Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics (United States)

Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah



Position and attitude tracking control for a quadrotor UAV. (United States)

A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances. PMID:24534327

Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui



Positive Intergroup Attitudes: The Role of Ethnic Identity (United States)

Developmental theory suggests that a well-developed ethnic identity serves as a secure position which allows people to be more open and accepting to people from other ethnic groups. To examine this prediction, two studies were carried out. In Study 1, 713 college freshmen from four ethnic groups were surveyed regarding positive attitudes toward…

Phinney, Jean S.; Jacoby, Brian; Silva, Charissa



Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality? (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay



Cubature Kalman filtering for relative spacecraft attitude and position estimation (United States)

A novel relative spacecraft attitude and position estimation approach based on cubature Kalman filter is derived. The integrated sensor suit comprises the gyro sensors on each spacecraft and a vision-based navigation system on the deputy spacecraft. In the traditional algorithm, an assumption that the chief's body frame coincides with its Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH) frame is made to construct the line-of-sight observations for convenience. To solve this problem, two relative quaternions that map the chief's LVLH frame to the deputy and chief body frames are involved. The general relative equations of motion for eccentric orbits are used to describe the positional dynamics. The implementation equations for the cubature Kalman filter are derived. Simulation results indicate that the proposed filter provides more accurate estimates of relative attitude and position over than the extended Kalman filter.

Zhang, Lijun; Yang, Huabo; Lu, Heping; Zhang, Shifeng; Cai, Hong; Qian, Shan



Relative position and attitude estimation of spacecrafts based on dual quaternion for rendezvous and docking (United States)

The capacity to acquire the relative position and attitude information between the chaser and the target satellites in real time is one of the necessary prerequisites for the successful implementation of autonomous rendezvous and docking. This paper addresses a vision based relative position and attitude estimation algorithm for the final phase of spacecraft rendezvous and docking. By assuming that the images of feature points on the target satellite lie within the convex regions, the estimation of the relative position and attitude is converted into solving a convex optimization problem in which the dual quaternion method is employed to represent the rotational and translational transformation between the chaser body frame and the target body frame. Due to the point-to-region correspondence instead of the point-to-point correspondence is used, the proposed estimation algorithm shows good performance in robustness which is verified through computer simulations.

Qiao, Bing; Tang, Shuren; Ma, Kexin; Liu, Zhenya



IMU/GPS System Provides Position and Attitude Data (United States)

A special navigation system is being developed to provide high-quality information on the position and attitude of a moving platform (an aircraft or spacecraft), for use in pointing and stabilization of a hyperspectral remote-sensing system carried aboard the platform. The system also serves to enable synchronization and interpretation of readouts of all onboard sensors. The heart of the system is a commercially available unit, small enough to be held in one hand, that contains an integral combination of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, a differential GPS subsystem, and ancillary data-processing subsystems. The system utilizes GPS carrier-phase measurements to generate time data plus highly accurate and continuous data on the position, attitude, rotation, and acceleration of the platform. Relative to prior navigation systems based on IMU and GPS subsystems, this system is smaller, is less expensive, and performs better. Optionally, the system can easily be connected to a laptop computer for demonstration and evaluation. In addition to airborne and spaceborne remote-sensing applications, there are numerous potential terrestrial sensing, measurement, and navigation applications in diverse endeavors that include forestry, environmental monitoring, agriculture, mining, and robotics.

Lin, Ching Fang



Attitudes about Childlessness in the United States: Correlates of Positive, Neutral, and Negative Responses (United States)

The study used cross-sectional analyses of the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-1988, 1992-1994) to examine attitudes about childlessness in the United States. It (a) assesses prevalence of positive, neutral, and negative attitudes about childlessness and (b) identifies the correlates of different attitudes in the population. About…

Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Pendell, Gretchen



Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects’ self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.




A position and attitude vision measurement system for wind tunnel slender model (United States)

A position and attitude vision measurement system for drop test slender model in wind tunnel is designed and developed. The system used two high speed cameras, one is put to the side of the model and another is put to the position where the camera can look up the model. Simple symbols are set on the model. The main idea of the system is based on image matching technique between the 3D-digital model projection image and the image captured by the camera. At first, we evaluate the pitch angles, the roll angles and the position of the centroid of a model through recognizing symbols in the images captured by the side camera. And then, based on the evaluated attitude info, giving a series of yaw angles, a series of projection images of the 3D-digital model are obtained. Finally, these projection images are matched with the image which captured by the looking up camera, and the best match's projection images corresponds to the yaw angle is the very yaw angle of the model. Simulation experiments are conducted and the results show that the maximal error of attitude measurement is less than 0.05°, which can meet the demand of test in wind tunnel.

Cheng, Lei; Yang, Yinong; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen; Bai, Xiangzhi



STRAP V - Higher accuracy, lower drift attitude control system. [Stellar Tracking Rocket Attitude Positioning (United States)

The STRAP V system was developed to provide higher accuracy and lower limit cycle fine pointing (+ or - 7 arcseconds) in all three axes at targets which cannot be tracked by startrackers or solar trackers. The system provides an increase in pointing performance over that obtainable with the STRAP IV (1) Attitude Control System (ACS). The STRAP IV concept of third axis updates is utilized to reduce pointing errors, using the flight-proven STRAP III (2) system as a first stage. Flight aspect photographs and telemetry records show that the STRAP V objectives have been met. The STRAP IV major error contributors have been significantly reduced and the tracking flexibility has been increased with only minor error contributions. Attention is given to the basic STRAP III control modes, major STRAP IV system error sources, tuned restrained inertial gyros (TRIGs), the programmable sequence timer, the STRAP V control box, third axis update, system gyro alignments, and STRAP V operational capabilities.

Budney, T. J.; Collinson, T. W.; Stone, R. W.



Nonadherence to antipsychotics: the role of positive attitudes towards positive symptoms. (United States)

Approximately 50-75% of all patients do not take their antipsychotic medication as prescribed. The current study examined reasons why patients continue versus discontinue antipsychotic medication. We were particularly interested to which extent positive attitudes towards psychotic symptoms foster medication nonadherence. An anonymous online questionnaire was set up to decrease response biases. After a strict selection process, 91 participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were retained for the final analyses. On average, 6.2 different reasons for nonadherence were reported. Side-effects (71.4%), sudden subjective symptom improvement (52.4%) and forgetfulness (33.3%) emerged as the most frequent reasons for drug discontinuation. Approximately one fourth of all participants (27.3%) reported at least one positive aspect of psychosis as a reason for nonadherence. In contrast, patients reported on average 3.5 different reasons for adherence (e.g., want to live a normal life (74.6%) and fear of psychotic symptoms (49.3%)). The belief that paranoia represents a survival strategy (subscale derived from the Beliefs about Paranoia Scale) was significantly associated with nonadherence. Patients' attitudes toward medication and the individual illness model need to be carefully considered when prescribing medication. In particular for patients who are likely to discontinue psychopharmacological treatment complementary or alternative psychological treatment should be sought because of a largely increased risk of relapse in the case of sudden drug discontinuation. PMID:25444234

Moritz, Steffen; Hünsche, Alexandra; Lincoln, Tania M



Technology of forming a positive attitude to physical training students of special medical group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Defined effective technology stages of forming a positive attitude towards physical education of students in special medical groups, stimulate motivation, epistemologically, informative, content-procedural, analytical and adjustment. For each stage technology offered special tools: lectures, seminars, analysis articles, mini conference on improving technique, racing games, mini-competitions, diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, analysis of log data on attendance. Selected criteria forming positive attitudes towards physical education: theoretical and practical, formed groups for research: experimental and control, analyzed results introduction of technology, efficiency of the proposed technology and means forming a positive attitude towards physical education students in special medical groups.

Mukhamediarov N.N.



Promoting Children's Positive Intergroup Attitudes towards Stigmatized Groups: Extended Contact and Multiple Classification Skills Training (United States)

Two studies were conducted to evaluate interventions, based upon the extended contact hypothesis and multiple classification skills training, which aimed to promote children's positive intergroup attitudes towards two stigmatized groups. Study 1 tested whether extended contact and multiple classification skills training changed out-group attitudes

Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam; Brown, Rupert



Patterns of healthy lifestyle and positive health attitudes in older Europeans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: To determine (i) the extent to which recommended lifestyle healthy behaviors are adopted and the existence of positive attitudes to health; (ii) the relative influence of socio-demographic variables on multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health; (iii) the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health. Design: two distinct healthy behavioral measures were developed: (i) healthy lifestyles based on physical activity, no cigarette smoking, no/moderate alcohol drinking, maintaining a "healthy" weight and having no sleeping problems and (ii) positive health attitudes based on having positive emotional attitudes, such as: self-perceived good health status, being calm, peaceful and happy for most of the time, not expecting health to get worse and regular health check-ups. A composite healthy lifestyle index, ranging from 0 (none of behaviors met) to 5 (all behaviors met) was calculated by summing up the individual's scores for the five healthylifestyle items. Afterwards, each individual's index was collapsed into three levels: 0-2 equivalent to 'level 1' (subjectively regarded as 'too low'), a score of 3 equivalent to 'level 2' ('fair') and 4-5 as 'level 3' satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' practices. The same procedure was applied to the positive health attitudes index. Multinomial logistic regression analyses by a forward selection procedure were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Participants: a multi-national sample consisting of 638 older Europeans from 8 countries, aged 65-74 and 75+, living alone or with others. Results and conclusions: maintaining a "healthy" weight was the most frequently cited factor in the healthy lifestyles index and therefore assumed to be the most important to the older Europeans in the study; positive attitudes to health were relatively low; participants achieved a 'satisfactory' level for healthy lifestyles index (level 3) more frequently than a satisfactory level for positive attitudes to health; having a satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' was directly related to having a satisfactory level of positive attitudes to health based on the positive health attitudes index; income and geographical location in Europe appeared to be key predictors for meeting both the recommended healthy lifestyle factors in the index and having positive health attitudes however, the composition and nature of the study sample should be taken into consideration when considering the impact of the location on healthy lifestyles and attitudes to health across Europe.

Kozlowska, Katarzyna; Szczecinka, A.



When need for closure leads to positive attitudes towards a negatively stereotyped outgroup  


The study examined the relationship between epistemic motivation, which is the need for closure (NFC), and positive attitudes towards a negatively stereotyped outgroup (i.e., Gypsies). Although extensive research has revealed that NFC is related to derogatory behavioural tendencies and negative emotions towards stereotyped groups, it is proposed that NFC may also be linked to positive attitudes towards outgroups. It is predicted, however, that this would be true only when NFC is accompanied b...

Kossowska, Ma?gorzata; Dragon, Piotr; Bukowski, Marcin



Using constructivist teaching strategies in high school science classrooms to cultivate positive attitudes toward science (United States)

This study investigated the premise that the use of constructivist teaching strategies (independent variable) in high school science classrooms can cultivate positive attitudes toward science (dependent variable) in high school students. Data regarding the relationship between the use of constructivist strategies and change in student attitude toward science were collected using the Science Attitude Assessment Tool (SAAT) (Heron & Beauchamp, 1996). The format of this study used the pre-test, post-test, control group-experimental group design. The subjects in the study were high school students enrolled in biology, chemistry, or environmental science courses in two high schools in the western United States. Ten teachers and twenty-eight classes, involving a total of 249 students participated in the study. Six experimental group teachers and four control group teachers were each observed an average of six times using the Science Observation Guide (Chapman, 1995) to measure the frequency of observed constructivist behaviors. The mean for the control group teachers was 12.89 and the mean for experimental group teachers was 20.67; F(1, 8) = 16.2, p =.004, revealing teaching behaviors differed significantly between the two groups. After a four month experimental period, the pre-test and post-test SAAT scores were analyzed. Students received a score for their difference in positive attitude toward science. The null hypothesis stating there would be no change in attitude toward science as a subject, between students exposed to constructivist strategies, and students not exposed to constructivist strategies was rejected F(1, 247) = 8.04, p =.005. The control group had a generally higher reported grade in their last science class than the experimental group, yet the control group attitude toward science became more negative (-1.18) while attitude toward science in the experimental group became more positive (+1.34) after the four-month period. An analysis of positive attitude toward science vs. gender was undertaken. An initial significant difference in positive attitude toward science between females and males in the experimental group was established (p =.05). There was no significant difference in positive attitude toward science between those same females and males after the experimental period. Consistent with other results, attitudes toward science for both males and females in the control group became less positive after the study, while males and females in the experimental group had a more positive attitude toward science after four months of using constructivist strategies. Looking at females only, the control group started out with a significantly more positive attitude toward science (mean = 43.40) compared to the experimental group (mean = 39.26, p =.0261). Although a significant difference in positive attitude between females in both groups was not found after the treatment period, the mean attitude score for females in the experimental group increased 2.044, while the mean attitude score for females in the control group decreased by 1.750. Constructivist strategies and their relationship with fostering positive attitudes toward science, might prove a viable solution for addressing the major concern of gender equity and enrollment in higher level science and mathematics courses.

Heron, Lory Elen


Attitude Estimation and Position Control of VTOL UAVs using IMU and GPS Measurements  

CERN Document Server

We address two fundamental problems associated with the control of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs): attitude estimation and position control. We propose two velocity-aided attitude observers which utilize a global-positioning system (GPS) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The `velocity-aided' class of observer uses an accelerometer to measure the system \\emph{apparent acceleration} (instead of the gravity vector), and is therefore better suited for applications where the rigid-body (aircraft) is subjected to significant linear accelerations (which is to be expected for VTOL UAVs). We also propose a position controller which utilizes the accelerometer in a similar fashion. More precisely, rather than using the system orientation (as is usually done in the existing position controllers), we use the vector measurements (accelerometer and magnetometer measurements) directly in the position control law. Consequently, the proposed position controller does not ...

Roberts, Andrew



Community attitudes towards childbearing and abortion among HIV-positive women in Nigeria and Zambia. (United States)

Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcomes of an HIV-positive woman's pregnancy - induced abortion or birth - to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper. PMID:23173695

Kavanaugh, Megan L; Moore, Ann M; Akinyemi, Odunayo; Adewole, Isaac; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Awolude, Olutosin; Arulogun, Oyedunni



Positive Attitude: A Guarantee for Success in Employment  


Faced with the current severe employment situation, college students have passive psychology, which influences their employment. In order to have better employment, college students should have positive psychological quality.

Aiqing Meng



The Contact Hypothesis Revisited: Black-White Interaction and Positive Racial Attitudes. (United States)

Results of a nationwide telephone survey of 231 African Americans and 1,315 whites found some support for the "contact hypothesis": in certain instances, interracial friendship or neighborhood contacts were associated with more positive racial attitudes, particularly among whites. The question of causal direction is discussed. (SV)

Sigelman, Lee; Welch, Susan



Extreme Appraisals of Internal States and Bipolar Symptoms: The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (United States)

The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI; W. Mansell, 2006) was developed to assess multiple, extreme, self-relevant appraisals of internal states. The present study aimed to validate the HAPPI in a clinical sample. Participants (N = 50) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (confirmed by a structured clinical interview)…

Dodd, Alyson L.; Mansell, Warren; Morrison, Anthony P.; Tai, Sara



Does the experience of interpersonal predictors of suicidal desire predict positive attitudes toward Physician Assisted Suicide? (United States)

The current study examined the relationship between Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) attitudes and interpersonal risk factors of suicidal desire as outlined by the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005). It was hypothesized that both thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness would be positively related to PAS acceptance. Results indicated that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness predicted significance of favorable attitudes toward PAS in a college sample. Results suggest that attitudes toward PAS may be influenced by the experience of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness and provide a clear rationale for the study of these variables in populations more apt to consider hastened death. Future work regarding the application of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior in hastened death research is discussed. PMID:25223310

Tucker, Raymond P; Buchanan, Carmen A; O'Keefe, Victoria M; Wingate, Laricka R



Methamphetamine Use, Attitudes About Condoms, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men  


This study examined attitudes about condoms as a moderator of the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 297 HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM). To test for a moderating effect of attitudes towards condoms, an interaction term was included in multiple regression analysis along with age, income, negative condom attitudes, frequency of methamphetamine use, and Beck depression score. A post hoc analysis was conducted to d...

Nakamura, Nadine; Mausbach, Brent T.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Semple, Shirley J.; Patterson, Thomas L.



Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing  


Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the f...

Nandakumaran Nadarajah; Jens-André Paffenholz; Teunissen, Peter J. G.



Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0.8, matching the theoretical gain of 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.

Nandakumaran Nadarajah



Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process. (United States)

Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change. PMID:17430368

Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R



The positive attitudes and perceptions of care managers about advance directives. (United States)

In a previous intervention, we found that reminders from care managers failed to increase the number of their homebound older adult clients with advance directives. Thus, in the current study, we looked at the perceptions and attitudes of care managers about the need to discuss advance directives with their clients. Ninety-five care managers serving community-based nursing home-eligible older adults completed an 18-question survey, which found that care managers overwhelmingly believe it is important to address advance directives. Only 3.2% reported that discussing advance directives is time consuming. No attitudinal barriers were identified. Given their positive attitudes about advance directives, care managers need educational interventions that will provide the knowledge and skills to interact effectively with clients who are resistant to addressing end-of-life issues. PMID:20834034

Golden, Adam G; Tewary, Sweta; Qadri, Syeda; Zaw, Khin; Ruiz, Jorge G; Roos, Bernard A



A Precise Position and Attitude Determination System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (United States)

In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy ? < 5 cm and attitude accuracy ? < 0.5 deg). In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Wieland, M.; Kuhlmann, H.



Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts  


Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and constr...

Julija Lapuh Bele; Matjaz Debevc; Irena Morel; David Rozman



Integrated navigation fusion strategy of INS/UWB for indoor carrier attitude angle and position synchronous tracking. (United States)

In some GPS failure conditions, positioning for mobile target is difficult. This paper proposed a new method based on INS/UWB for attitude angle and position synchronous tracking of indoor carrier. Firstly, error model of INS/UWB integrated system is built, including error equation of INS and UWB. And combined filtering model of INS/UWB is researched. Simulation results show that the two subsystems are complementary. Secondly, integrated navigation data fusion strategy of INS/UWB based on Kalman filtering theory is proposed. Simulation results show that FAKF method is better than the conventional Kalman filtering. Finally, an indoor experiment platform is established to verify the integrated navigation theory of INS/UWB, which is geared to the needs of coal mine working environment. Static and dynamic positioning results show that the INS/UWB integrated navigation system is stable and real-time, positioning precision meets the requirements of working condition and is better than any independent subsystem. PMID:25121111

Fan, Qigao; Wu, Yaheng; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Zhou, Lijuan



Nonlinear control of marine vehicles using only position and attitude measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents new results on the design and analysis of nonlinear output feedback controllers for auto pilots and dynamic positioning systems for ships and underwater vehicles. Only position and attitude measurements of the vehicle are used in the control design. The underlying idea of the work is to use certain structural properties of the equations of motion in the controller design and analysis. New controllers for regulation and tracking have been developed and the stability of the resulting closed-loop systems has been rigorously established. The results are supported by simulations. The following problems have been investigated covering design of passive controller for regulation, comparison of two auto pilots, nonlinear damping compensation for tracking, tracking control for nonlinear ships, and output tracking control with wave filtering for multivariable models of possibly unstable vehicles. 97 refs., 32 figs.

Paulsen, Marit Johanne



Intertextuality as a means of positioning in a talk-show.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Amsterdam : Benjamins, 2012 - (Lorda, C.; Zabalbeascoa, P.), s. 161-172 ISBN 978-90-272-1032-6. - (Dialogue Studies. 15) R&D Projects: GA ?R GA405/09/2028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : positioning * intertextuality * talk-show * reported speech Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

?mejrková, Sv?tla; Hoffmannová, Jana


Low awareness but positive attitudes toward fecal transplantation in Ontario physicians (United States)

BACKGROUND: Despite mounting evidence supporting fecal transplantation (FT) as a treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), adoption into clinical practice has been slow. OBJECTIVE: To determine the health literacy and attitudes of academic physicians in Toronto and infectious disease physicians in Ontario toward FT as a treatment for recurrent CDI, and to determine whether these are significant barriers to adoption. METHODS: Surveys were distributed to 253 general internists, infectious diseases specialists, gastroenterologists and family physicians. RESULTS: The response rate was 15%. More than 60% of physicians described themselves as being ‘not at all’ or ‘somewhat’ familiar with FT. Of the 76% of physicians who had never referred a patient for FT, the most common reason (50%) was lack of awareness of where to access the treatment. The ‘ick factor’ accounted for only 13% of reasons for not referring. No respondent believed that the procedure was too risky to consider. CONCLUSION: Despite general poor health literacy on FT, most physicians sampled share similar positive attitudes toward the treatment. PMID:25798151

Dennis, Madison; Salpeter, Mary Jane; Hota, Susy



The Fluency Amplification Model: fluent stimuli show more intense but not evidently more positive evaluations. (United States)

Processing fluency plays a large role in forming judgments, as research repeatedly shows. According to the Hedonic Fluency Model, more fluently processed stimuli are rated more affectively positive than less fluently processed stimuli. Most research documenting such findings uses neutral or positive stimuli with low complexity, thus any potential impact of initial stimulus valence cannot be tested. In the present study, 60 IAPS stimuli ranging from very negative to very positive valence were rated on liking by participants. Processing fluency was manipulated through perceptual priming (7 ms). Results of Experiment 1 (N = 35) support the prediction of the Hedonic Fluency Model, but only for stimuli with an initially positive valence. However, when negative stimuli were processed more fluently, they were rated as more negative than when processed less fluently. Experiment 2 (N = 39) showed that enhancing the accessibility of the stimulus content (via prolonging the prime duration to 100 ms) cannot account for the results of Experiment 1, since Experiment 2 failed to replicate the findings obtained in Experiment 1. Potential factors influencing affective evaluation of negative stimuli are discussed. A model is offered for the reinterpretation of processing fluency as an amplifying factor for evaluative judgment. PMID:24603044

Albrecht, Sabine; Carbon, Claus-Christian



Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and constructivist approaches in e-learning, where efficient e-course and well-skilled mentors have an important role. This article describes the model of introducing e-learning in an organization, and its realization in praxis.

Julija Lapuh Bele



Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention : The role of positive sensory experience  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

European consumers are sceptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if actual sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence consumers' attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. An experiment was conducted in which subjects in the experimental group tasted cheeses, one of which was labelled as 'produced using GMOs.' The cheeses were selected in a way that ensured that the subject had a sensory preference for the GMO cheese. A control group tasted cheeses that were unlabelled. After the tasting, subjects completed a conjoint analysis task about cheese, in which the type of starter culture used (GMO/conventional) was one of the attributes. Subjects also were administered a set of items measuring attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. Results showed that for subjects in the experimental group (who believed that they had tasted a GMO cheese, with which they had a positive sensory experience) a) attitude towards GMO in food production was less negative, and b) type of starter culture used (GM/conventional) had less impact on their buying intentions with regard to cheese than for subjects in the control group.

Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino



Sleep Duration, Positive Attitude toward Life, and Academic Achievement: The Role of Daytime Tiredness, Behavioral Persistence, and School Start Times (United States)

Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is…

Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander



Interrelationships among Attitudes toward Academic Subjects. (United States)

Attitudes of 116 undergraduate students toward academic interests (mathematics, science, reading, writing, and oral communication) were compared. Findings showed substantial correlations among operationalizations for each academic area, but correlations between different subject attitudes were modest. Females had less positive attitudes toward…

Daly, John A.; And Others



Bias in medicine: a survey of medical student attitudes towards HIV-positive and marginalized patients in Russia, 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Russia has a substantial HIV epidemic which is poised to escalate in the coming years. The increases in prevalence of HIV will result in increased healthcare needs by a medical system with limited experience with HIV. A healthcare provider's attitude towards a patient plays a significant role in determining the patient's health-related behaviours and medical outcomes. Previous studies have identified negative attitudes of medical students towards people living with HIV. Studying the prevalence of such attitudes is of particular interest, as medical students represent the future workforce and also as the schooling years present a unique opportunity to nurture bias-free healthcare providers. The study measures prevalence of prejudicial attitudes towards HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients who belong to marginalized subgroups. Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students of a Russian medical university. Of 500 students surveyed, 436 provided sufficient data to be included in the analysis. Prejudicial attitudes were defined as reluctance to provide medical care to a specified hypothetical patient. Nine hypothetical HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were proposed: physicians, injecting drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men and a patient HIV-positive due to blood transfusion. A log-binomial regression solved using generalized estimating equations was utilized to identify factors associated with reluctance to treat. Results: Prevalence of reluctance to provide medical care to HIV-positive patients in marginalized subgroups was high (ranging from 26.4% up to 71.9%, compared to a maximum of 7.5% if a patient was an HIV-negative physician. Students in their clinical years reported more negative attitudes than preclinical students. In general, female students were less willing to provide care than their male counterparts. Conclusions: Prejudicial attitudes about HIV-positive patients and those in marginalized subgroups of the population are prevalent among medical students in Russia. Given the increasing prevalence of HIV in the country, reasons for this hesitance to treat must be identified and addressed. Educational programs for healthcare providers are urgently needed to eliminate bias in the delivery of critically needed medical care. These targeted interventions should be coupled with other programs to eliminate structural barriers to care.

Damir A Bikmukhametov



Positive Attitude Change toward Psychiatry in Pharmacy Students Following an Active Learning Psychopharmacology Course (United States)

Objective: Psychiatric care in many rural communities has been demonstrated to be less adequate compared with urban environments partially because of attitudes and stigmatization issues. Educated pharmacists with professional attitudes can have a major impact in helping mental health patients receive more accurate diagnostic assessments and safe…

Einat, Haim; George, Angela



Promoting Teachers' Positive Attitude towards Web Use: A Study in Web Site Development (United States)

The purpose of the study was to examine effects of a compact training for developing web sites on teachers' web attitude, as composed of: web self efficacy, perceived web enjoyment, perceived web usefulness and behavioral intention to use the web. To measure the related constructs, the Web Attitude Scale was adapted into Turkish and tested with a…

Akpinar, Yavuz; Bayramoglu, Yusuf



Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians. (United States)

Centenarians have been reported to share particular personality traits including low neuroticism and high extraversion and conscientiousness. Since these traits have moderate to high heritability and are associated with various health outcomes, personality appears linked to bio-genetic mechanisms which may contribute to exceptional longevity. Therefore, the present study sought to detect genetically-based personality phenotypes in a genetically homogeneous sample of centenarians through developing and examining psychometric properties of a brief measure of the personality of centenarians, the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS). The results generated two personality characteristics/domains, Positive Attitude Towards Life (PATL: optimism, easygoing, laughter, and introversion/outgoing) and Emotional Expression (EE: expressing emotions openly and not bottling up emotions). These domains demonstrated acceptable concurrent validity with two established personality measures, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Life Orientation Test-Revised. Additionally, centenarians in both groups had lower neuroticism and higher conscientiousness than the US adult population. Findings suggest that the POPS is a psychometrically sound measure of personality in centenarians and capture personality aspects of extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, as well as dispositional optimism which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:22626632

Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil



Positive Mood Risk Attitudes, and Investment Decisions : Field Evidence From Comedy Movie Attendance in the US.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Positive mood has been repeatedly shown to affect risk attitudes in laboratory settings, where subjects’ exposure to movie clips is among the most widely used and effective mood-induction procedures. Yet, conflicting lab results about the estimated sign of the mood effect have led researchers to formulate two alternative theories. The affect infusion model (AIM) argues that happy moods foster risk-prone behavior, whereas the mood-maintenance hypothesis (MMH) takes the opposite stance. In this paper I test the predictions of these two theories using real-world financial data and focusing on the same moodshifting mechanism commonly employed in lab studies. More specifically, I exploit the time-series variation in the domestic theatrical release of comedy movies as a natural experiment for testing the impact that happy mood (proxied by weekend comedy movie attendance) has on investment in risky assets (proxied by the performance of the U.S. stock market on the following Monday). My hypothesis rests upon the evidence that individual investors are more likely to ponder trading decisions during the weekend and trade on Mondays. To control for unobserved factors that may contemporaneously affect movie attendance and equity returns, I employ the percentage of theater screens dedicated to the comedy genre as an instrument. Using a sample of data from 1995 to 2010, I estimate that an increase in comedy attendance on a given weekend is followed by a decrease in equity returns on the subsequent Monday, which supports the MMH.

Lepori, Gabriele


Supervisor communication and motivation to learn as a predictor of positive individual attitudes and behaviors: A study in one city-based local authority  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human resource development literature highlights that the ability of supervisor to use good communication styles in training programs may motivate positive individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., transfer of competency and job performance. Further, a careful observationof such relationships reveals that the effect of supervisor communication on individual attitudes and behaviors is indirectly affected by motivation to learn. The nature of thisrelationship is less emphasized in past research studies. Therefore, this study was conducted to gather data from 100 technical employees in one city-based local authority in East Malaysia (EMCBLAUTHORITY. Outcomes of stepwise regression analysis showed thatrelationship between motivation to learn and supervisor communication had been an important predictor of transfer of competency and job performance. This result confirms thatmotivation to learn does act as a full mediating role in the training model of the organizational sample. In addition, implications and limitations of the study, as well as directions of future research are discussed.

Azman Ismail



Attitudes to reproductive genetic testing in women who had a positive BRCA test before having children: a qualitative analysis  


The scope of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is licensed has recently been expanded in the United Kingdom to include genetic predisposition to adult-onset cancer. This qualitative interview study explores reproductive decision making, knowledge of and attitudes to reproductive genetic testing (prenatal diagnosis and PGD) with 25 women aged 18–45 years who received a positive BRCA test in the United Kingdom before having children. In this cohort of younger women,...

Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Donnelly, Louise; Moynihan, Clare; Savona, Cornelie; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Lavery, Stuart; Watson, Maggie



Knowledge, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This study examined the practices, knowledge, attitudes, and the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV-positive patients with regard to the disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Windhoek, Namibia.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding the disclosure of HIV status at Betesda Clinic in Namibia, and to determine the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study and 263 HIV-positive patients were enrolled in the study.Results: Analyses revealed that knowledge on disclosure was good, with 68% who thought it was important. The majority (73% have disclosed and 60% disclosed within 1 week of receiving their results. The most common reasons for disclosure were that 32% needed help, 25% wanted his or her partner to go for testing, and 20% wanted to let relatives know. Reasons for non-disclosure were mainly the fear of gossip (79%. Seventy-three per cent had disclosed to their partners, and 23% had disclosed to more than one person. People’s reactions were supportive in 43%, whereas 29% understood, 9% accepted and 6% were angry. Upon disclosure 40% received help, 24% of partners were tested, 23% received psychological support and 5% were stigmatised. Disclosure was higher amongst the married and cohabitating.Conclusion: The attitude was positive with regard to knowledge of disclosure, with most participants thinking that disclosure was important and good. The attitudes and actual practices of disclosure were encouraging; however, people are disclosing only to trustedindividuals in the society and the fear of stigma is still present although the actual stigma was very low.

Penelope Tom



Large-scale comparison of intron positions in mammalian genes shows intron loss but no gain  


We compared intron–exon structures in 1,560 human–mouse orthologs and 360 mouse–rat orthologs. The origin of differences in intron positions between species was inferred by comparison with an outgroup, Fugu for human–mouse and human for mouse–rat. Among 10,020 intron positions in the human–mouse comparison, we found unequivocal evidence for five independent intron losses in the mouse lineage but no evidence for intron loss in humans or for intron gain in either lineage. Amo...

Roy, Scott W.; Fedorov, Alexei; Gilbert, Walter



The Global Positioning System (GPS) and attitude determination: Applications and activities in the Flight Dynamics Division (United States)

The application of GPS to spacecraft attitude determination is a new and growing field. Although the theoretical literature is extensive, space flight testing is currently sparse and inadequate. As an operations organization, the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) has the responsibility to investigate this new technology, and determine how best to implement the innovation to provide adequate support for future missions. This paper presents some of the current efforts within FDD with regard to GPS attitude determination. This effort specifically addresses institutional capabilities to accommodate a new type of sensor, critically evaluating the literature for recent advancements, and in examining some available -albeit crude- flight data.

Ketchum, Eleanor; Garrick, Joe



Few Girls With Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Show Positive Adjustment During Adolescence  


Employing data from 140 prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 88 age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls, we adopted a person-centered analytic approach to assess rates of adolescent positive adjustment (PA) across six domains: ADHD symptoms, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, social skills, peer acceptance, and school achievement. During adolescence, between 19.8% and 61.1% of the girls with childhood ADHD met criteria for PA w...

Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Lee, Steve S.; Lahey, Benjamin B.



A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate


Using Actual Patients in the Classroom To Develop Positive Student Attitudes Toward Pharmaceutical Care. (United States)

Evaluates the use of actual patients in a required clinical applications course at the University of Georgia College of Pharmacy. Patients discuss their illness and how it affects their lives with the first-year students. On 12 of 13 items, students scored significantly higher on an attitude survey following the first patient presentation than…

Chisholm, Marie A.; Wade, William E.



Canadian outpatients and advance directives: poor knowledge and little experience but positive attitudes.  


OBJECTIVE: To examine the knowledge of, previous experience with, attitudes toward and perceived barriers to completing advance directives among outpatients at two general medicine clinics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire administered in face-to-face structured interviews. SETTING: General internal-medicine outpatient clinics at a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred and five adult outpatients who could communicate in spoken English and who consented to be interviewed. RE...

Sam, M.; Singer, P. A.



Supervisor communication and motivation to learn as a predictor of positive individual attitudes and behaviors: A study in one city-based local authority  


Human resource development literature highlights that the ability of supervisor to use good communication styles in training programs may motivate positive individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., transfer of competency and job performance). Further, a careful observationof such relationships reveals that the effect of supervisor communication on individual attitudes and behaviors is indirectly affected by motivation to learn. The nature of thisrelationship is less emphasized in past researc...

Azman Ismail; Sofiah Bongogoh; Sheela Chitra Chandra Segaran; Rabaah Tudin; Mohd Na’eim Ajis,; Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail



A Cross-domain Analysis of Change in Students' Attitudes toward Science and Attitudes about the Utility of Science (United States)

Cross-domain analysis was used to examine changes in two attitudinal dimensions: students’ attitudes towards science and attitudes about the utility of science over the middle school and high school years. A sample of 444 students was selected from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth. The results show that the overall trend for students’ attitudes about the utility of science is positive; however, attitudes towards science decline over the middle school and high school years. Important time-varying predictors of both attitudes include science self-concept, peer attitudes, teacher encouragement of science, and, to a lesser extent, student participation in science activities.

