

2008-01-01

352

The Survey of Women's Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Prevention of Breast Cancer in Kerman City  

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Full Text Available Background: Fighting against cancers includes management in prevention, early treatment, and rehabilitation. This research is a descriptive study that was done to determine the women's knowledge attitude and practice about prevention of breast cancer. Methods: The sample of this research included 630 women in Kerman city, more than 15 years old, that selected in several stages (cluster, randomized, systematic) . For data gathering a questionnaire was used and for data analysis ANOVA, kruskal-walis, Tukey χ2 and regression (Pearson) were used. Results: Results showed most of women had weak to moderate knowledge. Women who were employed with diploma and higher educational level had more awareness than others. Also most of women had positive or impartial attitude, and positive attitude in employed women and those with higher educational level was more than others. In practice no body had proper practice (P ). Results showed no relationship among knowledge, attitude and practice. Conclusion: Results indicated that health services members have an important role in increasing knowledge and improving health behavior in prevention of cancers.

Sakineh Sabzevari; Sakineh Mohammadalizadeh; Fariba Borhanii; Shahnaz Zohreh Kermani

2011-01-01

353

Electroconvulsive therapy: Effect of an educational experience on nursing students’ knowledge and attitudes  

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Full Text Available Objective: Despite the proved effectiveness of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of many psychiatric emergencies and disorders, there are many misconceptions and groundless negative attitudes about its prescription and utilization by many health professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational experience including a two hours lecture on ECT and viewing a video of the ECT procedure on nursing students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards ECT. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used to conduct the current study. A 28 – items (two constructs measuring students’ attitudes and knowledge) self administered questionnaire was administered before and after exposure to the two – hour lecture and a movie representing the ECT procedure to a non probability convenience sample of ninety seven female nursing students. Informed written consent was obtained from all students who agreed to participate in the study. Results: Paired sample T. test showed significant differences in students’ scores before and after their educational experience in the psychiatric/mental health nursing course as following: attitude scores (t = 20.507, P t = 20.697, p t = 23.849, p Conclusion: Positive educational experiences would increase the knowledge of ECT, which might in turn contribute to more favorable attitudes towards ECT. Proper educational materials and mass media programs aiming to increase students and practitioners’ awareness about ECT are recommended.

Eman Dawood; Abeer Selim; Amal Khalil

2013-01-01

354

Associations among pain, pain attitudes, and pain behaviors in patients with metastatic breast cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients often experience pain which can trigger pain behaviors, such as distorted ambulation. Psychological variables, such as individuals' attitudes toward pain, play a role in pain intervention. In this study, we used the cognitive-behavioral model of pain to examine the influence of patients' attitudes toward pain (as measured by the survey of pain attitudes or SOPA) on their pain behaviors (as measured by the pain behaviors checklist). Two hundred-one MBC patients completed surveys at treatment initiation and again 3 and 6 months later. Linear Mixed Model with repeated measures analyses showed that SOPA-solicitude, SOPA-emotions, SOPA-cure, SOPA-disability, and SOPA-medication pain attitudes were consistently significantly associated with pain behaviors at each assessment time point. Additionally, the belief that a medical cure for pain exists buffered the positive association between pain severity and pain behaviors. Our findings support and extend the cognitive-behavioral model of pain and suggest that it may be useful to target pain attitudes in pain management interventions for MBC patients.

Shen MJ; Redd WH; Winkel G; Badr H

2013-08-01

355

HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviors assessment of Chinese students: a questionnaire study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting) than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students' knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.

Tan X; Pan J; Zhou D; Wang C; Xie C

2007-09-01

356

HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Assessment of Chinese Students: A Questionnaire Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting) than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.

Xiaodong Tan; Jingju Pan; Dong Zhou; Chunhong Wang; Chaojun Xie

2007-01-01

357

Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

Slezak, Michael E.

1982-01-01

358

A Key to the Future: The Attitudes and Values of Adolescent Europeans  

Science.gov (United States)

|Based on original empirical data collected from adolescents in Europe (N = 9003) this paper focuses the lifeworlds of young people. It analyses negative and positive patterns of attitude and combines them with further concepts: personal life perspectives, various key values and political attitudes. Technically, the attitude towards Europe acts as…

Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kay, William K.

2009-01-01

359

A Key to the Future: The Attitudes and Values of Adolescent Europeans  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on original empirical data collected from adolescents in Europe (N = 9003) this paper focuses the lifeworlds of young people. It analyses negative and positive patterns of attitude and combines them with further concepts: personal life perspectives, various key values and political attitudes. Technically, the attitude towards Europe acts as…

Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kay, William K.

