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Sample records for showed positive attitudes

  1. Promoting Positive Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Schools have been preoccupied with pupils' attainment in recent years. Consequently there has been a risk of neglecting other important aspects of learning mathematics. One of these is pupils' attitudes and affective responses. In this article, the author discusses the impact of pupils' attitudes on their attainment in mathematics and the…

  2. Positive dissimilarity attitudes in multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the field of diversity studies with novel insights on how language diversity and communication frequency influence dissimilarity attitudes. Design/methodology/approach – The authors examine language diversity and communication frequency as group-level antecedents for positive dissimilarity attitudes by use of questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic culturally diverse departments. Findings – The results showed that communication...

  3. Tracking Positions and Attitudes of Mars Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Khaled; vanelli, Charles; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Martin, Alejandro San; Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Alexander, James

    2006-01-01

    The Surface Attitude Position and Pointing (SAPP) software, which runs on computers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers, tracks the positions and attitudes of the rovers on the surface of Mars. Each rover acquires data on attitude from a combination of accelerometer readings and images of the Sun acquired autonomously, using a pointable camera to search the sky for the Sun. Depending on the nature of movement commanded remotely by operators on Earth, the software propagates attitude and position by use of either (1) accelerometer and gyroscope readings or (2) gyroscope readings and wheel odometry. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine-tune the position updates, particularly on high-wheel-slip terrain. The attitude data are used by other software and ground-based personnel for pointing a high-gain antenna, planning and execution of driving, and positioning and aiming scientific instruments.

  4. Developing positive worker attitudes toward radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teamwork, productivity, and reducing exposure are admirable goals presented to the workers in a nuclear power plant. A common thread to achievement in these areas resides in worker attitudes toward the tasks presented. A positive, alert, and cooperative attitude is an element in a worker's mind that must be created and maintained by good leadership and management practices. At the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, management has used certain strategies to foster good positive worker attitudes toward radiation protection and quality workmanship in all tasks. Strategies differ from management by objectives in that they have no deadlines or timetables in and of themselves. Rather, strategies are preplanned methods that can be called upon when the opportunity arises to improve worker attitudes. A series of five strategies for positive attitude development are described in the full paper. The strategies are identified with buzz words to allow the user a recall mechanism (as with the acronyms abounding in the nuclear industry). They cover the range of management techniques from example setting to reward/recognition. Although not unique to radiation exposure management, nor all inclusive, the strategies provide some though stimulation in creating productive worker attitudes

  5. Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-02-01

    Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

  6. Positive Mood Risk Attitudes, and Investment Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepori, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Positive mood has been repeatedly shown to affect risk attitudes in laboratory settings, where subjects’ exposure to movie clips is among the most widely used and effective mood-induction procedures. Yet, conflicting lab results about the estimated sign of the mood effect have led researchers to formulate two alternative theories. The affect infusion model (AIM) argues that happy moods foster risk-prone behavior, whereas the mood-maintenance hypothesis (MMH) takes the opposite stance. In this pa...

  7. Generalization of positive and negative attitudes toward individuals to outgroup attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Tobias H; Flache, Andreas; Veenstra, René

    2013-05-01

    The generalization of attitudes toward individual outgroup members into attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole can affect intergroup relations. However, little is known about the relative strengths of the generalization of negative and positive interpersonal attitudes into attitudes about the outgroup. The unique contribution of negative (disliking) interpersonal attitudes to intergroup attitudes was examined and its strength was compared with the effect of positive (liking) interpersonal attitudes, using cross-sectional (Study 1; N = 733, age 10-12) and longitudinal data (Study 2; N = 960, age 12-13). Disliking uniquely contributed to respondents' outgroup attitudes. The generalization of interpersonal liking and disliking was about equally strong in both studies. This underpins the importance of examining the effects of both positive and negative intergroup contact experiences on the formation of outgroup attitudes. PMID:23471320

  8. Creating Positive Attitudes toward Reading in Public Schools and Homeschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick

    Learning environments have an impact on acquiring skills in reading as well as developing positive attitudes toward reading. Another variable that affects attitudes and aptitude toward reading is the "climate" or "environment" in which children learn their skills. This paper concentrates on the phenomenon that is reaching epic proportions in the…

  9. Beyond the Usual Suspects: Positive Attitudes Towards Positive Symptoms Is Associated With Medication Noncompliance in Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz, Steffen; Favrod, Jerome; Andreou, Christina; Morrison, Anthony P; Bohn, Francesca; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Tonn, Peter; Karow, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic medication represents the treatment of choice in psychosis according to clinical guidelines. Nevertheless, studies show that half to almost three-quarter of all patients discontinue medication with antipsychotics after some time, a fact which is traditionally ascribed to side-effects, mistrust against the clinician and poor illness insight. The present study investigated whether positive attitudes toward psychotic symptoms (ie, gain from illness) represent a further factor for m...

  10. Position and attitude tracking control for a quadrotor UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui

    2014-05-01

    A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances. PMID:24534327

  11. Video-Based Sensor for Robotic Position and Attitude determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.; Roe, Fred D., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has, for the last ten years, developed various video-based sensors for use in automated docking systems. The latest generation of sensor will operate at rates of up to 100 Hz, determining the relative position (X, Y, and Z) and attitude (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw) between the sensor and a small 3-dimensional target, making it suitable for applications in robotic sensing. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) is designed to track multiple targets at different ranges and determine the position and attitude of each one. The previous generation of video sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was flown twice on the Space Shuttle to test its performance on orbit. One of the tests performed was determining the relative positions and attitudes between the VGS and its target, which was moved to various positions using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The RMS position data and VGS measured data were analyzed after the flights, with good correlation between the position and attitude data of the two data sets. The test using the RMS gives a good idea of the ability of the use of the AVGS as a sensor for end-effector position and attitude determination.

  12. Predictive Attitude Estimation Using Global Positioning System Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Ketchum, Eleanor

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm is developed for attitude estimation using Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. The new algorithm is based on a predictive filtering scheme designed for spacecraft without rate measuring devices. The major advantage of this new algorithm over traditional Kalman filter approaches is that the model error is not assumed to represented by an unbiased Gaussian noise process with known covariance, but instead is determined during the estimation process. This is achieved by simultaneously solving system optimality conditions and an output error constraint. This approach is well suited for GPS attitude estimation since some error sources that contribute to attitude inaccuracy, such as signal multipath, are known to be non-Gaussian processes. Also, the predictive filter scheme can use either GPS signals or vector observations or a combination of both for attitude estimation, so that performance characteristics can be maintained during periods of GPS attitude sensor outage. The performance of the new algorithm is tested using flight data from the REX-2 spacecraft. Results are shown using the predictive filter to estimate the attitude from both GPS signals and magnetometer measurements, and comparing that solution to a magnetometer-only based solution. Results using the new estimation algorithm indicate that GPS-based solutions are verified to within 2 degrees using the magnetometer cross-check for the REX-2 spacecraft. GPS attitude accuracy of better than 1 degree is expected per axis, but cannot be reliably proven due to inaccuracies in the magnetic field model.

  13. Single mothers raising children with "male-positive" attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J; Craft, Shonda M

    2011-03-01

    Among the challenges facing single mothers, a particularly difficult one is how to help children develop "male-positive" attitudes in situations when the parents have broken up and children have no active relationship with the father. Despite a large academic literature on single mothering, there is strikingly little discussion on this topic. Using symbolic interactionism and family systems theory, we offer psychoeducational messages for single mothers who want to raise their children with male-positive attitudes. We also call for a new cultural conversation on an issue ignored for too long. PMID:21361924

  14. Multi-platform Integrated Positioning and Attitude Determination using GNSS:

    OpenAIRE

    Buist, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    There is trend in spacecraft engineering toward distributed systems where a number of smaller spacecraft work as a larger satellite. However, in order to make the small satellites work together as a single large platform, the precise relative positions (baseline) and orientations (attitude) of the elements of the formation have to be estimated. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, the general term for systems as GPS and Galileo) receivers can be utilized to provide baseline estimates wit...

  15. A vectorial bootstrapping approach for integrated GNSS-based relative positioning and attitude determination of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Peter J.; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Verhagen, Sandra; Giorgi, Gabriele

    2011-04-01

    Traditionally in multi-spacecraft missions (e.g. formation flying, rendezvous) the GNSS-based relative positioning and attitude determination problem are treated as independent. In this contribution we will investigate the possibility to use multi-antenna data from each spacecraft, not only for attitude determination, but also to improve the relative positioning between spacecraft. Both for ambiguity resolution and accuracy of the baseline solution, we will show the theoretical improvement achievable as a function of the number of antennas on each platform. We concentrate on ambiguity resolution as the key to precise relative positioning and attitude determination and will show the theoretical limit of this kind of approach. We will use mission parameters of the European Proba-3 satellites in a software-based algorithm verification and a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The software simulations indicated that this approach can improve single epoch ambiguity resolution up to 50% for relative positioning applying the typical antenna configurations for attitude determination. The hardware-in-the-loop simulations show that for the same antenna configurations, the accuracy of the relative positioning solution can improve up to 40%.

  16. IMU/GPS System Provides Position and Attitude Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching Fang

    2006-01-01

    A special navigation system is being developed to provide high-quality information on the position and attitude of a moving platform (an aircraft or spacecraft), for use in pointing and stabilization of a hyperspectral remote-sensing system carried aboard the platform. The system also serves to enable synchronization and interpretation of readouts of all onboard sensors. The heart of the system is a commercially available unit, small enough to be held in one hand, that contains an integral combination of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, a differential GPS subsystem, and ancillary data-processing subsystems. The system utilizes GPS carrier-phase measurements to generate time data plus highly accurate and continuous data on the position, attitude, rotation, and acceleration of the platform. Relative to prior navigation systems based on IMU and GPS subsystems, this system is smaller, is less expensive, and performs better. Optionally, the system can easily be connected to a laptop computer for demonstration and evaluation. In addition to airborne and spaceborne remote-sensing applications, there are numerous potential terrestrial sensing, measurement, and navigation applications in diverse endeavors that include forestry, environmental monitoring, agriculture, mining, and robotics.

  17. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2013-08-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

  18. Patterns of healthy lifestyle and positive health attitudes in older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlowska, Katarzyna; Szczecinka, A.; Roszkowski, Wojciech; Brzozowska, A.; Alfonso, C.; Fjellstrom, Christina; Morais, Cecilia; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Pfau, Cornelia; Saba, Anna; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Turrini, Aida; Raats, Monique; Lumbers, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (i) the extent to which recommended lifestyle healthy behaviors are adopted and the existence of positive attitudes to health; (ii) the relative influence of socio-demographic variables on multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health; (iii) the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health. Design: two distinct healthy behavioral measures were developed: (i) healthy lifestyles based on physical activity, no ciga...

  19. Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo Kabashima

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects’ self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

  20. An experimental study of the effect of green positioning on brand attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRIK HARTMANN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the environmental impact of a product or its manufacturing process not necessarily limits the company’s activities. In the context of a green branding strategy, it might as well open new business opportunities. Ecological positioning provides a strategic tool for the active implementation of green brands. The empirical study shows that more positive attitudes are developed towards a brand positioned by environmental attributes and that these effects vary as a result of the implementation of different types of ecological positioning strategies. Although most researchers in ecological marketing recommend rational persuasion strategies, in this study the effect of an ecological positioning by emotional brand benefits appears to be even stronger than effects of rational perceptions of functional benefits for the environment.