George, Rani



"Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders (United States)

Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale



An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions


Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods.

SØndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.



Positioning accuracy analysis of adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude is presented according to the characteristics of the target transport subsystem in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The mechanism consists of a tangent mechanism adjusting rotation angle and a set of orthogonal tangent mechanism adjusting two-dimensional deflection angles. The structural parameters of the adjusting target mechanism are analyzed according to principle errors, structure errors and motion errors of following. The analysis results indicate that the system error of the adjusting target mechanism is influenced by the displacement of the linear actuators, the actuator ball radius, the working radius of the tangent mechanism, the angle error of the inclined installation hole, the centralization error of the actuators, the orthogonal error of the two tangent mechanism, and the angle errors of the inclined target rod inclined rotation shaft. The errors of the inclined target rod and inclined rotation shaft are the two greatest impact factors, the spherical contact error is the next. By means of precise assembly and control system compensation, the accuracy of the adjusting target mechanism can be less than 0.1 mrad. (authors)


Thoughts, Attitudes, and Feelings of HIV-Positive MSM Associated with High Transmission-Risk Sex (United States)

This study presents survey data collected from a sample of HIV-positive men (N = 182) who had high transmission-risk sex, defined as unprotected anal intercourse with a man whose HIV-status was negative or unknown, in the previous 6 months. Despite the tremendous changes in HIV treatment and their impact on people living with HIV, little recent…

Skinta, Matthew D.; Murphy, Jessie L.; Paul, Jay P.; Schwarcz, Sandra K.; Dilley, James W.



"Everyone Needs an Art Education": Developing Leadership through Positive Attitudes toward Art Methods Courses (United States)

Research about K-6 generalists, elementary, preservice majors in teacher education programs often emphasizes students who are resistant to art methods courses, although Galbraith (1991) and Gibson (2003) found some elementary majors held positive views about art methods courses. In addition, instructors who are frustrated by students who respond…

Manifold, Marjorie; Zimmerman, Enid



Automated Processing of GPS/MEMS-IMU Data for Position, Velocity and Attitude Determination  


This master thesis deals with the problematic of the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements with inertial data acquired by a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Inertial Measurement Units (IMU). This technology is employed for the purposes of sport performances assessment, as it enables reconstructing accurately athletes trajectories. Based on a recent development at the TOPO laboratory at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology of Lausanne (EPFL), a new software's a...

Fournier, Hugues



Attitudes toward Counselling Practicum: An Implication for the Caring Attitude of Future Counsellors in Malaysia. (United States)

This action research was conducted during the counseling practicum for trainees from the Bachelor of Education (Guidance and Counseling) program from one of the local universities in Malaysia. There was a great concern about the attitudes of counseling practicum trainees. The assessment of their attitudes shows some levels of positiveness, but it…

Harun, Lily Mastura


Bias in medicine: a survey of medical student attitudes towards HIV-positive and marginalized patients in Russia, 2010  


Background: Russia has a substantial HIV epidemic which is poised to escalate in the coming years. The increases in prevalence of HIV will result in increased healthcare needs by a medical system with limited experience with HIV. A healthcare provider's attitude towards a patient plays a significant role in determining the patient's health-related behaviours and medical outcomes. Previous studies have identified negative attitudes of medical students towards people living with H...

Bikmukhametov, Damir A.; Anokhin, Vladimir A.; Vinogradova, Anna N.; Triner, Wayne R.; Louise-Anne McNutt*



Molecular characterization of Iranian wheat stripe virus shows its taxonomic position as a distinct species in the genus Tenuivirus. (United States)

The full lengths of three genome segments of Iranian wheat stripe virus (IWSV) were amplified by reverse transcription (RT) followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer complementary to tenuivirus conserved terminal sequences. The segments were sequenced and found to comprise 3469, 2337, and 1831 nt, respectively. The gene organization of these segments is similar to that of other known tenuiviruses, each displaying an ambisense coding strategy. IWSV segments, however, are different from those of other viruses with respect to the number of nucleotides and deduced amino acid sequence for each ORF. Depending on the segment, the first 16-22 nt at the 5' end and the first 16 nt at the 3' end are highly conserved among IWSV and rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV), rice stripe virus (RSV) and maize stripe virus (MStV). In addition, the first 15-18 nt at the 5' end are complementary to the first 16-18 nt at the 3' end. Phylogenetic analyses showed close similarity and a common ancestor for IWSV, RHBV, and Echinochloa hoja blanca virus (EHBV). These findings confirm the position of IWSV as a distinct species in the genus Tenuivirus. PMID:16328148

Heydarnejad, J; Barclay, W S; Izadpanah, K; Hunter, F R; Gooding, M J



Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents’ positive attitudes towards people with mental illness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents’ attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.

John Tsiantis



Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science (United States)

Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

Haugen, Marlen Ingvard


Attitudes and attitude change. (United States)

Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints. PMID:20809791

Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina



Attitudes to nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a study of risk perception and attitudes with regard to nuclear waste. Two data sets are reported. In the first set, data were obtained from a survey of the general population, using an extensive questionnaire. The second set constituted a follow-up 7 years later, with a limited number of questions. The data showed that people considered the topic of nuclear waste risks to be very important and that they were not convinced that the technological problems had been solved. Experts associated with government agencies were moderately trusted, while those employed by the nuclear industry were much distrusted by some respondents, and very much trusted by others. Moral obligations to future generations were stressed. A large portion (more than 50 per cent) of the variances in risk perception could be explained by attitude to nuclear power, general risk sensitivity and trust in expertise. Most background variables, except gender, had little influence on risk perception and attitudes. The follow-up study showed that the attitude to nuclear power had become more positive over time, but that people still doubted that the problems of nuclear waste disposal had been solved. 49 refs


Position and attitude control of a spacecraft by sliding mode control; Sliding mode seigyo ni yoru uchuki no ichi shisei seigyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large debris removers, orbital maneuvering vehicles, etc., which have to be equipped with high maneuverability, are expected to perform various missions that will accompany large-angled changes in attitude and position. Since the equation of motion for such a space vehicle that will carry out motions of 6 degrees of freedom in the 3-dimensional space is a non-linear equation in which translation and rotation are compounded, it is difficult to apply the ordinary linear control theory. So, application is discussed of a sliding mode control that can handle directly the non-linearly controllable objects without converting them. In this method, the attitude and position of a space vehicle will be controlled for its attitude to match that of a tumbling large debris or malfunctioning satellite and to orbit around the large debris or malfunctioning satellite with a certain distance between them. Upon some control signal inputted, the state of the object under control will be caused to reach a predetermined hyperspace and constrained there, and the thus-achieved state is caused to slide to the point of equilibrium for the stabilization of the object under control. How to design the control system and its structure and functions are stated, and the system is tested for robustness. 30 refs., 2 figs.

Terui, F. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)



Deterministic and Recursive Approach in Attitude Determination for InnoSAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attitude determination system (ADS was indispensable in attitude control of satellite. Especially for InnoSAT due to the limitation of budget, weight, and power, the attitude was determined using onboard position sensors. Previous research has successfully implemented the attitude determination using only Earth's magnetic field sensors for small attitude angle, but the approach produced quite big error for large attitude angle. This paper presents attitude determination for InnoSAT using combination of sun sensors and earth's magnetic field for large attitude angle. The attitude was determined using a deterministic (QUEST and recursive (EKF approach. A problem arises when using the sun sensors while the satellite experiencing eclipse. Consequently, the accuracy of both approaches was analyzed at eclipse and no eclipse conditions. The result shows that deterministic approach produced better accuracy at no eclipse but recursive approach produced better accuracy at eclipse. The strategy to apply the both approaches and eclipse conditions also discussed in this paper.

Harijono Djojodihardjo



MD Anderson study shows targeted agent addition to herceptin has positive effect on metastatic HER-2 breast cancer: (United States)

Adding Afinitor (everolimus) to Herceptin (trastuzumab), the main treatment for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, helps some women with disease that has been resistant to previous Herceptin-based therapies, according to a study led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.


Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults. (United States)

Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. ?(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (P<0.001), more dietary fiber (P<0.001), fewer added sugars (P<0.001), fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.001), and less fat (P=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (P<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. PMID:23260729

Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary



Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia. (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians. PMID:23952927

Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre



Intending to stay: Positive images, attitudes, and classroom experiences as influences on students' intentions to persist in science and engineering majors (United States)

Contemporary research on persistence in undergraduate education in science and engineering has focused primarily on identifying the structural, social, and psychological barriers to participation by students in underrepresented groups. As a result, there is a wealth of data to document why students leave their majors, but there is little direct empirical data to support prevailing presumptions about why students stay. Moreover, researchers have used widely differing definitions and measures of persistence, and they have seldom explored field differences. This study compared three ways of measuring persistence. These constituted three criterion variables: commitment to major, degree aspirations, and commitment to a science/engineering career. The study emphasized social factors that encourage students to persist, including four predictor variables---(1) positive images of scientists/engineers, (2) positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality, (3) positive classroom experiences, and (4) high levels of social integration. In addition, because researchers have repeatedly documented the degree to which women are more likely than men to drop out of science and engineering majors, the study examined the potential impact of gender in relation to these predictor variables. A survey was administered in the classroom to a total of 285 students enrolled in a required course for either a biological sciences and or an engineering major. Predictor variables were developed from standard scales, including the Images of Science/Scientists Scale, the Attitudes toward Women Scale, the Women in Science Scale, and the Perceptions of Prejudice Scale. Based on logistic regression models, results indicate that positive images of scientists and engineers was significantly related to improving the odds of students having a high commitment to major, high degree aspirations, and high commitment to career. There was also evidence that positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality as well as positive classroom experiences improved the odds of students' having high degree aspirations. There was limited evidence to suggest the significance of gender in interaction with the predictor variables. There was tentative evidence that field differences may play a critical role in persistence. The study concludes on two points. The first is that gender may be a more important factor in explaining why some students leave their science and engineering majors than in explaining why others stay. The second is that research directed at improving diversity in science would benefit from discussion about the measures of persistence.

Wyer, Mary Beth



Attitudes and Cardiovascular Disease  


Psychological attitudes are prospectively related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but a causal relationship has not been demonstrated. Trait optimism/pessimism (positive or negative future expectation, respectively), and cynical hostility (mistrust of people), are attitudes with features of personality traits. These attitudes may affect CVD risk in several ways, by influencing an individual’s 1) adoption of health behaviors, 2) maladaptive stress responding resulting in direct alteration o...

Tindle, Hilary; Davis, Esa; Kuller, Lewis



Square One TV: Season One Content Analysis and Show Rundowns. (United States)

This report describes an analysis of the segments and shows of the first season's production of "Square One TV" in terms of its elaborated goals. It includes charts and graphs showing the treatment of objectives for the series' goals across the 75 shows of the series. The goals of the series are: (1) to promote positive attitudes toward, and…

Schneider, Joel; And Others


Peptide-MHC heterodimers show that thymic positive selection requires a more restricted set of self-peptides than negative selection  


T cell selection and maturation in the thymus depends on the interactions between T cell receptors (TCRs) and different self-peptide–major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules. We show that the affinity of the OT-I TCR for its endogenous positively selecting ligands, Catnb-H-2Kb and Cappa1-H-2Kb, is significantly lower than for previously reported positively selecting altered peptide ligands. To understand how these extremely weak endogenous ligands produce signals in maturing thymoc...

Juang, Jeremy; Ebert, Peter J. R.; Feng, Dan; Garcia, K. Christopher; Krogsgaard, Michelle; Davis, Mark M.



Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente / Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus v [...] ivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia. Abstract in english Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming [...] the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

Diego, Carrera Martínez; Beatriz, Braña Marcos; Estefanía, Vegas Pardavila; Mónica de la, Villa Santoveña.



Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among a sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative females visiting an urban VCT center in Haiti. (United States)

The knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of over 43,000 women attending the Groupe Hatien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) Centers in Haiti between 1999-2004 were examined. Comparative analyses were conducted for several sub-samples. Analyses revealed that across the entire sample, HIV-positive women appeared to engage in more risky behaviors than HIV-negative women (p< .01); however, as a group, pregnant HIV-positive women reported safer behaviors than non-pregnant HIV-positive women (p<.01). Women from all groups were generally knowledgeable about the risk of HIV transmission through dirty needles and mother to child. However, inaccurate information about transmission through supernatural means and mosquitoes was very common. These results suggest that knowledge and education are negatively associated with HIV status in this sample. Addressing gaps in knowledge and behavior and reducing the risky behaviors of HIV-positive individuals are important directions for future programs. PMID:19395849

Dévieux, Jessy G; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Malow, Robert M; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Marcelin, Abdias; Pape, Jean Willam



Peptide-MHC heterodimers show that thymic positive selection requires a more restricted set of self-peptides than negative selection (United States)

T cell selection and maturation in the thymus depends on the interactions between T cell receptors (TCRs) and different self-peptide–major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules. We show that the affinity of the OT-I TCR for its endogenous positively selecting ligands, Catnb-H-2Kb and Cappa1-H-2Kb, is significantly lower than for previously reported positively selecting altered peptide ligands. To understand how these extremely weak endogenous ligands produce signals in maturing thymocytes, we generated soluble monomeric and dimeric peptide–H-2Kb ligands. Soluble monomeric ovalbumin (OVA)-Kb molecules elicited no detectable signaling in OT-I thymocytes, whereas heterodimers of OVA-Kb paired with positively selecting or nonselecting endogenous peptides, but not an engineered null peptide, induced deletion. In contrast, dimer-induced positive selection was much more sensitive to the identity of the partner peptide. Catnb-Kb–Catnb-Kb homodimers, but not heterodimers of Catnb-Kb paired with a nonselecting peptide-Kb, induced positive selection, even though both ligands bind the OT-I TCR with detectable affinity. Thus, both positive and negative selection can be driven by dimeric but not monomeric ligands. In addition, positive selection has much more stringent requirements for the partner self-pMHC. PMID:20457759

Juang, Jeremy; Ebert, Peter J.R.; Feng, Dan; Garcia, K. Christopher; Krogsgaard, Michelle



Attitude stability criteria of axisymmetric solar sail (United States)

Passive attitude stability criteria of a solar sail whose membrane surface is axisymmetric are studied in this paper under a general SRP model. This paper proves that arbitrary attitude equilibrium position can be designed through adjusting the deviation between the pressure center and the mass center of the sail. The linearized method is applied to inspect analytically the stability of the equilibrium point from two different points of views. The results show that the attitude stability depends on the membrane surface shape and area. The results of simulation with full dynamic equations confirm that the two stability criteria are effective in judging the attitude stability for axisymmetric solar sail. Several possible applications of the study are also mentioned.

Hu, Xiaosai; Gong, Shengping; Li, Junfeng



Loss aversion and price volatility as determinants of attitude towards and preference for variable price in the Swedish electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a survey of a random sample of 488 Swedish residents showed that a positive attitude towards and preference for a variable price agreement with the incumbent electricity supplier was negatively affected by loss aversion, and a positive attitude also negatively affected by beliefs about price volatility. Although correlated with attitude and preference, age, education, and current choice of a variable price agreement had no independent effects. Income and current electricity costs had no effects. (author)


Loss aversion and price volatility as determinants of attitude towards and preference for variable price in the Swedish electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a survey of a random sample of 488 Swedish residents showed that a positive attitude towards and preference for a variable price agreement with the incumbent electricity supplier was negatively affected by loss aversion, and a positive attitude also negatively affected by beliefs about price volatility. Although correlated with attitude and preference, age, education, and current choice of a variable price agreement had no independent effects. Income and current electricity costs had no effects


Characterization and expression of the CXCR1 and CXCR4 in miiuy croaker and evolutionary analysis shows the strong positive selection pressures imposed in mammal CXCR1. (United States)

The innate immune system can recognize non-self, danger signals, and pathogen associated molecular patterns and provides a first line of antimicrobial host defense. Therefore, it plays an instructive role and is pretty important in vertebrates. In innate immune responses, CXCRs act as the main receptors of CXC chemokines and play a vital role in host defense and inflammation. In present study, we cloned two cDNA molecules of CXCR1 and CXCR4 in Miichthys miiuy (miiuy croaker). In these two genes, we found the most highly conserved DRY motif in the second intracellular loop adjacent to the third transmembrane domain. The expressions of CXCR1 and CXCR4 showed that they were ubiquitously expressed in ten normal tissues. After infection with Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio harveyi, the expressions of CXCRs in the immune tissues were significantly regulated in most of tissues except that of CXCR1 in the kidney after V. harveyi injection. Evolutionary analysis showed that only the ancestral lineages of CXCR4 in amphibians underwent positive selection, indicating that the ancestors of amphibians boarded the land and had to further evolve to adapt to terrestrial environments. Multiple ML methods were implemented to detect the robust positively selected candidates for sites. In total, we detected 12 and 3 positively selected sites in the subsets of current mammal and fish CXCR1 genes, and only one site under positive selection was found in mammalian CXCR4 subsets. These positively selected sites were mainly located in the extracellular domains of CXCRs. The sliding window analysis and evolution test tended to favor positive selection acting on the N-terminal domain of CXCR1, which was the critical region for ligand/receptor signaling for neutrophils and receptor-ligand interaction, indicating that the N-terminal of CXCR1 in mammals underwent more positive selection than that of fish. PMID:24333436

Xu, Tianjun; Zhu, Zhihuang; Sun, Yuena; Ren, Liping; Wang, Rixin



Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes (United States)

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.



Assessing medical students’ attitudes towards learning communication skills – which components of attitudes do we measure?  


Abstract Background The Communication Skills Attitudes Scale (CSAS) created by Rees, Sheard and Davies and published in 2002 has been a widely used instrument for measuring medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. Earlier studies have shown that the CSAS mainly tests two dimensions of attitudes towards communication; positive attitudes (PAS) and negative attitudes (NAS). The objectives of our study are to explore the attitudes of Norwegian medical students towards le...

Holen Are; Hjortdahl Per; Fasmer Ole B; Baerheim Anders; Grimstad Hilde; Gude Tore; Anvik Tor; Risberg Terje; Vaglum Per



Pick a Book, Any Book: Using Children's Books to Support Positive Attitudes toward Peers with Disabilities (United States)

The Division for Early Childhood/National Association for the Education of Young Children's (2009) joint position statement on inclusion stresses the importance of (a) developing practices that support young children of diverse abilities in inclusive learning environments, (b) being part of supportive school communities, and (c) engaging in…

Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Dorsey, Emily A.; Favazza, Paddy C.; Leboeuf, Lisa M.



A Teacher Attitude Inventory: Identifying Teacher Positions in Relation to Educational Issues and Decisions. Research and Development Memorandum No. 118. (United States)

This memorandum reports on the preliminary research using a 24-item inventory designed to measure teacher's positions in relation to education issues and teaching decisions. The instrument, whose development is reported, is intended to identify representatives of two dichotomous styles of teaching: traditional, teacher-centered teaching and…

Whitmore, Joanne Rand


Young Men, Religion and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explains attitudes towards gays and lesbians, and explores the complex relationship of religiosity, youth, masculinity and support for gay rights. Based on a large, reliable and nationally representative study (n=1405 from PEW Center carried out in 2006, we estimate three logistic regression models predicting approval for gay marriage, gay adoption and gays in the military, which helps us to observe the differences. We conclude that while religiosity and fundamentalism negatively affect support for all three issues, the relationship varies by age and gender. Generally, young men do not show differences in their views of gay marriage, but men, especially religious, young men do show more negative attitudes than their female counterparts in support for gay adoption. Finally, men show more positive attitudes towards gays in the military.

Gilbert Zicklin



Psychological determinants of attitude towards and willingness to pay for green electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a mail survey of 855 Swedish household consumers showed that willingness to pay for green electricity increased with a positive attitude towards green electricity and decreased with electricity costs. Attitude towards green electricity was in turn related to awareness of consequences of environmental problems for oneself, others, and the biosphere, concerns for these consequences, and self-transcedent value types


Hispanic Experience in Higher Education: Mexican Southern Baptists' Attitudes toward Higher Education. (United States)

This study explored the attitudes toward higher education of Mexican Southern Baptists in California. Interviews with 15 families and questionnaires completed by 126 high school students show that members of this group hold positive attitudes toward higher education but financial constraints pose an obstacle too difficult for many of them to…

Guerrero-Avila, Juan B.



Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective:Various international studies have reported on negative attitudes of nurses and nursing students towards substance misusers and have found that this issue receives little attention in professional nursing education. This research examined attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics in a Brazilian nursing student sample and analyzed associations between these attitudes and participants’ socio-demographic characteristics.Methods: Study participants were 144 last-year undergraduate students from two private colleges. A scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics was used for data collection.Results: The results showed that most participants had positive attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts. In addition, gender, age and the number of hours participants spent in lectures on alcohol and other drugs during their education were associated with positive attitudes towards their work and interpersonal relationships with alcoholics. This association was stronger in females (OR = 3.42, younger participants (OR = 2.18 and students who received more lecture hours on alcohol and other drugs during their education (OR = 3.53.Conclusion: In conclusion, the authors suggest that education and preparation in coping with drug problems increase nurses’ abilities at work and support more positive attitudes towards clients with drug problems. In addition, this study demonstrated that a significant part of students had negative attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts, despite the fact that positive attitudes prevailed in their schools. These results reflect the lack of importance granted to drug issues in undergraduate nursing curricula in Brazil.

Divane de Vargas



Factors Influencing South African Attitudes toward Digital Piracy  


Digital piracy has become an important issue in today’s technology-driven world. This research looks at the factors that cause South Africans to choose digital piracy as a means of obtaining digital media. We tested a revised Digital Piracy Attitude Model incorporating individual and situational constructs using quantitative data. Constructs showing significant correlation to an individual’s attitude toward digital piracy were age, Machiavellianism, cognitive beliefs, positive affective b...

Kimi van der Byl; Jean-Paul Van Belle



Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China : A hierarchical value-attitude model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology. The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism and attitudes towards technology points towards the belief of Chinese people that technology is a positive determinant of food safety, and that interest in technology steams from altruistic predispositions.

Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G


Estrogen receptor positive breast cancer identified by 95-gene classifier as at high risk for relapse shows better response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (United States)

A 95-gene classifier (95-GC) recently developed by us can predict the risk of relapse for ER-positive and node-negative breast cancer patients with high accuracy. This study investigated association of risk classification by 95-GC with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Tumor biopsy samples obtained preoperatively from 72 patients with ER-positive breast cancer were classified by 95-GC into high-risk and low-risk for relapse. Pathological complete response (pCR) rate was numerically higher for high-risk (15.8%) than low-risk patients (8.8%) although the difference was not statistically significant. Pathological response evaluated in terms of the pathological partial response (pPR) rate (loss of tumor cells in more than two-thirds of the primary tumor) showed a significant association (P=0.005) between the high-risk patients and a high pPR rate. Besides, external validation study using the public data base (GSE25066) showed that the pCR rate (16.4%) for high-risk patients (n=128) was significantly (P=0.003) higher than for low-risk patients (5.7%) (n=159). These results demonstrate that the high-risk patients for relapse show a higher sensitivity to chemotherapy and thus are likely to benefit more from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:22546287

Tsunashima, Ryo; Naoi, Yasuto; Kishi, Kazuki; Baba, Yosuke; Shimomura, Atsushi; Maruyama, Naomi; Nakayama, Takahiro; Shimazu, Kenzo; Kim, Seung Jin; Tamaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Shinzaburo



Social psychology and energy attitude consumer change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most issues in social Psychology is study of attitude. Attitudes are causes of human behavior. If we regard energy consumption as a behavior for changing behavior in field of energy we must to study attitude and attitude change.In social psychology attitude define as positive and negative affective state to a matter of object. In this paper try it describe approaches and theories about attitudes and attitude change such as classical conditioning operant conditioning, social learning and cognitive. We hope this paper will be useful for planners and expert that work in this field


Attitudes towards offshore wind farms-The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identif as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.



Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was done to compare the attitude towards cheating of the professional and nonprofessional course students. In this study the sample consisted of 20 professional and 20 nonprofessional course students, studying in DEI and University. For the measurement of Attitude towards Cheating, Attitude towards cheating scale by Sharma was administered on the sample. It consists of 35 statements which are either positive or negative. Responses were to be obtained on five point scale. t-test was used for statistical analysis. The finding of this study showed that the students of professional courses have more positive attitude towards cheating as compared to the students of nonprofessional course. The value of t=16.59** was found to be statistically significant at .01 level between the two group of subjects.





Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School leadership constitutes dynamic leaders who influence classroom teachers who are their immediate subordinates in school management system. The success or failure in school management mostly depends upon influence of school leadership on their subordinates .Effective communication with teachers, staff, students ,parents ,management and strong interpersonal relationship with all stakeholders are very important for school leadership has positive impact on attitude of school leadership therefore. Positive attitude is very important to perform an excellent professional development. Research in the field of impact of interpersonal skill on attitude development of the school leadership is very much limited. The total 76 senior secondary school Principals Participated in the study. In the present paper attempts made to study the relationship between interpersonal skill and attitude of teachers .Result of the analysis shows that good interpersonal skills has and positive attitude must be maintained for efficient school leadership It is essentials to have strong interpersonal relationship for school leadership.

Prashant Thote



Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study (United States)

Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus



Combination of novel HER2-targeting antibody 1E11 with trastuzumab shows synergistic antitumor activity in HER2-positive gastric cancer. (United States)

The synergistic interaction of two antibodies targeting the same protein could be developed as an effective anti-cancer therapy. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-25% of breast and gastric cancer patients, and HER2-targeted antibody therapy using trastuzumab is effective in many of these patients. Nonetheless, improving therapeutic efficacy and patient survival is important, particularly in patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer. Here, we describe the development of 1E11, a HER2-targeted humanized monoclonal antibody showing increased efficacy in a highly synergistic manner in combination with trastuzumab in the HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines NCI-N87 and OE-19. The two antibodies bind to sub-domain IV of the receptor, but have non-overlapping epitopes, allowing them to simultaneously bind HER2. Treatment with 1E11 alone induced apoptosis in HER2-positive cancer cells, and this effect was enhanced by combination treatment with trastuzumab. Combination treatment with 1E11 and trastuzumab reduced the levels of total HER2 protein and those of aberrant HER2 signaling molecules including phosphorylated HER3 and EGFR. The synergistic antitumor activity of 1E11 in combination with trastuzumab indicates that it could be a novel potent therapeutic antibody for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing gastric cancers. PMID:25306393

Ko, Bong-Kook; Lee, Sook-Yeon; Lee, Young-Ha; Hwang, In-Sik; Persson, Helena; Rockberg, Johan; Borrebaeck, Carl; Park, Dongeun; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Uhlen, Mathias; Lee, Jong-Seo



Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (United States)

Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane



Attitudes Toward Older Workers and Human Resource Practices  


This study investigated attitudes towards older employees, perceived age discrimination, and HR practices (personnel development and reward) in 240 employees. Attitudes toward older employees were largely positive, thus supporting the notion that attitudes toward older employees are becoming increasingly positive. Older employees' attitudes towards older employees were more positive, but younger employees' attitudes were still favorable. Moreover, older and younger employees reporte...

Annette Kluge; Franciska Krings



Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.

Wole M. Olatokun



Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment. (United States)

Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn



A Correlation Study of Student Attitudes Toward Science in a Southern State High School (United States)

The purpose of this correlational research study was to examine the attitudes toward science of students in Grades 11 and 12 and to investigate if there were differences resulting from gender, grade level, ethnicity, and the level of the curriculum received in average or advanced placement (AP) honors science. The participants of this study consisted of 50 randomly selected male and female high school students who were enrolled in AP and average science classes in an urban Southern state high school. The study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) instrument to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories including (a) Social Implications of Science, (b) Normality of Scientists, (c) Attitude Toward Scientific Inquiry, (d) Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, (e) Enjoyment of Science Lessons, (f) Leisure Interest in Science, and (g) Career Interest in Science. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there were gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the seven subscales and measuring different aspects of science attitudes. Statistical treatment of the TOSRA survey involved the use of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple and linear regression. Findings did not reveal significant gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were differences on several of the subscales. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean attitude scores for grade level. However, the study did reveal differences in ethnicity and attitudes toward science. With regard to ethnicity, scores for Native Americans and Whites were higher than scores for Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics indicating that Native Americans and White students showed a more positive attitude toward science. Regarding the level of curriculum received by students who were exposed to advanced level science courses showed more positive attitudes toward science than those students who were enrolled in average science classes.

Barco-Southall, Crystal


Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository


Taiwanese attitudes and affective reactions toward individuals and coworkers who have intellectual disabilities. (United States)

This study investigated the attitudes of Taiwanese employees toward individuals and their supported coworkers with intellectual disabilities (ID). The findings indicated that the general attitudes of Taiwanese employees toward individuals with ID and their affective reactions toward their coworkers with ID were positive. These discoveries were contrary to previous beliefs that Taiwanese people tended to have societal stigma toward people and coworkers with ID. The outcomes also showed that the participants who had longer work contact with their coworkers with ID tended to have more positive attitudes toward them. Therefore, promoting supported employment trainings and opportunities for qualified people with ID was recommended. PMID:25715181

Hsu, Tsu-Hsuan; Huang, Ying-Ting; Liu, Yi-Hui; Ososkie, Joseph; Fried, Juliet; Bezyak, Jill



Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching). (United States)

Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological processes in the soil have been modelled with simulation model SWAP. The experiment started in 2010 and is ongoing. Data, collected so far show that the plots with controlled drainage (all compared with plots equipped with conventional drainage) conserve more rain water (higher groundwater tables in early spring), lower discharges under average weather conditions and storm events, reduce N-loads and saline seepage to surface waters, enhance denitrification, show a different 'first flush' effect and show similar crop yields. The results of the experiments will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of controlled drainage on complex hydrological en geochemical processes in agricultural clay soils, the interaction between ground- en surface water and its effects on drain water quantity, quality and crop yield.

schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin



Rural environmental attitudes (United States)

Two frequent beliefs about rural environmental attitudes are examined conceptually and empirically: (1) the common conception that rural environmental concerns are expressed predominantly by wealthy community newcomers; and (2) the related position that long-time rural residents are hostile to the environmental cause. We argue conceptually, through the use of a 2×2 community matrix, that environmental attitudes are equally likely to be expressed by what we term “upper middle income newcomers,” “lower middle income newcomers,” “upper middle income locals,” and “lower middle income locals.” Empirically, we find that although wealthy newcomers express the strongest environmental attitudes in the community, their concerns represent only a small percentage of rural environmental attitudes consisting of respondents who make less than 40,000 a year in household income are over 40 years of age, possess less than a college education, and work in a nonprofessional occupation. This new category expresses environmental concerns at least equal to the rest of the community on three of four measures of environmental attitudes. The findings provide insight into the widespread and cross-sectional nature of rural environmental concern. The implication is that environmental groups will find significant sources of political support in rural communities, provided they craft their environmental message in a language consistent with rural attitudes and values. Things are gettin' bad fast. Easterners and environmentalists comin' down here from the big cities are tryin' to turn our way of life completely upside down. A western US rancher quoted in Krakauer (1991)

McBeth, Mark K.; Foster, Richard H.



Comparative transcriptomics of Eastern African cichlid fishes shows signs of positive selection and a large contribution of untranslated regions to genetic diversity. (United States)

The hundreds of endemic species of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Tanganyika, Malawi, and Victoria are a prime model system in evolutionary biology. With five genomes currently being sequenced, eastern African cichlids also represent a forthcoming genomic model for evolutionary studies of genotype-to-phenotype processes in adaptive radiations. Here we report the functional annotation and comparative analyses of transcriptome data sets for two eastern African cichlid species, Astatotilapia burtoni and Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, representatives of the modern haplochromines and ectodines, respectively. Nearly 647,000 expressed sequence tags were assembled in more than 46,000 contigs for each species using the 454 sequencing technology, largely expanding the current sequence data set publicly available for these cichlids. Total predicted coverage of their proteome diversity is approximately 50% for both species. Comparative qualitative and quantitative analyses show very similar transcriptome data for the two species in terms of both functional annotation and relative abundance of gene ontology terms expressed. Average genetic distance between species is 1.75% when all transcript types are considered including nonannotated sequences, 1.33% for annotated sequences only including untranslated regions, and decreases to nearly half, 0.95%, for coding sequences only, suggesting a large contribution of noncoding regions to their genetic diversity. Comparative analyses across the two species, tilapia and the outgroup medaka based on an overlapping data set of 1,216 genes (?526 kb) demonstrate cichlid-specific signature of disruptive selection and provide a set of candidate genes that are putatively under positive selection. Overall, these data sets offer the genetic platform for future comparative analyses in light of the upcoming genomes for this taxonomic group. PMID:21617250

Baldo, Laura; Santos, M Emília; Salzburger, Walter



Students' attitudes towards science and science learning in an introductory undergraduate biology course (United States)

Science education strives to cultivate individuals who understand scientific concepts as well as the nature of science and science learning. This study focused on the potential benefits of the flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning. Our study investigated changes in and effects of students' attitudes towards science and science learning in a flipped introductory biology course at the University of Massachusetts Boston. We used The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology to assess students' attitudes at pre and post-instruction. We investigated the effect of a flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning by measuring the impact of different teaching approaches (flipped vs. traditional lecture). Following the prior literature, we hypothesized that there would be a negative shift in students' attitudes over the semester in the traditional classroom and that this negative shift would not occur in the flipped. Our results showed there was no significant difference in the shift of students' attitudes between the traditional and flipped sections. We also examined the relationship between students' attitudes and academic performance. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between students' attitudes and their academic performance, as measured by exam average. In support of the prior literature, we found a significant positive correlation. Finally, we examined whether the relationship between students' attitudes and performance was mediated by learning behavior. Specifically, we considered if students with more favorable attitudes solved more on-line problems correctly and whether this aspect of problem solving was associated with greater achievement. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between attitudes and problem solving behavior as well as problem solving behavior and achievement. We did not find a significant correlation between attitudes and this aspect of problem solving behavior, however there was a correlation between problem solving behavior and achievement. Our results indicate attitudes towards science and science learning may play a role in undergraduate students' learning achievement. However, we were not able to show that those effects were mediated through problem solving behavior, nor did we show that the flipped classroom by itself was sufficient to enhance these attitudes.