2009-01-01

360

Attitudes of future physical education teachers in Turkey toward lesbians and gay men.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored male and female physical education majors' (149 men, 97 women) attitudes toward lesbians and gays in Turkey. The short form of the Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men scale was used to assess attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in relation to the education majors' sex, year of schooling, and whether or not he/she had a lesbian/gay friend or acquaintance. Female students had more positive attitudes toward gay men compared with males, and male and female students' attitudes toward lesbians were similar. Furthermore, no significant differences were found among the different cohort years in terms of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Results also revealed that students who had lesbian/gay friends or acquaintances held more positive attitudes toward gay men than those who did not. However, their attitudes were similar toward lesbians. PMID:23402046

Saraç, Leyla

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Attitudes of future physical education teachers in Turkey toward lesbians and gay men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study explored male and female physical education majors' (149 men, 97 women) attitudes toward lesbians and gays in Turkey. The short form of the Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men scale was used to assess attitudes toward lesbians and gay men in relation to the education majors' sex, year of schooling, and whether or not he/she had a lesbian/gay friend or acquaintance. Female students had more positive attitudes toward gay men compared with males, and male and female students' attitudes toward lesbians were similar. Furthermore, no significant differences were found among the different cohort years in terms of attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Results also revealed that students who had lesbian/gay friends or acquaintances held more positive attitudes toward gay men than those who did not. However, their attitudes were similar toward lesbians.

Saraç L

2012-12-01

362

VALIDITY OF THE EATING ATTITUDE TEST AMONG EXERCISERS  

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Full Text Available Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT) is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items), oral control (7-items), and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items). The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10), the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09) showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06). Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10) and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08) showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06). Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients among exercise participants, and that future research is needed to investigate eating attitudes among samples of exercisers.

Helen J. Lane; Andrew M. Lane; Hilary Matheson

2004-01-01

363

Transmission of social attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

1986-06-01

364

Religious attitude of students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2007 .  

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Full Text Available (Received 12 Feb, 2008 ; Accepted 24 Sep, 2008) Abstract Back ground and purpose: Available evidence shows that religious attitude have noticeable effects on psychological aspects of human life. The purpose of this study was to determine the present situation of religious attitude of Students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Student’s attitude towards theoretical basis of Islam and Some other subsidiary rules of religion and moral values were studied in this investigation.Materials and methods: In this research descriptive field study on all the students of the university, stratified sampling method was employed and 384 students were recruited.A questionnaire consisting of 38 questions was used to collect the data. Attitude rates were quantified on the scale of –5 to +5. Results: The mean rates of attitude of associated to art students (2.53 ± 1.63) and B.S.C students (3.06±1.45) were statistically significant (p<0.01).Likewise, the mean rate of attitude of male and female students (2.94±1.7) and (2.97±1.4) were statistically significant (p<0.01).The attitude rate of the majority of students was between 2.5 to 4.5 (s. p 1.63). The top mark of 4.5 was gained by 57% of the students.Conclusion: The students have positive religious attitude. The lack of adequate religious practice among the subjects must not be interpreted as the low religious attitude. However it is necessary to study other factor that effects students practice. . Religious attitude of students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2007 . Ali Aasghar Zakavi* , Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini* , Mohammad Azadbakht **, Reza Ali Mohammadpour *** , Hossein Jalahi *** * Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran** Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran *** Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran(Received 12 Feb, 2008 ; Accepted 24 Sep, 2008) Abstract Back ground and purpose: Available evidence shows that religious attitude have noticeable effects on psychological aspects of human life. The purpose of this study was to determine the present situation of religious attitude of Students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Student’s attitude towards theoretical basis of Islam and Some other subsidiary rules of religion and moral values were studied in this investigation.Materials and methods: In this research descriptive field study on all the students of the university, stratified sampling method was employed and 384 students were recruited.A questionnaire consisting of 38 questions was used to collect the data. Attitude rates were quantified on the scale of –5 to +5. Results: The mean rates of attitude of associated to art students (2.53 ± 1.63) and B.S.C students (3.06±1.45) were statistically significant (p<0.01).Likewise, the mean rate of attitude of male and female students (2.94±1.7) and (2.97±1.4) were statistically significant (p<0.01).The attitude rate of the majority of students was between 2.5 to 4.5 (s. p 1.63). The top mark of 4.5 was gained by 57% of the students.Conclusion: The students have positive religious attitude. The lack of adequate religious practice among the subjects must not be interpreted as the low religious attitude. However it is necessary to study other factor that effects students practice. Keywords: Religious, attitude, student. Religious attitude of students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2007 . Ali Aasghar Zakavi* , Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini* , Mohammad Azadbakht **, Reza Ali Mohammadpour *** , Hossein Jalahi *** * Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran** Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran *** Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran(Received 12 Feb, 2008 ; Accepted 24 Sep, 2008) Abstract Back ground and purpose: Available evidence shows that religious attitude have noticeable effects on psychological aspects of human life. The purpose of this s

Ali Aasghar Zakavi; Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini; Mohammad Azadbakht; Reza Ali Mohammadpour; Hossein Jalahi

2008-01-01

365

A study on the attitudes and behavioural influence of construction waste management in occupied Palestinian territory.  