  1. STRAP V - Higher accuracy, lower drift attitude control system. [Stellar Tracking Rocket Attitude Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, T. J.; Collinson, T. W.; Stone, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The STRAP V system was developed to provide higher accuracy and lower limit cycle fine pointing (+ or - 7 arcseconds) in all three axes at targets which cannot be tracked by startrackers or solar trackers. The system provides an increase in pointing performance over that obtainable with the STRAP IV (1) Attitude Control System (ACS). The STRAP IV concept of third axis updates is utilized to reduce pointing errors, using the flight-proven STRAP III (2) system as a first stage. Flight aspect photographs and telemetry records show that the STRAP V objectives have been met. The STRAP IV major error contributors have been significantly reduced and the tracking flexibility has been increased with only minor error contributions. Attention is given to the basic STRAP III control modes, major STRAP IV system error sources, tuned restrained inertial gyros (TRIGs), the programmable sequence timer, the STRAP V control box, third axis update, system gyro alignments, and STRAP V operational capabilities.

  2. Patterns of healthy lifestyle and positive health attitudes in older Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlowska, Katarzyna; Szczecinka, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (i) the extent to which recommended lifestyle healthy behaviors are adopted and the existence of positive attitudes to health; (ii) the relative influence of socio-demographic variables on multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health; (iii) the association between healthy lifestyle behaviors and positive attitudes to health. Design: two distinct healthy behavioral measures were developed: (i) healthy lifestyles based on physical activity, no cigarette smoking, no/moderate alcohol drinking, maintaining a "healthy" weight and having no sleeping problems and (ii) positive health attitudes based on having positive emotional attitudes, such as: self-perceived good health status, being calm, peaceful and happy for most of the time, not expecting health to get worse and regular health check-ups. A composite healthy lifestyle index, ranging from 0 (none of behaviors met) to 5 (all behaviors met) was calculated by summing up the individual's scores for the five healthylifestyle items. Afterwards, each individual's index was collapsed into three levels: 0-2 equivalent to 'level 1' (subjectively regarded as 'too low'), a score of 3 equivalent to 'level 2' ('fair') and 4-5 as 'level 3' satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' practices. The same procedure was applied to the positive health attitudes index. Multinomial logistic regression analyses by a forward selection procedure were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Participants: a multi-national sample consisting of 638 older Europeans from 8 countries, aged 65-74 and 75+, living alone or with others. Results and conclusions: maintaining a "healthy" weight was the most frequently cited factor in the healthy lifestyles index and therefore assumed to be the most important to the older Europeans in the study; positive attitudes to health were relatively low; participants achieved a 'satisfactory' level for healthy lifestyles index (level 3) more frequently than a satisfactory level for positive attitudes to health; having a satisfactory 'healthy lifestyle' was directly related to having a satisfactory level of positive attitudes to health based on the positive health attitudes index; income and geographical location in Europe appeared to be key predictors for meeting both the recommended healthy lifestyle factors in the index and having positive health attitudes however, the composition and nature of the study sample should be taken into consideration when considering the impact of the location on healthy lifestyles and attitudes to health across Europe.

  3. IceBridge GPS/IMU L1B Primary Position and Attitude Solution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge GPS/IMU L1B Primary Position and Attitude Solution (IPUTG1B) data set contains elevation, roll, pitch, heading, north-south acceleration,...

  4. IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data (IPPLV1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 and 610 POS AV systems...

  5. Community attitudes toward childbearing and abortion among HIV-positive women in Nigeria and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanaugh, Megan L.; Moore, Ann M.; Akinyemi, Odunayo; Adewole, Isaac; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Awolude, Olutosin; Arulogun, Oyedunni

    2012-01-01

    Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcome of an HIV-positive woman’s pregnancy – induced abortion or birth – to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards...

  6. Using constructivist teaching strategies in high school science classrooms to cultivate positive attitudes toward science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Lory Elen

    This study investigated the premise that the use of constructivist teaching strategies (independent variable) in high school science classrooms can cultivate positive attitudes toward science (dependent variable) in high school students. Data regarding the relationship between the use of constructivist strategies and change in student attitude toward science were collected using the Science Attitude Assessment Tool (SAAT) (Heron & Beauchamp, 1996). The format of this study used the pre-test, post-test, control group-experimental group design. The subjects in the study were high school students enrolled in biology, chemistry, or environmental science courses in two high schools in the western United States. Ten teachers and twenty-eight classes, involving a total of 249 students participated in the study. Six experimental group teachers and four control group teachers were each observed an average of six times using the Science Observation Guide (Chapman, 1995) to measure the frequency of observed constructivist behaviors. The mean for the control group teachers was 12.89 and the mean for experimental group teachers was 20.67; F(1, 8) = 16.2, p =.004, revealing teaching behaviors differed significantly between the two groups. After a four month experimental period, the pre-test and post-test SAAT scores were analyzed. Students received a score for their difference in positive attitude toward science. The null hypothesis stating there would be no change in attitude toward science as a subject, between students exposed to constructivist strategies, and students not exposed to constructivist strategies was rejected F(1, 247) = 8.04, p =.005. The control group had a generally higher reported grade in their last science class than the experimental group, yet the control group attitude toward science became more negative (-1.18) while attitude toward science in the experimental group became more positive (+1.34) after the four-month period. An analysis of positive attitude toward science vs. gender was undertaken. An initial significant difference in positive attitude toward science between females and males in the experimental group was established (p =.05). There was no significant difference in positive attitude toward science between those same females and males after the experimental period. Consistent with other results, attitudes toward science for both males and females in the control group became less positive after the study, while males and females in the experimental group had a more positive attitude toward science after four months of using constructivist strategies. Looking at females only, the control group started out with a significantly more positive attitude toward science (mean = 43.40) compared to the experimental group (mean = 39.26, p =.0261). Although a significant difference in positive attitude between females in both groups was not found after the treatment period, the mean attitude score for females in the experimental group increased 2.044, while the mean attitude score for females in the control group decreased by 1.750. Constructivist strategies and their relationship with fostering positive attitudes toward science, might prove a viable solution for addressing the major concern of gender equity and enrollment in higher level science and mathematics courses.

  7. Vector Observation-Aided/Attitude-Rate Estimation Using Global Positioning System Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshman, Yaakov; Markley, F. Landis

    1997-01-01

    A sequential filtering algorithm is presented for attitude and attitude-rate estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) differential carrier phase measurements. A third-order, minimal-parameter method for solving the attitude matrix kinematic equation is used to parameterize the filter's state, which renders the resulting estimator computationally efficient. Borrowing from tracking theory concepts, the angular acceleration is modeled as an exponentially autocorrelated stochastic process, thus avoiding the use of the uncertain spacecraft dynamic model. The new formulation facilitates the use of aiding vector observations in a unified filtering algorithm, which can enhance the method's robustness and accuracy. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  8. Promoting nursing students' positive attitudes toward providing care for suicidal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, C

    1993-01-01

    Nurses may encounter patients who are suicidal in most clinical settings, yet many nurses report a negative attitude toward providing care for these patients. Nursing programs, in which students learn about suicide and develop skills in assessing and intervening with patients who are suicidal, are opportune settings for promoting a positive attitude toward providing care for suicide attempters. An experimental study compared the effectiveness of an interactive teaching strategy known as "structured controversy" with a lecture on promoting a positive attitude. A questionnaire based on Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) theory of reasoned action was used to measure attitude, and was completed by 51 senior nursing students following a suicide class session. Students who had participated in structured controversy on suicide were significantly more positive on the stress/frustration factor extracted from a scale of attitude items. Students who had listened to the suicide lecture held significantly more positive beliefs about providing care for suicidal patients. Implications for education and practice are discussed. PMID:8454465

  9. Attitude Estimation and Position Control of VTOL UAVs using IMU and GPS Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We address two fundamental problems associated with the control of vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs): attitude estimation and position control. We propose two velocity-aided attitude observers which utilize a global-positioning system (GPS) in addition to an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The `velocity-aided' class of observer uses an accelerometer to measure the system \\emph{apparent acceleration} (instead of the gravity vector), and is therefore better suited for applications where the rigid-body (aircraft) is subjected to significant linear accelerations (which is to be expected for VTOL UAVs). We also propose a position controller which utilizes the accelerometer in a similar fashion. More precisely, rather than using the system orientation (as is usually done in the existing position controllers), we use the vector measurements (accelerometer and magnetometer measurements) directly in the position control law. Consequently, the proposed position controller does not ...

  10. Positive Attitude: A Guarantee for Success in Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Aiqing Meng

    2010-01-01

    Faced with the current severe employment situation, college students have passive psychology, which influences their employment. In order to have better employment, college students should have positive psychological quality.

  11. New sensor for triangulation measurement of AGV attitude and position

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Mariolino

    2001-09-01

    This work discusses the working principle and mechanical details of a new scanning transducer for angle measurement between IR modulated emitters placed in known positions. The system can be used for position estimation of AGVs inside structured environments. Position is computed by triangulation. The advantage of the proposed transducer is that, having approximately the same accuracy of the commonly widespread laser system, it makes us of active targets, which allow a further degree of freedom: height for target installation. In other words, coplanarity between targets and plane of scanning is no longer required. Consequently, target visibility may be achieved even in the case of bulky machinery placed inside the factory environment. Repeatability error in angle estimation is +/- 47 arcseconds, which means that positional accuracy in a square 10 m room is +/- 2 mm.

  12. Student Teachers' Development of a Positive Attitude towards Research and Research Knowledge and Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…

  13. Beyond fear appeals: contradicting positive smoking outcome expectancies to influence smokers' implicit attitudes, perception, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Sabine; Unz, Dagmar; Kovacs, Carrie

    2012-04-01

    Smokers often have (implicit or explicit) positive smoking outcome expectancies that motivate them to smoke. For instance, they may feel that smoking is relaxing, that it improves concentration, or that it is seen as cool and attractive by peers. These expectations are, for the most part, illusory. In order to counteract these expectations, we designed cigarette package warning labels that contradicted common positive outcome expectancies. We investigated the effectiveness of our new warning labels in two experiments. We first measured smokers' implicit attitudes toward smoking using an affective priming method and found that our new warning labels changed positive attitudes into ambivalent attitudes. We then tested whether our warning labels changed smokers' self-reported positive outcome expectancies and smoking behavior. Smokers presented with the new warning labels immediately associated positive outcome expectancies less strongly with smoking and reported smoking fewer cigarettes in the 24 hours following the experiment. Explicitly taking the reasons for unhealthy behavior into account when trying to change people's habits could offer a valuable contribution to effective health campaigns. PMID:22178602

  14. CAUSE-FIT, POSITIVE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS WITHIN HYBRID COLOMBIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Román-Calderón

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Socially oriented ventures have provided livelihoods and social recognition to disadvantaged communities in different corners of the world. In some cases, these ventures are the result of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR programs. In Latin America, this type of undertaking has responded positively to unmet social needs. The social cause drives these organizations and their human resources and they give high value to organizational cause-fit. This paper presents empirical evidence of the effects of perceived cause-fit on several worker attitudes and behaviors. Psychological contract theory was adopted as theoretical background. Employees working in a hybrid (for-profit/socially oriented Colombian organization created by a CSR program participated in the survey. Data provided by 218 employees were analyzed using PLS structural equation modeling. The results suggest the ideological components of the employee-employer relationship predict positive attitudes and cooperative organizational behaviors towards hybrid organizations.