Floro, Nicole



Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study demonstrates how learning approaches (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and cognitive learning can be incorporated in the design of advergames to influence the attitudes, recall of brand, recall of product information, and purchase intention. The results show that cognitive learning results in the best recall of brand name and product information, followed by classical and then operant conditioning. The learning approaches adopted in the games have a significant effect on overall attitude, with the classical conditioning inducing the most positive attitude followed by operant conditioning and then cognitive learning. Finally, hedonic attitude is shown to be a more influential factor underlying purchase intention. Implications of the findings are addressed.

Ya-Shin Huang



Negative Attitudes, Network and Education  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead to an ambiguous impact. Empirically, we consider immigrants’ high school attendance. On the macro-level, we confirm a signficant negative correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. On the individual level, we use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives and find no significant impact of negative attitudes.

Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth


Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives on Teacher Attitudes: The Third Year. (United States)

Since 1988, teacher surveys and interviews have been conducted in the 24 professional development schools (PDS) in Jefferson County (Kentucky) Public Schools to document teachers' attitudes toward efficacy and empowerment and toward their schools' learning climate. The 1990-1991 survey results show that teachers seem to have positive opinions of…

Ruscoe, Gordon C.; Whitford, Betty Lou


Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome  

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Full Text Available We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

Nicoletta Testoni



Comparing Multicarrier Ambiguity Resolution Methods for Geometry-Based GPS and Galileo Relative Positioning and Their Application to Low Earth Orbiting Satellite Attitude Determination  


This paper presents an evaluation of several GNSS multicarrier ambiguity (MCAR) resolution techniques for the purpose of attitude determination of low earth orbiting satellites (LEOs). It is based on the outcomes of the study performed by the University of Calgary and financed by the European 6th Framework Programme for Research and Development as part of the research project PROGENY. The existing MCAR literature is reviewed and eight possible variations of the general MCAR processing scheme ...

Amp Keefe, Kyle O.; Mark Petovello; Wei Cao; Amp Rard Lachapelle, G.; Eric Guyader




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animated agents are electronic agents that interact with learners through voice, visuals or text and that carry human-like characteristics such as gestures and facial expressions with the purpose of creating a social learning environment, and provide information and guidance and when required feedback and motivation to students during their learning experience. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the use of pedagogical agents in learning materials designed in multimedia on the achievement and attitudes of students. A general evaluation of the research findings indicate that the use of multimedia software developed by using pedagogical agents positively affects student achievement and attitude. The achievement of the students who worked with the software significantly increased, but no significant difference in terms of different pedagogical agents was observed. The comparison of the student’s attitudes revealed no significant difference in terms of different pedagogical agents, yet the attitudes regarding “bearing human features” showed positively significant difference for the software with body shot of a real person. As it is seen in the unstructured interviews with the participants conducted during and after the experimental process, it should be stated that the students had positive attitudes towards the software and the use of pedagogical agent and expressed their liking.




Deterministic and Recursive Approach in Attitude Determination for InnoSAT  


Attitude determination system (ADS) was indispensable in attitude control of satellite. Especially for InnoSAT due to the limitation of budget, weight, and power, the attitude was determined using onboard position sensors. Previous research has successfully implemented the attitude determination using only Earth's magnetic field sensors for small attitude angle, but the approach produced quite big error for large attitude angle. This paper presents attitude determination for InnoSAT using com...

Harijono Djojodihardjo; Md Azlin Md Said; Othman Sidek,; Fadly, M.; Adam Ain



Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention  


Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

Pereira, Ine?s Veiga



Attitude towards Biology and Its Effects on Student’s Achievement  


The main purpose of this study was to examine the relation between attitudes towards science in biology courses and students’ biology achievement. A total of 185 grade 12 (age 17-18 years) students in Isfahan answered to a 30-item questionnaire provided by authors based on STAQ-R inventory. The results showed that among attitude towards science dimensions, only “biology is fun for me”, have meaningful and positive relation with students’ achievement in biology. Also there was no signi...

Nasr, Ahmad R.; Asghar Soltani K.



Relationship Between Nonwestern Teacher Attitudes Toward Pupils and Their Authoritarianism (United States)

This study investigated the relationship of authoritarianism and teachers' attitude toward their pupils of graduate students in the Middle East. It was found that those individuals scoring high on authoritarianism had less positive attitudes toward pupils. Further, Moslems were more authoritarian and had less positive attitudes toward pupils than…

Moracco, John C.; Develtian, Agnes



Nonlinear Robust Control for Spacecraft Attitude  

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Full Text Available Nonlinear robust control of the spacecraft attitude with the existence of external disturbances is considered. A robust attitude controller is designed based on the passivity approach the quaternion representation, which introduces the suppression vector of external disturbance into the control law and does not need angular velocity measurement. Stability conditions of the robust attitude controller are given. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the attitude controller.

Wang Lina



Nonlinear Robust Control for Spacecraft Attitude  


Nonlinear robust control of the spacecraft attitude with the existence of external disturbances is considered. A robust attitude controller is designed based on the passivity approach the quaternion representation, which introduces the suppression vector of external disturbance into the control law and does not need angular velocity measurement. Stability conditions of the robust attitude controller are given. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the attitude control...

Wang Lina; Li Zhi



Attitude towards Biology and Its Effects on Student’s Achievement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the relation between attitudes towards science in biology courses and students’ biology achievement. A total of 185 grade 12 (age 17-18 years students in Isfahan answered to a 30-item questionnaire provided by authors based on STAQ-R inventory. The results showed that among attitude towards science dimensions, only “biology is fun for me”, have meaningful and positive relation with students’ achievement in biology. Also there was no significant difference between girls and boys in attitude towards biology, although girls had better achievements in biology in comparison with boys.

Ahmad R. Nasr



GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).  

CERN Multimedia

GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).



Gene expression profile of Xenopus A6 cells cultured under random positioning machine shows downregulation of ion transporter genes and inhibition of dome formation (United States)

Random positioning machine (RPM) devices that generate a simulated microgravity environment of approximately 0 g prevent the formation of dome structures in Xenopus kidney-derived A6 cells. In the present study, the gene expression profile of A6 cells cultured under RPM was determined using the Xenopus 22K scale microarray, and those genes up- or downregulated twofold or more were investigated. We identified 29 genes (up, 25 genes; down, 4 genes) on day 5, 68 genes (up, 25 genes; down, 43 genes) on day 8, 111 genes (up, 69 genes; down, 42 genes) on day 10, and 283 genes (up, 153 genes; down, 130 genes) on day 15 of culture under RPM. These genes were classified according to categories described in the KOG database, such as "extracellular structure", "cytoskeleton", and "transcription". Almost all the genes involved in "inorganic ion transport and metabolism" were downregulated under RPM. Our study further investigated some of these including the epithelial Na + channel (ENaC) and Na +/K +-ATPase transporter genes. A specific inhibitor of Na +/K +-ATPases, ouabain, inhibited dome formation in the A6 cells, even under control culturing conditions of 1 g (the static condition). Together these data suggested that downregulation of sodium ion transporter gene expression plays a significant role in the RPM-dependent prevention of the dome formation in kidney epithelial cells.

Ikuzawa, Masayuki; Akiduki, Saori; Asashima, Makoto


Attitudes of Turkish Veterinary Educators to Problem-Based Learning  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the attitude of veterinary educators to problem-based learning and to examine influential parameters. In this study, veterinary educators from the Ankara, Uludag, Selcuk, Harran and Ondokuz Mayis Veterinary Schools were surveyed. Data were collected from 254 educators by a paper questionnaire. The participants showed intermediate level positive attitude to problem-based learning. In conclusion, it can be said that veterinary educators in Turkey are sensitive to problem-based learning at an intermediate level and that differences in influential factors do not affect the level of sensitivity significantly (p<0.05.

Ayse Mentes Gurler



Factors Influencing South African Attitudes toward Digital Piracy  

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Full Text Available Digital piracy has become an important issue in today’s technology-driven world. This research looks at the factors that cause South Africans to choose digital piracy as a means of obtaining digital media. We tested a revised Digital Piracy Attitude Model incorporating individual and situational constructs using quantitative data. Constructs showing significant correlation to an individual’s attitude toward digital piracy were age, Machiavellianism, cognitive beliefs, positive affective beliefs and perceived importance. Interestingly, no gender influence was found. The paper concludes with practical suggestions for South African educational, government and business institutions to reduce digital piracy based on our findings.

Kimi van der Byl



Gemini 12 Experiment D-10 Ion-Sensing Attitude Control (United States)

Gemini 12 Experiment D-10 Ion-Sensing Attitude Control to investigate feasibility of attitude control system using environmental positive ions and an electrostatic detection system to measure spacecraft pitch and yaw.



Analysis of Consumer Attitude Using Fishbein Multi-Attributes Approach  

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Full Text Available The development of today's economy growing rapidly, accompanied by increasingly sophisticated technological advances that led to the emergence of competition among firms.Increasing number of motorcycle brand in circulation led to a very tight competition in the motorcycle market, particularly in the type of motorcycle. This makes the consumer faced with various choices of brands, so the motorcycle manufacturers need to know the tastes and desires of consumers to create and sell a motorcycle can be favored by consumers. The purpose of this study were to determine what attributes are considered important by consumers to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, and to assess consumer attitudes toward product attributes motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, The model used is multi-attribute attitude model of Fishbein Attitude Toward To Object Model and the Theory Of Reasoned Action. The results of this study indicate that (1 that are considered important attributes are attached to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki is the attribute Price has the highest positive score compared * with a score of other attributes for each of the Honda brand motorcycle , Yamaha, and Suzuki. (2 consumer attitudes showed a positive attitude in which the score for the Honda is +60.03, +56.14 Yamaha, and Suzuki is +55.00. (3 the dominant factor influencing purchasing decisions motorcycle products for the Honda brand is a member of the family, while for the brand Yamaha, and Suzuki are the others

Abdullah Ramdhani



A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Voluntary Blood Donation among Medical Students in Puducherry, India  

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Full Text Available Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%. About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77% showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%. In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%, in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student’s showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis.

S. Latha



Attitudes of children and adolescents toward persons who are deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled. (United States)

This study aimed to explore Dutch students' attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and 144 university students were determined with two questionnaires, the CATCH and MAS. Only the CATCH was applicable with all four disabled groups. Two factors were found: behavior-positive affect and cognition-negative affect. With regard to the first factor respondents had more positive attitudes toward deaf, blind and paralyzed persons than toward intellectually disabled persons. The cognition and negative affect factor showed that respondents had more positive attitudes toward deaf and blind persons than toward paralyzed and intellectually disabled persons. Being older and familiarity with a disabled person had a significant positive effect on attitudes, while self-esteem and gender had only a partial effect and having religious beliefs was not a significant predictor in this study. PMID:23246560

de Laat, Stijn; Freriksen, Ellen; Vervloed, Mathijs P J



Use of nonlinear identification in robust attitude and attitude rate estimation for SAMPEX (United States)

A method is described for obtaining optimal attitude estimation/identification algorithms for spacecraft lacking attitude rate measurement devices (rate gyros), and then demonstrated using actual flight data from the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft. SAMPEX does not have on-board rate sensing, and relies on sun sensors and a three-axis magnetometer for attitude determination. The absence of rate data normally reduces both the total amount of data available and the sampling density (in time) by a substantial fraction. In addition, attitude data is occasionally unavailable (for example, during sun occultation). As a result, the sensitivity of the estimates to model uncertainty and to measurement noise increases. In order to maintain accuracy in the attitude estimates, there is an increased need for accurate models of the rotational dynamics. The Minimum Model Error(MME)/Least Square Correlation(LSC) algorithm accurately identifies an improved model for SAMPEX to be used during periods of complete data loss or extreme noise. The model correction is determined by estimating only one orbit(the identification pass) just prior to the assumed data loss(the prediction pass). The MME estimator correctly predicted the states during the identification phase, but more importantly determines the necessary model correction trajectory, d(t). The LSC algorithm is then used to find this trajectory's functional form, H(x(t)). The results show significant improvement of the new corrected model's attitude estimates as compared to the original uncorrected model's estimates. The possible functional form of the correction term is limited at this point in the study to functions strictly of the estimated states. The results, however, strongly suggest that functions based on the relative position of the satellite may also be possible candidates for future consideration.

Mook, D. Joseph; Depena, Juan; Trost, Kelly; Wen, Jung; Mcpartland, Michael



Landowner attitudes toward natural gas and wind farm development in northern Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US has undergone a recent boom in the development of onshore wind farm and natural gas energy projects and contentious debates over the construction of these projects are common in communities across the US. A survey of landowners in a region of Northern Pennsylvania (N=1028) undergoing simultaneous development of both wind and natural gas development shows that landowners are generally much more polarized and negative towards gas development than wind farm development, and that attitudes toward natural gas development is highly dependent on environmental attitudes and industry leasing, development, or employment experience. Landowner proximity to the development explains a small amount of the variation in attitudes towards wind energy. Recommendations for energy policy and future research are discussed. - Highlight: ? A Pennsylvania survey reveals attitudes toward natural gas and wind development. ? Gas drilling attitudes became more negative; wind farm attitudes more positive. ? Environmental concern and industry experience influence attitudes toward energy. ? Proximity to wind is weakly related to attitudes; proximity to gas is not related.


Multivariate latent variable growth modeling of attitudes toward science: An analysis of the longitudinal study of American youth (United States)

The purpose of this dissertation is to simultaneously examine individual change in students' attitudes toward science and attitudes about the utility of science over the middle and high school years using multivariate latent variable growth modeling. A second goal is to identify the time-invariant and time-varying predictors of attitudes toward science and attitudes about the utility of science using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth. The conceptual framework for this dissertation is based on Klopfer's (1971) structure of the affective domain related to science and the concept of the multidimensionality of science-related attitudes. The results of the multivariate model showed that over the middle and high school years, changes in attitudes toward science are positively related to changes in attitudes about the utility of science. This means that more positive attitudes toward science are associated with positive attitudes about the utility of science. Science self-concept was found to be the strongest predictor of both the attitudinal variables. Teacher encouragement of science was another significant predictor of both the attitudinal variables, while peer attitudes had a greater influence on attitudes toward science. Achievement Motivation was found to have a small, but consistently significant, influence on students' attitudes about the utility of science. The effect of the parent variable was found to be quite small and statistically nonsignificant, with the exception of the seventh grade. Boys were found to have higher initial status on both the attitudinal variables in the seventh grade. However, boys had a steeper drop in attitudes toward science, while the drop in attitudes about the utility of science was faster for the girls. Also it was found that students in Metropolitan and Rural schools have less positive attitudes toward science and the utility of science in the seventh grade compared to students in Suburban schools. Multivariate latent variable growth modeling in comparison to the univariate model allows one to examine the change in one attitudinal dimension with respect to the other dimension. Substantive and methodological implications of this technique are also discussed in the dissertation.

George, Rani


Do medical students like communication? Validation of the German CSAS (Communication Skills Attitude Scale) (United States)

Objectives: Attitudes towards communication skills of medical undergraduates can be gathered using the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). We aimed to develop a German version of the CSAS (CSAS-G) in order to explore attitudes towards communication skills in a German cohort. Additionally the potential influence of demographic factors was examined. Methods: We realized the CSAS-G and conducted a survey with 529 participants from 3 different years of study. We then carried out an explorative as well as confirmatory factor analysis and compared the attitudinal scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed. Results: The confirmatory analysis confirmed the two-subscale system revealed by the explorative factor analysis. Students indicate low levels of negative attitudes and moderate levels of positive attitudes. Attitudinal scores differ significantly in relation to gender. Conclusion: The CSAS-G can be used in German cohorts to evaluate attitudes towards communication skills. Medical students in our study show basically a positive approach. Further investigation is necessary to explore and understand attitudes towards communication skills of German medical students. PMID:25699103

Busch, Anne-Kathrin; Rockenbauch, Katrin; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar



Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy (United States)

Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.



Malignant Memories: Effect of a Shooting in the Workplace on School Personnel's Attitudes. (United States)

Post-disaster surveys of elementary school personnel examined the effects of a shooting incident on attitudes toward self, family, workplace, community, and social issues. Specific attitudes were associated with specific preexisting personality and familial variables. Results revealed more positive than negative attitudes. Positive self attitudes

Schwarz, Eitan D.; Kowalski, Janice M.



Medical students' attitudes to complementary medical therapies  


One hundred and eighty medical students completed one of five versions of a questionnaire concerning their attitudes to five complementary therapies: acupuncture, herbalism, homoeopathy, hypnosis, and osteopathy. Very few significant statistical differences in students' attitudes to the five therapies were found, suggesting that students had similar attitudes, which were generally positive, despite the fact that they considered they knew little about the therapies. These results are discussed...

Furnham, A.; Hanna, D.; Vincent, Ca



Application of GPS attitude determination to gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft (United States)

Recent advances in the Global Positioning System (GPS) technology have initiated a new era in aerospace navigation and control. GPS receivers have become increasingly compact and affordable, and new developments have made attitude determination using subcentimeter positioning among two or more antennas feasible for real-time applications. GPS-based attitude control systems will become highly portable packages which provide time, navigation, and attitude information of sufficient accuracy for many aerospace needs. A typical spacecraft application of GPS attitude determination is a gravity gradient stabilized satellite in low Earth orbit that employs a GPS receiver and four body mounted patch antennas. The coupled, linearized equations of motion enable complete position and attitude information to be extracted from only two antennas. A discussion of the various error sources for spaceborne GPS attitude measurement systems is included. Attitude determination of better than 0.3 degrees is possible for 1 meter antenna separation. Suggestions are provided to improve the accuracy of the attitude solution.

Lightsey, E. G.; Cohen, Clark E.; Parkinson, Bradford W.



SDRE Based Attitude Control Using Modified Rodriguez Parameters  

CERN Document Server

The purpose of this paper is to present an application of the State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) method to satellite attitude control where the satellite kinematics is modeled by Modified Rodriguez Parameters (MRP). The SDRE methodology is applicable on special forms of nonlinear systems where satellite model is one of the candidates. It is not easy to find an analytical solution from the SDRE. Thus point wise solutions are interpolated with respect to the operating conditions. The point wise solutions are obtained from the MATLAB algorithms which are derived from the positive definite solutions of the SDRE. The global stability analysis is difficult due to the nature of the methodology. The resultant attitude controllers outside the breakpoints (the selected operating conditions for interpolation) are suboptimal. The performance of the designs is examined by simulations on MATLAB - Simulink environment. The simulation results show that, the designed attitude controllers are working satisfactorily even i...

Doruk, R Ozgur



Analysis of Consumer Attitudes to Purchase Intentions of Counterfeiting Bag Product in Indonesia  

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Full Text Available Fashion handbags are products that occupy the third position of the 11 types of products most often hijacked. According to the United States Customs and Border Protection and European Commission, Indonesia is a country that ranked the 8th largest country after Hong Kong with the highest levels of product piracy in Asia in 2006. This study investigate the effect of product cues factors, including extrinsic cues and intrinsic cues, Attitudes towards counterfeits, religiosity, lawfulness attitudes, status of consumption on purchase intentions. This study aims to explain the process of forming an intention to buy pirated bag products that rest on the primary relationship of independent variables like attitudes towards counterfeit, lawfulness attitudes and consumption status of the intention to buy pirated products as well as test patterns bag relationship between variables. The data was collected by using a questionnaire enclosed with the statement that based on the Likert scale. The respondents were all employed women who are in the area of Yogyakarta with 200 respondents. These results show that intrinsic factors had positive influence on consumer attitudes towards pirated handbags addition, a more positive attitude of consumers towards pirated bags will further strengthen the purchasing intentions and conversely the higher the status of a consumer's consumption will only further weaken the intention of purchasing the product bag pirated.

Santi Budiman



Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10–12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.

Magarey Anthea M



Comparing Multicarrier Ambiguity Resolution Methods for Geometry-Based GPS and Galileo Relative Positioning and Their Application to Low Earth Orbiting Satellite Attitude Determination  

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Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of several GNSS multicarrier ambiguity (MCAR resolution techniques for the purpose of attitude determination of low earth orbiting satellites (LEOs. It is based on the outcomes of the study performed by the University of Calgary and financed by the European 6th Framework Programme for Research and Development as part of the research project PROGENY. The existing MCAR literature is reviewed and eight possible variations of the general MCAR processing scheme are identified based on two possible options for the mathematical model of the float solution, two options for the estimation technique used for the float solution, and finally two possible options for the ambiguity resolution process. The two most promising methods, geometry-based filtered cascading and geometry-based filtered LAMBDA, are analysed in detail for two simulated users modelled after polar orbiting LEOs through an extensive covariance simulation. Both the proposed Galileo constellation and Galileo used in conjunction with the GPS constellation are tested and results are presented in terms of probabilities of correct ambiguity resolution and float and fixed solution baseline accuracies. The LAMBDA algorithm is shown to outperform the cascading method, particularly in the single-frequency dual-GNSS system case. Secondly, more frequencies and multiple GNSS always offer improvement, but the single-frequency dual-system case is found to have similar performance to the dual-frequency single-system case.

Kyle O'Keefe



The Potential Positive Impact of Sup-ported Employment on the Oral Health Status, Attitudes and Behavior of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID con-stitute a unique but heterogeneous population, which includes a great variety of mental and developmental disorders, as well as congenital syndromes. Nowadays, many persons with mild or moderate ID, with specific training, can make considerable efforts to improve their lives, by having a job in either open or supported employment. On the other hand, since dental caries and periodontal diseases are among the most common secondary conditions affecting people with ID, oral diseases may detract the quality of life from disabled persons.The hypothesis: Employment (sheltered workshop, open or supported employment of persons with ID, may enable these individuals to improve their oral health status, attitudes and behavior, compared to the ID individuals who are not working, due to the development of specific socio-emotional characteristics and dexterities.Evaluation of the hypothesis: According to previous reports, employed people with ID demonstrated better self-esteem and greater autonomy, more satisfaction with their vocational/non-vocational ac-tivities and higher quality of life.

Vasileios Margaritis



Children's Attitudes toward the Magic Circle. (United States)

Although the general attitude toward Magic Circle was positive, there was sufficient dissatisfaction by students with the Human Development Program to question the appropriateness of the program for all students. Student attitudes, interests, and motivations can play a major role in the success or failure of these activities. (Author)

Day, Robert W.; Griffin, Robert E.



The Effects Of Grade Level, Gender, And Ethnicity On Attitude And Learning Environment In Mathematics In High School  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate different factors (grade level, gender, and ethnicity that might affect the attitudes and learning environment perceptions of high school mathematics students in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The study involved the administration of the administration of the What Is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC questionnaire and an attitude questionnaire based on the Test of Mathematics-Related Attitude (TOMRA to 600 Grades 9 and 10 mathematics students in 30 classes in one high school. Quantitative research method was used in collecting information from the sample. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results showed that male consistently reported slightly more positive perceptions of classroom environment and attitudes than did females. Anglo students’ scores consistently are a little higher than Hispanic students’ scores. There is strong evidence of associations between students’ attitudes and the learning environment.

Thienhuong N. Hoang



Low-attitude Oxfordian position of the oravic crustal segment (Pieniny Klippen Belt, western Carpathians). Was it a slow drift or a big jump?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Bajocian and Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian limestones and Bathonian- Callovian neptunian dykes which cut the limestones from the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB) were samples for rock magnetic and paleomagnetic study. The samples were measured in the Paleomagnetic Laboratory in the Institute of Geophysics, Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava and in the Paleomagnetic Laboratory of the Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. SIRM(T) curves show that limestone and dykes from Mestecko contain hematite with blocking temperature about 650-670 deg C. Babina limestone and dykes contain magnetite with Tb between 470 and 570 deg C, usually accompanied by small hematite tail. Sometimes goethite with Tb about 80-100 deg C is seen. Dykes and limestone from Vrsatec contain magnetite with Tb 570 deg C or hematite with unblocking temperature of 670 deg C. After cleaning of recent soft component by temperature of 200 deg C and a field of 10-20 mT, hard component was revealed. After tilt correction mean directions found in Bajocian and Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian limestones have scattered declination but similar reversed inclination between 35 deg and 49 deg. Exceptions is mean direction for Bajocian limestone from Boleslav which have normal polarity. Mean directions for Bathonian- Callovian dykes are scattered in situ and after tilt correction. Fold test for inclination only showed pre-folding inclination for Bajocian and pre-folding inclination for Bajocian and Oxfordian-Kimmeridgain limestone and scattered inclination for in situ and tilt corrected directions for dykes. Mean paleoinclination calculated for Bajocian and Oxfordian-Kimmeridgain limestone are 38.5 deg and 42.5 deg, respectively, which corresponds to 22 degN and 25 degN of paleolatitude. This is about 10 deg - 15 deg lower than the value of inclination expected for that age for Pieniny Klippen Belt from Jurassic poles for Stable Europe. As positive fold test prove pre-folding age of isolating directions other possibility - flattening of inclination should be considered. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and magnetic remanence (AARM) can be used to evaluation of origin and deviation of NRM in sedimentary rocks. Axes of AMS are scattered for all localities. The degree of anisotropy is weak. Shape parameter T shows equal distribution of oblate and prolate fabric. On the contrary, ARM maximum axes are well clustered, especially for Mestecko and Vrsatec. Maximum axes are distributed in a vertical plane for Mestecko and in horizontal plane for Babina and Vrsatec. This evidences that the AAMR fabric is not related to the sedimentation and compaction processes but it was controlled by magnetization process and ambient field direction. However, anisotropy axes are not close to NRM directions. For Mestecko they are steeper. This exclude an effect of shallowing of NRM. On this basis we can assume that more southern paleolatitude of the Pieniny Klippen Belt than expected is demonstration of paleogeography and tectonics and points to the close vicinity of PKB to African plate in Jurassic.


Factors that influence dental students' attitudes about older adults. (United States)

Our study considered dental students' general attitudes towards older persons using the Aging Semantic Differential. The influence of age, gender, cohort, education, and academic exposure on general attitudes towards older adults was evaluated using a total of 328 dental students across all four years of academic standing. Students were assessed in the fall and spring semesters. The results showed differential responding on the four subscales, with slight positive ratings on the autonomy, acceptability, and integrity subscales and a slight negative rating for instrumentality. Females expressed more negative attitudes than their male counterparts, with no age differences. There was also no significant impact from a specific, didactic educational component offered to the fourth-year students. However, the fourth-year students were the only group to show positive changes across the full academic year. The results suggest that general attitudes can be changed, but didactic (classroom) forms of education alone are insufficient to meaningfully modify students' perceptions of the elderly. Exposure to older adults in a clinical setting appears to be a critical element, as the fourth-year students received much greater exposure to older patients and more intensified interface with their mentors. PMID:19126770

Nochajski, Thomas H; Waldrop, Deborah P; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J



Study of the effects of informational and persuasive messages on the attitudes of high school students toward the use of nuclear energy for electrical production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation assessed the relationship between knowledge about and attitudes toward nuclear energy. The study's purpose was accomplished by attempting to manipulate knowledge about and attitude toward nuclear energy independently. Over two thousand high school students participated in the study. A Non-Equivalent Control Group quasi-experimental design was used involving random assignment by intact groups to treatments. A knowledge treatment was designed to increase student knowledge without affecting attitudes. An attitude treatment was designed to change attitudes without changing knowledge, and a control treatment was employed for comparison to the experimental treatments. Each treatment consisted of a videotape with a viewing guide and a homework assignment. The Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery was used as a pretest, post-test, and retention test. Males scored significantly higher in knowledge and positive attitudes, but no interaction between gender and treatment was found. The study concluded that (1) there is a correlation between nuclear knowledge and attitudes, (2) knowledge about nuclear energy can be changed without affecting attitude and attitude can be changed without affecting knowledge, and (3) students show differences and attitude based on gender


The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.


Study of attitude of interns toward psychiatry: A survey of a tertiary level hospital in Ahmedabad (United States)

Background: Worldwide, multiple studies demonstrate a negative attitude of interns toward psychiatry. Scenario in Gujarat state has never been looked upon. The objective of this study is to identify the situation in this region by studying the attitude of interns toward various areas of psychiatry and to study the gender differences if any. Materials and Methods: For study, all 122 interns who attended psychiatry posting for the 1st time in their internship, over a period of 8 months were approached amongst which 100 (56 males and 44 females) consented to be a part. Attitude was measured with 30 items attitude toward psychiatry (ATP 30) questionnaire on the 1st day of their posting. The data thus collected were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Result: The results showed a neutral to the negative attitude in major areas of psychiatry. Most neutral responses were seen regarding contribution of psychiatric hospitals in the treatment, regarding psychiatric patients considered to be interesting and psychiatry enabling people to have rewarding relationships. Negative attitude toward areas on scientific information in psychiatry and psychotherapy's validity were obtained. While attitude was positive in areas of psychiatric knowledge and teaching, but female interns were lagging behind their male counterparts. Psychiatric treatment lessens worries and psychiatric illness should be considered at par with other medical illnesses, were most common positively viewed attitude. Conclusion: Interns overall shared a neutral to negative ATP. Adequate rectification is required in existing medical curriculum, and more exposure to the subject is essential to improve the attitude of interns toward mental health PMID:25788804

Parikh, Nimesh C.; Sharma, Prateek S.; Chaudhary, Pradhyuman J.; Gandhi, Hitendra A.; Banwari, Girish H.



Mathematics Attitudes and Achievement of Junior College Students in Singapore (United States)

Studies that investigated students' attitudes toward mathematics and its relationships with achievement are scarce in Singapore. To address this issue, the mathematics attitudes and achievement of 984 junior college students were measured. Results indicated that students had positive attitudes toward mathematics but lacked intrinsic motivation to…

Yee, Lim Siew



Individual and Community Perspectives, Attitudes, and Practices to Mother-to-Child-Transmission and Infant Feeding among HIV-Positive Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Objectives: International guidelines on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers promote Exclusive Replacement Feeding (ERF (infant formula or animal milk or exclusive breastfeeding (with no supplements of any kind. A mixed feeding pattern, where breastfeeding is combined with other milks, liquid foods or solids, has been shown to increase the risk of transmission of HIV and is strongly discouraged. However, little is known about the ability of women to adhere to recommended feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV from breast milk. The objective of this study was to assess the individual and community-level factors that affect perspectives, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive mothers on MTCT and infant feeding in sub-Saharan Africa as documented in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Methods: This work is based on an extensive review of peer-reviewed articles and grey literature from the period 2000-2012. The literature search was carried out using electronic databases like, Medline Ovid, Google scholar, Pubmed and EBSCOhost. Both quantitative and qualitative studies written in English language on HIV and infant feeding with particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa were included. Results: The review found low adherence to the chosen infant feeding method by HIV-positive mothers. The following factors emerged as influencing infant feeding decisions: cultural and social norms; economic conditions; inadequate counselling; and mother’s level of education. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Unless local beliefs and customs surrounding infant feeding is understood by policy makers and program implementers, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT programs will only be partially successful in influencing feeding practices of HIV-positive women. Hence programs should provide affordable, acceptable, feasible, safe and sustainable feeding recommendations that do not erode strong cultural practices. Advice to HIV-positive mothers should be based on local conditions that are acceptable to the community.

Alexander Suuk Laar, MPH



Attitudes towards telework for continuity planning in Japan  


This paper examines the suitability of telework for business continuity planning (BCP) in Japan by looking at how views on telework are shaped by demographic characteristics, organizational culture, and individuals' use of technology. The study surveyed regular employees with experience of the 2011 T¯ohoku earthquake (n=39) and their responses were analyzed using cross-tabulation analysis. The results showed generally positive attitudes towards telework, overwhelmingly so with respect to BCP...

Maria, Bourna; Hitoshi, Mitomo



?????????????? Research on the Implicit Attitude of Free Normal Student’s Identity  

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Full Text Available ????????(IAT?????????(?????vs?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????The study applied the implicit association test to explore different kinds of students’ attitude (free normal students vs non-normal students toward free normal students’ identity. Results showed that free normal students had positive attitude toward their identity and males’ attitude were more positive than females’; female of non-normal students had positive attitude toward “free normal students’ identity”; compared with non-normal students, free normal students’ attitude were more positive. These suggested that free normal student have positive attitude toward their identity and non-normal students don’t have negative attitude toward free normal students’ identity.




Can singular examples change implicit attitudes in the real-world? (United States)

Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or "IAT" revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes toward African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or "ALPS" and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words-similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes. PMID:24046756

Roos, Leslie E; Lebrecht, Sophie; Tanaka, James W; Tarr, Michael J



Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?  

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Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or “IAT” revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or “ALPS” and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.





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Full Text Available The demands regarding sustainable production and consumption are growing increasingly, the market is opening doors for companies to innovate in products and processes that present themselves as a solution to social and environmental problems facing society today. To this end, in2010, aBrazilian company began producing the "green" polyethylene, or green plastic, which differs from conventional polyethylene because it is produced from the ethanol from cane sugar and not from naphtha oil. Because it is a new product on the market and little known, this study aims to understand consumer attitudes towards green plastic. Environmental concerns, ecologically conscious consumer behavior, purchase intention and previous knowledge of green plastic were also assessed. Were conducted initially in-depth interviews, which helped quantitative stage, an online survey, applied to a sample of 300 individuals. Results indicate that surveyed consumers have positive attitudes towards green plastic and intention to purchase products made with this material. Despite exhibiting a high degree of environmental awareness, they show only moderate attitudes in relation to sustainable consumption in practice. We can conclude that there is still much to be done by companies and society so that a greater degree of maturity and respect for the environment can be achieved.

Gabriela Elnecave Kruter



Factors Influencing Attitudes and Intention to Purchase Counterfeit Luxury Brands among Indonesian Consumers  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present research study is to examine the influence of antecedents of attitudes towardscounterfeiting products of Indonesian consumers and its relationship to purchase intention of counterfeitproducts. The research mainly discussed the effect of social factors and personality factors towards consumerattitudes to buy counterfeit product, in this context is handbags. Approximately 250 respondents aged from16-40 participated to give response for the survey gathered from questionnaire distribution. The analysis usingpath coefficient analysis show that social and personality factors has mostly significant impact towards attitudes.The study concluded that the more positive attitude of consumers towards counterfeit products will furtherstrengthen the purchasing intentions while the higher the status of a consumers’ consumption will not affect anychange to both their attitude and willingness to purchase counterfeit products.