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As a step towards comprehending what drives the management of construction waste in the occupied Palestinian territory, this paper quantifies construction waste generation and examines how the local contractors' waste management attitudes and behaviour are influenced. Collection of data was based on a survey, carried out in the southern part of the West Bank between April and May 2010. The survey targeted contractors who specialized in the construction of buildings. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship between various attributes and the attitudes and behaviour that the local contractors demonstrate towards waste management. The results showed that during the construction of buildings, 17 to 81 kg of construction waste are generated per square metre of building floor. Although the area of a building is the key factor determining 74.8% of the variation of construction waste generation, the employment of labour-intensive techniques in the study area means that human factors such as the contractor's attitude and behaviour towards waste management, exert a key influence on waste generation. Attitudes towards the 3Rs of waste minimization and behaviour towards waste disposal are generally positive with smaller contractors exhibiting more positive attitudes and more satisfactory behaviour towards waste management. Overall, while contractors' behaviour towards waste sorting and disposal tends to be more satisfactory among contractors who are more conscious about the potential environmental impacts of construction waste, it was generally observed that in the absence of a regulatory framework, the voluntary attitudes and behaviour among the local contractors are mostly driven by direct economic considerations.

Al-Sari MI; Al-Khatib IA; Avraamides M; Fatta-Kassinos D

2012-02-01

366

The Diane Rehm Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

367

The knowledge and attitude of general dentists toward denture adhesives in Tehran  

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Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? Materials and Methods: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge.) Results: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The ?2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.

Fakhri Hamidreza; Fayaz Amir; Faramarzi Farhad; Javaheri Homan

2009-01-01

368

The knowledge and attitude of general dentists toward denture adhesives in Tehran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge.) RESULTS: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The chi2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.

Fakhri H; Fayaz A; Faramarzi F; Javaheri HH

2009-04-01

369

[German hospital nurses' attitudes concerning evidence-based nursing practice].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relevance of nurses' attitudes for establishing an evidence-based nursing practice (EBP) has been proven internationally. For German-speaking countries so far only few data are available. The present survey aims at assessing nurses' perceptions of relevant context factors for implementing an EBP. Therefore, 1384 nurses in 21 hospitals in Northern-Germany received a self-developed questionnaire based on established instruments in March and April 2012. 1023 (74 %) nurses responded. In principal, results show a positive attitude towards EBP. The majority of participants regards research as relevant for nursing practice. Support from superiors and colleagues is seen as important prerequisite. However, implementation remains a challenge. Nurses are not informed about recent research results. Original articles are hardly used. Only a minority is prepared to spend own money on congresses or to start academic nursing training in the near future. For the first time in German-speaking countries, the study provides meaningful data on nurses' attitudes towards EBP. Nurses confirm the value of research for their own practice. However, there is a lack of basic requirements to identify and implement relevant research findings as for example the use of recent scientific evidence. Nursing education in Germany should therefore focus more strongly on building competencies required for EBP, for example through properly designed academic nursing training.

Köpke S; Koch F; Behncke A; Balzer K

2013-06-01

370

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of male community health workers in Mako township, Iran about beast self-examination  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the cause of about 18% of all malignancies in females. By breast self-examination (BSE) it is possible to diagnose a breast tumor in the preliminary stages and treat it. Basic changes in the knowledge, attitude and practice of women as regards regular BES and follow-up will lead to considerable success in campaigns against breast cancer. Considering the role and responsibilities of community health workers (CHWs) in the health services delivery system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, this study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of female CHWs as regards BSE in 2006. "nMethods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 89 female CHWs in the Iranian Mako township health houses. The data was collected through interviews using a questionnaire consisting of 4 sections, the first section containing 10 demographic questions, and the second to fourth sections containing 33 questions on knowledge, attitude, and practice. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed using the repeat testing with r=85%. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 11)."nResults: The data showed that the BSE knowledge of 50.6% and 49.4% of the subjects was good and moderate, respectively; 76.4% of them had a positive attitude towards BSE. The reasons for not self-examination were as follows: inability to do it alone (12.4%); fear of a positive result, i.e., existence of a tumor (1.1%); having no time (2.2%); fear of increased anxiety (5.6%); not believing in BSE, even if it was likely to have a tumor (11.2%). Further analysis of the data showed the practice of the subjects to be good, moderate, and weak in 9%, 61.8%, and 29.2% of the cases, respectively. "nThere were significant associations between knowledge and a positive attitude (p=0.038), between attitude of the unmarried subjects towards performing BSE as compared to the married subjects (p=0.00), and between attitude and practice (p=0.045)."nConclusion: This study showed a moderate to good knowledge, a relatively good attitude, and a moderate practice among female CHWs in the Makoo Township, Iran, with regard to BSE. Considering the role of CHWs, improving their knowledge, attitude , and practice of BSE is essential.