  15. Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumaran Nadarajah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0.8, matching the theoretical gain of 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.

  16. Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R

    2007-04-01

    Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change. PMID:17430368

  17. A Novel Sensor for Attitude Determination Using Global Positioning System Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassidis, John L.; Quinn, David A.; Markley, F. Landis; McCullough, Jon D.

    1998-01-01

    An entirely new sensor approach for attitude determination using Global Positioning System (GPS) signals is developed. The concept involves the use of multiple GPS antenna elements arrayed on a single sensor head to provide maximum GPS space vehicle availability. A number of sensor element configurations are discussed. In addition to the navigation function, the array is used to find which GPS space vehicles are within the field-of-view of each antenna element. Attitude determination is performed by considering the sightline vectors of the found GPS space vehicles together with the fixed boresight vectors of the individual antenna elements. This approach has clear advantages over the standard differential carrier-phase approach. First, errors induced by multipath effects can be significantly reduced or eliminated altogether. Also, integer ambiguity resolution is not required, nor do line biases need to be determined through costly and cumbersome self-surveys. Furthermore, the new sensor does not require individual antennas to be physically separated to form interferometric baselines to determine attitude. Finally, development potential of the new sensor is limited only by antenna and receiver technology development unlike the physical limitations of the current interferometric attitude determination scheme. Simulation results indicate that accuracies of about 1 degree (3 omega) are possible.

  18. Knowledge and Attitudes of Certified Athletic Trainers in Pennsylvania toward HIV/AIDS and Treating HIV-Positive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Morgan; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined how knowledgeable certified athletic trainers were about HIV/AIDS and that investigated their attitudes toward treating the injuries of HIV-positive athletes. Surveys indicated that they were moderately knowledgeable and had constructive attitudes. Their major concern was fear of HIV transmission. (SM)

  19. Developing positive attitudes toward geriatric nursing among Millennials and Generation Xers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Barbara A; Johnsen, Vickie; Himes, Deborah; Wing, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increase of the older adult population, there exists a shortage of health care professionals trained to help this population remain independent as long as possible. Ageism, common among younger adults, affects the capacity building of health care for older adults. Research has indicated that increased knowledge about older adults, as well as exposure to the elderly, may alter nursing students' attitudes regarding careers in gerontological nursing. However, questions remain as to what are the most effective ways to provide gerontological content in nursing programs and enhance attitudes toward older adults.With the understanding that younger adults see a need to balance work and play, a baccalaureate nursing program provides examples of ways to accomplish this through integration of courses, simulations, positive images of aging, and learning activities that enhance empathy for both frail and healthy older adults. PMID:22860477

  20. Implicit Attitudes Toward Green Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Delphine Vantomme; Maggie Geuens; Jan De Houwer; Patrick De Pelsmacker

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of implicit (automatic) attitudes to explain the weak attitude-behaviour relationships often found in green consumer behaviour research. Therefore, not only explicit but also implicit attitudes toward green consumer behaviour were measured by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Explicit measures revealed positive attitudes, while the IAT showed more positive attitudes toward the ecological than toward the traditional product (E...

  1. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, com...

  2. Pose Versus State: are Sensor Position and Attitude Sufficient for Modern Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, I.; Blázquez, M.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the advantages of using what we call sensor state parameters or sensor state to describe the geometrical relationship between a sensor and the 3D space or the 4D time-space that extend the traditional image pose or orientation (position and attitude) to the image state. In our concept, at some point in time t, the sensor state is a 12-dimensional vector composed of four 3-dimensional subvectors p(t), v(t), ?(t) and ?(t). Roughly speaking, p(t) is the sensor's position, v(t) its linear velocity, ?(t) its attitude and ?(t) its angular velocity. It is clear that the state concept extends the pose or orientation ones and attempts to describe both a sensor's statics (p(t), ?(t)) and dynamics (v(t), ?(t)). It is also clear that if p(t), ?(t) are known for all t within some time interval of interest, then v(t) and ?(t) can be derived from the former. We present three methods to compute the state parameters, two for the continuous case and one for the discrete case. The first two methods rely on the availability of inertial measurements and their derived time-Position-Velocity-Attitude (tPVA) trajectories. The first method extends the INS mechanization equations and the second method derives the IMU angular velocities from INS mechanization equations' output data. The third method derives lineal and angular velocities from relative orientation parameters. We illustrate how sensor states can be applied to solve practical problems. For this purpose we have selected three cases: multi-sensor synchronization calibration, correction of image motion blur (translational and rotational) and accurate orientation of images acquired with focal-plane shutters.

  3. Anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients show a characteristic necrotizing perifascicular myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescam-Mancini, Lénaig; Allenbach, Yves; Hervier, Baptiste; Devilliers, Hervé; Mariampillay, Kuberaka; Dubourg, Odile; Maisonobe, Thierry; Gherardi, Romain; Mezin, Paulette; Preusse, Corinna; Stenzel, Werner; Benveniste, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies can be classified as polymyositis, dermatomyositis, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, sporadic inclusion body myositis or non-specific myositis. Anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients are assigned to either polymyositis or dermatomyositis suggesting overlapping pathological features. We aimed to determine if anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive myopathy has a specific morphological phenotype. In a series of 53 muscle biopsies of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients, relevant descriptive criteria defining a characteristic morphological pattern were identified. They were tested in a second series of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients and compared to 63 biopsies from patients suffering from other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. In anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients, necrotic fibres, which strongly clustered in perifascicular regions, were frequently observed. Sarcolemmal complement deposition was detected specifically in perifascicular areas. Inflammation was mainly located in the perimysium and around vessels in 90.6%. Perimysial fragmentation was observed in 90% of cases. Major histocompatibility complex class I staining was diffusely positive, with a perifascicular reinforcement. Multivariate analysis showed that criteria defining perifascicular pathology: perifascicular necrosis, atrophy, and perimysial fragmentation allow the distinction of anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients, among patients suffering from other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive patients displayed perifascicular necrosis, whereas dermatomyositis patients exhibited perifascicular atrophy. PMID:26198592

  4. Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts

    OpenAIRE

    Julija Lapuh Bele; Matjaz Debevc; Irena Morel; David Rozman

    2008-01-01

    Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and construc...

  5. Integrated Navigation Fusion Strategy of INS/UWB for Indoor Carrier Attitude Angle and Position Synchronous Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaheng; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    In some GPS failure conditions, positioning for mobile target is difficult. This paper proposed a new method based on INS/UWB for attitude angle and position synchronous tracking of indoor carrier. Firstly, error model of INS/UWB integrated system is built, including error equation of INS and UWB. And combined filtering model of INS/UWB is researched. Simulation results show that the two subsystems are complementary. Secondly, integrated navigation data fusion strategy of INS/UWB based on Kalman filtering theory is proposed. Simulation results show that FAKF method is better than the conventional Kalman filtering. Finally, an indoor experiment platform is established to verify the integrated navigation theory of INS/UWB, which is geared to the needs of coal mine working environment. Static and dynamic positioning results show that the INS/UWB integrated navigation system is stable and real-time, positioning precision meets the requirements of working condition and is better than any independent subsystem. PMID:25121111

  6. Intertextuality as a means of positioning in a talk-show.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?mejrková, Sv?tla; Hoffmannová, Jana

    Amsterdam : Benjamins, 2012 - (Lorda, C.; Zabalbeascoa, P.), s. 161-172 ISBN 978-90-272-1032-6. - (Dialogue Studies. 15) R&D Projects: GA ?R GA405/09/2028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : positioning * intertextuality * talk-show * reported speech Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  7. Nonlinear control of marine vehicles using only position and attitude measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, Marit Johanne

    1996-12-31

    This thesis presents new results on the design and analysis of nonlinear output feedback controllers for auto pilots and dynamic positioning systems for ships and underwater vehicles. Only position and attitude measurements of the vehicle are used in the control design. The underlying idea of the work is to use certain structural properties of the equations of motion in the controller design and analysis. New controllers for regulation and tracking have been developed and the stability of the resulting closed-loop systems has been rigorously established. The results are supported by simulations. The following problems have been investigated covering design of passive controller for regulation, comparison of two auto pilots, nonlinear damping compensation for tracking, tracking control for nonlinear ships, and output tracking control with wave filtering for multivariable models of possibly unstable vehicles. 97 refs., 32 figs.

  8. The Relative Effects of Positive Interdependence and Group Processing on Student Achievement and Attitude in Online Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chang Woo; Zellner, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of positive interdependence and group processing on student achievement and attitude in online learning. Students in three university courses received initial instruction about teamwork skills and cooperative learning and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups in each course. The "positive

  9. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    An attitude can be defined as the evaluation of an object as positive or negative. The term "object" in this definition should be understood in a broad sense; an attitude object may be any concrete or abstract entity that is in some way represented in our thoughts and memory. In other words, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two perspectives: Understanding attitude structure: how is an attitude cognitively represented in a consumer's mind, including its components (intra-attitudinal structure) and its associations with other psychological variables (inter-attitudinal structure)? Understanding information processing: what are the psychological processes through which consumers evaluate new objects (attitude formation), retrieve evaluations from memory (attitude activation), and update evaluations in response to new information (attitude change)? The purpose of this chapter is to familiarise the reader with classical and contemporary attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types of attitudes. This is the reason why a thorough understanding of attitudes is one of the most important skills a marketer can have. That same is true in related areas such as communications research: concepts like public opinion, corporate reputation, and corporate image are nothing more than particular types of attitudes. Even the utility concept in economics can simply be regarded as a synonym for attitudes.

  10. Risk factors influencing dentists' hepatitis B-related knowledge and attitudes and their willingness to treat hepatitis B positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravanifard, B; Rakhshan, V; Sherafat, S; Najafi-Salehi, L

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed factors that could predict dentists' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards hepatitis B virus (HBV). A total of 300 dentists in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran were surveyed and their demographic, educational and office characteristics were analysed in relation to their scores on knowledge about HBV, self-reported attitudes towards treating people infected with HBV and actual behaviour towards treating simulated HBV-positive patients. Having a Master's degree, faculty membership, taking ? 3 continuing education courses, wearing eye-shields, spending more time on preparing dental units and higher self-confidence about knowledge predicted better knowledge. A positive attitude was associated with having attended more courses and working in group practice. The number of courses and a shorter dental unit preparation time positively affected dentists' behaviour. PMID:25907193

  11. Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

  12. From Judgment to Understanding: Mental Health Nurses' Perceptions of Changed Professional Behaviors Following Positively Changed Attitudes Toward Self-Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karman, Pieter; Kool, Nienke; Gamel, Claudia; van Meijel, Berno

    2015-12-01

    Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with positively changed attitudes after following a training program. Using grounded theory, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 mental health nurses. Participants reported using less restrictive interventions, being more patient oriented, and choosing a more empathic and exploratory approach after the training. A work environment conductive to making autonomous professional decisions with supportive colleagues enabled these changes. PMID:26577554

  13. Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention : The role of positive sensory experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2004-01-01

    European consumers are sceptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if actual sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence consumers' attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. An experiment was conducted in which subjects in the experimental group tasted cheeses, one of which was labelled as 'produced using GMOs.' The cheeses were selected in a way that ensured that the subject had a sensory preference for the GMO cheese. A control group tasted cheeses that were unlabelled. After the tasting, subjects completed a conjoint analysis task about cheese, in which the type of starter culture used (GMO/conventional) was one of the attributes. Subjects also were administered a set of items measuring attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. Results showed that for subjects in the experimental group (who believed that they had tasted a GMO cheese, with which they had a positive sensory experience) a) attitude towards GMO in food production was less negative, and b) type of starter culture used (GM/conventional) had less impact on their buying intentions with regard to cheese than for subjects in the control group.