Anas Hidayat



Student nurses' attitudes towards professional containment methods used in psychiatric wards and perceptions of aggression. (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine student nurses' attitudes towards professional containment methods used in psychiatric wards and its relation to their perception of aggression. We employed a cross-sectional descriptive design to evaluate nurses' attitudes. Participants included 120 student nurses who were enrolled in psychiatric nursing during their fourth (final) year of education. The 'Attitude to Containment Measures Questionnaire' and 'The Perception of Aggression Scale' were used for assessments. Student nurses exhibited positive attitudes toward 'intermittent observation', 'Pro re nata Medication' and 'Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit', respectively. The least approved method was 'net bed'. The data showed a negative correlation between approval of 'Intra-Muscular Medication' and 'mechanical restraint' with the perception that aggression was dysfunctional/unacceptable. Student nurses who believed that professional containment methods were effective also perceived aggression as less functional/acceptable. These results emphasize the importance of health care perceptions of aggression towards patients and their experience with containment measures. PMID:25157938

Ozcan, Neslihan Keser; Bilgin, Hülya; Bad?rgal? Boyac?o?lu, Nur Elçin; Kaya, Fadime



Danish University lecturers’ attitudes towards English as the medium of instruction  

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Full Text Available The increasing use of English in research and higher education has been the subject of heated debate in Denmark and other European countries over the last years. This paper sets out the various positions in the national debate in Denmark, and then examines the attitudes towards these positions among the teaching staff at the country’s largest university. Four topics are extracted from the debate – one which expresses a positive attitude towards English and three independent but interrelated topics which express more negative attitudes. The responses from the university lecturers show that a majority agree with all positions, negative as well as positive. This finding indicates that the attitude may not form a simple one-dimensional dichotomy. The responses are broken down according to lecturer age and the proportion of teaching the lecturer conducts in English. The results show that younger lecturers and lecturers with a higher teaching load in English are more positive towards the increase in English medium instruction.

Christian Jensen



Iranian EFL Learners’ Attitude towards Idioms in English  


Iranian EFL learners have proven to have a positive attitude towards English in general. This study is an attempt to investigate the attitude of the Iranian EFL learners towards learning and producing idioms in particular. A random number of 40 students majoring in English translation and Literature at Isfahan University, Iran was surveyed using an attitude questionnaire. The domains used for the purposes of the study were: a) interest in English, b) attitudes towards learning English, and c)...

Maedeh Tadayyon; Saeed Ketabi



Attitude toward Plagiarism among Iranian Medical Faculty Members  


The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members ofTehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. E...

Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi; Kiarash Aramesh; Kiana Hassanpour; Abbas Norouzi-Javidan; Mahsa Ghajarzadeh




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Full Text Available This study examines the policy of teaching science and mathematics in English in the Malaysian educational system by focusing on the attitudes and achievement orientations of secondary school students towards the learning of these two subjects. Attitudes and achievement are two important outcomes of learning that will determine the effectiveness of an education policy. This study is based on a sample of 400 secondary school students selected from four non-premier schools. It looks into the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics as well as their variations according to four background variables, i.e., gender, ethnicity, types of feeder school and English achievement grades. It also examines the inter-correlations between the students’ attitudes and achievement orientations. Findings from statistical analyses of collected data were supplemented by more in-depth interviews. This study shows that the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics in English do not indicate that the policy has achieved its objective. However, their attitudes and achievement motivations vary according to the four background variables. The significant and positive inter-correlations between attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics further confirm the causal relationship between these two important dimensions of learning.

Tan Yao Sua



Relationship Between The Professional Attitudes Of Secondary School Teachers With Their Teaching Behavior  

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Full Text Available The problem under research was “Relationship between the Professional Attitudes of Secondary School Teachers with Their Teaching Behavior”. Teaching is considered to be the noblest of all the profession. It is termed as the profession of the prophets. A person serving in any profession must have Positive attitude and competence in his profession. This study may be significant for knowing to major sessions of teachers training in relation to their attitude towards their profession. The research hypothesis that, there is no significant relationship between the professional attitude and teaching behaviors of secondary school teachers was tested. All theSecondary School students and teachers comprise the population of the study. A sample of 100 students from the 10 High and Higher secondary schools of DIKhan City was selected. Five male Schools and five female schools were selected. 10 students from each male and female school were taken. 50 teachers from the 10 high and higher secondary school of DIKhan city. 5 teachers each from male and female schools were selected. Two attitude scales, one for professional attitude and another for teaching behavior of the teachers were used for data collection. The co-relation statistic was used. The results show that there is a high co-relation between the professional attitude and teaching behavior of the teachers.

Liaquat Hussain



Attitudes and practices of oncologists toward fertility preservation. (United States)

Cancer is a life-threatening diagnosis. Fortunately, life-saving treatments are available to increase the chance of survival in many patients. Yet, many of these treatments are damaging to the reproductive organs and the patients' fertility. A cross-sectional study addressing the knowledge and practices of oncologists toward fertility preservation for male and female patients with cancer was conducted in Saudi Arabia. In 3 different regions of the country, oncologists were invited to participate in the study, through a self-administered questionnaire which was handed to them inquiring about their knowledge, attitude, and referral practices for sperm cryopreservation. Only one-half knew about intracytoplasmic sperm injection, oncologists rated their perception of the importance of cryopreservation as 7.8 ± 1.8. Their referral practice was very poor; less than 20% refer their patients to a specialist. Factors that were considered important to start discussion of cryopreservation were type of cancer, age of patient, number of children, marital status, and cost. Religion was not deemed as important as was anticipated. With regards to female fertility preservation, oncologists showed a positive attitude as revealed from their positive perception, however, their referral practices was very poor. Several gaps were present in the knowledge of oncologists, which could influence their attitude and in turn was reflected on their poor practice. Future training session should be organized to the oncologists for increasing their knowledge and enhancing their attitude. PMID:21336166

Arafa, Mostafa A; Rabah, Danny M



Questioning Academic Success through Self-regulation, Self-esteem and Attitude in Foreign Language Learning (A Case Study  

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Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between self-regulation, self-esteem, attitude and foreign language achievement (FLA. The research was conducted with 383 students from Gaziantep University Higher School of Foreign Languages. The data were collected through a modified questionnaire adapted from three different questionnaires. The statistical results showed that there was a positive relationship between self-regulation and foreign language achievement (r= .319 p >.01, self-esteem and foreign language achievement (r= .404 p >.01, and attitude and foreign language achievement (r=.425 p >.01. Moreover, when self-regulation, self-esteem and attitude came together, a statistically significant positive relationship with foreign language success was observed (r= .540 p >.01. Self-regulation, self-esteem and attitude in relation to academic success have been analyzed together for the first time in this study.

Filiz Yalç?n T?lfarl?o?lu



Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support. (United States)

This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N = 8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms. PMID:25063421

Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod



"Pluto Has Been a Planet My Whole Life!" Emotions, Attitudes, and Conceptual Change in Elementary Students' Learning about Pluto's Reclassification (United States)

Learning about certain scientific topics has potential to spark strong emotions among students. We investigated whether emotions predicted students' attitudes after engaging in independent rereading and/or rereading plus discussion about Pluto's reclassification. Fifth and sixth grade students read a refutation text on Pluto's reclassification. Participants were randomly assigned to either the reread independently or the reread plus discussion group. Results showed that students in both groups experienced attitude change and that change was sustained over time. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions at pretest. Emotions, which became more positive after intervention, were predictive of students' attitudes and attitude change. Implications for the role of emotions when learning about controversial topics are discussed.

Broughton, Suzanne H.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael



Effects of a Persuasive Communication on Beliefs, Attitudes, and Career Choice. (United States)

Uses Martin Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action to formulate a persuasive communication to influence unclassified U.S. college students to consider a career as a registered nurse. Finds the experimental group shows a significant positive change in beliefs, attitudes, and intentions, unlike the control group exposed to a neutral message only. (NL)

Strader, Marlene K.; Katz, Barry M.



Principal-Teacher Interactions: How Affective Relationships Shape Principal and Teacher Attitudes (United States)

Purpose: Research finds that the attitudes of principals and teachers create an atmosphere for learning, often referred to as school climate, that influences school effectiveness. Other research shows that atmospheres of trust, shared vision, and openness create positive school climate conditions. Little is known, however, about how these climates…

Price, Heather E.



Exploratory Study on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Attitude and Firm’s Performance  

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Full Text Available There is an increased emphasis on entrepreneurship research around the globe. The Census of Establishments and Enterprises 2006 shows that 99.2% or 518,996 of business establishments in Malaysia were small and medium enterprises (SMEs. A critical question remains – what factors affect entrepreneurial performance? Not all business start-ups were successful and managed to survive into the future. This study aims to understand how entrepreneurial attitude affects the performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to owner managers and data were analyzed using regression model. Results show that all five dimensions of entrepreneurial attitude are positively related to firm performance.

Kum-Lung Choe



Greek Nurses Attitudes towards Death  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies explore the attitudes of nurses caring for dying patients but this is the first oneexploring Greek nurses’ attitude toward death.Purpose/Objectives: To assess how Greek nurses feel about death and examine any relationships between theirattitudes and demographic factors.Design: Descriptive quantitative. The sample comprised of 150 hospital nurses (response rate 64%.Method: Voluntary and anonymous completion of the Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R, and ademographic questionnaire. The Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R (Wong, Reker, & Gesser, 1994 is a32-item scale that uses a seven-point Likert scale to measure respondents' attitudes toward death. Demographicdata, including gender, age, previous experience working with terminally ill patients, work setting (inpatientversus outpatient, years practising as an RN were collected. No identifying information was collected from theparticipants, ensuring the results were anonymous.Results: 82% of respondents were female with a mean age of 35.54 years (19 min 48 max. The mean nursingexperience was 12.1 years. Average scores on the DAP-R sub-scales ranged from 2.90 (escape sub-scale to 5.63(neutral sub-scale. Statistically significant relationships were noted among gender, and scores on the DAP-R.Nursing experience and age were the variables most likely to predict nurses' attitudes toward death. Nurses withspecific education on palliative care had less difficulty talking about death and dying. The existence ofHospital-based teams (known as palliative care teams, supportive care teams, or symptom assessment teams hadstatistically significant relationship with fear of death and neutral acceptance scoresConclusions: In Greek hospitals nurses with more work experience tended to have more positive attitudes towarddeath and caring for dying patients.

Malliarou Maria



Usos y tendencias adictivas de una muestra de estudiantes universitarios españoles a la red social Tuenti: la actitud positiva hacia la presencia de la madre en la red como factor protector / Spanish university students' uses of the social network Tuenti and their addiction levels: the protective role of the positive attitude toward mothers' presence as contact  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar, desde el paradigma de usos y gratificaciones, el uso que los estudiantes universitarios españoles (N = 221) hacen de la red social Tuenti, y en qué medida estos usos se asocian con sus niveles de adicción a dicha red social. Además se analizó el papel que lo [...] s progenitores tienen como facilitadores o inhibidores de dichas tendencias adictivas y el impacto del género. Los resultados muestran cuatro categorías de usos de la red Tuenti: entretenimiento, comunicación a través del muro, comunicación a nivel privado e información social. Además, la actitud positiva hacia la presencia de la madre en la red Tuenti se muestra como un factor de protección de las tendencias adictivas a la red. Por último, se han encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género, tanto en los usos que realizan chicos y chicas, como en sus patrones de adicción a la red Tuenti, de tal manera que los chicos informan de niveles de adicción superiores a los informados por las chicas en el uso de esta red social. Abstract in english The present work aimed to study, from the uses and gratifications paradigm, the uses that Spanish university students (N = 221) do of the social networking site Tuenti, and the relationship between these uses and young's self-reported levels of addiction towards Tuenti. Also, the students' attitudes [...] towards the presence of their parents as contacts in Tuenti, and the impact of gender were analyzed. The results showed four different categories of uses: entertainment, public communication, private communication and social information. Also, young's positive attitude toward the presence of the mother in Tuenti played a protective role in their addition levels towards this social networking site. Finally, statistically significant gender differences in the uses of Tuenti and also in their addiction levels toward Tuenti were found.

Mercedes, Durán; José M., Guerra.



Attitudes towards economic risk and the gender pay gap  


This paper examines the links between gender differences in attitudes towards economic risk and the gender pay gap. Consistent with the literature on the socio-economic determinants of attitudes towards economic risk, it shows that females are much more risk averse than males. It then extends this research to show that workers with more favorable attitudes towards risk are associated with higher earnings, and that gender differences in attitudes towards economic risk can account for a small, ...

Le, Anh T.; Miller, Paul W.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Martin, Nicholas G.



Energy attitudes in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy issues are at present heavily debated in Finland. Public discussion is very emotional and biased against nuclear power. The undetermined situation together with the need for a decision on increasing the nuclear capacity led Imatran Voima Oy (Imatra Power Company) to measure the prevailing attitudes. The paper discusses the energy opinion surveys recently made in Finland. The general results give evidence of the changes occurring in the values of life. Environmental issues and the purity of energy production are seen as the most important factors of energy policy. Low price or availability and reliability are considered less important. The results of the surveys show, however, that people think that more electricity will be needed in the future. Natural gas, peat and hydroelectric power are most favoured. The attitude towards the use of coal and nuclear power is clearly more diffuse. In the survey, 21% want to increase the share of nuclear power, 32% want to keep its use at the present level and 35% want to reduce it. This 35% includes the one-fifth of the population that would like to abandon nuclear power altogether. Nuclear wastes and accidents are considered the most important factors contributing to the formation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. The other main factors are discussed in the paper. A great desire for information on energy policy together with personal decision making interests reflect the general attitude in Finland also. Totally incorrectttitude in Finland also. Totally incorrect information on nuclear energy is, however, surprisingly prevalent, which makes opposition to nuclear power understandable. All these factors make taking a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland difficult. (author)


Analyzing online game players: from materialism and motivation to attitude. (United States)

The online game market has been growing rapidly and has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years. The results of a survey conducted in China to explore online game players' attitude formation reveal that (a) the online game player's level of materialism positively influences the motivation for playing, (b) motivation positively influences attitude toward online games, and (c) motivation fully mediates the effects of materialism on attitude. PMID:18783344

Chang, Ju-Hui; Zhang, Hongxia



The Effect of Brand Equity on Brand Attitude and Brand Loyalty in Exhibition  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the influential relationships among exhibition brand equity, brand attitude and brand loyalty, focusing on the participants of ‘HANATOUR International Travel Show’ to evaluate brand equity and provide some helpful suggestions for the brand strategies of domestic exhibitions. Survey was conducted for three days from May 23, 2014 to May 25, 2014. The special range of study objects were collected with convenient sampling from the participants of HANATOUR International Travel Show in 2014. The data collected for this study were analyzed with the program AMOS 18.0. As a result, perceived quality and brand image as the components of brand equity had positive influence on brand attitude, brand attitude to brand loyalty, and brand awareness to brand loyalty. Therefore, the study concluded that ‘HANATOUR International Travel Show’ needs to try harder to establish brand equity and enhance their brand value to establish brand equity for a competitive and successful exhibition.

Shin Namju



A cutaneous positioning system. (United States)

Our previous work revealed that torso cutaneous information contributes to the internal representation of the torso and plays a role in postural control. Hence, the aims of this study were to assess whether posture could be manipulated by patterns of vibrotactile stimulation and to determine whether resulting modified postures were associated with specific and consistent spatial attitudes. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the anatomical locations corresponding to left and right external oblique, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. A 250-Hz tactile vibration was applied for 5 s either at a single location or consecutively at each location in clockwise or counterclockwise sequences. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that postural responses observed in response to single and sequential stimulation patterns were similar, while the center of pressure remained unaltered in any situations. Moreover, torso inclinations followed rectilinear-like path segments chartered by stimuli loci during sequential stimulations. Comparison of torso attitudes with previous results obtained with co-vibration patterns of the same duration showed that torso inclination amplitudes are equivalent for single (one location) and co-vibration (pairs of locations) patterns inducing the same directional effect. Hence, torso cutaneous information exhibits kinesthetic properties, appears to provide a map of upper body spatial configuration, and could assume the role of an internal positioning system for the upper body. PMID:25600816

Martin, Bernard J; Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H



Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

Abdel Gader Abdel Galil



Escherichia coli O128 strains from infants with diarrhea commonly show localized adhesion and positivity in the fluorescent-actin staining test but do not hybridize with an enteropathogenic E. coli adherence factor probe.  


Twenty-nine strains of Escherichia coli O128 isolated from infants with diarrhea that did not produce heat-stable enterotoxin, heat-labile enterotoxins, or Vero cytotoxin showed localized attachment to HEp-2 cells (LA). Only four strains hybridized with the enteropathogenic E. coli adherence factor (EAF) probe. One of the 25 LA+ EAF- strains attached to 72% of cells, while a plasmid-negative variant attached to 0.5% of cells. LA+ EAF- and LA+ EAF+ strains gave a positive fluorescent-actin sta...

Scotland, S. M.; Smith, H. R.; Rowe, B.



Is Biology Boring? Student Attitudes toward Biology (United States)

The study examines the interests and attitudes of school students toward biology: through their interest in out-of-school activities and their attitude towards lessons as measured by interest, importance and difficulty. Biology lessons were relatively popular with the greatest preference found among students learning zoology. Girls showed

Prokop, Pavol; Prokop, Matel; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale



Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians. (United States)

Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M?=?31.42, SD?=?16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically to different types of meat. PMID:25312749

Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate



Employee’s Job Performance: The Effect of Attitude toward Works, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction  

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Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job and job experiences. The happier the individual, the higher is level of job satisfaction. It is assumed that positive attitude towards work and greater organizational commit­ment increases job satisfaction which in return enhances performance of the individual. Based on this phenomenon, this study is aimed to explain and empirically test the effect of attitude toward work, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment to the employee’s job performance at PT. Intech Anugrah Indonesia (PT. Intech. Data used in this study was primary data which were collected through closed questionnaires with 1-5 Likert scale. A sample of this study was 200 managerial and non-managerial staff of PT. Intech. Research carried out by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM which was run by AMOS 20.0 program. The results of this study showed that attitude towards work have positive but not significant effect to job satis­faction and employee performance. Different with attitude towards work, the organization's commitment has positive and significant effect on job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech. It means every improvement in organization’s commitment has a positive effect toward job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech.

Aries Susanty



Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model (United States)

In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

Chang, Chingching



Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment. (United States)

To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen


Consumers’ values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products: a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil  


Consumers’ attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must no...

Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, M. G.; Perez-cueto, Armando; Saab, M. S. M.; Grunert, Klaus G.



Consumers’ values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil  


Consumers’ attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must no...

Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, M. G.; Perez-cueto, Armando; Saab, M. S. M.; Grunert, Klaus G.



Learning Chemistry at the University level : Student attitudes, motivation, and design of the learning environment  


The main purpose of the research this thesis is based upon was to study students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry at university level and their motivation from three perspectives. How can students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry be assessed? How can these attitudes be changed? How are learning situations experienced by students with different attitude positions? An attitude questionnaire, assessing views of knowledge, learning assessments, laboratory activities, and perceived r...

Berg, C. Anders R.



A Turkish study on menarche and menstrual experiences and their effects on attitudes towards menopause. (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate women's menarche and menstrual experiences and their effects on attitudes towards menopause. This research was planned as cross-sectional. A total of 300 women who had applied for a physical examination at the Maternity and Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Ordu province of Turkey were recruited for the study using the convenience sampling method. The study was conducted between 16 April and 28 May 2008. The research data were gathered using the Menopause Attitude Scale and a questionnaire. The average score for women on the Menopause Attitude Scale was 37.85 ± 10.34. Significant differences were found between attitudes of women towards menopause and the information they had received before menarche about menstruation (P = 0.024), the meaning of menstruation (P = 0.014), the interval time between menstrual periods (P = 0.017), problems experienced before menstruation (P = 0.035) and the desire of some women to continue menstruating and delay menopause (P = 0.005). Results of this study showed that more than half of the women had negative attitudes towards menopause. In order to help girls and women develop positive attitudes about menarche, menstruation and menopause, they need to have access to information during all phases of these important physical changes. PMID:22435973

Erbil, Nülüfer; Boyac?, Serap; Kurt, Ipek; Akdo?an, Yasemin; Kaya, Ilknur



Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude. (United States)

Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

Alwitt, Linda F.


Attitude control with active actuator saturation prevention (United States)

Spacecraft attitude control in the presence of actuator saturation is considered. The attitude controller developed has two components: a proportional component and an angular velocity component. The proportional control has a special form that depends on the attitude parameterization. The angular velocity control is realized by a strictly positive real system with its own input nonlinearity. The strictly positive real system can filter noise in the angular velocity measurement. With this control architecture the torques applied to the body are guaranteed to be below a predetermined value, thus preventing saturation of the actuators. The closed-loop equilibrium point corresponding to the desired attitude is shown to be asymptotically stable. Additionally, the control law does not require specific knowledge of the body's inertia properties, and is therefore robust to such modelling errors.

Forbes, James Richard



The importance of shiftwork attitudes and ethics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author, a nuclear power plant operator at the Ginna pressurized water reactor, discusses the positive and negative aspects of 12-hour workshifts, the various schedules that have been developed to optimize performance during the 12-hour shifts, and the motivation required to prepare mentally and physically for the shift. A healthy work attitude is the best guarantee of high standards of performance whether the shift be of 8-, 10-, or 12-hour duration. This healthy work attitude will cause peers to improve their attitudes and attentiveness and strive to lift their own work levels to a higher standard




As advertisements are broadcast on a daily basis, Romanian consumers are subject to an intensive media bombardment designed to influence them, trigger certain emotions, and make them develop an attitude to a particular brand or product. When designing the advertisement, great care must be taken so that it conveys positive feelings and emotions and fosters favourable attitudes to a brand. The object of the current research is to determine how consumers are able to assess the advertisement phen...

Ba?but?, Raluca



Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a maisupplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified


Counter-conditioning as an intervention to modify anti-fat attitudes  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effect of anti-fat attitude counter-conditioning using positive images of obese individuals participants completed implicit and explicit measures of attitudes towards fatness on three occasions: no intervention; following exposure to positive images of obese members of the general public; and to images of obese celebrities. Contrary to expectations, positive images of obese individuals did not result in more positive attitudes towards fatness as expected and, in some cases, indices of these attitudes worsened. Results suggest that attitudes towards obesity and fatness may be somewhat robust and resistant to change, possibly suggesting a central and not peripheral processing route for their formation.

Stuart W. Flint



Authoritarianism, Dogmatism and Coercion in Child Caring Institutions: A Study of Staff Attitudes (United States)

Investigated the attitudes of child care institution staff members on dimensions of authoritarianism, dogmatism, and coercion, and related attitudes to type of institution in which subject was employed and position held in the institution. (DP)

Krause, Kenneth



A binational comparison of HIV provider attitudes towards the use of complementary and alternative medicine among HIV-positive Latino patients receiving care in the US-Mexico border region. (United States)

Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common among Latinos living with HIV in the United States (US)-Mexico border region. Health providers may vary in their approach to communicating acceptance or non acceptance of CAM use, which can undermine patient confidence in disclosing CAM use. Patient-provider communication about CAM is important because certain types of CAM can affect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We undertook the present binational study to understand US and Mexican provider beliefs, and perceptions surrounding CAM use among Latino patients, and to learn if and how CAM communication occurs. Between July and December 2010, we conducted in-depth, qualitative interviews in Tijuana and San Diego. Analysis procedures drew upon principles of Grounded Theory. The sample was comprised of 19 HIV-health care providers, including 7 women and 12 men. Emerging CAM-related themes were: Provider's perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about CAM; CAM types and modalities; and patient-provider CAM communication. Many clinicians were uncomfortable supporting CAM use with their patients. San Diego providers reported more frequent instances of CAM use among Latino patients than Tijuana providers. Providers from both cities reported that patients infrequently disclose CAM use and almost half do not routinely ask patients about CAM practices. Most of the providers acknowledged that they lack information about CAM, and are concerned about the drug interaction as well as the effects of CAM on adherence. Our findings have important implications for understanding provider communication surrounding CAM use in a highly transnational population and context. Because CAM use may undermine ART adherence and is highly prevalent among Latinos, provider communication about CAM is critical to improved health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos. Considering the significant growth of US Latinos, especially in the US-Mexico border region, assessment of Mexican and US provider training and communication needs surrounding Latino patient CAM use is warranted. PMID:23088506

Muñoz, Fátima A; Servin, Argentina E; Kozo, Justine; Lam, Mario; Zúñiga, María Luisa



Accent imitation positively affects language attitudes  


People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship an...




Team climate and attitudes toward information and communication technology among nurses on acute psychiatric wards. (United States)

Objectives: To describe the association of team climate with attitudes toward information and communication technology among nursing staff working on acute psychiatric wards. Background: Implementation of ICT applications in nursing practice brings new operating models to work environments, which may affect experienced team climate on hospital wards. Method: Descriptive survey was used as a study design. Team climate was measured by the Finnish modification of the Team Climate Inventory, and attitudes toward ICT by Burkes' questionnaire. The nursing staff (N?=?181, n?=?146) on nine acute psychiatric wards participated in the study. Results: It is not self-evident that experienced team climate associates with attitudes toward ICT, but there are some positive relationships between perceived team climate and ICT attitudes. The study showed that nurses' motivation to use ICT had statistically significant connections with experienced team climate, participative safety (p?=?0.021), support for innovation (p?=?0.042) and task orientation (p?=?0.042). Conclusion: The results suggest that asserting team climate and supporting innovative operations may lead to more positive attitudes toward ICT. It is, in particular, possible to influence nurses' motivation to use ICT. More attention should be paid to psychosocial factors such as group education and co-operation at work when ICT applications are implemented in nursing. PMID:24393065

Koivunen, Marita; Anttila, Minna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta



Attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS among medical practitioners and nonmedical specialists in Ukraine  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: AIDS is the disease that has been stigmatized since its development; stigmatization of people living with HIV is an important barrier to using HIV testing and treatment. It is well known, that stigma is associated with mental disorders including depression and anxiety. Ukraine is a country with one of the highest number of annual HIV infection cases. GOALS: The goal of this study was to evaluate medical practitioners’ (surgeons, psychiatrists, therapists and students and nonmedical specialists’ attitude toward people with HIV/AIDS.METHODS: A total of 180 individuals participated in the study. Acceptance of people who have AIDS or are infected with HIV was assessed with the help of the “Attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS”. Total scores range from 50 to 10, higher scores indicate high acceptance of persons with HIV/AIDS.RESULTS: Younger participants reported higher acceptance of persons with HIV or AIDS (p.05. Medical practitioners showed greater total score, compare to nonmedical specialists (38.0 ± 6.0 vs. 34.0 ± 5.5, respectively, p<.05. A one-way between-groups analysis of variance was conducted to explore the impact of medical specialty on levels of positive attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS. The actual difference in mean scores between the 4 groups was moderate (.06. Students and psychiatrists reported more positive attitudes (higher acceptance toward people with HIV and AIDS, but analyses showed, that there was not a statistically significant difference at the level in total score for the groups.CONCLUSION: In this study we evaluated the level of attitudes toward people with HIV or AIDS in Ukraine. Young age and medical education were significantly associated with the positive attitudes toward people with HIV and AIDS. Our findings are important for the programs reducing the stigma and discrimination that should be addressed to the wide layers of the society.

Zhabenko, Nataliya



The impact of party on nuclar power attitudes in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mass attitudes to nuclear power in general and to the more specific problems having to do with the management of nuclear waste are related to each other. People with anti-nuclear attitudes tend to view many of the nuclear waste problems differently than persons who are positive to the use of nuclear power. Hence, the study of mass attitudes to nuclear power is of relevance for the study of attitudes to nuclear waste. The present study analyse attitudes to nuclear power as well as attitudes to nuclear waste. The emphasis, however, is on the development of mass attitudes to nuclear power. The setting is Sweden and the time-frame the last 20 years. (author)


Attitude, Parental Encouragement and Perception of the Importance of English in English Language Learning  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the students’ perception of the importance of English language amongst a sample of 150 Upper Six students from a population of 755 students from six schools in the district of Marang, Terengganu. Also studied was whether their attitude towards learning English language is positive and whether they receive sufficient parental encouragement and support in their English language learning. It was found that the students were well aware of the importance of English language and also had a very positive attitude towards English Language learning. The parental encouragement and support scores also recorded a high total mean. In all three instances the sample means were well above the mid-point means indicating that the sample means fell in the higher halves of the mean scores. This implies that students are well aware of the importance of English language, are very positive about learning English language and receive more than adequate parental encouragement and support in their English language learning. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant and positive relationship between the students’ perception of the importance of English language and their attitude towards learning the language. Since the students’ attitude and parental encouragement and support seem to be satisfactory, future researchers should investigate whether the curriculum offered is suitable for rural students.

Gopala Krishnan Sekharan Nair



Student Attitudes about Experiences with Work Groups. (United States)

After 110 business students participated in collaborative learning activities, male attitudes toward work groups became significantly more positive, females' less. Those reporting mostly positive group experiences preferred collaborative working styles; those rating the experience as "just OK" preferred working alone or with one other person. (SK)

Chalupa, Marilyn R.; Sormunen, Carolee; Charles, Thomas A.



Exploring the structure of attitudes toward genetically modified food. (United States)

Although it is often thought that the British public is opposed to genetically modified (GM) food, recent qualitative work suggests that most people are ambivalent about GM food and crops. In this article we explore the structure of attitudes in order to examine whether attitudinal ambivalence can be captured by more quantitative methods. Based on the finding that the perceived risks and benefits of GM food can be treated as independent dimensions, we propose a four-way typology of attitudes, consisting of a positive, negative, indifferent, and ambivalent group. This study showed that the differences between the four groups could best be described by three main dimensions: (1) a general evaluative dimension, (2) an involvement dimension, and (3) an attitudinal certainty dimension. While these different attitudinal dimensions have generally been studied in isolation, we argue that they should be studied collectively. PMID:17184407

Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick F



Experiments with small helicopter automated landings at unusual attitudes  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes a set of experiments involving small helicopters landing automated landing at unusual attitudes. By leveraging the increased agility of small air vehicles, we show that it is possible to automatically land a small helicopter on surfaces pitched at angles up to 60 degrees. Such maneuvers require considerable agility from the vehicle and its avionics system, and they pose significant technical and safety challenges. Our work builds upon previous activities in human-inspired, high-agility flight for small rotorcraft. However, it was not possible to leverage manual flight test data to extract landing maneuvers due to stringent attitude and position control requirements. Availability of low-cost, local navigation systems requiring no on-board instrumentation has proven particularly important for these experiments to be successful.

Bayraktar, S



Nonlinear feedback model attitude control using CCD in magnetic suspension system (United States)

A model attitude control system for a CCD camera magnetic suspension system is studied in this paper. In a recent work, a position and attitude sensing method was proposed. From this result, model position and attitude of a magnetic suspension system can be detected by generating digital outputs. Based on this achievement, a control system design using nonlinear feedback techniques for magnetic suspended model attitude control is proposed.

Lin, CHIN-E.; Hou, Ann-San



The Impact of a Palliative Care Educational Component on Attitudes toward Care of the Dying in Undergraduate Nursing Students. (United States)

A 6-week experiential course based on a model of death education and transformative learning prepared nursing students to care for dying patients. Pretest/posttest scores for 45 who received the intervention and 59 controls showed the intervention contributed to a significant positive increase in attitudes toward care of the dying. (Contains 27…

Mallory, Judy L.



Relationships of Attitudes toward Homework and Time Spent on Homework to Course Outcomes: The Case of Foreign Language Learning (United States)

In previous studies of homework in core academic subjects, positive student attitudes toward homework were linked to higher achievement, whereas time spent on homework showed an inconsistent relationship with achievement. This study examined the generalizability of these findings to foreign language learning by analyzing 2,342 adult students'…

Chang, Charles B.; Wall, Daniel; Tare, Medha; Golonka, Ewa; Vatz, Karen



Association of Group Learning with Mathematics Achievement and Mathematics Attitude among Eighth-Grade Students in the US (United States)

This study examined a large, nationally-representative sample of eighth-grade students in the US to assess how the frequency of group learning activity in mathematics classrooms was associated with mathematics achievement and three measures of attitudes toward mathematics. Results showed that moderate amounts of group work in class had positive

Smith, Thomas J.; McKenna, Cornelius M.; Hines, Ellen



Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia. (United States)

Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV. PMID:20485857

Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary



Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire (United States)

Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.

Fan?ovi?ová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol



Relationships between Attitudes to Irish, Social Class, Religion and National Identity in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (United States)

Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…

Riagain, Padraig O.



Reversal of Attitude: The Influence of Counter-Attitudinal Information  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Research has shown that both positive and negative information can alter a neutral attitude towards an unknown person, with negative information having, in general, a larger impact. Though this positive-negative asymmetry has received considerable attention, it has, to our knowledge, not been tested in more current and powerful social media, such as youtube. Although attitudes are not fixed, literature on the reversal of a recently established attitude by providing counter-attitudinal information is sparse. Therefore, the main aims of the present study were to examine positve-negative asymmetry in attitude formation using youtube fragments and to test the permanence of the establihed attitude by providing counter-attitudinal information. Approach: A total of 89 persons received either a positively (P or a negatively (N valued youtube fragment concerning a neutral target person. Subsequently, half of each group received positive written information (groups PP and NP regarding the target person; the other half received negative written information (groups PN and NN. Results: The results indicate that it is indeed possible to change a neutral attitude using youtube fragments, with a larger attitude change after negative than positive material. Textual information reversed this attitude, with an equal effect for positive and negative information. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is possible to quickly change an attitude towards a neutral person using youtube fragments, this formed attitude can easily be reversed by providing textual counter-attitudinal information. These findings can contribute to gaining a better understanding of the effect of modern social media on attitude formation and its transiency.

Pauline Dibbets



Euthanasia Attitude; A Comparison of two Scales  

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Full Text Available The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term "euthanasia" influences people's support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors.In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared.197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS or Wasserman's Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the The HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised.Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness.It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it.