  14. Sleep Duration, Positive Attitude toward Life, and Academic Achievement: The Role of Daytime Tiredness, Behavioral Persistence, and School Start Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is…

  15. Promoting Teachers' Positive Attitude towards Web Use: A Study in Web Site Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Yavuz; Bayramoglu, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine effects of a compact training for developing web sites on teachers' web attitude, as composed of: web self efficacy, perceived web enjoyment, perceived web usefulness and behavioral intention to use the web. To measure the related constructs, the Web Attitude Scale was adapted into Turkish and tested with a…

  16. Positive Mood Risk Attitudes, and Investment Decisions : Field Evidence From Comedy Movie Attendance in the US.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepori, Gabriele

    Positive mood has been repeatedly shown to affect risk attitudes in laboratory settings, where subjects’ exposure to movie clips is among the most widely used and effective mood-induction procedures. Yet, conflicting lab results about the estimated sign of the mood effect have led researchers to formulate two alternative theories. The affect infusion model (AIM) argues that happy moods foster risk-prone behavior, whereas the mood-maintenance hypothesis (MMH) takes the opposite stance. In this paper I test the predictions of these two theories using real-world financial data and focusing on the same moodshifting mechanism commonly employed in lab studies. More specifically, I exploit the time-series variation in the domestic theatrical release of comedy movies as a natural experiment for testing the impact that happy mood (proxied by weekend comedy movie attendance) has on investment in risky assets (proxied by the performance of the U.S. stock market on the following Monday). My hypothesis rests upon the evidence that individual investors are more likely to ponder trading decisions during the weekend and trade on Mondays. To control for unobserved factors that may contemporaneously affect movie attendance and equity returns, I employ the percentage of theater screens dedicated to the comedy genre as an instrument. Using a sample of data from 1995 to 2010, I estimate that an increase in comedy attendance on a given weekend is followed by a decrease in equity returns on the subsequent Monday, which supports the MMH.

  17. Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2012-05-01

    Centenarians have been reported to share particular personality traits including low neuroticism and high extraversion and conscientiousness. Since these traits have moderate to high heritability and are associated with various health outcomes, personality appears linked to bio-genetic mechanisms which may contribute to exceptional longevity. Therefore, the present study sought to detect genetically-based personality phenotypes in a genetically homogeneous sample of centenarians through developing and examining psychometric properties of a brief measure of the personality of centenarians, the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS). The results generated two personality characteristics/domains, Positive Attitude Towards Life (PATL: optimism, easygoing, laughter, and introversion/outgoing) and Emotional Expression (EE: expressing emotions openly and not bottling up emotions). These domains demonstrated acceptable concurrent validity with two established personality measures, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Life Orientation Test-Revised. Additionally, centenarians in both groups had lower neuroticism and higher conscientiousness than the US adult population. Findings suggest that the POPS is a psychometrically sound measure of personality in centenarians and capture personality aspects of extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, as well as dispositional optimism which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:22626632

  18. Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

  19. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 positive glioblastoma cells show brain tumor stem cell capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasper, Michael; Schäfer, Andrea; Piontek, Guido; Teufel, Julian; Brockhoff, Gero; Ringel, Florian; Heindl, Stefan; Zimmer, Claus; Schlegel, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and is resistant to all therapeutic regimens. Relapse occurs regularly and might be caused by a poorly characterized tumor stem cell (TSC) subpopulation escaping therapy. We suggest aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) as a novel stem cell marker in human GBM. Using the neurosphere formation assay as a functional method to identify brain TSCs, we show that high protein levels of ALDH1 facilitate neurosphere formation in established GBM cell lines. Even single ALDH1 positive cells give rise to colonies and neurospheres. Consequently, the inhibition of ALDH1 in vitro decreases both the number of neurospheres and their size. Cell lines without expression of ALDH1 do not form tumor spheroids under the same culturing conditions. High levels of ALDH1 seem to keep tumor cells in an undifferentiated, stem cell-like state indicated by the low expression of beta-III-tubulin. In contrast, ALDH1 inhibition induces premature cellular differentiation and reduces clonogenic capacity. Primary cell cultures obtained from fresh tumor samples approve the established GBM cell line results. PMID:20627895

  20. Supervisor communication and motivation to learn as a predictor of positive individual attitudes and behaviors: A study in one city-based local authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development literature highlights that the ability of supervisor to use good communication styles in training programs may motivate positive individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., transfer of competency and job performance. Further, a careful observationof such relationships reveals that the effect of supervisor communication on individual attitudes and behaviors is indirectly affected by motivation to learn. The nature of thisrelationship is less emphasized in past research studies. Therefore, this study was conducted to gather data from 100 technical employees in one city-based local authority in East Malaysia (EMCBLAUTHORITY. Outcomes of stepwise regression analysis showed thatrelationship between motivation to learn and supervisor communication had been an important predictor of transfer of competency and job performance. This result confirms thatmotivation to learn does act as a full mediating role in the training model of the organizational sample. In addition, implications and limitations of the study, as well as directions of future research are discussed.

  1. Stigmatized Attitude of Healthcare Providers: A Barrier for Delivering Health Services to HIV Positive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Nooshin; Joulaei, Hassan; Darabi, Elahe; Fararouei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the success of developed countries in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS, the disease is expanding in developing countries where an unfavorable attitude exists among people, health professionals and employees. This study aimed to assess the stigmatized attitude among health care providers toward people living with HIV (PLWHA). Methods: The study is a cross-sectional survey. The data were gathered using a structured questionnaire. The study sample included 575 health care providers of public and private hospitals in Shiraz. The data were gathered using a structured questionnaire in spring 2014. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 21. Results: The most dominant attitude of the health care providers toward HIV/AIDS patients was related to fear (42.42%). According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between stigmatized attitude of the health care providers and their religious beliefs, society stigmatized attitude, and knowledge of transmission routes. The relationship between social stigmatized attitude of health care providers and their knowledge of transmission routes, with their willingness to provide services to patients is significant, as well (Phomosexual patients. Conclusion: Fear of contamination and social stigmatized attitude are the main impediments to dealing with patients and providing services to them. Hence, it seems that creating an effective knowledge about transmission and correcting the socio-cultural beliefs of health providers are two key strategies to tackle this problem. PMID:26448956

  2. Positive attitudes at work, some of its consequents and antecedents: a study with hotel professional

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, H.; Faísca, Luís; Jesus, Saul Neves de

    2012-01-01

    Concerning the model Attitudes-Intentions of behaviour (Bagozzi, 1992) and the comprehensive model of Turnover (Griffeth & Hom, 2001), the present study intends to analyze the mediating role of three attitudes (affective commitment, general satisfaction and satisfaction oriented towards the client) in the relationship that variables characterizing the work (Job Motivating Potential, Perception of Employment Alternatives and Sacrifice Perception) establish with output variables (Intention of T...

  3. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets?

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Andrea J. Cook; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food f...

  4. Attitudes to reproductive genetic testing in women who had a positive BRCA test before having children: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Donnelly, Louise; Moynihan, Clare; Savona, Cornelie; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Lavery, Stuart; Watson, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    The scope of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is licensed has recently been expanded in the United Kingdom to include genetic predisposition to adult-onset cancer. This qualitative interview study explores reproductive decision making, knowledge of and attitudes to reproductive genetic testing (prenatal diagnosis and PGD) with 25 women aged 18–45 years who received a positive BRCA test in the United Kingdom before having children. In this cohort of younger women, B...

  5. Anxiety positive subjects show altered processing in the anterior insula during anticipation of negative stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Alan; Stein, Murray B; Strigo, Irina A; Arce, Estibaliz; Hitchcock, Carla; PAULUS, MARTIN P.

    2010-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging studies support the hypothesis that anticipation, an important component of anxiety, may be mediated by activation within the insular and medial prefrontal cortices including the anterior cingulate cortex. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how affective anticipation differs across anxiety groups in emotional brain loci and networks. We examined 14 anxiety positive (AP) and 14 anxiety normative (AN) individuals completing an affective picture anticipation ta...

  6. The Global Positioning System (GPS) and attitude determination: Applications and activities in the Flight Dynamics Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchum, Eleanor; Garrick, Joe

    1995-01-01

    The application of GPS to spacecraft attitude determination is a new and growing field. Although the theoretical literature is extensive, space flight testing is currently sparse and inadequate. As an operations organization, the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) has the responsibility to investigate this new technology, and determine how best to implement the innovation to provide adequate support for future missions. This paper presents some of the current efforts within FDD with regard to GPS attitude determination. This effort specifically addresses institutional capabilities to accommodate a new type of sensor, critically evaluating the literature for recent advancements, and in examining some available -albeit crude- flight data.

  7. Suture Granuloma Showing False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Takahara; Hiroaki Kakinoki; Saya Ikoma; Kazuma Udo; Shohei Tobu; Yuji Satoh(Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571, Japan); Yuji Tokuda; Mitsuru Noguchi; Shigehisa Aoki; Jiro Uozumi

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 33-year-old male with a mixed germ-cell testicular tumor. Postoperative follow-up FDG-PET revealed concentration of FDG in the left inguinal area which is not tumor metastasis or local recurrence but suture reactivity granuloma. In this paper, we reviewed suture granulomas associated with false-positive findings on FDG-PET after surgery. If FDG-PET will be used more frequently in the future, it will be necessary to refrain from using silk thread in order to prevent any u...

  8. A motion-based integer ambiguity resolution method for attitude determination using the global positioning system (GPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate

  9. The association between Colombian medical students' healthy personal habits and a positive attitude toward preventive counseling: cross-sectional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiento Francisco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician-delivered preventive counseling is important for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Data from the U.S. indicates that medical students with healthy personal habits have a better attitude towards preventive counseling. However, this association and its correlates have not been addressed in rapidly urbanized settings where chronic disease prevention strategies constitute a top public health priority. This study examines the association between personal health practices and attitudes toward preventive counseling among first and fifth-year students from 8 medical schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods During 2006, a total of 661 first- and fifth-year medical students completed a culturally adapted Spanish version of the "Healthy Doctor = Healthy Patient" survey (response rate = 78%. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between overall personal practices on physical activity, nutrition, weight control, smoking, alcohol use (main exposure variable and student attitudes toward preventive counseling on these issues (main outcome variable, stratified by year of training and adjusting by gender and medical training-related factors (basic knowledge, perceived adequacy of training and perception of the school's promotion on each healthy habit. Results The median age and percentage of females for the first- and fifth-year students were 21 years and 59.5% and 25 years and 65%, respectively. After controlling for gender and medical training-related factors, consumption of ? 5 daily servings of fruits and/or vegetables, not being a smoker or binge drinker were associated with a positive attitude toward counseling on nutrition (OR = 4.71; CI = 1.6–14.1; p = 0.006 smoking (OR = 2.62; CI = 1.1–5.9; p = 0.022, and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.61; CI = 1.3–5.4; p = 0.009, respectively. Conclusion As for U.S. physician and medical students, a positive association was found between the personal health habits of Colombian medical students and their corresponding attitudes toward preventive counseling, independent of gender and medial training-related factors. Our findings, the first relating to this association in medical students in developing regions, also suggest that within the medical school context, interventions focused on promoting healthy student lifestyles can potentially improve future physician's attitudes toward preventive counseling.