Javad Hatami



Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time: a comparison between 1996 and 2004  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although medical specialists traditionally hold negative views towards working part-time, the practice of medicine has evolved. Given the trend towards more part-time work and that there is no evidence that it compromises the quality of care, attitudes towards part-time work may have changed as well in recent years. The aim of this paper was to examine the possible changes in attitudes towards part-time work among specialists in internal medicine between 1996 and 2004. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these attitudes were associated with individual characteristics (age, gender, investments in work and whether attitudes of specialists within a partnership showed more resemblance than specialists' attitudes from different partnerships. Methods Two samples were used in this study: data of a survey conducted in 1996 and in 2004. After selecting internal medicine specialists working in general hospitals in The Netherlands, the sample consisted of 219 specialists in 1996 and 363 specialists in 2004. They were sent a questionnaire, including topics on the attitudes towards part-time work. Results Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time became slightly more positive between 1996 and 2004. Full-time working specialists in 2004 still expressed concerns regarding the investments of part-timers in overhead tasks, the flexibility of task division, efficiency, communication and continuity of care. In 1996 gender was the only predictor of the attitude, in 2004 being a full- or a part-timer, age and the time invested in work were associated with this attitude. Furthermore, specialists' attitudes were not found to cluster much within partnerships. Conclusion In spite of the increasing number of specialists working or preferring to work part-time, part-time practice among internal medicine specialists seems not to be fully accepted. The results indicate that the attitudes are no longer gender based, but are associated with age and work aspects such as the number of hours worked. Though there is little evidence to support them, negative ideas about the consequences of part-time work for the quality of care still exist. Policy should be aimed at removing the organisational difficulties related to part-time work and create a system in which part-time practice is fully integrated and accepted.

de Jong Judith D



Iranian Nurses' Attitudes and Perception towards Patient Advocacy  


Patient advocacy is an inherent component of professional nursing ethics; in other words, nurses' enough knowledge would be essential to gain a positive attitude towards nursing advocacy. Using a descriptive-analytic design, this study aimed to assess the correlation between nurses' perception and attitudes towards patient advocacy, amongst 385 nurses in Kerman, Iran; hence, a three-part questionnaire was applied: part I, a demographic data sheet, part II, attitude measuring instrument, and p...

Motamed-jahromi, Mohadeseh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Zaher, Homa



GNSS Carrier Phase-based Attitude Determination: Estimation and Applications:  


Attitude determination through the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals is one of the many applications of satellite-based navigation. Multiple GNSS antennas installed on a given platform are used to provide orientation estimates, thus adding attitude information to the standard positioning service. Precise attitude estimates are obtained by exploiting the higher ranging resolution of the carrier phase observables, which are of two orders of magnitude more accurate tha...

Giorgi, G.





This study investigated the effects of consumers’ trust and attitude toward online shopping. Attitude is referred to as a positive or negative evaluation of people, activities, ideas, objects, event, or just about anything in the environment. Different facets of the e-shopping behavior of consumers have been investigated in previous literature. These facets can generally be divided into three namely, behavioral intention, actual behavior and attitude toward behavior. The ai...

Mohammad Al-Nasser; Rushami Zien Yusoff; Rabiul Islam; Abdullah ALNasser





The article raises the issue of children's manipulation, and examines the conditions contributing to the formation of the manipulative attitudes. As such are analyzed: importance of these attitudes for the child, existence of manipulative attitudes in parents, family microclimate and position to the manipulations in society.According to the results of an empirical study, the characteristics of the family, provoking the development of manipulative behavior in children, are described. The membe...

Liubov Ivanovna Ryumshina



Danish consumers' attitudes towards functional foods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. "Functional foods" is a relatively new term used to describe food products which have been enriched with natural substances/components with a specific physiological preventive and/or health-promoting effect. As yet, there are few actual functional foods in the Danish market, but in Japan and the USA, where these products are relatively common, sales are enjoying growth rates far above those for conventional products. 2. The aim of this study is to examine Danish consumers' attitudes to functional foods, including: whether enrichment with health-promoting substances results in a higher value perception among consumers; the relative importance consumers attach to enrichment compared with other product attributes; which beliefs consumers associate with enrichment; and, which beliefs influence and determine consumers' purchasing intentions and the relative importance of these beliefs. 3. The study consists of three analyses: focus-group interviews, the aim of which is to get an overview of the issue and generate input for the quantitative analyses. The quantitative analyses consist of a conjoint analysis and a survey based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. These analyses are based on concrete, non-existent examples of functional foods, a dairy product and a bread product, each of which has been enriched with three different substances: a) soluble food fibre, b) omega-3, and c) calcium and vitamin D. 4. The focus-group interviews show that the main beliefs which consumers associate with functional foods are the convenience of enrichment through daily diet, (un)naturalness, apprehension about changes in taste, higher price, uncertainty about belief in the effect of enrichment, dosage (when is there enough/ too much of the enrichment substance), own ignorance and uncertainty about manufacturers' knowledge of the health effects of eating enriched products. The respondents have very little knowledge of functional foods and were fairly sceptical. However, attitudes to concrete examples of functional foods were much morepositive than attitudes to the concept of functional foods. 5. The conjoint analyses show that, in general, consumers preferred the non-enriched variety, though with the exception of bread enriched with fibre, since the benefit of this is greater than for the conventional product. About 75% of consumers attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. For about 30% of consumers in the case of the dairy product and 50% in the case of the bread product, enrichment in one of the three forms resulted in a higher value perception, while about 25% and 40% respectively attached a lot of importance to the products not being enriched. 6. The cluster analysis identified several segments with a preference for the various enriched products. Two relatively large segments (25% and 20% of respondents respectively) had a higher value perception for the enriched than for the conventional product, especially as regards the calcium and vitamin D-enriched dairy product and the fibre-enriched bread product, and these segments also attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. The analysis also identified a large segment with a preference for the calcium and vitamin D-enriched bread product, about 30% of respondents saying they preferred this product variety and 35% saying they attached relatively great importance to enrichment. Only very few respondents preferred enrichment with omega-3, which was also the case for enrichment with fibre in the dairy product. 7. In general, attitudes to enrichment are more positive as regards the bread product and product varieties enriched with substances already present in the conventional product. However, attitudes are generally more negative as regards enrichment with omega-3 than with the two other substances. On the whole, consumers' attitudes to functional foods depend on both the type of product enriched, the enrichment substance and the combination of these. 8. The questionnaire survey shows that consumers' purchasing int

Poulsen, Jacob



Relação entre atitudes sexuais, conhecimentos e atitudes sobre VIH/Sida na orientação sexual / Relation between sexual attitudes, knowledge and HIV/AIDS attitudes in sexual orientation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As atitudes e os conhecimentos face à sexualidade não se têm mantido constantes ao longo do tempo. Neste sentido, investigou-se que relação existe entre conhecimentos sobre a transmissão do VIH/Sida, as atitudes sexuais e as face aos portadores do VIH/Sida, em estudantes universitários. Pretende-se [...] ainda avaliar como os conhecimentos e atitudes se relacionam com a orientação sexual. Administraram-se 3278 questionários a 993 homens e 2285 mulheres. Os resultados demonstram que a maioria é sexualmente ativa, teve a primeira relação sexual aos 16 anos. Encontraram-se diferenças estatisticamente signficativas entre a orientação sexual: os homossexuais iniciam a vida sexual antes dos heterossexuais, estes apresentam uma atitude sexual mais positiva do que os bissexuais e por sua vez os homossexuais apresentam uma atitude menos discriminatória face aos portadores do VIH/Sida do que os bissexuais. Para a vivência da sexualidade ser positiva é crucial apostar na educação sexual como estratégia da saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Abstract in english The attitudes and knowledge concerning sexuality haven’t remained constant over time. In this sense, we investigated the relationship between knowledge about HIV / AIDS transmission, sexual attitudes and attitudes towards those living with HIV / AIDS in university students. We also intend to assess [...] how knowledge and attitudes relate to sexual orientation. 3278 questionnaires were administered to 993 men and 2285 women. The results show that most are sexually active, had their first sexual intercourse at 16. We found statistically significative differences as for sexual orientation: homosexuals begin their sexual lives before heterosexuals and these present a more positive sexual attitude than bisexuals. Homossexuals have a less discriminatory attitude towards people infected with the HIV / AIDS than bisexuals. To experience sexuality positively it’s crucial to invest in sexual education as a strategy of sexual and reproductive health.

Marta, Reis; Lúcia, Ramiro; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz; Celeste, Simões.



The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/SE-GNSS Attitude Determination  

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Full Text Available The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP, two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.

Jiancheng Zhu



The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination. (United States)

The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472

Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping



Developing a Biology Attitude Scale  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a likert-style reliable and valid biology attitude scale. Before developing the biology attitude scale, the current scales had been carefully scrutinized, the views of experts taken, and the first draft of scale prepared by choosingstatements. The validity and reliability studies of the scale were carried out by applying the first draft on 168 students as a pilot study. The content validity of the scale was confirmed by the panel of judges. The factor analysis of the scale provided the construction validity of the scale. There are 36 statements as positive and negative statements. The value of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin is 0.91, Barlet’s value is 5415.115 and Cronbach alpha coefficient is 0.941 for the reliability.




Spacecraft Attitude Tracking and Maneuver Using Combined Magnetic Actuators (United States)

A paper describes attitude-control algorithms using the combination of magnetic actuators with reaction wheel assemblies (RWAs) or other types of actuators such as thrusters. The combination of magnetic actuators with one or two RWAs aligned with different body axis expands the two-dimensional control torque to three-dimensional. The algorithms can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded attitude precisely. A design example is presented for nadir-pointing, pitch, and yaw maneuvers. The results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached and the attitude- control accuracy is comparable with RWA-based attitude control. When there are only one or two workable RWAs due to RWA failures, the attitude-control system can switch to the control algorithms for the combined magnetic actuators with the RWAs without going to the safe mode, and the control accuracy can be maintained. The attitude-control algorithms of the combined actuators are derived, which can guarantee the spacecraft attitude and rates to track the commanded values precisely. Results show that precise attitude tracking can be reached, and the attitude-control accuracy is comparable with 3-axis wheel control.

Zhou, Zhiqiang



Alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e hísticas hepáticas en donantes de sangre con anticuerpo al VHC positivo / Clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and hystic hepatic alterations in blood donors showing positive hepatitis virus C antibody test results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de 69 donantes de sangre, con anticuerpos al virus C positivo detectados en el Banco de Sangre Provincial, remitidos a la consulta provincial del Hospital Universitario Provincial "Vladimir Ilich Lenin", entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2006, y a qui [...] enes se le realizó biopsia hepática translaparoscópica. Con el objetivo de estimar las alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e histopatológicas hepáticas se revisaron las boletas de solicitud de biopsia. Hubo predominio de las hepatitis crónicas con actividad mínima (12; 33,33 %) y ligera (13; 36,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes estaban asintomáticos (62; 89,9 %, y con transaminasas normales (47; 68,1 %). La laparoscopia constituyó una prueba muy específica, con un 84,4 % de especificidad, con un considerable valor de una prueba positiva, 75 %, para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica. Sin embargo, las bajas cifras de la sensibilidad (41 %) y del valor predictivo de una prueba negativa (57,1 %) para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica, reafirman que la biopsia hepática sigue siendo la prueba de oro para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Abstract in english An observational and descriptive study was made on 69 blood donors, who had positive C virus antibodies detected by the provincial blood bank and had been referred to "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" provincial university hospital from January 2000 to December 2006. They were performed translaparoscopic hepat [...] ic biopsy. For the purpose of estimating clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and histopathological hepatic disorders, the biopsy request forms were checked. Chronic hepatitis predominated, with minimal activity (12; 33.335) and slight activity (13; 36.1 %). Most of patients were asymptomatic (62; 89.9 %) and their transaminase values were normal (47; 68.1 %). Laparoscopy was a very specific test showing 84.4 % specificity, with a high value (75 %) in a positive test for chronic hepatitis diagnosis. However, low figures of sensitivity (41 %) and of the predictive value in a negative test (57.1 %) for chronic hepatitis diagnosis reaffirmed that hepatic biopsy continues to be the golden test for the diagnosis of this disease.

Agustín, Mulet Pérez; Évora, Arencibia Vidal; Martha, Gámez Escalona; Menelio, Pullés Labadié; Marlen, Pérez Lorenzo; Agustín, Mulet Gámez.



The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades (United States)

The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude

Friedkin, Noah E.



Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students (United States)

There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.



Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding (United States)

Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.



Student Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Inclusion and Inclusive Practice (United States)

The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion…

Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn



Comparison of Attitudes, Knowledge and Drug Abuse Among Military Offenders (United States)

Military offenders' (N=69) attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about drugs, and reported drug abuse histories were analyzed. Results indicated a significantly positive relationship between all three variables. Military offenders who had drug use histories also had more liberal attitudes toward drug use and a greater degree of knowledge about drugs.…

Ratliff, Bascom W.



Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.

Rustad Aase-Bente




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Full Text Available The title of this study is A Comparative study of Attitude towards Physical Education Between Professional and Non-professional College students. The level of attitude towards physical education may varyaccording to individual differences. To analyse and compare the level of attitude differences between professional and non-professional college students the investigator administered Adams scale of attitude towards physical education. This scale is consisted of 40 statements. Seven point Likert scale was used to measure thescale. Four hypotheses have been formulated.Hypotheses were formulated based on the following dimensions:1. Course2. Age3. Parental occupation4. LocalityA sample of 100 college students were taken for this study from various Professional and non – professional colleges located at in and around Salem. A random sampling technique was used to select theparticipantsparticipants. According to the course the participants were divided into two groups. I.e. professional and non-professional courses. According to the age the participantsparticipants were divided into two group’s i.e. 20 years & below and above 20 years. According to the occupation of the parents again the participants, they were divided into two groups i.e. self-employed and salary employed. Again according to the locality the participants were divided into groups. i.e. urban and rural. ‘t’-test and Chi – square were used to interpret and analyse the collected data. The overall finding of the study reveals that the boys studying in on-professionalcolleges showed higher positive attitude towards physical education than boys studying in professional colleges.The age of the subject and the occupation of the parent did not have any relationship with the subject’s attitude towards physical Education. But the locality of the subject has a significant relationship with their attitude towards physical education




HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviors assessment of Chinese students: a questionnaire study. (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting) than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students' knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future. PMID:17911665

Tan, Xiaodong; Pan, Jingju; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Chunhong; Xie, Chaojun



HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Assessment of Chinese Students: A Questionnaire Study  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.

Chaojun Xie



The Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction Based Constructivist Learning Approach on Students’ Attitudes and Achievements  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of computer assisted instruction based constructivist learning approach on students’ attitudes towards computers and science and technology lesson and their achievements at science and technology lesson. The study group is a group of 56 students who attend to fourth grade of a public primary school which were selected via convenient sampling method from Körfez (Kocaeli. The data were collected by means of Attitude Scale to Science and Technology Lesson, Attitude Scale to Computers and Achievement Test. In this research, a quasi-experiment design with pre test-post test control group was employed. The subjects was taught to the students using constructivist learning method which carried out at present syllabus in control group and computer assisted instruction based constructivist learning approach in experimental group. The findings from this study showed that there was a statistically significant difference between groups’ post-test attitudes towards computers and post-test scores obtained from achievement test in favour of experimental group (p0.05 despite the fact that there was a positive increase at experimental groups’ attitudes.

?eyda Gül



The Correlation between Parental Attitude and Susceptibility to Drug Addiction among Students  

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Full Text Available The susceptibility to drug addiction affects the formation of the students personality. One of the reasons of its appearance is the socialization defects within the family, regrettable attitude of parents to children. The purpose of this article is to identify and investigate the particularities of the parental attitude to the students of the secondary vocational and higher education institutions who have different levels of susceptibility to drug addiction. To analyze the parental attitude two criteria are used in the research: the degree of emotional bond, parents’ attachment to the child (love, acceptance, warmth or emotional rejection and coldness and the degree of control over his behavior (high—with lots of restrictions and prohibitions; low—the minimum prohibitive tones. They represent three main factors: positive interest vs. hostility, directivity vs. autonomy and inconsistency as a sharp transition from one extreme to another. The research shows that the formation of susceptibility to addiction among the students of the secondary vocational schools is influenced by the particular attitudes of both parents, while university students are mostly affected by their mothers’ attitude. It is found that the particularities of the child-parent relationships in forming susceptibility to addiction affect more the students of the secondary vocational schools than the higher education students. The research data allow to improve the psycho-pedagogical programs aimed at reducing drug addiction susceptibility among students.

Elena A. Cheverikina



Current and future health care professionals attitudes toward and knowledge of statistics: How confidence influences learning  

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Full Text Available Background: Health care professionals require some understanding of statistics to successfully implement evidence based practice. Developing competency in statistical reasoning is necessary for students training in health care administration, research, and clinical care. Recently, the interest in healthcare professional’s attitudes toward statistics has increased substantially due to evidence that these attitudes can hinder professionalism developing an understanding of statistical concepts. Methods: In this study, we analyzed pre- and post-instruction attitudes towards and knowledge of statistics obtained from health science graduate students, including nurses and nurse practitioners, enrolled in an introductory graduate course in statistics (n = 165. Results and Conclusions: Results show that the students already held generally positive attitudes toward statistics at the beginning of course. However, these attitudes—along with the students’ statistical proficiency—improved after 10 weeks of instruction. The results have implications for curriculum design and delivery methods as well as for health professionals’ effective use of statistics in critically evaluating and utilizing research in their practices.

Heibatollah Baghi



Attitudes toward Information Technology of Teachers of the Gifted: Implications for Gifted Education (United States)

This statewide study of teachers of intellectually gifted students examined teachers' attitudes toward information technology. Participants were 418 teachers of the intellectually gifted in a southeastern state who voluntarily responded to a survey about technology attitudes. Results indicated positive attitudes toward technology, with training in…

Shaunessy, Elizabeth



Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables. (United States)

Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

Slezak, Michael E.



Attitudes toward Older Workers among Undergraduates: Does Status Make a Difference? (United States)

Most research on attitudes toward older adults does not address subgroups of older adults. This study evaluated whether attitudes among undergraduates towards older professionals were more positive than those toward older adults in general. A 2 x 2 factorial design with the covariate of knowledge of aging was used with measures from two attitude

Helmes, Edward



Effects of Participation in Class Activities on Children's Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge. (United States)

Classes participating in pro-environmental activities were studied to determine whether environmental attitudes and knowledge of participants change relative to nonparticipants, and whether student participation influences parental environmental attitudes and knowledge. The program positively affected student attitudes toward the environment but…

Leeming, Frank C.; And Others



Farmer’s Attitude on Sustainable Agriculture and its Determinants: A Case Study in Behbahan County of Iran  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive survey to study the attitudes and perceptions of Iranian farmers on the concepts and thoughts of sustainable agriculture and identifying effective factors on their attitude. The target population of this study consisted of 7314 Behbahan farmers of Khuzestan province of Iran. A sample consisting of 208 respondents was selected through Stratified Sampling. The instrument used for assessing the attitude of respondents on the concepts of sustainable agriculture was a questionnaire by reliability 0.78. Responses were grouped based on the differences in standard deviation of mean, which revealed that 73.4% of respondents had moderate attitude towards concepts of sustainable agriculture. The results of study showed that there is positive correlation between literacy, participation in extension courses, off-farm income, farmer's knowledge about sustainable agriculture, level of use of sustainable agriculture methods, extension contacts and job satisfaction and negative correlation between age, experience in agricultural activities, family size and agrarian land with attitude toward sustainable agriculture. According to result of regression the ‘extension contacts’, ‘Farmers knowledge about sustainable agriculture’, ‘Job satisfaction’ and ‘literacy’ are effective factors on farmers attitude toward sustainable agriculture and explained 52.6% of this scale.

S. Abolhasan Sadati




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Full Text Available Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items, oral control (7-items, and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10, the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09 showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06. Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10 and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08 showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06. Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients among exercise participants, and that future research is needed to investigate eating attitudes among samples of exercisers.

Hilary Matheson



Examining The Impact Of Mobile Marketing On Consumers' Attitudes and Purchase Intentions.  


The aim of the study was to examine the impact of mobile marketing on consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions. More specifically the research intended to measure Jordanian consumers' acceptance of SMS advertising. A number of hypotheses were formulated for this purpose. The findings of the study show that there existed positive relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived entertainment and intention to participate and purchase intention. Whereas there existed negative relationshi...

Basheer Abbass Al-alak; Ibrahim Akram Alnawas



The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature  


Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people ha...

Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta



Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of male community health workers in Mako township, Iran about beast self-examination  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the cause of about 18% of all malignancies in females. By breast self-examination (BSE it is possible to diagnose a breast tumor in the preliminary stages and treat it. Basic changes in the knowledge, attitude and practice of women as regards regular BES and follow-up will lead to considerable success in campaigns against breast cancer. Considering the role and responsibilities of community health workers (CHWs in the health services delivery system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, this study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of female CHWs as regards BSE in 2006. "nMethods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 89 female CHWs in the Iranian Mako township health houses. The data was collected through interviews using a questionnaire consisting of 4 sections, the first section containing 10 demographic questions, and the second to fourth sections containing 33 questions on knowledge, attitude, and practice. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed using the repeat testing with r=85%. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 11."nResults: The data showed that the BSE knowledge of 50.6% and 49.4% of the subjects was good and moderate, respectively; 76.4% of them had a positive attitude towards BSE. The reasons for not self-examination were as follows: inability to do it alone (12.4%; fear of a positive result, i.e., existence of a tumor (1.1%; having no time (2.2%; fear of increased anxiety (5.6%; not believing in BSE, even if it was likely to have a tumor (11.2%. Further analysis of the data showed the practice of the subjects to be good, moderate, and weak in 9%, 61.8%, and 29.2% of the cases, respectively. "nThere were significant associations between knowledge and a positive attitude (p=0.038, between attitude of the unmarried subjects towards performing BSE as compared to the married subjects (p=0.00, and between attitude and practice (p=0.045."nConclusion: This study showed a moderate to good knowledge, a relatively good attitude, and a moderate practice among female CHWs in the Makoo Township, Iran, with regard to BSE. Considering the role of CHWs, improving their knowledge, attitude , and practice of BSE is essential.



Using a Smartphone Camera for Nanosatellite Attitude Determination (United States)

The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center has repeatedly flown a commercial cellphone in space. As this project continues, additional utility is being extracted from the cell phone hardware to enable more complex missions. The camera in particular shows great potential as an instrument for position and attitude determination, but this requires complex image processing. This paper outlines progress towards that image processing capability. Initial tests on a small collection of sample images have demonstrated the determination of a Moon vector from an image by automatic thresholding and centroiding, allowing the calibration of existing attitude control systems. Work has been undertaken on a further set of sample images towards horizon detection using a variety of techniques including thresholding, edge detection, applying a Hough transform, and circle fitting. Ultimately it is hoped this will allow calculation of an Earth vector for attitude determination and an approximate altitude. A quick discussion of work towards using the camera as a star tracker is then presented, followed by an introduction to further applications of the camera on space missions.

Shimmin, R.



HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Assessment of Chinese Students: A Questionnaire Study  


The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes tow...

Chaojun Xie; Chunhong Wang; Dong Zhou; Jingju Pan; Xiaodong Tan



The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Training on Increasing Self-Concept's Measure and the Attitude Style Toward Narcotic Drugs in Tonekabon Addicted Prisoners (United States)

Background The existing studies have indicated that persons with positive attitude and believe to narcotics have more addiction than those with negative or natural attitudes. The aim of the present study was to specify the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral training on increasing of self-concept's measure, and the attitude style toward narcotic drugs in addicted prisoners of Tonekabon. Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the effects of cognitive-behavioral training on increasing self-concept and the attitude style toward narcotic drugs. Patients and Methods Statistical population included 450 persons. After screening, 65 entered the study. Among them, 40 persons were selected randomly and allocated in experimental and control group. Self-concept and gauge attitude questionnaire were used to gather the data. The program of cognitive–behavioral training was executed at 12 weekly sessions in 120 minutes for experimental group. The past-quest was executed after finishing training for two groups. Results The result using analysis of covariance showed that the difference between two groups on self–concept and the attitude toward narcotic drugs was significant at P < 0.5. Conclusions Therefore it can be resulted that cognitive–behavioral training is effective on self–concept and the changing of attitude toward narcotic drugs. PMID:24971270

Mohammadi arya, Ali Reza; Shirazi, Mahmoud; Hossien khanzadeh, Abbas Ali; Lachinnani, Fatemeh; Yoosefi Joubari, Fahimeh; Halajian, Zohreh; Dosti Sarabi, Salar; Ahmed Khan, Matloob



Attitudes and Mathematics. (United States)

Examines seventh and eighth grade students in Australia, Japan, and the United States for attitudes related to mathematics, and the relationship these attitudes have to students' development of abstract mathematical thought and spatial relations. Study uses the Iowa Algebra Aptitude Test, Differential Aptitude Test-Spatial Relations, and the…

Iben, Miriam F.



Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning. (United States)

This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

Barnabei, Fred; And Others


Participation in Adult Education: Attitudes and Barriers (United States)

In this paper, we control the intention theory of Fishbein and Ajzen (1980) for the participation in an adult education course. Based on the Flemish Eurostat Adult Education Survey, we reveal that participants in adult education have a more positive attitude towards learning and that within the group of non-participants, those who formulate an…

Boeren, Ellen



Measuring emergency department nurses' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm using the Self-Harm Antipathy Scale. (United States)

The emergency department is an important gateway for the treatment of self-harm patients. Nurses' attitudes towards patients who self-harm can be negative and often nurses experience frustration, helplessness, ambivalence and antipathy. Patients are often dissatisfied with the care provided, and meeting with positive or negative attitudes greatly influences whether they seek additional help. A quantitative design was utilised to measure emergency department nurses' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm. The 'Self-Harm Antipathy Scale', a validated questionnaire, was administered to a random sample of nurses in four emergency departments in the Republic of Ireland. A total of 87 questionnaires were returned (87% response rate). Results reveal that nurses show slightly negative antipathy overall, indicating positive attitudes towards self-harming patients. Attitudes were significantly different in accordance with a nurse's age. Education and social judgment also contribute to the way nurses view, interact and make moral decisions regarding self-harm patients. Evidence indicates there is need to improve the training, supervision and support of nurses caring for patients who self-harm, and that practical strategies should be implemented to manage the alienation process and inform practice. PMID:22243712

Conlon, Mary; O'Tuathail, Claire



Elaborating on the attitude–behaviour gap regarding organic products : young Danish consumers and in-store food choice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Even though most consumers hold positive attitudes towards organic food, attitudes appear to translate into respective behaviour to the same extent. It has been found that the high and availability are major reasons for this attitude–behaviour gap, especially among young consumers. In Denmark, supermarkets offer a comparatively broad organic foodrange at relatively small price premiums; however, even in Denmark, market growth ratesare moderate. To explore in detail young consumer’s barriers to act upon their attitudes, we aimed at researching their thoughts and product associations at the point of sale. Qualitative accompanied shopping interviews with 10 young consumers holding positive attitudes towards organic were conducted. The analysis resulted in a model of the point-of-sale thoughts concerning organic food, showing that the conditions (expected quality, price premium) met in the store and the personal context (moral beliefs, household member influence) impact the argumentations, which lead toa choice decision and subsequent elaboration of the consequences of this choice. Price is discussed as a main barrier, but a temporary one: young consumers argue that they postpone organic purchases until a later stage in life.We conclude that to increase young Danish consumers’ choice of organic, the high price premium image needs to be lessened and the differentiation from conventional food improved. Furthermore, communication might trigger young consumers to consider acting now upon ethical values, instead of postponing it.

Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Aagaard, Emilie Marie Niebuhr



Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence. (United States)

Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior. PMID:23435271

van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E



A Study of the Effects of Teaching Literature on Improving Students’ Second Language Attitudes  

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Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate if teaching simple (not simplified literary texts in university classes as their General English course-book can affect students’ attitudes toward their L2. In view of this, a study was designed and conducted at Safashahr Azad University. Sixty-one freshmen learners (studying English as their General English participated in the study. Ten short stories were taught as the course content of the GE in the experimental class. Short stories ranged from 106 words to 2294 words. “A General English Course for University Students” (Birjandi and Jaberi, 2005 was taught in the control group. The results showed that using literature in English classes brings positive effects on students’ L2 attitudes. Using authentic simple literary texts in GE classes seemed to create a learning environment in which students were willing to participate in class interactions, which helped learners form a more positive attitude towards English.Keywords: Literature, Literary texts, General English, L2 attitudes

Mohammad Khatib



Dental student attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application. (United States)

This study investigated dental students' attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application and explored the impact of a one-semester course and year in school on students' attitudes, measured by the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Demographic characteristics and self-assessment of communication skills were also analyzed. The study employed a pretest-posttest survey design combined with cross-sectional data. Participants were first- and fourth-year students at a U.S. dental school. Out of a possible 120 students, 106 (fifty-seven D1 and forty-nine D4) participated in the pretest, an 88 percent response rate; out of a possible 121 students, 115 (fifty-seven D1 and fifty-eight D4) participated in the posttest, a 95 percent response rate. In the results, D4 students consistently demonstrated less positive attitudes towards communication skills instruction and more negative attitudes regarding the importance of interpersonal skills in clinical encounters than did their D1 counterparts. A single communications course had no discernible effect on attitudes or self-assessments for either cohort. Females reported more positive attitudes towards clinical application of interpersonal skills than did males. Gender significantly interacted with two demographic variables: primary language and parent as health care professional. Female children of health care professionals reported poorer attitudes towards clinical communication skills training and application than did their male counterparts. Generally, parental occupation in health care moderated the decrease in positive attitudes over time towards clinical usefulness of communication skills. The D4 students rated their communication skills higher than did the D1 students. Students who demonstrated more positive attitudes towards communication skills training and application were more likely to say their own skills needed improvement. PMID:25281672

McKenzie, Carly T



Comparisons of Sex Offenders with Non-Offenders on Attitudes Toward Masturbation and Female Fantasy as Related to Participation in Human Sexuality Sessions. (United States)

Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…

Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.



Perception of Financial distress and Customers’ Attitude toward Banking  


This study examined the influence of perceived financial distress and customers’ attitude towards banking in Nigeria. Two hundred and one bank customers made up of 144 males and 57 females drawn from 27 banks in Lagos participated in the study. The result of the study showed that perceived financial distress and bank account customer had significant main effect on attitude towards banking. The study concluded that perceived financial distress has significant negative influence on attitude t...

Sunday Samson Babalola



The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development (United States)

A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude strength on the stability of attitudes towards wind farms. In this study, attitude strength did not have a major effect on the stability of attitudes. Perceived importance of the issue of wind farm development did result in slightly more stable attitudes towards renewable energy. These survey results were compared to responses provided by 28 residents who completed surveys before and after participating in an informational session about commercial wind farm development. A regression analysis found that participation in an informational event changed the substance and quality of participants' attitudes. Attitudes towards wind farm development became more positive, and confidence in those attitudes grew stronger. These findings suggest that the gap between general attitudes towards wind energy and attitudes towards specific wind farm proposals could be narrowed by providing information and opportunities for discussion in communities with potential for commercial wind farm development. Future research is needed to track local attitudes and attitude strength throughout a proposal and development process.

Bidwell, David Charles


Public and private attitudes towards 'green' electricity: the case of Swedish wind power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for 'green' electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled


Intergroup attitudes and attitudes towards devolution: field and laboratory experiments.  


A field experiment provided the first test of the hypothesis that intergroup attitudes within a nation predict the group members' attitudes toward the break-up of the nation. Prior to a referendum on the devolution of power from Britain to Wales, Welsh (minority) and English (majority) participants indicated their attitudes towards each other and towards devolution. As expected, there were significant correlations between intergroup attitudes and attitudes towards devolution, and these relati...

Maio, Gr; Willis, H.; Hewstone, M.; Esses, Vm



An investigation into pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science and science teaching at two teachers' colleges in Saudi Arabia (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes toward science and science teaching of Saudi pre-service elementary science teachers at male and female teachers' colleges by using an Arabic translation of the Science Teaching Attitudes Scale (STAS-II) constructed by Moore and Foy (1997). It also used an Inquiry-based Science Instruction Questionnaire (ISIQ) constructed by the researcher to explore the relationship between self-reported inquiry-based science instructional experiences that the pre-service elementary science teachers had during their science preparation, their intention to practice inquiry-based science instruction in their future careers, and their attitudes toward science and science teaching. The sample size of the study was 300 Saudi male and female pre-service elementary science teachers at two teachers' colleges in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the first three hypotheses because the study has two independent (gender and grade level) and two dependent (attitudes toward science and attitudes toward science teaching) variables. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient Procedure was used to test the other hypotheses. In addition, all tests were conducted at alpha = 0.05. One of the findings of the study revealed that both Saudi male and female preservice elementary science teachers had positive attitudes toward science and toward science teaching, but females had more favorable attitudes toward science than males. The result of the MANOVA showed that there was a significant mean difference between males and females in regard to pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science (p = .002), but no difference between grade levels, or in the interaction between grade levels and gender. The result of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient Procedure showed that there were significant (moderate positive) correlations between pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science and science teaching and their intention to practice inquiry-based science instruction in their future careers. In addition, the study showed that there were no significant relationships between pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science, and toward science teaching and their experiences with inquiry-based science instruction while at Medina Teachers Colleges. Therefore, further research studies, such as experimental research, are needed to study the impact of inquiry-based science instruction on pre-service elementary science teachers' attitudes toward science and toward science teaching, and to discover what specific characteristics are most important.

Al-Kharboush, Soliman Saleh


Attitude towards the Environment and Green Products:Consumers’ Perspective  

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Full Text Available The current rapid growth in the economy and the patterns of consumers’ consumption and behavior worldwide are the main cause of environmental deterioration. As the environment continues to worsen, it has become a persistent public concern in the developed countries and has recently awakens developing countries to the green movement. This paper is essentially exploratory in nature and has two objectives. The first objective is to compare gender with attitudes towards the environment and green products. The second objective is to investigate the relationship between attitude towards the environment and green products. Result from the independent sample t-test shows that there were no significant differences between gender in their environmental attitudes and attitudes on green products. The rotated factor matrix validated the underlying dimensions of environmental attitudes into three major dimensions (environmental protection, government’s role, and personal norm. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis revealed that consumer attitudes on the government’s role and their personal norm towards the environment contributed significantly to their attitude on green product. Further investigation revealed that personal norm was the most important contributor to the attitude towards green product. However, environmental protection did not contribute significantly to consumers’ attitudes on green product.Keywords: Environmental attitude; green products; consumer behaviour; Malaysia

Tan Booi Chen



Attitude control system (United States)

An attitude control system is described in which angular rate signals are generated by rate gyros mounted closely adjacent to gimbaled engines at the rear of a vehicle. Error signals representative of a commanded change in vehicle angle or attitude are obtained from a precision inertial platform located in the nose region of the vehicle. The rate gyro derived signals dominate at high frequencies where dynamic effects become significant, and platform signals dominate at low frequencies where precision signals are required for a steady vehicle attitude. The blended signals are applied in a conventional manner to control the gimbaling of vehicle engines about control axes.