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 positive glioblastoma cells show brain tumor stem cell capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Rasper, Michael; Schäfer, Andrea; Piontek, Guido; TEUFEL, JULIAN; Brockhoff, Gero; Ringel, Florian; Heindl, Stefan; Zimmer, Claus; Schlegel, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and is resistant to all therapeutic regimens. Relapse occurs regularly and might be caused by a poorly characterized tumor stem cell (TSC) subpopulation escaping therapy. We suggest aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) as a novel stem cell marker in human GBM. Using the neurosphere formation assay as a functional method to identify brain TSCs, we show that high protein levels of ALDH1 facilitate neurosphere formation in established GBM...

  11. The Role of Human Resources Development Climate in Building Positive Job Attitudes and Extra-Role Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Zaky Ewis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telecom companies working under a rapidly changing and highly competitive environment. These companies must encourage and motivate their employees to improve individual and organizational performance. Researchers and practitioners recognize the importance of organizational commitment, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behavior, especially, when available HRD climate. Using a sample of two hundred and forty-six employees from three Saudi telecom companies completed the survey with response rate 61.5%, this study examined the impacts of HRD climate on two positive work attitudes represented in organizational commitment and work engagement, and positive extra-role behaviors represented in organizational citizenship behavior. In the current study, HRD climate was found to significantly and positively influence organizational commitment, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behavior. The current study also provided a set of practical applications and future directions according to what has been discussed from the results. tter access to short-term debt consequently reducing agency problems and the risk of refinancing.

  12. Supervisor communication and motivation to learn as a predictor of positive individual attitudes and behaviors: A study in one city-based local authority

    OpenAIRE

    Azman Ismail; Sofiah Bongogoh; Sheela Chitra Chandra Segaran; Rabaah Tudin; Mohd Na’eim Ajis; Wan Khairuzzaman Wan Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Human resource development literature highlights that the ability of supervisor to use good communication styles in training programs may motivate positive individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., transfer of competency and job performance). Further, a careful observationof such relationships reveals that the effect of supervisor communication on individual attitudes and behaviors is indirectly affected by motivation to learn. The nature of thisrelationship is less emphasized in past researc...

  13. Rethinking procrastination: positive effects of "active" procrastination behavior on attitudes and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Angela Hsin Chun; Choi, Jin Nam

    2005-06-01

    Researchers and practitioners have long regarded procrastination as a self-handicapping and dysfunctional behavior. In the present study, the authors proposed that not all procrastination behaviors either are harmful or lead to negative consequences. Specifically, the authors differentiated two types of procrastinators: passive procrastinators versus active procrastinators. Passive procrastinators are procrastinators in the traditional sense. They are paralyzed by their indecision to act and fail to complete tasks on time. In contrast, active procrastinators are a "positive" type of procrastinator. They prefer to work under pressure, and they make deliberate decisions to procrastinate. The present results showed that although active procrastinators procrastinate to the same degree as passive procrastinators, they are more similar to nonprocrastinators than to passive procrastinators in terms of purposive use of time, control of time, self-efficacy belief, coping styles, and outcomes including academic performance. The present findings offer a more sophisticated understanding of procrastination behavior and indicate a need to reevaluate its implications for outcomes of individuals. PMID:15959999

  14. Adaptive Position/Attitude Tracking Control of Aerial Robot With Unknown Inertial Matrix Based on a New Robust Neural Identifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Guanyu; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C L Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel adaptive controller for controlling an autonomous helicopter with unknown inertial matrix to asymptotically track the desired trajectory. To identify the unknown inertial matrix included in the attitude dynamic model, this paper proposes a new structural identifier that differs from those previously proposed in that it additionally contains a neural networks (NNs) mechanism and a robust adaptive mechanism, respectively. Using the NNs to compensate the unknown aerodynamic forces online and the robust adaptive mechanism to cancel the combination of the overlarge NNs compensation error and the external disturbances, the new robust neural identifier exhibits a better identification performance in the complex flight environment. Moreover, an optimized algorithm is included in the NNs mechanism to alleviate the burdensome online computation. By the strict Lyapunov argument, the asymptotic convergence of the inertial matrix identification error, position tracking error, and attitude tracking error to arbitrarily small neighborhood of the origin is proved. The simulation and implementation results are provided to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller. PMID:25794402

  15. An integer ambiguity resolution method for the global positioning system (GPS)-based land vehicle attitude determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions

  16. DESIGN NOTE: A new concept for triangulation measurement of AGV attitude and position

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCecco, Mariolino

    2000-11-01

    This work discusses the working principle and mechanical details of a new scanning transducer for angle measurement between IR modulated emitters placed in known positions. The system can be used for position estimation of AGVs inside structured environments. Position is computed by triangulation. The advantage of the proposed transducer is that, having approximately the same accuracy as the commonly widespread laser system, it makes use of active targets, which allow a further degree of freedom: height for target installation. In other words, coplanarity between targets and plane of scanning is no longer required (as in the case of laser beams). Consequently, target visibility may be achieved even in the case of bulky machinery placed inside the factory environment. Using three targets repeatability error in angle estimation is ±47 arcseconds, which means that positional accuracy in a square 10 m room is ±2 mm.

  17. Optimal integer resolution for attitude determination using global positioning system signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new motion-based algorithm for GPS integer ambiguity resolution is derived. The first step of this algorithm converts the reference sightline vectors into body frame vectors. This is accomplished by an optimal vectorized transformation of the phase difference measurements. The result of this transformation leads to the conversion of the integer ambiguities to vectorized biases. This essentially converts the problem to the familiar magnetometer-bias determination problem, for which an optimal and efficient solution exists. Also, the formulation in this paper is re-derived to provide a sequential estimate, so that a suitable stopping condition can be found during the vehicle motion. The advantages of the new algorithm include: it does not require an a-priori estimate of the vehicle's attitude; it provides an inherent integrity check using a covariance-type expression; and it can sequentially estimate the ambiguities during the vehicle motion. The only disadvantage of the new algorithm is that it requires at least three non-coplanar baselines. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator.

  18. Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as…

  19. An examination of key experiences which contribute to a positive change in attitude toward science in two elementary education teacher candidates at the University of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Maggie A.

    This investigation utilized life history methodology (Armstrong, 1987; Bogdan & Biklen, 1998; Lawrence-Lightfoot, 1977; Marshall & Rossman, 1995; Patton, 1987; Taylor & Bogdan; 1984) to examine lifelong science experiences of two elementary education teacher candidates at a land grant institution with a large, undergraduate teacher education program. Purposive sampling techniques (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998) led to the selection of two teacher candidates who reported high science anxiety when they began university coursework. The investigation focused on five broad questions: (a) What were key experiences in the elementary teacher education program which contributed to a positive change in attitude toward science? (b) What science experiences, in and out of school, did the teacher candidates encounter while they were in elementary school, junior high school, high school, and college? (c) How did the elementary education program's science course structure, professors, and field experiences contribute to the change in attitude toward science? (d) How much time was involved in the change in attitude toward science? and (e) What were the effects of the change in attitude on the teaching of science in the elementary classroom? Each candidate completed approximately twenty hours of interviews yielding rich descriptions of their lifelong science experiences. Data also included interviews with science and science education professors, journaling, and observations of student teaching experiences. Data analysis revealed four over-arching themes with implications for teacher educators. First, data showed the importance of relationship building between professors and teacher candidates. Professors must know and work with teacher candidates, and provide a structure that encourages question asking. Second, course structure including hands-on teaching strategies and students working in small groups over an extended period of time was vital. Third, integrating language arts with science proved important because the generally high comfort level experienced by elementary teacher candidates toward language arts may be extended to the teaching of science. Teacher candidates realize the benefits for both teaching and learning when the two subjects are integrated. Last, the study revealed the powerful effects of field experiences which include teaching science in the public schools and demonstrated the drawbacks of field experiences which do not include teaching science.

  20. How mentors can influence the values, behaviours and attitudes of nursing staff through positive professional socialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kay

    2015-11-25

    This article explores the concept and processes involved in professional socialisation and how mentors and nurse managers can help to foster positive aspects of this in their practice. Positive professional socialisation needs champions to instil fundamental professional values and behaviours in nursing staff, and managers need to support mentors to influence and lead the way in promoting standards of excellence in the nursing profession to assure public trust and confidence, and ultimately patient safety. The time out activities will ask you to consider and develop possible strategies to help support mentors and staff, and aim to encourage you to explore the potential benefits of positive professional socialisation for your team in delivering high quality patient care. PMID:26602487

  1. "Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

  2. Thoughts, Attitudes, and Feelings of HIV-Positive MSM Associated with High Transmission-Risk Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinta, Matthew D.; Murphy, Jessie L.; Paul, Jay P.; Schwarcz, Sandra K.; Dilley, James W.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents survey data collected from a sample of HIV-positive men (N = 182) who had high transmission-risk sex, defined as unprotected anal intercourse with a man whose HIV-status was negative or unknown, in the previous 6 months. Despite the tremendous changes in HIV treatment and their impact on people living with HIV, little recent…

  3. Brief Report: Assessing Attitudes toward Culturally and Contextually Relevant Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Gage, Nicholas A.; Sugai, George

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased interest and implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems in schools in the United States, practitioners and researchers have become interested in how to improve implementation with students and staff from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Fallon, O'Keeffe, and Sugai (2012) reviewed the literature…

  4. Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B.; Reichard, Rebecca J.; Luthans, Fred; Mhatre, Ketan H.

    2011-01-01

    The positive core construct of psychological capital (or simply PsyCap), consisting of the psychological resources of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, has recently been demonstrated to be open to human resource development (HRD) and performance management. The research stream on PsyCap has now grown to the point that a quantitative…

  5. "Everyone Needs an Art Education": Developing Leadership through Positive Attitudes toward Art Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manifold, Marjorie; Zimmerman, Enid

    2011-01-01

    Research about K-6 generalists, elementary, preservice majors in teacher education programs often emphasizes students who are resistant to art methods courses, although Galbraith (1991) and Gibson (2003) found some elementary majors held positive views about art methods courses. In addition, instructors who are frustrated by students who respond…

  6. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods.

  7. The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kazempour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather’s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

  8. Relationship between Leadership Styles of High School Teachers, Principals, and Assistant Principals and Their Attitudes toward School Wide Positive Behavior and Support Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton-Holmes, Geneva Cosweler

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if seventh through twelfth grade educators' attitudes towards School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) are affected based on their gender, years of experience, school discipline policy, leadership style, and knowledge of SWPBS. Through an online survey, an analysis of the leadership style and…

  9. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara De Meyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide.

  10. Tailored chemotherapy based on tumour gene expression analysis: breast cancer patients' misinterpretations and positive attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, I; Rapti, M; Extra, J-M; Petri-Cal, A; Apostolidis, T; Ferrero, J-M; Bachelot, T; Viens, P; Julian-Reynier, C; Bertucci, F

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to document how breast cancer patients perceive their prognosis and a tailored treatment based on tumour gene expression analysis, and to identify the features of this approach that may impact its clinical application. In-depth interviews were conducted at three French cancer centres with 37 women (35-69 years of age) with node-positive breast cancer undergoing an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen defined on the basis of the genomic signature predicting the outcome after chemotherapy. Several concerns were identified. First, some misconceptions about these methods were identified due to semantic confusions between the terms 'genomic' and 'genetic', which generated anxiety and uncertainty about the future. Second, the 'not done' and 'not interpretable' signatures were misinterpreted by the women and associated with highly negative connotations. However, the use of tumour genomic analysis to adapt the treatment to each patient received most of the patients' approval because it was perceived as an approach facilitating personalised medicine. In conclusion, improving the quality of provider/patient communications should enable patients to play a more active part in the decision making about their treatment. This will ensure that those who agree to have tumour gene analysis have realistic expectations and sound deductions about the final result disclosure process. PMID:22070677

  11. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents’ positive attitudes towards people with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tsiantis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents’ attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.

  12. Connecting Attitudes toward Teaching and Pedagogical Formation Courses: A Study of Turkish Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parylo, Oksana; Süngü, Hilmi; Ilgan, Abdurrahman

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study aimed to examine (1) the pre-service teachers' attitudes toward the teaching profession and (2) whether their attitudes are impacted by the pedagogical formation courses that are part of teacher preparation. The findings of the pre-test showed that participants had positive attitudes toward teaching as a profession.…

  13. A method of attitude measurement of the calibration target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Lichun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Bin; Li, Weimin

    2010-07-01

    A new method of attitude measurement of the calibration target based on machine vision is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the internal parameters and external parameters of the CCD camera are calibrated by using the feature points on the calibration target. Secondly, shoot the calibration target in different positions and gather any different image information. Finally, measure the calibration target's attitude through reconstructing the positions of those feature points which on the calibration target. Experiment results show that the standard deviation of the attitude measurement errors is less than 10 arc-second. This method is an effective high-precision space attitude measurement algorithm which can meet the engineering requirements.

  14. Position and attitude control of a spacecraft by sliding mode control; Sliding mode seigyo ni yoru uchuki no ichi shisei seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, F. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Large debris removers, orbital maneuvering vehicles, etc., which have to be equipped with high maneuverability, are expected to perform various missions that will accompany large-angled changes in attitude and position. Since the equation of motion for such a space vehicle that will carry out motions of 6 degrees of freedom in the 3-dimensional space is a non-linear equation in which translation and rotation are compounded, it is difficult to apply the ordinary linear control theory. So, application is discussed of a sliding mode control that can handle directly the non-linearly controllable objects without converting them. In this method, the attitude and position of a space vehicle will be controlled for its attitude to match that of a tumbling large debris or malfunctioning satellite and to orbit around the large debris or malfunctioning satellite with a certain distance between them. Upon some control signal inputted, the state of the object under control will be caused to reach a predetermined hyperspace and constrained there, and the thus-achieved state is caused to slide to the point of equilibrium for the stabilization of the object under control. How to design the control system and its structure and functions are stated, and the system is tested for robustness. 30 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Embodied positioning/discourse analysis of a research based leadership development forum : Showing identity work as an in situ accomplishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The present article engages a discourse analysis of identity work as it is accomplished in a research and dialogue based leadership development forum in a university setting. It displays how different interactional setups in a positioning exercise prompt diverse spaces of possibilities that shape the identity work in situ. Through a micro-generic positioning analysis of the participants’ small story efforts (M. Bamberg, 2006; M. Bamberg & Georgakopoulou, 2008) combined with an analysis of dialogicality and other-orientation (Bakhtin, 1986; Linell, 2009) it is shown how counter and complicit discourses co-emerge in interaction giving space for certain lines of subjectification (Deleuze, 1992). The research contributes to a dawning field of scholars that study organizational (dialogical) practices up close and it questions the taken for granted assumptions of, for instance, staged dialogue as a natural positive phenomenon with attached emancipating consequences. It aspires to emphasize both the boarder (D) and the local (d) dimensions of discourse, which is increasingly pursued and recommended within the field of interaction, dialogue and discourse studies. (Bager, 2013; Bager et al., forthcoming; Iedema, 2003; Linell, 2009; Phillips, 2011)

  16. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. ?(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (Pimportance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (P<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. PMID:23260729

  17. The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students' beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered…

  18. Second Language Learners’ Attitudes towards the Methods of Learning Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Zuraina Ali; Jayakaran Mukundan; Roselan Baki; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Ayub

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims at investigating students’ learning attitudes after they are exposed to three vocabulary learning methods, namely Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy and ComputerAssistedLanguageLearning (CALL). The study involves 123 undergraduates, who were surveyed to identify the factors that affect their attitudes in learning vocabulary using these methods. Findings from the study using ANOVA revealed that students who were exposed to CALL showed more positive attitudes in learning vocab...

  19. Gender Equality, Parenthood Attitudes, and First Births in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Bernhardt; Frances Goldscheider

    2006-01-01

    We analyse Swedish survey data on attitudes about parenthood among young adults aged 22-30 in 1999, and examine who became parents over the next four years. Our results show that while both men and women perceive more benefits to parenthood than costs, men are more likely than women to perceive both negative and positive consequences of parenthood. Further, gender role attitudes shape parental attitudes differentially for men and women. More egalitarian men perceive fewer costs and more egali...

  20. Attitudes to nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of risk perception and attitudes with regard to nuclear waste. Two data sets are reported. In the first set, data were obtained from a survey of the general population, using an extensive questionnaire. The second set constituted a follow-up 7 years later, with a limited number of questions. The data showed that people considered the topic of nuclear waste risks to be very important and that they were not convinced that the technological problems had been solved. Experts associated with government agencies were moderately trusted, while those employed by the nuclear industry were much distrusted by some respondents, and very much trusted by others. Moral obligations to future generations were stressed. A large portion (more than 50 per cent) of the variances in risk perception could be explained by attitude to nuclear power, general risk sensitivity and trust in expertise. Most background variables, except gender, had little influence on risk perception and attitudes. The follow-up study showed that the attitude to nuclear power had become more positive over time, but that people still doubted that the problems of nuclear waste disposal had been solved. 49 refs

  1. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Fathers' Involvement: Significance to School Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Bream, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Based on data from 2,722 British adolescents, this study explores whether perceived father involvement can be associated with school attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that both father involvement and mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to positive school attitudes. Furthermore, the association between father…

  2. Determination of Spacecraft Attitude and Source Position Using Non-aligned Detectors in Spin-stabilized Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Srikanta

    2009-01-01

    The modulation of high-energy transients' (or steadily emitting sources') light curves due to the imperfect alignment of the detector's view axis with the spin axis in a spin-stabilized satellite is derived. It is shown how the orientation of the detector's view axis with respect to the satellite's spin axis may be estimated using observed light curves. The effects of statistical fluctuations are considered. Conversely, it is shown how the attitude of a spin-axis stabilized ...

  3. Contact with Young Adults with Disability Led to a Positive Change in Attitudes toward Disability among Physiotherapy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Nora; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether contact over 8 weeks with a person with disability benefits physiotherapy students' attitudes toward disability and their development of professional behaviours and skills. Methods: Sixteen adults with Down syndrome were matched with 16 physiotherapy students (13 women, 3 men; mean age 22.5 [SD 3.0] years) and randomized to either an 8-week, twice-weekly walking programme or an 8-week, once-weekly social activities programme. Students completed the Interaction wi...

  4. The Determinants of Consumers’ Attitude Towards Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Teck Chai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The advertising industry is a lucrative business in Malaysia. However, government intervention in the industry has to certain extent regulated the content of the advertisement messages. This in turn has impacted the formation of consumers’ attitude towards advertising. As such, it is crucial to identify the determinants of their attitude. The aim of this research is to investigate the determinants of consumers’ attitude towards advertising among tertiary students in a private higher education institution in Malaysia. A total of 263 undergraduate business students from a private university in Malaysia participated in this research. The outcome shows that credibility, informative, hedonic/ pleasure and good for economy positively relates to consumers’ attitude towards advertising.
    Keywords: attitude towards advertising; credibility; informative; hedonic/pleasure; good for economy.

  5. Student attitudes toward teaching English with technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gard B. Jenset

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates attitudes among student teachers toward using electronic resources in teaching. Two groups of student teachers, one composed of students in their first semester and the other composed of students in their third or fourth year, were asked to assess their skills and attitudes, before being shown an example of how opensource, Web-based data and software can be used in teaching English culture and history. The results show that student teachers are positive toward u...

  6. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondona Jesus M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common ancestor of all the Deuterostomia.

  7. Changing Attitudes about the Employability of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Susan Brown; Kelly, Laura J.

    1995-01-01

    Hearing undergraduates (n=155) watched a videotape showing positive images of deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals working in 8 different occupations. Positive attitude changes were found between a pretest questionnaire and a posttest. The attitude change was maintained at a second posttest 30 days later and generalized to other occupations. (DB)

  8. Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carrera Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus vivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia.Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

  9. Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente / Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego, Carrera Martínez; Beatriz, Braña Marcos; Estefanía, Vegas Pardavila; Mónica de la, Villa Santoveña.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus v [...] ivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia. Abstract in english Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming [...] the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

  10. Attitudes and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tindle, Hilary; Davis, Esa; Kuller, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Psychological attitudes are prospectively related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but a causal relationship has not been demonstrated. Trait optimism/pessimism (positive or negative future expectation, respectively), and cynical hostility (mistrust of people), are attitudes with features of personality traits. These attitudes may affect CVD risk in several ways, by influencing an individual’s 1) adoption of health behaviors, 2) maladaptive stress responding resulting in direct alteration of ...

  11. A case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruta Rumi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy 6 years after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. The primary tumor was negative for HER-2 as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH (1+, and ratio, 1.1, but examination of the recurrent lymph node metastasis showed positivity for HER-2 by FISH (ratio, 5.2. No lesions were detected in either her left breast or in other organs, and the patient was diagnosed as having HER-2-positive recurrent disease. Combination chemotherapy using weekly paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated, and a clinically complete response was achieved. This report suggests the benefit of routine evaluation of HER-2 status in recurrent breast cancer with the introduction of HER-2-targeting agents.

  12. The relationship between attitudes towards menarche and current attitudes towards menstruation of women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nülüfer Erbil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study was conducted to determine affecting factors and to investigate relationship  between  attitudes towards menarche and current attitudes towards menstruation of women and to compare characteristics of menarche and menstruation of women who were born and raised in the northeastern and western of Turkey.  Method and Materials: This descriptive and comparative study was participated totally 400 volunteer women. The data were collected using a questionnaire containing defined closed and open-ended questions. Results: The study results showed that women living in Ordu province than women living in Ayd?n province expressed positive attitudes toward menarche, and the difference was found significant. Nevertheless, attitudes towards current menstruation were similar in both provinces. When the data of 400 women were evaluated together; women’s attitudes towards menarche were compared with the current attitudes towards menstruation, and the difference was found statistically significant. Although attitudes of the women towards menarche varied according to where they lived, their current attitudes towards menstruation were similar. In addition, depending upon the province, there were statistically significant differences in women’s age at menarche, recollection of menarche, and feelings of shame or happiness at menarche, source and adequacy of information about menstruation, and regularity of their menstrual cycle.   Conclusions: Early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life and women’s attitudes towards menstruation were not affected by geographical locations. In order to develop positive attitudes towards menarche and a woman’s future years of menstrual cycles, it is very important that accurate and adequate information for young girls be provided before menarche.

  13. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective: We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method: Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226 or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112. Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results: Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions: Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations: The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions.