Vonpragenau, G. L.; Rupp, C. C. (inventors)



Skylab attitude control system (United States)

The attitude stabilization and control system for Skylab evolved from an analog controller into a fully digital processing system. Features of this system include a software-determined attitude reference to provide general maneuvering ability, an in-orbit programming capability, the use of large control moment gyros for attitude control, and the use of vehicle maneuvers to desaturate gyro momentum. The objectives, requirements, and implementations of the control system software are described, along with the rationales for certain design decisions and discussion of some system dynamics and actual performance.

Coon, T. R.; Irby, J. E.



Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation (United States)

This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.



Generational cohorts and their attitudes toward advertising  

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Full Text Available This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, 48 interviews were conducted and data were content-analyzed. The findings were then incorporated into the second phase of study to investigate cohorts’ views about advertising, using theory of reasoned action. A quantitative approach via questionnaire-based survey was administered, and 1,410 copies were collected for analysis. Five distinct cohorts are proposed in the initial findings. They are labeled as Neoteric Inheritors, Prospective Pursuers, Social Strivers, Idealistic Strugglers and Battling Lifers on the basis of their respective engagement with events during the coming-of-age years. The subsequent findings show that beliefs about advertising are significant predictors of the attitudes to advertising, and so are the attitudes with regard to the intention of every cohort. However, their beliefs and attitudes to advertising are found to differ significantly, especially in the older cohort. The study thus highlights the implication of generational differences on the attitudes to advertising.

Ernest Cyril de Run



On Attitude towards HIV/AIDS among Iranian Students (Case Study: High School Students in Shiraz City  

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Full Text Available Young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS. The present study investigated the attitude toward HIV/AIDS and related socio-cultural factors among 600 high school students in Shiraz, Iran. The method of sampling is a stratified one and the instrument for collecting data is a self-administrated questionnaire. In this research, attitude has three dimensions-knowledge, emotion and tendency to action. Descriptive statistics showed that students did not have enough knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The 44.3% of students had low knowledge, 36.9% moderate knowledge and only 18.8% had high knowledge. Also the results indicated that attitude for 69.8% of student has in middle level, 15.4% positive and 14.9% negative. Moreover, results suggested that loyalty to Islamic religious beliefs have an important role on attitude toward this disease. Major of study, sex, mother’s occupation and use of some mass media such as books and newspapers were other main influencing factors in the students’ attitude. Furthermore, this study showed that parent education, major of study, father’s occupation and use of books and the internet are the most important variables affecting on the participants’ knowledge. Age, sex, parents’ education, religious beliefs, use of some mass media such as TV, the internet, newspapers, satellite and books affect emotion. Finally, there is a relationship between religious beliefs, sex and major of study, use of satellite, television, radio and books with tendency to action.

Majeed Movahed




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Full Text Available As advertisements are broadcast on a daily basis, Romanian consumers are subject to an intensive media bombardment designed to influence them, trigger certain emotions, and make them develop an attitude to a particular brand or product. When designing the advertisement, great care must be taken so that it conveys positive feelings and emotions and fosters favourable attitudes to a brand. The object of the current research is to determine how consumers are able to assess the advertisement phenomenon in general and the TV commercials in particular. Based on a representative sample of 550 Romanian consumers from the urban population, the study highlights the Romanian consumers’ attitude to various types of advertisements, endorsers and creative strategies used to design and execute the advertisements. The managerial as well as the scientific implications are considered by means of the correlations made according to the respondents’ social and demographic characteristics.




Professionals' Attitudes towards Using e-Learning Implementation with Children with Disabilities  

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Full Text Available This study explored e-learning attitudes reported by (98 professionals working in the field of children with disabilities, (60 teachers, (18 tutors working in diverse areas, (11 shadow teachers and (9 social workers, current study belongs to the pattern of descriptive analytical studies, a study Applied in ad hoc learning disabilities institution at Fayoum governorate south Egypt, The final results of Friedman technique confirmed that the attitudes of e-learning consists of three components Affective, Behavior and Cognitive components according (A,B,C MODEL, cognitive Component has achieved the first rank in terms of the importance at (2.29, the next is Affective component at mean rank (2.02, the third and final rank is behavioral or skills component at (1.69. in the other hand result shows that E-learning implementation barriers consisted of five items, the test confirmed that the rank of items (1 to (5, Content-Suitability barriers is the first by mean rank (4.10, the last rank is the Instructional barriers by mean rank (1.66, results enable us to accept the null hypothesis: there is no significance difference in the professionals attitudes towards e-learning courseVary according to (educational level, position, in the other hand result showed accepts the alternative hypothesis: there is a statistically significant association at a level (0.05 between e learning implementation barriers and staff attitudes towards e learning.

Ahmed Farouk Mohamed Saleh



Relationship among Iranian EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy in Writing, Attitude towards Writing, Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance  

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Full Text Available The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension,  and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT, a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS, and a questionnaire on attitude towards writing (WAQ. In order to make the questionnaires more comprehensible, they were adapted to Iranian context. This study conducted in two phases. First, the questionnaires were administered in the fist hour. In the second phase participants were given 45 minutes to write an argumentative essay on a given topic. The compositions were scored according to IELTS Writing Band Descriptive for public version by two raters. The obtained marks were taken to indicate the students’ overall writing performance. The findings of the study suggested that, self-efficacy in writing and writing apprehension was negatively correlated. Moreover there was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and attitude towards writing. Besides, the results showed that self-efficacy and writing performance were positively correlated. The correlation between writing apprehension and attitude towards writing was negative. Finally there was a negative correlation between writing apprehension and writing performance. The results of a three-way ANOVA revealed that those learners with positive attitudes performed significantly better than those with negative attitudes on writing task. In terms of self-efficacy and apprehension levels no significant differences were found.  

Hoda Sarkhoush



Agricultural Specialists\\' Attitude toward and Intention for Application of VRT-Spraying Technologies Using Structural Equation Modeling  

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Full Text Available Variable rate technology-spraying technologies are new aspect of sustainable agriculture. In these technologies, the chemical is applied in the needed level of farm where there is a high intensity of pests and weeds. The purpose of this paper was to study the agricultural specialists' attitude toward and intention to use variable rate technology-spraying technologies in Jihad-e-Keshavarzi organization of Fars and Khuzestan provinces. A survey was conducted using a stratified random sampling to collect data from 249 agricultural specialists. The results showed that the specialists of Fars and Khuzestan provinces have intentions to use the variable rate technology-spraying technologies. The variables including attitude toward application, trialing, perceived usefulness, compatibility, and attitude of confidence all influence the intentions to use the variable rate technology-spraying technologies. Based on high positive intention of agricultural specialists, we recommend the use of these technologies in agricultural practices of the two provinces.

K Rezaee Moghadam



Language Learners’ Acculturation Attitudes  

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Full Text Available Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian undergraduate students of English as a Foreign Language, following a one-semester academic sojourn in the United States. The data of the study were collected through a 29-item 5-point Likert scale acculturation attitude questionnaire. Findings indicated that sojourners tended to have close contact with the people of the target society while maintaining their original culture, adopting Integration and Assimilation strategies as their acculturation attitudes. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested providing opportunities for students of English as a Foreign Language to immerse in the target language culture through organizing academic exchange programs.

Vahid Rafieyan



Attitudes to Audit  


An exercise in audit was arranged jointly by the Local Medical Committee and the Royal College of General Practitioners in the Doncaster area. This was followed up by a questionnaire enquiring about attitudes to the audit.

Wood, Jo



Attitudes toward Counterfeit Products and Generation Differentia  

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Full Text Available Given growth in international trade in counterfeit products and whereas Consumers are the actual forces behind this counterfeiting trade, so, the study focuses on the demand side of counterfeiting, identifying and examining factors influencing on attitude of consumers of non-deceptive counterfeiting in terms of differences generations in Iran, second most populous country among the countries of Middle East. In this study, based on the four generation and the revolution in Iran, the generations are divided into two generations: combination generation and Y generation and also,Conceptual framework of the study emphasizes that Perceived Risk, Risk Averseness, Price-Quality preference, Subjective Norm, Integrity, Personal Gratification could affect on attitudes toward counterfeit products. Results of SEM from samples of combination generation (52.43% and Y generation (47.57 indicate that perceived risk and risk averseness have negative impact on attitudes toward counterfeit products and Personal Gratification no impact on it under both of generations but other variables have differences impacts on attitudes. Also in both of generations, the results indicated that attitudes toward counterfeit products are positively related to behavior intentions. Drawing on the results of the research, the researchers suggest that it may be necessary for the marketing practices for these two generations differ.

Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee



The attitudes of medical students to research  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The workforce of 'physician-scientists' is ageing and decreasing in numbers. The responsibility to combat this trend rests on future generations of healthcare professionals and it is therefore valuable to evaluate medical students' attitudes towards research. OBJECTIVE: To establish the [...] attitudes of University of Cape Town (UCT) medical students towards research and to investigate the factors influencing these attitudes. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire was administered to medical students from years 1 to 6 studying medicine at UCT in 2011. Questions were primarily closed-ended and consisted of Likert scales. RESULTS: Out of a population of 1 195 medical students, 733 were sampled (63%); 65% were female, 53% were preclinical students (years 1 - 3) and 47% were in their clinical years (year 4 - 6). Overall, 61% of students had a positive attitude towards research and 74% felt that participation in research was important to their medical school education; 22% had been involved in voluntarily extracurricular research, 4% had presented at a scientific meeting and 3% had published in peer-reviewed journals. A number of perceived barriers to student research were identified including a lack of adequate training, time and research opportunities. CONCLUSION: Students believed that research was important and had a positive attitude towards it. However, few had been involved in voluntary research and produced work worthy of presentation and/or publication. Addressing identified barriers and improving students' attitudes may begin to reverse the trend in declining numbers of physician-scientists.

D, Nel; R J, Burman; R, Hoffman; S, Randera-Rees.



Feedback attitude sliding mode regulation control of spacecraft using arm motion (United States)

The problem of spacecraft attitude regulation based on the reaction of arm motion has attracted extensive attentions from both engineering and academic fields. Most of the solutions of the manipulator’s motion tracking problem just achieve asymptotical stabilization performance, so that these controllers cannot realize precise attitude regulation because of the existence of non-holonomic constraints. Thus, sliding mode control algorithms are adopted to stabilize the tracking error with zero transient process. Due to the switching effects of the variable structure controller, once the tracking error reaches the designed hyper-plane, it will be restricted to this plane permanently even with the existence of external disturbances. Thus, precise attitude regulation can be achieved. Furthermore, taking the non-zero initial tracking errors and chattering phenomenon into consideration, saturation functions are used to replace sign functions to smooth the control torques. The relations between the upper bounds of tracking errors and the controller parameters are derived to reveal physical characteristic of the controller. Mathematical models of free-floating space manipulator are established and simulations are conducted in the end. The results show that the spacecraft’s attitude can be regulated to the position as desired by using the proposed algorithm, the steady state error is 0.000 2 rad. In addition, the joint tracking trajectory is smooth, the joint tracking errors converges to zero quickly with a satisfactory continuous joint control input. The proposed research provides a feasible solution for spacecraft attitude regulation by using arm motion, and improves the precision of the spacecraft attitude regulation.

Shi, Ye; Liang, Bin; Xu, Dong; Wang, Xueqian; Xu, Wenfu



Knowledge and Attitude Towards HIV/AIDS Among College Students in Ardabil, Iran  

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Full Text Available Knowledge about the spread of HIV has a critical impact of the prevention of AIDS young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS,we intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of college students regarding AIDS in Iran,.This study is a cross-sectional study that carried out in 400 first college students. A structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge about AIDS, source of information and attitudes toward people living with HIV, the students identified mass media (40% as their most important source of information about ADIS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmissions. College students demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge (67.5% concerning AIDS and HIV. Results showed that 85% of samples fell all people entering Iran should be tested. Twenty five percent of them believed that people with HIV should not be allowed to use common toilets and 27% incorrectly believed that HIV infected college students be removed from university bedroom. Attitude was significantly correlated with knowledge, (r = -0.38, p< 0.001, student with less knowledge scores had more negative attitude toward HIV positive Individuals. The knowledge level seems to be moderately high misconception about the routes of transmission were common. Alarming gaps in knowledge about transmission and curability put young Iranian students at risk of contracting HIV. Intolerant attitudes about people living with HIV were prevalent. Present results suggest that a more appropriate education program in colleges in Iran may be necessary to reduce the discrepancy between general knowledge and desirable attitude regarding HIV/AIDS.



Language Learners’ Acculturation Attitudes  


Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian undergraduate students of English as a Foreign Language, following a one-semester academic sojourn in the United States. The data of the study were collected ...

Vahid Rafieyan; Maryam Orang; Maryam Bijami; Maryam Sharafi Nejad; Lin Siew Eng



GPS based attitude determination  


This paper is the result of a masters thesis performed at Linköping University for Saab Bofors Dynamics in Linköping, Sweden. Attitude is defined as the orientation of a coordinate frame in reference to another coordinate frame. This is often referred to as three consecutive rotations, called roll, pitch and yaw (or heading). Attitude determination is generally performed using inertial navigation systems composed of gyros and accelerometers. These systems are highly accurate but are very ex...

Thorstensson, Erika



Utilization of attitude maps in evaluating teachers' attitudes towards assessment  

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Full Text Available Various methods have been performed to identify teachers’ attitudes towards assessment. Recognizing the idea that mapping is one of the most efficient tools, this study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of attitude maps in the evaluation of teachers’ attitudes towards assessment. The instrument, composed of open-ended questions, was utilized during the semi-structured interview protocol and used as the study’s data collection tool. Attitude maps were constructed during the evaluation process to represent the pre-service teachers’ attitudes’ towards assessment. The participants’ attitudes were determined and categorized as traditional, close to traditional, transitional, close to constructivist, and constructivist. Criterion validity of the results was achieved by comparing the categories drawn from the attitude maps with the categories derived by the survey. Results indicate that attitude mapping is a useful way to evaluate teachers’ attitudes towards assessment.




Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics (United States)

The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even he/she did not learned values in his/her mathematics class.

Limbaco, K. S. A.



A Survey of Attitudes toward Mediation among Chinese High School EFL Teachers and Their Classroom Constraints  


This paper raises concerns about Chinese high school EFL teachers’ attitudes toward mediation and their classroom constraints. From the data gathered in the survey of 152 EFL teachers, the findings indicate that most teachers fail to mediate students’ learning due to situational constraints that they encounter though they hold positive attitudes toward mediation. Statistically, teachers with higher educational qualifications have more positive attitudes toward the mediator role th...

Xiongyong Cheng



The Predictive Role of Self-efficacy, Outcome Expectancies, Past Behavior and Attitudes on Condom Use in a Sample of Female College Students  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of self-efficacy in relation to condom use. A sample of 87 female college students completed self-report measures related to their sexual history, attitudes towards condoms and past condom use, as well as their outcome expectancy and intention to use condoms in the future. The results showed a positive correlation between self-efficacy and positive attitudes towards condom use, as well as correlations between past behavior, self-efficacy and intention to use condoms in the future. Multiple linear regression models were used to further explore the relationship between self-efficacy, past condom use, outcome expectancy and attitudes toward condoms, with the intention to use condoms in the future. The results demonstrated that both self-efficacy and past condom use are significant predictors of an individual’s intention to use condoms in the future.

Daniele Artistico



Attitudes and practices of school-aged girls towards menstruation. (United States)

The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. PMID:22621303

Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu




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Full Text Available Employing effective pedagogy methods has been considered as influential in developing students’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship. However, there is limited empirical research on the impact of entrepreneurship pedagogical methods on students’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship. The core purpose of this study was to determine the influence of “learning by doing”, as one of the most suggested entrepreneurship pedagogy methods, in enhancing different aspects of students’ entrepreneurial attitude. A total of 193 students from one university in Malaysia were selected as respondents. The findings indicate that university students who had undertaken entrepreneurship course through “learning by doing” pedagogy scored significantly higher in achievement behaviour, achievement cognition, self-esteem cognition, and innovation cognition compared to their counterparts. However, t-test analysis was conducted to identify differences on entrepreneurial attitude based on students’ entrepreneurial aspiration. Findings revealed that students with positive aspiration toward entrepreneurship scored higher mean and significantly different compared to the others for most of the entrepreneurship attitude aspects

Zaidatol Akmaliah LOPE PIHIE



The Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes Towards Teaching of Evolution Theory  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate of primary class and science teacher candidates’ attitudes towards teaching of evolution theory. A total of 236 students, 120 primary class teacher candidates and 116 primary science teacher candidates, volunteered to participate in the research. The data for the research were collected with a data-collection tool that included two parts as “Personal Information form” and “Teaching Evolution Theory Attitude Questionnaire (TETAQ”. In the analysis of the data, a multivariate analysis (MANOVA for more than two group comparisons were used. In this study result; The teacher candidates’ negative attitudes for lack proof evolution due to the teaching of evolution theory mean scores of teacher candidates were higher than the teacher candidates’ positive attitudes towards need to the teaching of evolution theory. According to this finding, It can be said that the teacher candidates are negative generally the attitudes towards teaching of evolution theory.

Mustafa Kahyao?lu



Anesthesiologist`s Attitude Towards Preoperative Patients` Education Needs  

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Full Text Available Lake of information about anaesthesia and fear of post operation consciousness, pain, nausea and vomiting increases patient`s anxiety. There are various reports about patient`s desire for preoperational information in Iran and other countries, but we don`t find any study related to anesthesiologist`s view about patient`s needs before anaesthesia and operation. This descriptive (cross- sectional study was done in 2005 on 110 anesthesiologists working in hospitals of Mazandaran province. Questionnaire containing 4 questions about demographic and 18 questions related to anaesthesia was prepared. Attitude of the anesthesiologists was studied by dividing in 4 categories based on Likert rating scale as follow: strongly agree, agree, particularly agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The obtained data were shown in table; chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results of this study showed that the most positive attitude of anesthesiologists about patient teaching was related to the proper explanation about duration of N.P.O before operation (97.3% and 52.7% were against about giving explanation of the during and post operation possible problems. In this regard no significant difference was observed between educational and non educational hospitals (p<0.018. No significant view point difference was observed between anesthesiologists at different level of education (p<0.07. Considering the positive attitude of the anesthesiologists towards education to preoperational patients, it is recommended that such education be implemented and the patients be charged for preoperational consultation. In order to give explanation about anaesthesia at proper time, when needed.



Attitudes toward Rape Victims: Effects of Gender and Professional Status. (United States)

Upper-class undergraduates (n=740) beginning graduate students in counseling (n=78) and mental health professionals (n=45) were surveyed regarding attitudes toward rape victims. Results show that male undergraduates had the most negative attitudes toward rape victims, and female professionals the most favorable. Male participants held more…

White, Bradley H.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson



Eating Attitudes among Japanese and American Elementary Schoolgirls. (United States)

Examined familial and peer correlates of eating attitudes in 38 American and 70 Japanese preadolescent girls. Responses showed correlates of eating attitudes shared by American and Japanese girls were self-perception of being overweight, number of friends dieting, and frequency of talking with mother about food and diet. Japanese girls were more…

Mukai, Takayo; McCloskey, Laura A.



Differential Attitudes toward an Adult Education Program for Pharmacists (United States)

The study measured post exposure attitude differences toward a series of continuing education programs for registered pharmacists. Analysis of variance revealed that hospital pharmacists held more negative general attitudes toward the series than community pharmacists. Graduation date (year since pharmacy school) showed no relationship to…

Kotzan, Jeffrey A.; Jowdy, Albert W.



A Modified NEP/DSP Environmental Attitudes Scale. (United States)

An understanding of how environmental concern is reflected in people's attitudes and value systems is important for the development of responsible environmental management. Effective environmental attitude scales exist; however, certain issues are not addressed. This study shows that it is possible to include references to the intrinsic value of…

Acott, Tim G.; La Trobe, Helen L.



The impact of a summer Upward Bound Mathematics and Science program on student attitudes and beliefs (United States)

This Project Demonstrating Excellence documents a study which was undertaken during 1998 on the impact of a summer Upward Bound Mathematics and Science (UBMS) program on students' attitudes toward science and students' beliefs in the nature of science. The students were 25 high school students enrolled in a UBMS program, Success in Understanding Math and Science (SUMS), at a college in the upper Midwestern United States. The research questions were: (1) What are the attitudes toward science and mathematics which students bring to the SUMS summer program? (2) What beliefs do these students bring about the nature and implications of science and technology? and (3) Do students' attitudes and/or beliefs change significantly during the six-week summer institute? Identical surveys were administered at the beginning and end of the summer institute. Each survey was composed of two parts, the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey/Science Student Form (CLES) and the Nature and Implications of Science/Technology Student Form (NIST). The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Students entered the six-week summer institute with attitudes toward science which were significantly higher than neutral on five of the six scales of the CLES and on the four scales of the NIST, showing positive attitudes and beliefs about science and their science learning environment. One scale on the CLES, the Shared Control scale, had lower than neutral scores in the pre-test. The scores on this scale rose significantly during the institute, but were still below the neutral score at the end. The scores on the other scales of the CLES and the NIST did not rise significantly. The students were a self-selected group who had chosen to enter the SUMS program, which may account for their high entering perceptions and the lack of significant positive gains.

Anway, Dorothy Wade


Atitudes linguísticas e r-forte em Carambeí = Linguistics attitudes and strong-R in Carambeí  

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Full Text Available Considerando que o município de Carambeí é bastante complexo cultural e linguisticamente, este estudo pretende, de acordo com o método etnográfico: a fazer um levantamento das atitudes linguísticas que os ‘holandeses’ manifestam em relação às línguas holandesa e portuguesa; b analisar a variedade de português falada pelos‘holandeses’ de Carambeí no que diz respeito ao uso do r-forte; e c estabelecer que tipo de relação se dá entre atitudes linguísticas e uso de determinada variante de r-forte no português. No que diz respeito às atitudes em relação ao holandês, os Grupos 1M, 1F e2Fa manifestam atitudes positivas, ao passo que os Grupos 2M e 2Fb têm atitudes negativas, assim como os Grupos 3M e 3F. Já em relação ao português, a comunidade como um todo manifesta atitudes positivas. No que diz respeito ao uso de r-forte, os grupos 1M e 1F usam vibrante múltipla e tepe; o Grupo 2M também usa a vibrante e otepe; já o Grupo 2Fa usa somente vibrante e tepe e o Grupo 2Fb usa fricativa e vibrante. Os Grupos 3M e 3F usam somente fricativa. Enfim, pode-se dizer que determinadas atitudes contribuem para o uso de determinada variedade de r-forte.Considering that Carambeí Township is fairly complex, both culturally and linguistically, this study intends to: a survey the linguistic attitudes that the ‘Dutch’ reveal concerning the Dutch and Portuguese languages; b analyze the variety of Portuguese spoken by the ‘Dutch’ of Carambeí regarding the use of strong-R; c establish what sort of relationship takes place between linguistic attitudes and use of certain varieties of the strong-R in Portuguese. About the attitudes regarding the Dutch language, Groups 1M, 1F and 2Fa show positive attitudes, while Groups 2M, 2Fb, 3M and 3F show negative attitudes.Portuguese, on the other hand, elicits positive attitudes in the community as a whole. Regarding the use of strong-R, groups 1M and 1F use trill and tap; group 2M also uses trill and tap; Group 2Fa uses trill and tap and Group 2Fb uses fricative and trill. Groups 3M and 3F use only fricative. Finally, we can assume that specific attitudes contribute to the use of certain varieties of the strong-R.

Letícia Fraga



Effects of Pre-Purchase Search Motivation on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising: A Case of University Students  

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Full Text Available Since last few years, social media have profoundly changed the ways of social and business communication. Particularly, social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and number of users globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, businesses of various types use SNSs for commercial communication. Banner advertising is one of the common methods of commercial communication on SNSs. Advertising is a key source of revenue for many SNSs firms such as Facebook. In fact, the existence of many SNSs owners and advertisers is contingent upon the success of social network advertising (SNA. Users demand free SNS services which makes SNA crucial for SNSs firms. SNA can be effective only if it is aligned with user motivations. Marketing literature identifies pre-purchase search as a primary consumer motivation for using media. The current study aims to identify the effects of pre-purchase search motivation (PSM on user attitudes toward SNA. It also assesses the association between the attitudes toward SNA and users’ banner ad-clicking behavior on SNSs. Data was gathered from 200 university students in Islamabad using offline survey. Results show positive effects of PSM on user attitudes toward SNA. They also show positive association between user attitudes toward SNA and their SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. The firms which promote their products through SNSs to the young South Asian consumers may benefit from the findings of the current study.

Imran A Mir



Catholic High School Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Snapshot of Incoming College Freshmen (United States)

This study is a survey of incoming freshmen at a Midwestern Catholic university on their agreement with Church teachings on homosexuality. In general, females had more homo-positive attitudes than males, graduates of catholic high schools had more homo-positive attitudes than graduates from non-Catholic high schools, and graduates from…

Maher, Michael J.



Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities (United States)

The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive

Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.



The Pluto debate: Influence of emotions on belief, attitude, and knowledge change (United States)

In line with the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005), this study examined the influence of emotions during controversial conceptual change. Issues in science may trigger highly emotional responses (e.g., evolutionary theory). However, it is unclear whether these emotions facilitate or inhibit change. I investigated the nature of emotions engendered when learning about a controversial science topic, Pluto's reclassification, including the valence (positive/negative) and activation (activating/deactivating) of emotions (Pekrun et al., 2002). I also investigated whether belief, attitude, and/or conceptual change could be facilitated through rereading a refutation text and/or rereading during small group discussions. Refutation texts directly state a common misconception, refute it, and provide the scientific explanation as a plausible alternative (Hynd, 2001). Participants were randomly assigned to a group (reread text; reread text plus small group discussions). Participants in both groups read the same refutational text regarding the recent change in the definition of planet and Pluto's reclassification. The findings show that students' experienced a range of emotions towards Pluto's reclassification. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions. Both positive and negative emotions were shown to be predictive of student's attitudes and attitude change. Emotions were also predictive of students' knowledge of planets and conceptual change. This suggests that emotions may have promoted deep engagement and critical thinking. Negative emotions may also be linked with resistance to attitude and conceptual change. The refutation text was effective in promoting belief change, attitude change, and conceptual change across both conditions. Students in both conditions reported more constructivist nature of science beliefs after rereading the text. Students also reported a greater level of acceptance about Pluto's reclassification. Conceptual change was promoted through the text as students' initial misconceptions about why scientists rewrote the definition of planet. Students in the reread plus discussion group showed greater conceptual change regarding the reasons for rewriting the definition of planet than those in the reread group. This study supports the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005) in conceptual change research because it shows the interplay between emotions and the change process. The findings also suggest that belief, attitude, and conceptual change can be fostered through small group discussions.

Broughton, Suzanne H.


Performance-Pay Setup in Texas Shows Promise (United States)

Independent studies of the nation's largest performance-pay system suggest that the state-backed plans in Texas could be having positive effects on teacher attitudes, with educators reporting they collaborate more with colleagues and encourage students to work harder than they did before the plans were implemented. Schools participating in the…

Honawar, Vaishali; Keller, Bess



Maternal Knowledge and Attitude toward Exclusive Breast Milk Feeding (BMF in the First 6 Months of Infant Life in Mashhad  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is a complete food for growing children until 6 months of age, and mothers, as the most important child health care, play a decisive role in their growth. So promoting  their attitude toward the benefits of breastfeeding ensures guarantee child health in the future. This study aimed to assess maternal knowledge and attitude of Mashhad toward exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of infant life.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 126 mothers who referring to Mashhad health-care centers for monitoring their 6-24 month year old infants. They completed questionnaire. Participants were selected by cluster and simple random sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive- analytic tests and using SPSS 11.5.   Results: Mean score of maternal attitude toward exclusive BMF was 14.32±5.28 (out of 28 and maternal knowledge score toward advantages of breast milk was 19.59±4.80 (out of 28. The incidence of exclusive BMF in the first 6 months of life study was 73.8%. Child growth was as follows: excellent growth (5.6% and good growth (42.1%. ANOVA showed a significant difference between parents' education and maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF; whatever higher education of parents, more positive maternal attitude towards exclusive BMF (P

Bibi Leila Hoseini




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Full Text Available The tolerant attitudes towards sexual violence on women are important risk factor which should be considered whileexplaining this type of aggressive behaviour. One of the instruments to evaluate these attitudes is Rape SupportiveAttitude Scale (RSAS by Lottes. The scale has showed good indexes of reliability and validity in both American andSpanish university students. The purpose of the study is to explore the psychometric characteristics in El Salvador asit has been applied together with the Double Standard Scale by Caron, Davis, Haltelman and Stickle (1993 and Crowneand Marlowe (1960 Social Desirability Scale in two samples which consisted of 505 and 1499 students, respectively.The results indicate that the one-dimensional structure of the scale stays stable in the two samples reaching thecoefficients of internal consistence higher than .80, although it includes two items which requires to be reviewed infuture studies. Concerning the validity, the RSAS differentiates men and women in these types of attitudes and showssignificant positive correlation with double sexual standard.

Juan Carlos Sierra



Dutch dental patients on informed consent: knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behaviour. (United States)

In The Netherlands, the legal doctrine of informed consent is established in the 'Medical Treatment Contract Act', which was introduced in 1995. This study assessed dental patients' knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy, as well as their self-reported behaviour concerning informed consent. One hundred and twenty-eight patients (response rate: 91.4%) filled out a questionnaire on these topics, right after their treatment or consultation. Results show that only a minority of the patients is acquainted with the 'Medical Treatment Contract Act'. However, their specific rights concerning informed consent are better known. On the other hand, patients' attitudes and self-efficacy were less positive. Dental patients' self-reported behaviour, did not reflect their attitudes and self-efficacy though. Contrary to social-psychological theory, almost no significant relations were found between the four measured variables, and self-reported behaviour could hardly be predicted by patients' knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy. In light of these findings, it is concluded that other factors, which take into account more of a consumerist perspective on the dentist-patient relationship, probably play a more important role in predicting to what extent patients assert their rights in dental practice. PMID:11804769

Schouten, Barbara; Hoogstraten, Johan; Eijkman, Michiel



Punitive attitudes against pedophiles or persons with sexual interest in children: does the label matter? (United States)

In the present research, we addressed the question of whether people harbor punitive attitudes against individuals sexually interested in children even if no sexual offense is mentioned and whether this effect is amplified by the clinical label pedophilia. In two online studies (total N = 345), participants rated the extent to which they saw individuals sexually interested in children as necessarily committing child sexual abuse (dangerousness), responsible for their sexual interest (intentionality), and clinically disordered (deviance) before judging their endorsement of means of punishment (punitive attitudes). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which either the "pedophilia" label or the descriptive term "sexual interest in (prepubescent) children" was included in all items. Across both studies, results showed high degrees of punitive attitudes against sexually deviant men, an effect that was particularly pronounced if the pedophilia label was present. Whereas this was only latently observable in Study 1 (concealed by a suppression effect of reduced ascriptions of intentionality), in Study 2 no such suppression was observed. Unlike any other stigma we know of, punitive attitudes against pedophiles were associated positively with social desirability, suggesting that participants saw it as particularly socially desirable to condemn someone based on their deviant sexual interest. PMID:25501864

Imhoff, Roland



An Investigation of Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Disinfection Procedures in Italy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisepsis/disinfection procedures; and sources of information. Results Only 29% acknowledged that urinary and respiratory tract infections were the two most common HAIs and this knowledge was significantly higher in those with a higher level of education. Attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols for disinfection procedures showed a mean score of 9.1. The results of the linear regression model indicated a more positive attitude in female nurses, in those with a lower number of years of activity, and in those needing additional information about disinfection procedures. Nurses with higher educational level and with a higher perception of risk of transmitting an infectious disease while working were more likely to perform appropriate antisepsis of the surgical wound and handwashing before and after medication. Conclusions Plan of successful prevention activities about HAIs and provide pointers to help optimize disinfection procedures and infection prophylaxis and management are needed.

Albano Luciana



Attitudes and Perceptions of Students to Open and Distance Learning in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available In the West African Region of Africa, the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN is the first full fledged university that operates in an exclusively open and distance learning (ODL mode of education. NOUN focuses mainly on open and distance teaching and learning system, and delivers its courses materials via print in conjunction with information and communication technology (ICT, when applicable. This ‘single mode’ of open education is different from the integration of distance learning system into the face- to- face teaching and learning system, which is more typical of conventional Universities in Nigeria and other parts of the world. Thus, NOUN reflects a novel development in the provision of higher education in Nigeria. This study assesses the attitudes and perceptions of distance teaching and learning by students enrolled in the NOUN and of the National Teachers’ Institute (NTI compared to their experiences at conventional universities. One hundred and twenty (n = 120 randomly selected NOUN and NTI students of NOUN were the subjects of the study. The Students’ Attitude and Perception Rating of Open and Distance Learning Institutions Inventory (SAPRODLII, developed by the researchers, was administered to the subjects to measure their attitudes and experiences. Results of the study showed that students generally have a positive perception and attitude towards ODL, compared to traditional forms of higher education.