  14. Mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Thomas; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Kohler, Michaela; Carraro, Giovanni E.; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, mental health professionals’ attitudes toward posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), compared to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or depression, have rarely been studied. Objective We assessed mental health professionals’ attitudes toward patients with PTSD compared to patients suffering from depression. Method Case vignettes of a patient with either PTSD or depression were presented to two samples of mental health professionals: attendees of a conference on posttraumatic stress (N=226) or of a lecture for psychiatry residents (N=112). Participants subsequently completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude reactions to the presented case. Results Participants showed similarly positive attitudes toward depression and PTSD. PTSD elicited a more favorable attitude with regard to prosocial reactions, estimated dependency, attributed responsibility, and interest in the case, particularly in mental health professionals specializing in psychotraumatology. Across diagnoses, higher age and longer professional experience were associated with more positive attitudes toward patients. Conclusions Mental health professionals’ positive attitudes toward patients with depression and PTSD correlate with their specific knowledge about the disorder, their level of professional training, and their years of professional experience. Limitations The instruments used, although based on established theoretical concepts in attitude research, were not validated in their present versions. PMID:26507340

  15. Attitudes towards wind power development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    The present paper analyses the attitudes towards existing and future land-based turbines and off-shore wind farms. The analysis is carried out using a probit model to elicit systematic characteristics determining the attitude of the population. The analyses show that off-shore development is preferred to land based development, which indicates that the wind power development should be taken off-shore. But, the results also point out that the land-based opportunities for wind power development are not exhausted. On a more detailed level, the results denote that the attitude towards both land based and off-shore wind power vary with age of the respondents and experience with wind turbines. Younger respondents are more positive towards wind power than older respondents, pointing towards an increase in acceptance in the future. The attitude was also found to covariate negatively with the experiences and level of exposure to the impacts of wind turbines.

  16. Pick a Book, Any Book: Using Children's Books to Support Positive Attitudes toward Peers with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Mouzourou, Chryso; Dorsey, Emily A.; Favazza, Paddy C.; Leboeuf, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The Division for Early Childhood/National Association for the Education of Young Children's (2009) joint position statement on inclusion stresses the importance of (a) developing practices that support young children of diverse abilities in inclusive learning environments, (b) being part of supportive school communities, and (c) engaging in…

  17. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

  18. Loss aversion and price volatility as determinants of attitude towards and preference for variable price in the Swedish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a survey of a random sample of 488 Swedish residents showed that a positive attitude towards and preference for a variable price agreement with the incumbent electricity supplier was negatively affected by loss aversion, and a positive attitude also negatively affected by beliefs about price volatility. Although correlated with attitude and preference, age, education, and current choice of a variable price agreement had no independent effects. Income and current electricity costs had no effects

  19. Loss aversion and price volatility as determinants of attitude towards and preference for variable price in the Swedish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a survey of a random sample of 488 Swedish residents showed that a positive attitude towards and preference for a variable price agreement with the incumbent electricity supplier was negatively affected by loss aversion, and a positive attitude also negatively affected by beliefs about price volatility. Although correlated with attitude and preference, age, education, and current choice of a variable price agreement had no independent effects. Income and current electricity costs had no effects. (author)

  20. "Positive Attitude": A multilevel model analysis of the effectiveness of a Social and Emotional Learning Program for Portuguese middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vítor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Sousa, Vanda

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the impact, reported by students and their teachers, of a universal, school-based, social-emotional learning program, implemented in three school years on the social-emotional competencies of middle school students (7th to 9th grade). It also analyzes, at post-test and follow-up, the differential results by gender and among students with lower levels of competence. There were 1091 participants, 855 students received the treatment condition (i.e., Project Attitude) and 236 students the control condition. Self-reports identified positive intervention results in social awareness, self-control, self-esteem, social isolation and social anxiety, teachers reported gains in all dimensions. These positive effects were stably effective along the three cohorts. Self-reports also identified bigger gains for girls in social awareness and for boys in social anxiety, self-esteem and leadership. Students with initial lower levels of competence benefited more from the intervention, especially at follow-up. These results support the effectiveness of social-emotional learning programs. PMID:26048199

  1. The Intergenerational Transmission of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, Steven J.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jonathan T. Macy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intergenerational transmission of implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking, as well as the role of these attitudes in adolescents’ smoking initiation. There was evidence of intergenerational transmission of implicit attitudes. Mothers who had more positive implicit attitudes had children with more positive implicit attitudes. In turn, these positive implicit attitudes of adolescents predicted their smoking initiation 18-months later. Moreover, these effects were ...

  2. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  3. Assessing medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills – which components of attitudes do we measure?

    OpenAIRE

    Holen Are; Hjortdahl Per; Fasmer Ole B; Baerheim Anders; Grimstad Hilde; Gude Tore; Anvik Tor; Risberg Terje; Vaglum Per

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The Communication Skills Attitudes Scale (CSAS) created by Rees, Sheard and Davies and published in 2002 has been a widely used instrument for measuring medical students' attitudes towards learning communication skills. Earlier studies have shown that the CSAS mainly tests two dimensions of attitudes towards communication; positive attitudes (PAS) and negative attitudes (NAS). The objectives of our study are to explore the attitudes of Norwegian medical students towards le...

  4. Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Learning in Formal and Informal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groobman, David E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Traditional measures of academic performance, attitudes, expectations, self-esteem, and learning transfer were compared at formal and informal schools. Informal school students showed more positive attitudes toward school and teachers and greater transfer of training of learning to nonschool settings. No differences were found for academic…

  5. How and when do personal values guide our attitudes and sociality? Explaining cross-cultural variability in attitude-value linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    This article examines how and when personal values relate to social attitudes. Considering values as motivational orientations, we propose an attitude-value taxonomy based on Moral Foundation Theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2007) and Schwartz's (1992) basic human values theory allowing predictions of (a) how social attitudes are related to personal values, and (b) when macro-contextual factors have an impact on attitude-value links. In a meta-analysis based on the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992) and the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; k = 91, N = 30,357 from 31 countries), we found that self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values relate positively to fairness/proenvironmental and care/prosocial attitudes, and conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values relate to purity/religious and authority/political attitudes, whereas ingroup/identity attitudes are not consistently associated with value dimensions. Additionally, we hypothesize that the ecological, economic, and cultural context moderates the extent to which values guide social attitudes. Results of the multi-level meta-analysis show that ecological and cultural factors inhibit or foster attitude-value associations: Disease stress is associated with lower attitude-value associations for conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values; collectivism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for conservation values; individualism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values; and uncertainty avoidance is associated with stronger attitude-values links, particularly for conservation values. These findings challenge universalistic claims about context-independent attitude-value relations and contribute to refined future value and social attitude theories. PMID:23339521

  6. Factors Influencing South African Attitudes toward Digital Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Kimi van der Byl; Jean-Paul Van Belle

    2008-01-01

    Digital piracy has become an important issue in today’s technology-driven world. This research looks at the factors that cause South Africans to choose digital piracy as a means of obtaining digital media. We tested a revised Digital Piracy Attitude Model incorporating individual and situational constructs using quantitative data. Constructs showing significant correlation to an individual’s attitude toward digital piracy were age, Machiavellianism, cognitive beliefs, positive affective belie...

  7. Testing the bi-dimensional effects of attitudes on behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; Brewster, Sarah E; Thomson, James A; Malcolm, Carly; Rasmussen, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Attitudes are typically treated as unidimensional predictors of both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour. On the basis of previous research showing that attitudes comprise two independent, positive and negative dimensions, we hypothesized that attitudes would be bi-dimensional predictors of both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour. We focused on health-risk behaviours. We therefore also hypothesized that the positive dimension of attitude (evaluations of positive behavioural outcomes) would better predict both behavioural intentions and subsequent behaviour than would the negative dimension, consistent with the positivity bias/offset principle. In Study 1 (cross sectional design), N = 109 university students completed questionnaire measures of their intentions to binge-drink and the positive and negative dimensions of attitude. Consistent with the hypotheses, both attitude dimensions independently predicted behavioural intentions and the positive dimension was a significantly better predictor than was the negative dimension. The same pattern of findings emerged in Study 2 (cross sectional design; N = 186 university students) when we predicted intentions to binge-drink, smoke and consume a high-fat diet. Similarly, in Study 3 (prospective design; N = 1,232 speed limit offenders), both the positive and negative dimensions of attitude predicted subsequent (6-month post-baseline) speeding behaviour on two different road types and the positive dimension was the better predictor. The implications for understanding the motivation of behaviour and the development of behaviour-change interventions are discussed. PMID:25440892

  8. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China : A hierarchical value-attitude model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology. The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism and attitudes towards technology points towards the belief of Chinese people that technology is a positive determinant of food safety, and that interest in technology steams from altruistic predispositions.

  9. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Schroll, Sanne; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people’s attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternative and more dire...

  10. Attitudes Towards Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Roland Munch, Jakob; Schroll, Sanne; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we re-examine the role of economic self-interest in shaping people's attitudes towards immigration, using data from the European Social Survey 2002/2003. Compared to the existing literature, there are two main contributions of the present paper. First, we develop a more powerful test of the hypothesis that a positive relationship between education and attitudes towards immigration reflects economic self-interest in the labour market. Second, we develop an alternativeand more direc...

  11. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms-The role of beach visits on attitude and demographic and attitude relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.

  12. Social psychology and energy attitude consumer change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most issues in social Psychology is study of attitude. Attitudes are causes of human behavior. If we regard energy consumption as a behavior for changing behavior in field of energy we must to study attitude and attitude change.In social psychology attitude define as positive and negative affective state to a matter of object. In this paper try it describe approaches and theories about attitudes and attitude change such as classical conditioning operant conditioning, social learning and cognitive. We hope this paper will be useful for planners and expert that work in this field

  13. ATTITUDE TOWARDS CHEATING AMONG STUDENTS OF PROFESSIONALAND NON PROFESSIONAL COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHRAWAN SHINDE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was done to compare the attitude towards cheating of the professional and nonprofessional course students. In this study the sample consisted of 20 professional and 20 nonprofessional course students, studying in DEI and University. For the measurement of Attitude towards Cheating, Attitude towards cheating scale by Sharma was administered on the sample. It consists of 35 statements which are either positive or negative. Responses were to be obtained on five point scale. t-test was used for statistical analysis. The finding of this study showed that the students of professional courses have more positive attitude towards cheating as compared to the students of nonprofessional course. The value of t=16.59** was found to be statistically significant at .01 level between the two group of subjects.

  14. AN ANALYSIS ON IMPACT OF INTERPERSONAL SKILL ON ATTITUDE OF SCHOOL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Thote

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available School leadership constitutes dynamic leaders who influence classroom teachers who are their immediate subordinates in school management system. The success or failure in school management mostly depends upon influence of school leadership on their subordinates .Effective communication with teachers, staff, students ,parents ,management and strong interpersonal relationship with all stakeholders are very important for school leadership has positive impact on attitude of school leadership therefore. Positive attitude is very important to perform an excellent professional development. Research in the field of impact of interpersonal skill on attitude development of the school leadership is very much limited. The total 76 senior secondary school Principals Participated in the study. In the present paper attempts made to study the relationship between interpersonal skill and attitude of teachers .Result of the analysis shows that good interpersonal skills has and positive attitude must be maintained for efficient school leadership It is essentials to have strong interpersonal relationship for school leadership.