David Olugbenga Ojo




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Full Text Available Good teacher is always loyal and truthful to their profession and to those they serve. A teacher's perception towards teaching directly affects the student. A teacher's attitude remarkably effects the achievement of a student. Some teachers see teaching as just their source of income and show no dedication and loyalty towards their profession. teacher occupies a pivotal position in the system of education. The teacher is the backbone of the educational system, maker of the mankind and architect of the nation. Teaching is a scared profession. The society places high hopes on a teacher. Keeping the importance of Teaching Profession an attempt has made through this study by the investigators to know the attitude of school teachers towards Teaching Profession.. The present study was based on, the normative survey research method. It was found that, the attitude of secondary school teachers of is neither more favourable nor unfavourable towards Teaching Profession i.e., satisfactory or average in attitude towards Teaching Profession. Teaching is a profession that creates contributors to the future, or put another way, the future lies in the hands of teachers

Bindu A Keshwan



Influence of a multidimensional measure of attitudes on motives to use social networking sites. (United States)

Positive attitudes toward a new communication technology tend to be a significant motivator in subsequent adoption and use. The recent spurt in the adoption of social media tools such as social networking sites (SNSs) demands the examination of attitudinal variables on motives to use these Web sites. This study explicated a multidimensional measure of attitudes toward SNSs and tested a theoretical model to examine the effect of attitudes on motives to use SNSs and SNS activity. Participants (N=674) completed a cross-sectional survey consisting of measures of attitudes toward SNSs, motives of SNS use, and level of activity. Results showed support for a revised model in which attitudinal variables-ease of use, self-disclosure, and social connection-strongly predicted motives of SNS use such as passing time, information/entertainment, social conformity, and, most importantly, socialization. The motive of using SNSs as a social tool superseded the direct effect of other motives on SNS activity, suggesting that users' primary activity on SNSs was for socialization and for relational development and maintenance. PMID:25751048

Krishnan, Archana; Hunt, Daniel Scot



Assessing Attitudes of Female Freshman Agricultural Undergraduates towards Entering Agricultural Majors  

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Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing attitudes and perceptions of female freshman agricultural undergraduate students toward entering agricultural majors using survey and correlation methodologies. The statistical population consisted of 326 female freshman undergraduate students of agricultural fields in agricultural college at Bu-Ali-Sina University between 2008 and 2009. Among them, a number of 141 samples were selected randomly. Research tool was a questionnaire. Reliability of the questionnaire was tested during a pretest process by using Cronbach's Alpha test. The calculated Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was 86% (? = 0.86 that shows a high reliability of the research tool. Results of the study revealed that 53.3% of target females have agreed to agriculture by positive attitude, 24.5% by neutral attitude, and finally 21.1% of the students have been disagreed to agriculture by negative attitude. The most important factor affecting entering agricultural majors were respectively: the role and importance of agriculture in both food security and self-sufficiently, getting university certification, and reaching to a better social status.

Reza Movahedi



Psychometric evaluation of the Korean version of the Attitudes Toward Acute Mental Health Scale. (United States)

The purpose of this study was to adapt the Attitudes Toward Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS) into the Korean language and culture and then to determine the reliability and validity of it by administering it to a sample of Korean nursing students and nurses. We conducted a psychometric evaluation that included a two-step item analysis (analysis and reanalysis), exploratory factor analysis and concurrent validity. The ATAMHS was translated into Korean by bilingual nurses. Then, 429 participants (224 undergraduate nursing students and 205 nurses, all with psychiatric experience) completed the translated version of the ATAMHS. The item analysis revealed that nine items correlated poorly with the rest; thus, they were deleted from the scale. The final Korean version of the scale, which we refer to as the Korean version of the ATAMHS (ATAMHS-K), contains 24 items. The ATAMHS-K showed good internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors (professional perspective, semantic differentials and positive attitudes) that explained 39.5% of the variance. The ATAMHS-K had strong correlations with the Korean version of the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill Scale, thus confirming the concurrent validity. Therefore, the ATAMHS-K demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties as a measure of attitudes toward acute mental health in Korean nursing students and nurses. PMID:24842568

Gang, M; Song, Y; Park, S-Y; Yang, S



Prospective Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Children's Attitudes toward Mathematics (United States)

Prospective elementary teachers hold preconceived ideas about elementary school students' attitudes toward mathematics. We found that there exists a gender bias with prospective teachers expecting girls to have negative attitudes toward mathematics and boys more likely to have positive attitudes toward mathematics. We found that these…

Schwartz, Catherine S.; Sinicrope, Rose



The Effect of Media on Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Astronomy and Achievement in Astronomy Class (United States)

Studies show that it is hard to change students' attitudes toward science. This study specifically explored if media affect preservice science teachers' attitudes toward astronomy and their astronomy achievement. The sample for the pilot study consisted of 196 preservice science and mathematics teachers for attitude assessment and 230 preservice…

Bektasli, Behzat



Examining Sex Differences in Altering Attitudes About Rape: A Test of the Elaboration Likelihood Model. (United States)

Intervention sought to improve first-year college students' attitudes about rape. Used the Elaboration Likelihood Model to examine men's and women's attitude change process. Found numerous sex differences in ways men and women experienced and changed during and after intervention. Women's attitude showed more lasting change while men's was more…

Heppner, Mary J.; And Others



Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life. (United States)

A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.



Conservation Education and the Attitudes of Local Communities Living Adjacent to Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda (United States)

A study of attitudes of 328 people living around Mt. Elgon National Park showed that more than three-quarters had favorable attitudes toward the conservation of the Park's forest and wildlife resources. They also had favorable attitudes toward the conservation education efforts of various agencies that operated in the area, particularly those of…

Oonyu, Joseph C.



Test-taking skills of secondary students: the relationship with motivation, attitudes, anxiety and attitudes towards tests  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Test-taking skills are cognitive skills that enable students to undergo any test-taking situation in an appropriate manner. This study is aimed at assessing the relationship between students' test-taking skills and each of the following variables: motivation to learn mathematics; mathematics anxiety [...] ; attitudes towards mathematics; and attitudes towards tests. The study was conducted on a random sample of 626 (372 males and 254 females) secondary school students. The following instruments were used in the data collection: the Test-taking Skills Scale (TSS); the Mathematics Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MMSLQ); the Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R); the Mathematics Attitude Inventory (MAI); and the Attitude towards Tests Scale (ATS). A positive and significant relationship was reported between students' test-taking skills and each student's motivation to learn mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics, and attitudes towards tests; while mathematics anxiety was shown to have a significant negative relationship with test-taking skills. Test-taking skills account for more than 30% of the variation in motivation to learn mathematics, 25% in attitudes towards mathematics, 17% in mathematics anxiety, and more than 40% in attitude toward tests. The study concluded the improvement of secondary students' testing skills to be significantly correlated with variables that play a substantial role in a student's level of achievement in mathematics.

Hamzeh M, Dodeen; Faisal, Abdelfattah; Saleh, Alshumrani.



Attitude Change as a Function of the Inducement for Espousing a Proattitudinal Communication (United States)

The present study tested the prediction that if a person is paid to espouse a proattitudinal communication in order to convince another of his position, his attitude toward the espoused position will become less favorable. (Author/RK)

Benware, Carl; Deci, Edward L.



Physicians’ Implicit and Explicit Attitudes About Race by MD Race, Ethnicity, and Gender  


Recent reports suggest that providers’ implicit attitudes about race contribute to racial and ethnic health care disparities. However, little is known about physicians’ implicit racial attitudes. This study measured implicit and explicit attitudes about race using the Race Attitude Implicit Association Test (IAT) for a large sample of test takers (N = 404,277), including a sub-sample of medical doctors (MDs) (n = 2,535). Medical doctors, like the entire sample, showed an implicit preferen...

Sabin, Janice A.; Nosek, Brian A.; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Rivara, Frederick P.



Chinese-Inspired Products: Value-Attitude-Behavior  

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Full Text Available This studyemployed a value-attitude-behavior model to investigate whether global anddomain-specific values affect US consumers’ attitudes and purchase behaviorstoward a Chinese-Inspired Product, with theperceived level of cultural design influence as a moderator between culturalopenness and domain-specific values. The results indicated that global values (i.e., cultural openness and need todifferentiate positively influenced domain-specific values (i.e., esthetic andemotional values and attitudes, which in turn affected US consumers’ behaviors(i.e., word of mouth and purchase intention; and theeffect of cultural openness on emotional value perception was greater forconsumers who had stronger perceptions of cultural design influence.

Wei Fu



Television Quiz Show Simulation (United States)

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn



Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Preliminary study focusing on characteristics of the attitudes of men and women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to approach the public attitudes toward nuclear power generation and related matters by focusing on the viewpoint of differences between men and women. More specifically, it was attempted to determine what types of lifestyles and ways of thinking are associated with persons indicating the respective attitudes, what types of anxiety these people have with respect to nuclear power generation, as well as the nature of the inflexibility of those attitudes. As a result, well-defined characteristics were found to be associated with each attitude. In addition, the types of anxiety with respect to nuclear power generation were able to be broadly classified into emotional anxiety and logical anxiety. Regarding the inflexibility of these attitudes, although men tended to exhibit little change concerning positive attitudes, they tended to easily change in the negative direction as a result of negative information. In the case of women, conversely, although their attitudes tended to change easily toward the affirmative direction when presented with positive information, it was determined that women tend to change very little toward the negative direction. (author)


Attitudes toward Specific Advertising Media (AM): Informative or Manipulative?  


Attitudes toward advertising in general (AG) is a concept which often raises ethical, social and cultural concerns, and yet in the context of specific media, consumers are often more positive, and find advertising entertaining, thought-provoking, amusing and informative. This paper focuses on attitudes toward advertising in three specific media (AM) (print, television and online advertising) and aims to provide input into the design decisions of an advertising campaign. The survey is based on...

Azizul Yaakop; Jane Hemsley-Brown



Chinese-Inspired Products: Value-Attitude-Behavior  


This studyemployed a value-attitude-behavior model to investigate whether global anddomain-specific values affect US consumers’ attitudes and purchase behaviorstoward a Chinese-Inspired Product, with theperceived level of cultural design influence as a moderator between culturalopenness and domain-specific values. The results indicated that global values (i.e., cultural openness and need todifferentiate) positively influenced domain-specific values (i.e., esthetic andemotional values) and a...

Wei Fu; Wanmo Koo; Youn-Kyung Kim



Language attitudes and language shift among ethnic migrants in Khartoum  


This paper investigates language attitudes among ethnic migrant groups in Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on language preference, language parents prefer their children to learn, and reasons for language preference. Results suggest that while positive attitude played a significant role in learning Arabic among some of the groups under investigation, it proved to be of no help in maintaining the groups’ ethnic languages. Arabic was reported ...

Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim Hamid



Consumers' values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Consumers' attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain

de Barcellos, M.D; Perin, Marcelo G.



Consumers’ values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Consumers’ attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain.

de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, M.G.



Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica



Instrument Attitude Precision Control (United States)

A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

Juang, Jer-Nan



GPS-based attitude determination  


Inertial sensors and magnetometers are often used for attitude determination of moving platforms. This thesis treats an alternative method; GPS-based attitude determination. By using several GPS-antennas, and with carrier phase measurements determining the relative distance between them, the attitude can be calculated. Algorithms have been implemented in Matlab and tested on real data. Two commercial GPS-based attitude determination systems have also been tested on a mobile platform and compa...

Bejeryd, Johan



Attitude and Willingness towards Tissue Donation in  

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Full Text Available Background: Tissue donation has been promising in prolonging the lives of people with life-threateningdiseases.Objective: To assess the attitude and willingness of high school students towards bone marrow (BM andblood (as tissue donation for maintaining a safe and adequate pool.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the high school girls, aged 15–18 years, whostudied in natural sciences, mathematics and humanities. All participants filled a questionnaire consistingof age, religion, education levels and study branch, attitude and willingness towards BM and blooddonation according to a Likert scale.Results: Out of 416 students, with the mean±SD age of 16.3±1.2 years, 31% studied in grade I, 27% ingrade II (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics, and 48% humanities, 26% in grade III (30% naturalsciences, 34% mathematics, and 36% humanities, and 16% in pre-university level (college (32% naturalsciences, 42% mathematics, and 6% humanities. The students had highly positive attitudes towardBM and blood donation (mean±SD score of 4.2±0.54. The willingness for BM and blood donation wasdeclared respectively, in 87% and 71% of respondents. Moreover, 16% of students wanted to donate onlyto their relatives and 84% to all persons in need of therapy. There was no significant correlation betweenthe donation willingness and educational levels and study branch; however, these variables significantlycorrelated with attitude towards tissue donation (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively.Conclusion: Despite positive attitude towards BM and blood donation, willingness for BM donation is lesserthan blood which may be attributed to insufficient information about this type of tissue donation. An organizededucational program for high school students in all aspects of tissue donation seems necessary.

S. Sanavi



Factors contributing to attitude exchange amongst preservice elementary teachers (United States)

Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudes to positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).

Palmer, David H.



Managing HIV/hepatitis positive patients: present approach of dental health care workers and students. (United States)

People with HIV/HBsAg in India frequently encounter discrimination while seeking and receiving health care services. The knowledge and attitudes of health care workers (HCWs) influences the willingness and ability of people with HIV/HBsAg to access care, and the quality of the care they receive. The objective of this study was to asses HIV/HBsAg-related knowledge, attitudes and risk perception among students and dental HCWs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 250 students and 120 dental HCWs in the form of objective questionnaire. Information was gathered regarding demographic details (age, sex, duration of employment, job category); HIV/ HBsAg-related knowledge and attitudes; risk perception; and previous experience caring for HIV-positive patients. The HCWs in this study generally had a positive attitude to care for the people with HIV/HBsAg. However, this was tempered by substantial concerns about providing care, and the fear of occupational infection with HIV/HBsAg. A continuing dental education program was conducted to resolve all the queries found interfering to provide care to HIV/HBsAg patients. But even after the queries were resolved the care providing capability was not attained. These findings show that even with advanced knowledge and facilities the attitude of dental HCWs and students require more strategic training with regards to the ethics and moral stigma associated with the dreaded infectious diseases (HIV/HBsAg). PMID:23404020

Shinde, Nagesh; Baad, Rajendra; Nagpal, Deepak Kumar J; Prabhu, Prashant R; Surekha, L Chavan; Karande, Prasad



Selling ideas, attitudes, and behaviors. (United States)

Advertisers are adept at changing our attitudes and purchasing behaviors, but we rarely notice the effects. This plenary talk at the eighth annual Midwest Rural Agricultural Safety and Health Forum, November 2009, focused on the psychology of advertising and how advertising is designed to work outside of our conscious awareness. Several psychological "tricks" are used to influence us, with the goal being to get us to change our behaviors but to think that it was our idea all along. These tricks include using emotional appeals and persuasion techniques that rely on biases in human problem solving. This power can be used for social marketing, the use of these techniques to promote social well-being, rather than simply for commercial purposes. Understanding how advertising works therefore allows us to use this power to effect positive changes in society. PMID:20407989

Gentile, Douglas A



Death Education and Death-Related Attitudes. (United States)

Assessed the impact of a death and dying course. Results showed no significant pre-test/post-test differences for the experimental or the control group, but indicated initial differences between the two groups, suggesting that students enrolling in a death and dying course have more favorable attitudes toward both suicide and abortion. (Author)

Hoelter, Jon W.; Epley, Rita J.



Determinants of Attitude towards Information and Communication Technology Usage among Rural Administrators in using Structural Equation Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Village Development and Security Committee members play a vital role in enhancing the village development programs in Malaysia and ICT is deemed as an important mechanism to further boost rural development. But do the rural community in Malaysia especially their leaders have a positive attitude towards it? Hence, this study is designed to identify the constructs that significantly influence the attitude of Village Development and Security Committee members in using ICT. Approach: This is a quantitative study where a total of 240 respondents have been selected based on the stratified random sampling done. AMOS and SPSS were used to gain the required analyses. Results: The structural equation modelling showed that there were three constructs that significantly predict the attitude and these constructs were perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and job relevance. Conclusion/Recommendation: It is recommended that more technology investment in the form of providing ICT facilities and trainings should be made by the government to encourage the development of a positive attitude among VDSC members. The findings of this study would be useful for policy makers to further boost the usage of ICT in rural areas.

Jeffrey L. D'Silva




Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The survey is conducted on sample of 749 subjects aged from 11 to 14 years, divided into two sub samples of 349 male respondents and 391 female respondents with the main objective to determine the impact of the motives for engaging in physical sports activity, attitude to sport , socially perceived support from friends and family of the students with different residential status. For the goals of this research the first and second sub samples are divided into two specific groups depending on living location, one that live in urban and other that live in rural environment. The motives for physical activity are valued according to the scale Behavior Regulation Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ and Motives For Physical Activity Measure - Revised (MPAM-R, while the attitude toward the sport is valued according Kneerov inventory positions . The differences are processed in multivariant and univariant analysis of variance ( ANOVA and Mano . Having the obtained results as basis it can be concluded that boys from middle school age living in rural areas show higher values towards internal regulator - intrinsic motivation attitude towards sports , while male respondents living in urban areas perceived greater social support from parents and friends. The girls from middle school age which are living in rural areas have a positive attitude towards sport, while the girls from the same school age living in the urban areas perceive greater social support from parents.

Popovski Luka



Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an out group hand on implicit attitudes towards that outgroup.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin colour and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes towards black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of different skin colour affected the participants’ implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin colour as shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes towards black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude towards black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes towards black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes.




Homemade Laser Show (United States)

With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.



Attitudes and cognitive distances: On the non-unitary and flexible nature of cognitive maps. (United States)

Spatial relations of our environment are represented in cognitive maps. These cognitive maps are prone to various distortions (e.g., alignment and hierarchical effects) caused by basic cognitive factors (such as perceptual and conceptual reorganization) but also by affectively loaded and attitudinal influences. Here we show that even differences in attitude towards a single person representing a foreign country (here Barack Obama and the USA) can be related to drastic differences in the cognitive representation of distances concerning that country. Europeans who had a positive attitude towards Obama's first presidential program estimated distances between US and European cities as being much smaller than did people who were skeptical or negative towards Obama's ideas. On the basis of this result and existing literature, arguments on the non-unitary and flexible nature of cognitive maps are discussed. PMID:24155860

Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M



A Mixed-Method Approach on Digital Educational Games for K12: Gender, Attitudes and Performance (United States)

Research on the influence of gender on attitudes towards and performance in digital educational games (DEGs) has quite a long history. Generally, males tend to play such games more engagingly than females, consequently attitude and performance of males using DEGs should be presumably higher than that of females. This paper reports an investigation of a DEG, which was developed to enhance the acquisition of geographical knowledge, carried out on British, German and Austrian K12 students aged between 11 and 14. Methods include a survey on initial design concepts, user tests on the system and two single-gender focus groups. Gender and cultural differences in gameplay habit, game type preferences and game character perceptions were observed. The results showed that both genders similarly improved their geographical knowledge, although boys tended to have a higher level of positive user experience than the girls. The qualitative data from the focus groups illustrated some interesting gender differences in perceiving various aspects of the game.

Law, Effie Lai-Chong; Gamble, Tim; Schwarz, Daniel; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D.; Holzinger, Andreas


Fruit: comparisons of attitudes knowledge and preferences of primary school children in England and Germany. (United States)

Primary school children's fruit consumption and attitudes, knowledge and preferences towards fruit were investigated using interview techniques in schools in England (Nottinghamshire) and Germany (North East) and analysed on the basis of culture, sex and social class. Children from both countries had strong positive attitudes to increase fruit consumption and differed little in their ability to correctly identify five fruits (including tropical fruits). Fruit preferences also showed many similarities with more than 95% of children from both Germany and England choosing apples as fruits they liked, followed closely by strawberries, oranges, pears, grapes, and bananas. Fruit consumption by German children was, however, higher than English children both at breakfast and during the school break. Strategies for increasing fruit consumption in English children are discussed in relation to the findings obtained. PMID:9558745

Neale, R J; Otte, S; Tilston, C H



Survey Result for the Safety Culture Attitude of HANARO in 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the important aims of a nuclear management system is to foster a strong safety culture. The safety culture activities for HANARO have been implemented and the importance of safety management in nuclear activities has also been emphasized since its first operation. HANARO developed its own safety culture indicators by referring to the IAEA's documents for the purpose of the evaluation of the safety culture attitude. In June 2008 a survey on the safety culture was conducted based on the new safety culture indicators. The result of the survey shows that the safety culture activities contribute positively to its safe operation. But it is necessary to encourage some activities like training, resources and organizational culture. The survey was helpful to understand the general trends of the safety attitudes and to set the safety culture activities necessary for the improvement of its safe operation


Implicit racial attitudes influence perceived emotional intensity on other-race faces. (United States)

An ability to accurately perceive and evaluate out-group members' emotions plays a critical role in intergroup interactions. Here we showed that Chinese participants' implicit attitudes toward White people bias their perception and judgment of emotional intensity of White people's facial expressions such as anger, fear and sadness. We found that Chinese participants held pro-Chinese/anti-White implicit biases that were assessed in an evaluative implicit association test (IAT). Moreover, their implicit biases positively predicted the perceived intensity of White people's angry, fearful and sad facial expressions but not for happy expressions. This study demonstrates that implicit racial attitudes can influence perception and judgment of a range of emotional expressions. Implications for intergroup interactions were discussed. PMID:25153836

Wang, Qiandong; Chen, Guowei; Wang, Zhaoquan; Hu, Chao S; Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue



Motor Control of Two Flywheels Enabling Combined Attitude Control and Bus Regulation (United States)

This presentation discussed the flywheel technology development work that is ongoing at NASA GRC with a particular emphasis on the flywheel system control. The "field orientation" motor/generator control algorithm was discussed and explained. The position-sensorless angle and speed estimation algorithm was presented. The motor current response to a step change in command at low (10 kRPM) and high (60 kRPM) was discussed. The flywheel DC bus regulation control was explained and experimental results presented. Finally, the combined attitude control and energy storage algorithm that controls two flywheels simultaneously was presented. Experimental results were shown that verified the operational capability of the algorithm. shows high speed flywheel energy storage (60,000 RPM) and the successful implementation of an algorithm to simultaneously control both energy storage and a single axis of attitude with two flywheels. Overall, the presentation demonstrated that GRC has an operational facility that

Kenny, Barbara H.



Predictors of Attitudes Towards the Rights of Ethnic Minorities of Student Teenagers in a Romanian City  

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Full Text Available The article will endeavor to build a causal model of ethnic attitudes of students in grades 8 to 12 from a great Transylvanian city with a large Hungarian population. The theoretical model built at the beginning of the study was tested applying multivariate statistical techniques to data of a survey of about 2500 teenagers. My results show that attitudes about the rights of members of minorities are attributable to both individual and contextual factors. On the one hand, gender, cognitive constraints and selfesteem play an important role in this attitudinal make up. On the other hand, the relative positions on in-group and out-group in the special context of interaction – in my case the classroom – are playing important parts in determining how strong the biases will be.

Adrian Hatos



Die verandering van houdings teenoor persone met fisieke gestremdhede: 'n Vernuwende intervensie vir die werksplek / Changing attitudes towards people with physical disabilities: An innovative workplace intervention  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available There seems to be a worldwide tendency for people of working age with disabilities to remain unemployed. The employment of people with disabilities remains a development issue as they are deprived of social, political and basic human needs when unemployed. Reasons for this exclusion include a lack o [...] f information and awareness about the abilities of people with disabilities, as well as the perceived financial, operational, and productivity related costs of hiring people with disabilities. Other reasons include bias and stereotyping towards people with disabilities. These factors, together with a general fear of the unknown and ignorance of how to respond to different individuals, increase the negative attitudes towards people with disabilities. This has a concomitant negative effect on all parties involved: People without disabilities keep their distance from people with disabilities, which often results in a lack of employment, placement, training and promotional opportunities for people with disabilities. The organisation, in turn, often fails to maximise the potential of people with disabilities, who are usually appointed in stereotypical positions, such as switchboard operators, where their qualifications tend to be overlooked.. Consequently, employers need a heightened awareness of, and an attitudinal change towards, the benefits ofincluding disabled people in the workplace. The forming and changing of an attitude is a complex process because it consists of cognitive, emotional and behavioural components. All three components of an attitude need to be addressed. In addition, both external and internal strategies must be applied to foster change in attitudes. However, interventions based on innovative attitude-changing learning strategies are hard to find in the literature. Therefore, a learning intervention based on attitude change theories and principles, as well as on experiential learning principles (including interactive drama), was developed and implemented in order to change employees ' attitudes towards people with physical disabilities in the workplace. The intervention was implemented by means of a programme comprising various units. People with different disabilities (i.e. hearing, sight and physical) took part in each of the interactive dramas, and also formed part of the facilitation sessions in each unit. At the end of each session, the participants completed an evaluation form. The research population consisted of adult learners without physical disabilities enrolled in a leadership programme at a business school in South Africa. The participants were selected by means of non-probability sampling, and were assigned to the experimental and control groups respectively based on courses they enrolled for in the leadership programme. The participants (people without physical disabilities) in both the experimental and the control group completed a biographical questionnaire and an attitude questionnaire, after which the experimental group was exposed to the intervention. At the end of the intervention, both groups completed the attitude questionnaire again in order to determine whether the attitude of the experimental group showed a statistically significant positive attitude change towards people with physical disabilities. The results of the quasi-experimental design indicated a positive attitude change after the implementation of the programme. Moreover, the results suggested that the attitudes of employees without disability, towards employees with physical disabilities, are influenced by contact with people with disabilities and knowledge about disability. The implementation of attitude-changing programmes could facilitate changes in attitude which would, hopefully, lead to the increased integration of people with disabilities into the work environment and general community and, ultimately, to the restoration of dignity.

Ronel, Kleynhans; Martina, Kotzé.



Secondary analyses of data from four studies with fourth-grade children show that sex, race, amounts eaten of standardized portions, and energy content given in trades explain the positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals  


Results from a 2012 article showed a positive relationship between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain that positive relationship, secondary analyses investigated 1) whether the relationship differed by sex and race, and 2) the relationship between BMI and six aspects of school-provided meals—amounts eaten of standardized portions, energy content given in trades, energy intake received in trades, energy intake from flavored milk, en...

Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-aiken, Amy E.; Tebbs, Joshua M.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Finney, Christopher J.



The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…

Fah, Lay Yoon



Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex (United States)

This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

Tracy Dietz


Working Memory and Attitudes (United States)

Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman



Student Attitude Inventory - 1971. (United States)

This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.


Attitudes, Behavior, and Employability. (United States)

This report summarizes the findings of three studies related to the effects of schooling on the employability development of youth. The first two studies described investigate determinants of attitudes and misbehavior in high school that are presumed to affect labor market outcomes later. The third study is presented as a complement to the first…

Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Dorsten, Linda Eberst


Changing attitudes toward abortion. (United States)

"Individual and social attitudes toward abortion are unstable," the author notes, as he reviews the history of such attitudes in the United States and Britain. In both countries abortion was legal in 1800, but had become illegal by 1900, largely due to changing attitudes within the medical profession, including the desire to protect the profession against the activities of non-physicians. In the U.S., religious groups took little interset in the issue until late in the 19th century. Today, years after the legalization of abortion in Britain (1967) and the U.S. (1974), there is a chance that public attitudes will be influenced for a second time by a vocal few, again restricting legal access to abortion. The commercial success of MDs who specialize in abortions is a complicating factor, making it easier for opposition groups to recruit supporters. The abortion debate concerns unprovable interpretations of observable facts; it is an exercise in religious toleration. The most important role of physicians is to help establish a liberal and civilized framework within which colleagues of different persuasions can make free and objective choices regarding the delivery of abortion services. PMID:394482

Potts, M



Attitudes To Infant Circumcision  


Routine circumcision in Manitoba has decreased from 56% to 50%. To determine adult patients' attitudes towards circumcision, the authors interviewed a random sample of patients presenting at a family practice unit. Of 242 respondents, 78% favored circumcision, primarily because of cleanliness, family precedent and improved sexual function. They suggest better education of patients to dispel misconceptions.

Reynolds, James Laurence; Szul, J. Michael



Science Center and Attitude (United States)

The project team gathered data with the assistance of Recreational and Cultural Organization of Mashhad Municipality, Organization of Mashhad Municipality and Science and Astronomy Science Center of Mashhad Municipality, Khorasan Razavi, Islamic Republic of Iran. This paper discusses the effect of science center on attitude of students who visit…

Daneshamooz, Saeed; Alamolhodaei, Hassan; Darvishian, Saeed; Daneshamooz, Soniya



Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements (United States)

Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)



Preservation of the Environment through Sustainable Agriculture Practices: A Case Study on the Attitude of Crop Farmers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Undoubtedly agriculture over the years has been a remarkable source of income generator for the rural community to achieve a higher standard of living and to live on par with their urban brethren that are mostly involved in industrialization. The quest for a greater income should, however, not deter farmers from paying attention toward the preservation of the environment in terms of protecting the quality of land, air and water so that our present and future generation will be able to have sufficient resources for their survival. Thus, having a positive attitude toward practicing the elements of sustainable agriculture without doubt will help farmers to emphasize on the need to protect the environment. As such, this study is designed to understand contract farming entrepreneurs? attitude toward the preservation of the environment through sustainable agriculture practices and the issues involved in determining their level of attitude. Approach: The study employed qualitative methodology in the form of a focus group discussion and the data was collected from seven contract farming entrepreneurs in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. In the data collection process, the researcher played the role as the instrument and an interview guide that was developed prior to it enabled the researcher to achieve the objectives of the study. A couple of voice-recorders assisted in recording the discussion and it was later transformed into verbatim transcripts for data analysis. Results: The outcome of the study showed that in general, crop farmers face an upheaval task in possessing a positive attitude toward practicing sustainable agriculture in spite of having a sound knowledge about it. They perceive that much support is needed from the respective stakeholders that would enable them to embrace sustainable agriculture practices. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is recommended that various stakeholders could play more important roles such as providing trainings to farmers and having a tighter control on prices of crops that will enable farmers to hold a positive attitude on sustainable agriculture practices.

Jeffrey L. D?Silva



Sport fans: evaluating the consistency between implicit and explicit attitudes toward favorite and rival teams. (United States)

Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed. PMID:24897908

Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O



The Diane Rehm Show (United States)

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.



Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Progress of new digital technologies has led to a new type of consumer, more dynamic and difficult to satisfy, which made the efficiency of the old promotion methods to decrease. Marketers who are looking for new ways to reach their audience found in online video games a reliable ally. Previous studies that have been conducted internationally showed that advertising through online games and delivering promotional messages in the virtual space mediated by Internet technology has a high degree of acceptance from the public. In Romania such studies are lacking , and this gap in the literature led to the need to study the potential that promoting in video game has on consumers from this market . In this paper we present some of the results of a larger quantitative research, which has investigated several aspects that influence consumer attitudes towards video games with advertising content, focusing on the factor with the most strongly impact - interactivity . The study used self-administered online questionnaire method to collect primary data that were further analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and factor analysis . The results revealed that in general the consummers from Romania have a positive attitude towards advertising presented in video games and the interactivity given by the game construction that allows the manipulation of branded objects during a play session has a direct and positive influence on the attitude.




The Attitude of Iranian Nurses About Do Not Resuscitate Orders (United States)

Background: Do not resuscitate (DNR) orders are one of many challenging issues in end of life care. Previous research has not investigated Muslim nurses’ attitudes towards DNR orders. Aims: This study aims to investigate the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR orders and determine the role of religious sects in forming attitudes. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, 306 nurses from five hospitals affiliated to Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS) in East Azerbaijan Province and three hospitals in Kurdistan province participated. Data were gathered by a survey design on attitudes on DNR orders. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software examining descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Participants showed their willingness to learn more about DNR orders and highlights the importance of respecting patients and their families in DNR orders. In contrast, in many key items participants reported their negative attitude towards DNR orders. There were statistical differences in two items between the attitude of Shiite and Sunni nurses. Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education. PMID:24600178

Mogadasian, Sima; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Rahmani, Azad; Ferguson, Caleb; Pakanzad, Fermisk; Pakpour, Vahid; Heidarzadeh, Hamid



The aspect of personnel metal attitude in the production safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of an accident could always be traced to component/system failures and/or human error. The two factors are closely related to competency of the personnel's involved, in which mental attitude is a decisive factor. Furthermore mental attitude could be viewed as an element of Safety (S) Culture. Consequently, S. Culture could might created or at lea ts, be enhanced by the introduction of appropriate values, norms, as well as attitudes. The ABC and TBC of safety norm have been discussed briefly. Whereas mental attitude has been defined and discussed in detail and graded into six levels, namely: attending, responding, complying, accepting, preferring, and integrating. To assure highest level of safety, personnel must achieve integrating level of attitude, in the sense that he would merely do an action on the basis of safety values and/or norms prevailing in the system, not due to external pressure. Furthermore, considering the work as a physical and an emotional activity resulting in stress and strain on the body, Karate exercises have been promoted as an alternative for enhancing mental attitude by means of reducing personnel vulnerability to strain and stress. This method is accomplished by exploiting Roux's Low of conditioning effect and by implementation of an in-depth understanding on the spiritual aspect of Karate. It is concluded that in the field of production safety, there is a positive correlation between Karate, mental attitude, competence, performance, quality, and safety


Religious beliefs and public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe and the United States (United States)

How do citizens make sense of nanotechnology as more applications reach the market and the mainstream media start to debate the potential risks and benefits of technology? As with many other political and scientific issues, citizens rely on cognitive shortcuts or heuristics to make sense of issues for which they have low levels of knowledge. These heuristics can include predispositional factors, such as ideological beliefs or value systems, and also short-term frames of reference provided by the media or other sources of information. Recent research suggests that `religious filters' are an important heuristic for scientific issues in general, and nanotechnology in particular. A religious filter is more than a simple correlation between religiosity and attitudes toward science: it refers to a link between benefit perceptions and attitudes that varies depending on respondents' levels of religiosity. In surveys, seeing the benefits of nanotechnology is consistently linked to more positive attitudes about nanotechnology among less religious respondents, with this effect being significantly weaker for more religious respondents. For this study, we have combined public opinion surveys in the United States with Eurobarometer surveys about public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe to compare the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes towards nanotechnology in the United States and Europe. Our results show that respondents in the United States were significantly less likely to agree that nanotechnology is morally acceptable than respondents in many European countries. These moral views correlated directly with aggregate levels of religiosity in each country, even after controlling for national research productivity and measures of science performance for high-school students.

Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.; Shih, Tsung-Jen; Dalrymple, Kajsa E.; Ho, Shirley S.



Client and Counselor Attitudes Toward the Use of Medications for Treatment of Opioid Dependence  


Attitudes, perceived social norms and intentions were assessed for 376 counselors and 1083 clients from outpatient, methadone and residential drug treatment programs regarding four medications used to treat opiate dependence: methadone, buprenorphine, clonidine, and ibogaine. Attitudes, social norms and intentions to use varied by treatment modality. Methadone clients and counselors had more positive attitudes toward the use of methadone, while their counterparts in residential and outpatient...

Rieckmann, Traci; Daley, Marilyn; Fuller, Bret E.; Thomas, Cindy P.; Mccarty, Dennis



Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat  


A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working ...

Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni



Therapist's Gender and Gender Roles: Impact on Attitudes toward Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment  


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of therapist's gender and gender roles on attitudes toward clients. Attitudes toward motivational interviewing were also a focus as MI can be hypothesized to be feminine rather than masculine in nature. The subjects (N = 246) were Finnish substance abuse therapists. Their attitudes toward clients were measured using a vignette task. Results indicated that female therapists were significantly more positive toward clients than were ...

Artkoski, Tytti; Saarnio, Pekka



Predicting Return of Fear Following Exposure Therapy With an Implicit Measure of Attitudes  


We sought to advance understanding of the processes underlying the efficacy of exposure therapy and particularly the phenomenon of return of fear (ROF) following treatment by drawing on a social psychological view of phobias as attitudes. Specifically, a dual process theory of attitude-related behavior predicts that a positive response to exposure therapy may reflect change in either the automatic (the attitude representation itself) or controlled (skills and confidence at coping with the fea...

Vasey, Michael W.; Harbaugh, Casaundra N.; Buffington, Adam G.; Jones, Christopher R.; Fazio, Russell H.



Can participation in a school science fair improve middle school students' attitudes toward science and interest in science careers? (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participation in a school-based science fair affects middle school students' attitudes toward science and interest in science and engineering careers. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare students' pre- and posttest attitudes toward and interest in science. Forty-eight of the 258 participants completed a school-based science fair during the study. In addition, twelve middle school science teachers completed an online survey. Both the Survey of Science Attitudes and Interest I and II (SSAI-I and II) measured students' attitudes toward and interest in science and science and mathematics self-efficacy, asked about classroom inquiry experiences and gathered demographic information. An online survey gathered qualitative data about science teachers' perceptions of school science fairs. The results showed no significant interactions among completion of a science fair project and attitudes toward and interest in science, science and mathematics self-efficacy or gender. There were significant differences at both pre- and posttest in attitudes between the students who did and did not complete a science fair project. All participating teachers believed that participation in science fairs could have a positive effect on students' attitudes and interest, but cited lack of time as a major impediment. There was significant interaction between level of classroom inquiry and attitudes and interest in science; students who reported more experiences had higher scores on these measures. Classroom inquiry also interacted with the effects of a science fair and participants' pre- and posttest attitude scores. Finally, the amount and source of assistance on a science fair project had a significant impact on students' posttest measures. Major limitations which affect the generalization of these findings include the timing of the administration of the pretest, the number of participants in the experimental group and differences in the science fair procedures at the participating schools. Embedded in a curriculum that includes the teaching of inquiry practices, science fairs may play a role in the inspiration of future scientists, but more research needs to be done on the quality of students' experiences, including amount and type of classroom instruction before and during the science fair process.

Finnerty, Valerie


GPS IIF yaw attitude control during eclipse season (United States)

On May 27, 2010, the first satellite of the Block II "follow-on" (Block IIF) series, the fourth generation of Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft, has been successfully placed into orbit. GPS IIF-1, also referred to as space vehicle number (SVN) 62, has been injected into orbital plane B, slot position 2 of the GPS constellation. After completing three months of comprehensive in-orbit testing, the satellite entered service for the US Air Force (USAF) on August 26, 2010. A little over a year after the inaugural launch of GPS IIF-1, the USAF has now launched the second spacecraft of the IIF series (SVN-63). The IIF series includes a total of 12 satellites: SVN-62 through SVN-73. Despite having many technical advances over their predecessors such as enhanced rubidium frequency standards, more precise and powerful signals and an extended design life, the three-axis stabilized Block IIF satellites follow a completely different yaw attitude scheme, when passing through the Earth's shadow, to the Block IIA and IIR spacecraft. We will describe how high-rate carrier phase and pseudo-range measurements from a global GPS tracking network can be exploited to precisely monitor the yaw attitude behavior of SVN-62 and SVN-63 during their solar eclipse phases. The insights gained from this study have led to the development of a new GPS Block IIF yaw attitude model. We will show that the yaw rate of a Block IIF space vehicle is kept constant to the value needed to get the satellite back to near its nominal attitude when leaving the Earth's shadow and that a IIF satellite being in deep eclipse therefore needs to yaw significantly faster than an eclipsing IIF space vehicle passing only partly through the Earth's shadow. How the satellites' attitude control system (ACS) exactly computes this dynamical yaw rate parameter will be discussed here as well. Moreover, we will report on yaw attitude anomalies occurring when the GPS Block IIF satellites are shaded from the Sun by the Moon and outline the consequences of a mis-modeled yaw angle in the presence of a horizontal satellite antenna phase center eccentricity. Since the Block IIF navigation antenna is about 39.4 cm off from the rotation axis ("yaw-axis"), neglecting errors in yaw may have serious impacts on the satellite antenna phase center modeling. Depending on the azimuth and the nadir angle under which a tracking station on ground is seen from the spacecraft, a error in yaw of ±180° may cause a range error in the satellite antenna phase center correction of up to ±19.0 cm. GPS data collected by low Earth orbiting (LEO) receivers such as those on-board Jason-1/2 may even be biased by up to ±23.0 cm.

Dilssner, F.; Springer, T.; Enderle, W.



Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely


Demonstration Road Show (United States)

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.



Showing What They Know (United States)

Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

Cech, Scott J.



Blue Ribbon Art Show. (United States)

Describes the process of selecting judges for a Blue Ribbon Art Show (Springfield, Missouri). Used adults (teachers, custodians, professional artists, parents, and principals) chosen by the Willard South Elementary School art teacher to judge student artwork. States that nominated students received blue ribbons. (CMK)

Bowen, Judy Domeny



Outcomes of three different models for sex education and citizenship programs concerning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Brazilian adolescents  

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Full Text Available Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls. Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.

Campos Márcia



The attitudes of primary schoolchildren in Northern Thailand towards their peers who are affected by HIV and AIDS. (United States)

After more than a decade of the AIDS epidemic in Thailand, the number of children whose parents are living with HIV or have died from AIDS is increasing significantly and it has been reported that these children are often discriminated against by their peers. In order to better understand the current situation and to explore possible strategies to support HIV-affected children, this study examined children's attitudes towards HIV and AIDS using questionnaires and focus group discussions with children in Grades three-six in five primary schools in a northern province in Thailand. A total of 513 children (274 boys and 239 girls) answered the questionnaire and five focus groups were organised. The findings showed a strong positive correlation between children's belief that HIV could be transmitted through casual contact and their negative attitudes towards their HIV-affected peers. Most children overestimated the risk of HIV transmission through casual contact and this made their attitudes less tolerant and less supportive. After HIV prevention education (which included information on HIV transmission routes) was given in three of the study schools, the same questionnaire and focus groups were repeated and the findings showed that children's attitudes had become more supportive. These findings suggest that HIV prevention education delivered through primary schools in Thailand can be an effective way to help foster a more supportive and inclusive environment and reduce the stigma and discrimination that decrease educational access and attainment for HIV-affected schoolchildren. PMID:21259137

Ishikawa, Naoko; Pridmore, Pat; Carr-Hill, Roy; Chaimuangdee, Kreangkrai



Geometric Tracking Control of the Attitude Dynamics of a Rigid Body on SO(3)  

CERN Document Server

This paper provides new results for a tracking control of the attitude dynamics of a rigid body. Both of the attitude dynamics and the proposed control system are globally expressed on the special orthogonal group, to avoid complexities and ambiguities associated with other attitude representations such as Euler angles or quaternions. By selecting an attitude error function carefully, we show that the proposed control system guarantees a desirable tracking performance uniformly for nontrivial rotational maneuvers involving a large initial attitude error. In a special case where the desired attitude command is fixed, we also show that the attitude dynamics can be stabilized without the knowledge of an inertia matrix. These are illustrated by numerical examples.

Lee, Taeyoung



La innovación educativa desde la metodología: Mejora de las actitudes y competencias científicas de los alumnos (Educational innovation in research methodology: Improving students' scientific skills and attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A programme of educational innovation was implemented to improve the attitude toward research methods for psychology students. Students used real data to test their own hypotheses using different statistical methods. Specifically, they implemented two key methodological principles in research methods: sample size and ordinal claims (Frick, 1996. Students had to work in teams, using Internet data bases for developing the theoretical background of the study, the definition of the objectives, the definition of variables, data analysis, and discussion of results. We assessed the attitudes towards research methods before and after the study. Results showed that: 1 the students improved their skills in research methods, and 2 the attitudes towards methodology were more positive.

Joan Pascual



Attitudes towards chemistry among engineering students (United States)

The attitudes towards chemistry of the engineering students enrolled in an introductory course at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico were explored (n = 115). A mixed methodology was used in an exploratory-oriented research approach. The first stage consisted of the administration of a Likert scale attitudinal survey which was validated during the study's design process. The survey allowed collecting information about the participant's attitudes towards their personal opinion, their perspectives about peer's or relatives' opinion, relevant aspects of the discipline, and difficulty-increasing factors in the chemistry course. The scale internal reliability was measured in a pilot study with a convenience simple, obtaining an acceptable coefficient (Cronbach alpha = 0.731). Survey results evidenced a mainly neutral attitude towards the chemistry course, not highly negative or highly positive, in contrast with other studies in this field. On the other hand, the normality hypothesis was tested for the scores obtained by participants in the survey. Although the pilot study sample had an approximately normal distribution, the scores in obtained by the participants in the survey failed the normality test criteria. The second stage of the study was accomplished using a case study. Among the survey participants, some students were invited to in-depth interviews to elucidate the reasons why they have certain attitudes towards chemistry. Study time, instructor, motivation, term of study, and course schedule are the factors that interviewees agreed as contributors to success or failure in the chemistry course. Interview's participants emphasized that study time is determinant to pass the class. This methodological approach, quantitative followed by qualitative, was useful in describing the attitudes towards chemistry among university students of engineering.

Olivo Delgado, Carlos J.


Impact of Informal Science Education on Children's Attitudes About Science (United States)

The JILA Physics Frontier Center Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC) provides informal afterschool inquiry-based science teaching opportunities for university participants with children typically underrepresented in science. We focus on the potential for this program to help increase children's interest in science, mathematics, and engineering and their understanding of the nature of science by validating the Children's Attitude Survey, which is based on the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey [1] and designed to measure shifts in children's attitudes about science and the nature of science. We present pre- and post-semester results for several semesters of the PISEC program, and demonstrate that, unlike most introductory physics courses in college, our after-school informal science programs support and promote positive attitudes about science.

Wulf, Rosemary; Mayhew, Laurel M.; Finkelstein, Noah D.



HEAO project - Revisited. [attitude control system design for spaceborne astronomy (United States)

A stellar inertial attitude reference with strapdown rate integrating gyros, together with star trackers and a general purpose computer, constitute the attitude control subsystem shared by NASA's HEAO observatories. HEAO-2, which is equipped with the largest and most precise grazing incidence X-ray mirror deployed aboard a satellite to date, has achieved accurate telescope pointing in autonomous maneuvering to selected targets, the acquisition of guide stars for attitude updating, and the positioning of unique experiments at the telescope focal point. Performance data have confirmed maneuvering accuracies of 1 arcmin, and pointing accuracies of 2-5 arcsec. Additional performance results presented support the extrapolation of the present HEAO attitude reference design to future applications.

Wojtalik, F. S.



Show-Me Center (United States)

The Show-Me Center is a partnership of four NSF-sponsored middle grades mathematics curriculum development Satellite Centers (University of Wisconsin, Michigan State University, University of Montana, and the Educational Development Center). The group's website provides "information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematics curricula." The Video Showcase includes segments on Number, Algebra, Geometry, Measure, and Data Analysis, with information on ways to obtain the complete video set. The Curricula Showcase provides general information, unit goals, sample lessons and teacher pages spanning four projects: the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP), Mathematics in Context (MiC), MathScape: Seeing and Thinking Mathematically, and Middle Grades Math Thematics. The website also posts Show-Me Center newsletters, information on upcoming conferences and workshops, and links to resources including published articles and unpublished commentary on mathematics school reform.


Show-Me Magazine (United States)

Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.



Reality, ficción o show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa ?Protagonistas de novela? y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión ?trash?, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

Sandra Ru\\u00EDz Moreno



The influence of female social models in corporate STEM initiatives on girls' math and science attitudes (United States)

The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task value. Male attitudes towards women's role in STEM fields may also require attention. Increasing attitudes seems best achieved through ensuring a highly satisfying experience with the program and their mentor. Study results suggest this requires more considerations than simply matching mentor and mentee race or gender. Reliability results of attitudinal scales provided guidance on assessment strategies.

Medeiros, Donald J.


Evaluating Students' Attitudes in Introductory Geoscience Courses as a Function of Pedagogy and Content (United States)

Introductory geoscience courses at large urban institutions have the potential to increase the scientific literacy of the general population. Therefore, engaging all students in the classroom is critical. As instructors of these courses for non-majors, we have all observed students disengaging from the class for a number of reasons. One hypothesis is students feel out of their element in a large, academic institution. This is particularly true for underrepresented minority, low-income first generation, and immigrant college students - the students on one side of the postsecondary science enrollment gap. This research addresses how, through pedagogy and content, we can engage a more diverse population of students by changing their attitudes towards science. We administered the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) instrument, modified for geology, to students enrolled in introductory geology courses (GEO1001 and PsTL1171) at the University of Minnesota - Twin Cities. This survey consists of 42 questions that measure students" pre- and post-course attitudes towards geology and physical sciences. GEO1001 is a large lecture course where the laboratory content is independent from lecture content. PSTL1171 is offered through the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning; this course has smaller class sizes, and lecture and laboratory content are fully integrated. Demographically, students of color comprise 23% of the student population in GEO1001, in contrast to 73% in PsTL1171. Overall, responses from all students surveyed show a positive shift in attitudes and confidence. However, in comparing responses from only students of color, those enrolled in PsTL1171 demonstrated greater favorable shifts in the categories of personal interests and problem solving confidence. The pre-course responses also indicate that students of color in PsTL1171 started the course with more favorable attitudes towards real world connections than those students in GEO1001. These preliminary survey results reinforce the connection between attitude, confidence, and pedagogy, particularly for underrepresented minority students. Furthermore, the knowledge of increased attitude towards real world connections among students of color can be used in course content development in order to engage a more diverse student population. Future research will address the role of pedagogy on the acquisition and retention of knowledge in these introductory courses.

Fayon, A. K.; Eyssautier, C.



Danish University lecturers’ attitudes towards English as the medium of instruction  


The increasing use of English in research and higher education has been the subject of heated debate in Denmark and other European countries over the last years. This paper sets out the various positions in the national debate in Denmark, and then examines the attitudes towards these positions among the teaching staff at the country’s largest university. Four topics are extracted from the debate – one which expresses a positive attitude towards English and three independent but interrelat...

Christian Jensen; Jacob Thøgersen



[Perception and attitude toward pain]. (United States)

Traditionally, the pain sends back to the infringement of the flesh and the suffering on the infringement of the psyche. The relation of care and the accompanying are due to nature a social fact of relation. In the right line of a first study (Péoc'h et al., 2007) concerning professional representations of health care professionals with respect to the care of the pain, we studied in the context of the theoretical model of the "social thought" (Rouquette, 1973), attitudes, perceptions and the ideological positions of patients about their pain's living. 244 patients hospitalized within the Hospitals of Toulouse have completed a questionnaire included free associations tasks, attitude answers, and answers concerning the ideological dimension of pain (beliefs, religious or anthropological orientation), in fine, a fourth party entered into a phenomenological perspective. The object "pain" will be suspected under the angle of the consciousness and the lived of the patient by using the protocol of the "narrative story of life" (Le Grand, 1989), with a praxeological design. Results indicate that the conceptions of the pain proposed by the patient make references to two different areas: that of the body (evil, handicap) and that of the psyche (evil-being, suffering). The term suffering reveal the social face of the pain in a double constituent: existential (solitude, incomprehension) and ideological (" it is necessary to take its evil in patience ", P = 73,3 %; chi2 = 39,83, p. representation universe of the pain comes along with a certain indecision between these two events of the disease : pain versus suffering. PMID:23091918

Péoc'h, Nadia



General practitioners? attitudes toward reporting and learning from adverse events: results from a survey  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate GPs' attitudes to and willingness to report and learn from adverse events and to study how a reporting system should function. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: General practice in Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GPs' attitudes to exchange of experience with colleagues and others, and circumstances under which such exchange is accepted. SUBJECTS: A structured questionnaire sent to 1198 GPs of whom 61% responded. RESULTS. GPs had a positive attitude towards discussing adverse events in the clinic with colleagues and staff and in their continuing medical education groups. The GPs had a positive attitude to reporting adverse events to a database if the system granted legal and administrative immunity to reporters. The majority preferred a reporting system located at a research institute. CONCLUSION: GPs have a very positive attitude towards discussing and reporting adverse events. This project encourages further research and pilot projects testing concrete reporting systems.

Mikkelsen, ThorbjØrn H.; Sokolowski, Ineta



Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of the article is to analyse the Danish policies used to promote entrepreneurship during the last 30 years. The initiatives to promote entrepreneurship have been implemented as part of Danish industrial policy. The initiatives are presented and ordered according to a model of planned social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether the target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action.

Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per



Pre-Service Teachers Attitude towards Teaching Environmental Education (EE during Practicum in Malaysian Primary Schools  

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Full Text Available Environmental Education (EE has been introduced into the Malaysian Curriculum since 1992. Related to that, EE was found to be an important subject that must be known by the teachers, prior to teach EE indirectly in the classroom. Problems occurred while implementing EE in schools such as; less knowledge about EE an extra burden among teachers to teach. At Teachers Training Institute (TTI, EE is a compulsory subject due to complete their training and this study carried out to identify the attitude of teaching EE among pre-service teachers’. The reliability of the items showed 0.830 cronbach’s alpha. One hundred and twenty five respondents among pre-service teachers’ were analyzed and the result shows pre-service teachers’ have positive attitude towards teaching EE in classroom. Analysis of data shown that there are significant differences between male and female pre-service teachers’ in attitude of teaching, with t = 0.036 (p 0.05.  

Punitha Muniandy



Consumers’ Attitude towards Advertising  

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Full Text Available Advertising is a growing business and with advances in the Internet technology, the dynamics and landscape ofthe business has changed as well. Prior findings on consumers’ attitude towards advertising are mixed. Thispaper is an attempt to examine young adults’ attitude towards advertising. We conceptualized a framework toexamine the influence of six independent variables namely consumer manipulation, product information,hedonic/pleasure, economic condition, social integration, and materialism on consumers’ attitude towardsadvertising. Participants were selected from the southern region of Malaysia. The data were collected throughpersonal administration, and had 217 valid responses. The analysis reveals that four of the six hypotheses weresupported. Consumer manipulation emerged negative, which is consistent with past findings. These findingswould enable practitioners to be more consumer-sensitive to ensure that the advertising campaigns are properlyconceived to avoid adverse effects on a firm’s performance. The findings would also benefit consumers ingaining additional understanding on the roles of social networks in persuading specific purchase. This paper alsocontributes contextual literature on the perspectives of consumers’ in Malaysia.

Uchenna Cyril Eze



Pew Global Attitudes Project (United States)

Most social scientists will tell you that it is fairly hard to get any type of meaningful sense of public opinion on any number of important issues, so it is with great interest that the Scout Report has found the website of the Pew Global Attitudes Project. With principal funding from The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Global Attitudes Project was created with the intent to gauge public attitudes toward globalization, democracy, and a number of other crucial issues. To accomplish this task, they have conducted over 90,000 interviews in 50 countries over the past few years. So far, their work has yielded a number of intriguing reports which deal with subjects such as Islamic extremism, the war in Iraq, and prosperity in China. Visitors can view all of these reports on the site, and also take a look at the datasets used to craft each report. Finally, visitors can elect to sign up to receive email updates when new reports are released.


Attitudes towards wind power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planning permission for the construction of a small 'farm' of wind turbines at Delabole (Deli windfarm) had been obtained and it was intended to use this source of renewable energy by generating electricity and selling it to the electrical power companies for distribution through the National Grid. It was important, therefore, to establish just what the attitudes of local residents were to the proposed development. A programme of research was discussed with the developer and it was agreed that an attitude survey would be conducted in the local area in the summer of 1990, before the turbines were erected, and before the tourist season was completely spent in order to obtain the views of visitors as well. A similar survey would then be done one year later, when the Deli windfarm was established and running. In addition, control samples would be taken at these two times in Exeter to give baseline information on attitudes toward this topic. This proposal was put to the developer and agreement was reached with him and the UK Department of Energy who were providing financial support for the research. The results of the research are reported. (author)


The Importance of Attitudes in Statistics Education (United States)

People forget what they do not use. But attitudes "stick." Our article emphasizes the importance of students' attitudes toward statistics. We examine 15 surveys that purport to assess these attitudes and then describe the "Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics," a commonly used attitude survey. We present our conceptual model of Students'…

Ramirez, Caroline; Schau, Candace; Emmioglu, Esma




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Full Text Available Online teaching has long been a key area of interest recently in every field of education as well as English language teaching. Numerous hardware tools, such as, mp3 players, mobile devices, and so on; and software applications, such as, podcasts, wikis, learning management systems, and so on, have been used in distance and online instruction and they have proved to be useful in facilitating learning individually (Finger, Sun, & Jamieson-Proctor, 2010. Learning management systems (LMS provide a virtual environment and various tools to support learning. The current institution where the researchers work deliver two 2-credit online English courses for a specific group of learners at a state university in south-eastern Turkey by using Modular Object Oriented Distance Learning Environment (MOODLE. Moodle is an open code LMS which provides teachers and course developers with numerous online tools to enhance distance learning/teaching environment. The course has both a synchronous and asynchronous instruction. Synchronous and asynchronous instructions are associated with the delivery of content in campus-based environments; however, their role differs in off the campus environments as they solve the problems of distance learners. Universities, colleges, and other education institutions are integrating online learning into every aspect of higher education. Many teachers and faculty members at higher education institutions who already run face-to-face courses have a website to post lecture notes or slide presentations as well as other course material. There is no doubt that these are effective strategies to expand teaching efforts. Still, there are other educators who design and teach totally online classes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate learners’ attitudes towards these online language courses, and there are two objectives of this research. The first one is to discover learners’ attitudes towards the online English course; and the second purpose is to evaluate and correlate learners’ attitudes with their success determined with their end-of-the-year grades. For the unique purpose of this study, an Online Language Learning Attitude Test (OLLAT has been constructed and distributed to about 7000 learners who were invited to complete this task online. 3516 of these learners took the OLLAT voluntarily and 1783 were successfully completed the test and were included in this study. The findings showed that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between learners’ OLLAT scores and their course success.




Egg: the Arts Show (United States)

"Egg is a new TV show about people making art across America" from PBS. This accompanying Website presents excerpts from sixteen episodes of the series, with three more "hatching soon," such as Close to Home, profiling three photographers: Jeanine Pohlhaus, whose pictures document her father's struggle with mental illness; Gregory Crewdson's photos of Lee, Massachusetts; and Joseph Rodriguez's photos of Hispanics in New York City. Excerpts include video clips, gallery listings where the artists' work can be seen, and short interviews with artists. Some episodes also offer "peeps," glimpses of material not shown on TV, such as the Space episode's peep, Shooting Stars, that provides directions for astrophotography, taking photographs of star trails. Other sections of the site are airdates, for local listings; see and do usa, where vacationers can search for art events at their destinations; and egg on the arts, a discussion forum.


American History Picture Show (United States)

In class we read Katie's Picture Show, a book about a girl who discovers art first-hand one day at an art museum in London. She realizes she can climb into the paintings, explore her surroundings, and even solve problems for the subjects of the paintings. As part of our unit on American history, we are going to use art to further learn about some of the important events we have been discussing. Each of these works of art depicts an important event in American History. When you click on a picture, you will be able to see the name of the event as well as the artist who created it. You will be using all three pictures for this assignment.Use the websites ...

Ms. Bennion



Industrial psychology students' attitudes towards statistics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ORIENTATION: The attitude of students toward statistics may influence their enrolment, achievement and motivation in the subject of research and Industrial Psychology. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of the survey of attitudes toward statistics [...] (SATS-36) for a South African sample and to determine whether biographical variables influence students' attitudes. MOTIVATION FOR STUDY: Students could be better prepared for, and guided through, a course in statistics if more is known about their attitudes towards statistics. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used and the SATS36 was administered to a sample of convenience consisting of 235 students enrolled in Industrial and Organisational Psychology at a large tertiary institution in South Africa. MAIN FINDINGS: Results revealed that even though students perceive statistics to be technical, complicated and difficult to master, they are interested in the subject and believe statistics to be of value. The degree to which students perceived themselves to be competent in mathematics was related to the degree to which they felt confident in their own ability to master statistics. Males displayed slightly more positive feelings toward statistics than females. Older students perceived statistics to be less difficult than younger students and also displayed slightly more positive feelings concerning statistics. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: It seems that in preparing students for statistics, their perception regarding their mathematical competence could be managed as well. CONTRIBUTION: This study provides the first preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the SATS-36 for a sample of South African students.

Sanet, Coetzee; Pieter van der, Merwe.


The Effect of a Student-Designed Data Collection: Project on Attitudes toward Statistics (United States)

Students often enter an introductory statistics class with less than positive attitudes about the subject. They tend to believe statistics is difficult and irrelevant to their lives. Observational evidence from previous studies suggests including projects in a statistics course may enhance students' attitudes toward statistics. This study examines…

Carnell, Lisa J.



Influence of Clerkship on Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry across Cultures: United States and Qatar (United States)

Objective: To assure adequate treatment for patients with mental illness worldwide, medical schools must impart positive attitudes toward psychiatry. The authors examined the effect of culture on changes in attitudes toward psychiatry among medical students receiving the same psychiatry clerkship curriculum in two different countries. Methods: A…

Burgut, F. Tuna; Polan, H. Jonathan



The Consequences of Divorce for Attitudes toward Divorce and Gender Roles. (United States)

Examined consequences of divorce for attitudes toward divorce and gender roles among national sample of adults (n=2,033). Individuals from divorced families of origin revealed more positive attitudes toward divorce than did those who grew up in happy intact families. Those who recalled their parents' marriage as being unhappy had relatively…

Amato, Paul R.; Booth, Alan



The Persuasive Power of Emotions: Effects of Emotional Expressions on Attitude Formation and Change. (United States)

Despite a long-standing interest in the intrapersonal role of affect in persuasion, the interpersonal effects of emotions on persuasion remain poorly understood-how do one person's emotional expressions shape others' attitudes? Drawing on emotions as social information (EASI) theory (Van Kleef, 2009), we hypothesized that people use the emotional expressions of others to inform their own attitudes, but only when they are sufficiently motivated and able to process those expressions. Five experiments support these ideas. Participants reported more positive attitudes about various topics after seeing a source's sad (rather than happy) expressions when topics were negatively framed (e.g., abandoning bobsleighing from the Olympics). Conversely, participants reported more positive attitudes after seeing happy (rather than sad) expressions when topics were positively framed (e.g., introducing kite surfing at the Olympics). This suggests that participants used the source's emotional expressions as information when forming their own attitudes. Supporting this interpretation, effects were mitigated when participants' information processing was undermined by cognitive load or was chronically low. Moreover, a source's anger expressions engendered negative attitude change when directed at the attitude object and positive change when directed at the recipient's attitude. Effects occurred regardless of whether emotional expressions were manipulated through written words, pictures of facial expressions, film clips containing both facial and vocal emotional expressions, or emoticons. The findings support EASI theory and indicate that emotional expressions are a powerful source of social influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402955

Van Kleef, Gerben A; van den Berg, Helma; Heerdink, Marc W



Understanding the Attitude-Action Gap: Functional Integration of Environmental Aspects in Car Purchase Intentions (United States)

This study aims at understanding how a general positive attitude toward the environment results in a limited purchase of environmentally friendlier cars, often referred to as the attitude-action gap. In a first experiment 27 volunteers performed a judgment task on car purchase intention. Participants were asked to evaluate the probability of…

Mairesse, Olivier; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Turcksin, Laurence



An Empirical Study of Hospitality Management Student Attitudes toward Group Projects: Instructional Factors and Team Problems (United States)

The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…

Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung



Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana (United States)

This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

Boakye, Kofi E.



Tongan Students' Attitudes towards Their Subjects in New Zealand Relative to Their Academic Achievement (United States)

Research indicates that affective attitudes such as liking of a subject and confidence in one's ability within a subject predict academic performance. Generally, immigrant minority students have positive attitudes and often have low academic performance. This study examines the self-efficacy and liking of subjects of New Zealand students and…

Otunuku, Mo'ale; Brown, Gavin T. L.



Friendship and Attitudes toward School among Children of Two Muslim Communities in Marseille. (United States)

Compared Comorian and Algerian 10- and 11-year-old immigrants' attitudes toward school, friendship nominations, and friendship quality. Found that ethnic origin was a factor in choosing friends; positive friendship quality associated with better attitudes toward school; and in-group friendships were more common and of higher quality than those…

Alles-Jardel, Monique; Schneider, Barry H.; Boutry, Virginie



Social Class, Attitudes and Achievement: Two Subsidiary Studies from the "Streaming" Research Data. (United States)

The aim of this research was to determine the relative importance of certain variables for different social classes in the formation of positive attitudes toward school and school work. In the first study, complete data were obtained from 884 third-year junior school pupils in 28 schools located throughout England. Attitude toward school was…

Lunn, Joan C. Barker


Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory (United States)

The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado



The Effect of Initial Brand Image on Category Fitness and Brand-Extension Attitude  

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Full Text Available The introduction of products with a similar brand name can function as a lever on the brand image, brand awareness and in general in reaching the brand equity in the established markets, the relation or connection of an existing brand with a new product can affect the relations and connections of the existing brand image as well as the loyalty to the brand. This effect can be positive or negative. Through investigating this image the researcher tried to help the company to guaranty a fit image, compete in the global scene and stabilize its position. The study in this research took place on Tehran districts. As the sample, the researcher chose 500 of Faloodeh-ice-cream consumers of Mihan Company through simple cluster sampling and gained the required data about the consumers’ views and ideas through questionnaire. The data has been analyzed by using Lisrel software. The research findings showed that the brand image has positive and direct influence on the perceived category fitness, the perceived category fitness on the brand-extension attitude and the initial brand image on the brand -extension attitude respectively. Companies had better avoid ruining the original brand position in the consumers’ mind by maintaining the appropriateness of their new products which were produced in proportion with the consumers’ ideas and needs.

Ebrahim Zarepour Nasirabadi



Attitudes to cadaveric organ donation in Irish preclinical medical students.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this topic, there has been none in Ireland. Anatomy dissection can be a stressor to medical students-we investigate the attitudes of Irish students to organ donation and how they change with exposure to anatomy dissection. A questionnaire was administered to first year students in the School of Medicine in University College Dublin, Ireland, three times over a nine-week period at the commencement of classes in an academic year. The attitudes of the students were positive throughout regarding organ donation by a stranger, a family member, or themselves. There was, however, a significant decrease in support for the donation of a family member\\'s organs in a minority of students. Irish students\\' attitudes to postmortem organ donation are positive and are not changed by exposure to the dissecting room. There is support for the donation of organs, and willingness among students to donate their own organs and support donation by family members.

Cahill, Kevin C



Examining The Impact Of Mobile Marketing On Consumers' Attitudes and Purchase Intentions.  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the impact of mobile marketing on consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions. More specifically the research intended to measure Jordanian consumers' acceptance of SMS advertising. A number of hypotheses were formulated for this purpose. The findings of the study show that there existed positive relationship between perceived usefulness, perceived entertainment and intention to participate and purchase intention. Whereas there existed negative relationship between personal use, extensive advertising, privacy concern and intention to participate and purchase intention. Based on the results a number of recommendations were proposed, and suggestions for future studies were made.

Basheer Abbass Al-alak



A Study of Students and Teachers' Preferences and Attitudes towards Correction of Classroom Written Errors in Saudi EFL Context  

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Full Text Available It is no doubt that teacher written feedback plays an essential role in teaching writing skill. The present study, by use of questionnaire, investigates Saudi EFL students' and teachers' preferences and attitudes towards written error corrections. The study also aims at identifying the difficulties encountered by teachers and students during the feedback process. The questionnaire findings reveal that both teachers and students have positive attitudes towards written error correction. The study also shows that while teachers and students share such common preferences as the importance of error correction and the types of errors, there are considerable discrepancies as to the techniques of error correction. For instance, students favor the overall correction, whereas most teachers do not. However, the results show that students prefer teacher correction to peer and self-correction. Moreover, both the teachers and students have encountered a number of difficulties, so suggestions have been investigated so as to deal with the problems.

Arafat Hamouda



Showing Value (Editorial  

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Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

Denise Koufogiannakis




Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Como aporte a la comprensión del comportamiento socialmente responsable en estudiantes universitarios, el estudio pretende identificar sus valores y actitudes hacia la responsabilidad social; determinar diferencias según sexo, promoción y área de pertenencia de la carrera e identificar la relación e [...] ntre valores, actitudes hacia esta y el comportamiento socialmente responsable. Se encuestó a 2.876 estudiantes de seis universidades chilenas con CAVSR y CACSR (Proyecto MECESUP UCO0303, 2004-2008). Los resultados muestran una relación positiva muy significativa entre valores, actitudes y comportamiento socialmente responsable; compromiso con valores y actitudes vinculados a las vivencias próximas a los universitarios y menor compromiso con aquellos vinculados al bienestar social, la ciudadanía, democracia y participación. Se observan, además, diferencias significativas según sexo, promoción y área de pertenencia de la carrera. Como conclusión, se observa la necesidad de impulsar prácticas educativas que activen valores menos preponderantes y promuevan actitudes positivas hacia ellos a fin de lograr un ejercicio pleno de la responsabilidad social. Abstract in english As a contribution to comprehension of the socially responsible behaviour in college students, this study tries to identify their values and attitudes towards social responsibility; to determine differences according to gender, promotion and career areas and to identify the relationship among values, [...] attitudes towards social responsibility and a socially responsible behaviour. It surveyed 2.876 students from six Chilean universities by CAVSR and CACSR (Project MECESUP UCO0303, 2004-2008). Results show a very positive and significant relation among values, attitudes and socially responsible behaviour, commitment with values and attitudes that are closer to college student experiences and less commitment with those linked to social wellbeing, citizenship, democracy and participation. There are significant differences according to gender, promotion and career areas. As a conclusion, there is a need to stimulate educational practices that activate less preponderant values and promote positive attitudes towards them in order to achieve a social responsibility full exercise.