  15. Consumers’ attitude towards fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  16. Gender differences in student attitudes toward science: A meta-analysis of the literature from 1970 to 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinburgh, Molly

    A meta-analysis covering the literature between 1970 and 1991 was conducted using an approach similar to that suggested by Glass, McGaw, and Smith (1981) and Hedges, Shymansky, and Woodworth (1989). This analysis examined gender differences in student attitudes toward science, and correlations between attitudes toward science and achievement in science. Thirty-one effect sizes and seven correlations representing the testing of 6,753 subjects were found in 18 studies. The mean of the unweighted effect sizes was .20 (SD = .50) and the mean of the weighted effect size was .16 (SD = .50), indicating that boys have more positive attitudes toward science than girls. The mean correlation between attitude and achievement was .50 for boys and .55 for girls, suggesting that the correlations are comparable. Results of the analysis of gender differences in attitude as a function of science type indicate that boys show a more positive attitude toward science than girls in all types of science. The correlation between attitude and achievement for boys and girls as a function of science type indicates that for biology and physics the correlation is positive for both, but stronger for girls than for boys. Gender differences and correlations between attitude and achievement by gender as a function of publication date show no pattern. The results for the analysis of gender differences as a function of the selectivity of the sample indicate that general level students reflect a greater positive attitude for boys, whereas the high-performance students indicate a greater positive attitude for girls. The correlation between attitude and achievement as a function of selectivity indicates that in all cases a positive attitude results in higher achievement. This is particularly true for low-performance girls. The implications of these finding are discussed and further research suggested.

  17. Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus

    2013-04-01

    Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

  18. Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating

    OpenAIRE

    Magarey Anthea M; Wilson Annabelle M; Mastersson Nadia

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention pro...

  19. Attitudes Toward Older Workers and Human Resource Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Kluge; Franciska Krings

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes towards older employees, perceived age discrimination, and HR practices (personnel development and reward) in 240 employees. Attitudes toward older employees were largely positive, thus supporting the notion that attitudes toward older employees are becoming increasingly positive. Older employees' attitudes towards older employees were more positive, but younger employees' attitudes were still favorable. Moreover, older and younger employees reporte...

  20. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspecti...

  1. The tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism gene shows locus homogeneity on chromosome 15q11-q13 and evidence of multiple mutations in southern African negroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedda, M.A.; Stevens, G.; Manga, P.; Viljoen, C.; Jenkins, T.; Ramsay, M. (South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg (South Africa) Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1994-06-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the melanin pigmentary system. South African ty-pos OCA individuals occur with two distinct phenotypes, with or without darkly pigmented patches (ephelides, or dendritic freckles) on exposed areas of the skin. These phenotypes are concordant within families, suggesting that there may be more than one mutation at the ty-pos OCA locus. Linkage studies carried out in 41 families have shown linkage between markers in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region on chromosome 15q11-q13 and ty-pos OCA. Analysis showed no obligatory crossovers between the alleles at the D15S12 locus and ty-pos OCA, suggesting that the D15S12 locus is very close to or part of the disease locus, which is postulated to be the human homologue, P, of the mouse pink-eyed dilution gene, p. Unlike caucasoid [open quotes]ty-pos OCA[close quotes] individuals, negroid ty-pos OCA individuals do not show any evidence of locus heterogeneity. Studies of allelic association between the polymorphic alleles detected at the D15S12 locus and ephelus status suggest that there was a single major mutation giving rise to ty-pos OCA without ephelides. There may, however, be two major mutations causing ty-pos OCA with ephelides, one associated with D15S12 allele 1 and the other associated with D15S12 allele 2. The two loci, GABRA5 and D15S24, flanking D15S12, are both hypervariable, and many different haplotypes were observed with the alleles at the three loci on both ty-pos OCA-associated chromosomes and [open quotes]normal[close quotes] chromosomes. No haplotype showed statistically significant association with ty-pos OCA, and thus none could be used to predict the origins of the ty-pos OCA mutations. On the basis of the D15S12 results, there is evidence for multiple ty-pos OCA mutations in southern African negroids. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Danish emergency nurses' attitudes towards self-harm - a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PerbØll, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48%. Results show that the emergency nurses generally held positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. Nurses with longer ED experience held more positive attitudes, and women scored significantly higher than men on the whole scale. Only 19% of the respondents had received education on self-harm, and this education seems to produce more positive attitudes and a greater self-efficacy in relationto managing the patient group. CONCLUSION: Nurses working in the ED generally hold positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. It is suggested that education on self-harm is a worthwhile endeavor with the potential to strengthen and improve attitudes, for the benefit of both the nurses and the patients.

  3. Danish emergency nurses' attitudes towards self-harm : a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perboell, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, Nanna Maria

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48%. Results show that the emergency nurses generally held positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. Nurses with longer ED experience held more positive attitudes, and women scored significantly higher than men on the whole scale. Only 19% of the respondents had received education on self-harm, and this education seems to produce more positive attitudes and a greater self-efficacy in relation to managing the patient group. CONCLUSION: Nurses working in the ED generally hold positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. It is suggested that education on self-harm is a worthwhile endeavor with the potential to strengthen and improve attitudes, for the benefit of both the nurses and the patients.

  4. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.

  5. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

  6. Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

  7. RURAL CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS KHADI PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs.Padmasani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the consumers? attitude towards khadi products is reviewedthrough Fishbein?s attitude model. The influence of personal characteristics and purchasepreference factors on the attitude as well as the association between attitude andconsumer?s satisfaction are examined. This study shows that, overall, the consumers havepositive attitude towards khadi product and also that the consumers who have higherattitude get more satisfaction.

  8. Taiwanese attitudes and affective reactions toward individuals and coworkers who have intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tsu-Hsuan; Huang, Ying-Ting; Liu, Yi-Hui; Ososkie, Joseph; Fried, Juliet; Bezyak, Jill

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of Taiwanese employees toward individuals and their supported coworkers with intellectual disabilities (ID). The findings indicated that the general attitudes of Taiwanese employees toward individuals with ID and their affective reactions toward their coworkers with ID were positive. These discoveries were contrary to previous beliefs that Taiwanese people tended to have societal stigma toward people and coworkers with ID. The outcomes also showed that the participants who had longer work contact with their coworkers with ID tended to have more positive attitudes toward them. Therefore, promoting supported employment trainings and opportunities for qualified people with ID was recommended. PMID:25715181

  9. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying ...

  10. Does knowledge make a difference? The association between knowledge about genes and attitudes toward gene tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jallinoja, P; Aro, A R

    2000-01-01

    A survey was conducted (n = 1,216) to evaluate the level of knowledge about basic facts of genetics and attitudes toward gene tests among the Finnish population. Our results show that a majority of the Finnish population generally approved of gene tests. Well over half of the respondents believed that genetic testing will have positive consequences, but many also had worries related to the development of gene tests. We showed that there was an association between knowledge and attitudes, but bet...

  11. Parental Attitudes and the Effects of Ethnicity: How They Influence Children's Attitudes toward Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrehaly, Essa D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the manner in which parents' attitudes toward science learning influences their children's attitudes and the effect of ethnicity on attitudes toward science learning. The results of this study show that parental attitudes toward science learning were influenced by both parents' early life experiences and…

  12. The tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism gene shows locus homogeneity on chromosome 15q11-q13 and evidence of multiple mutations in southern African negroids.

    OpenAIRE

    Kedda, M. A.; Stevens, G.; MANGA, P; Viljoen, C.; Jenkins, T.; RAMSAY, M.

    1994-01-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the melanin pigmentary system. South African ty-pos OCA individuals occur with two distinct phenotypes, with or without darkly pigmented patches (ephelides, or dendritic freckles) on exposed areas of the skin. These phenotypes are concordant within families, suggesting that there may be more than one mutation at the ty-pos OCA locus. Linkage studies carried out in 41 families have shown linkage betw...

  13. Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sartor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

  14. Children's Changing Attitudes Regarding Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Samuel; Rooney, James F.

    1988-01-01

    Responses to drug and alcohol related questionnaire administered to intermediate grade students showed that sixth graders were significantly more advanced than fourth or fifth graders in terms of conformity to peer pressure and positive attitudes toward drug and alcohol use. Results have implications for drug and alcohol education curriculum…

  15. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  16. Students' attitudes towards science and science learning in an introductory undergraduate biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floro, Nicole

    Science education strives to cultivate individuals who understand scientific concepts as well as the nature of science and science learning. This study focused on the potential benefits of the flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning. Our study investigated changes in and effects of students' attitudes towards science and science learning in a flipped introductory biology course at the University of Massachusetts Boston. We used The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Biology to assess students' attitudes at pre and post-instruction. We investigated the effect of a flipped classroom on students' attitudes towards science and science learning by measuring the impact of different teaching approaches (flipped vs. traditional lecture). Following the prior literature, we hypothesized that there would be a negative shift in students' attitudes over the semester in the traditional classroom and that this negative shift would not occur in the flipped. Our results showed there was no significant difference in the shift of students' attitudes between the traditional and flipped sections. We also examined the relationship between students' attitudes and academic performance. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between students' attitudes and their academic performance, as measured by exam average. In support of the prior literature, we found a significant positive correlation. Finally, we examined whether the relationship between students' attitudes and performance was mediated by learning behavior. Specifically, we considered if students with more favorable attitudes solved more on-line problems correctly and whether this aspect of problem solving was associated with greater achievement. We hypothesized there would be a positive correlation between attitudes and problem solving behavior as well as problem solving behavior and achievement. We did not find a significant correlation between attitudes and this aspect of problem solving behavior, however there was a correlation between problem solving behavior and achievement. Our results indicate attitudes towards science and science learning may play a role in undergraduate students' learning achievement. However, we were not able to show that those effects were mediated through problem solving behavior, nor did we show that the flipped classroom by itself was sufficient to enhance these attitudes.

  17. Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance. PMID:23479305

  18. Strategic Attitude against Information Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jiwoong

    2009-01-01

    We study a game where agents strategically choose their attitudes from pessimism to optimism against information uncertainty in an extended non-cooperative Cournot duopoly game. An agent knows her own cost exactly but knows the other's only up to a range. No knowledge about distribution is available. In a restricted attitude space with two extreme attitudes {pessimism, optimism}, conditions which guarantee optimism or pessimism as the dominant strategy are found. When uncertainties are symmetric, we show that the game becomes a Prisoner's Dilemma. In a continuous attitude space defined to span between pessimism and optimism, we show that surprisingly, the traditionally well accepted robust attitude is never strategically robust. Finally the set of attitude equilibria is found, beyond which a selfish and rational agent does not play.

  19. The role of media and peer influences in Australian women's attitudes towards cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

    2014-09-01

    The study aimed to examine the influence of media and peers on attitudes towards cosmetic surgery using a sociocultural framework. A sample of 351 Australian women aged 18-69 years completed measures of media exposure, friend conversations, internalisation of appearance ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. Correlational analysis showed that almost all media and friend variables were significantly correlated with positive attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. A structural equation model based on the sociocultural model showed a good level of fit to the data. The effects of media exposure and friend conversations on body dissatisfaction and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery were mediated by internalisation. We concluded that media exposure and friend conversations affected attitudes towards cosmetic surgery both directly and indirectly. Our results contribute to the understanding of the sociocultural mechanisms underlying women's motivations for cosmetic surgery. PMID:25129686

  20. GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

  1. Do Attitudes toward School Influence the Underachievement of Turkish and Moroccan Minority Students in Flanders? The Attitude-Achievement Paradox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hondt, Fanny; Van Praag, Lore; Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    While many ethnic minority students underachieve compared with their ethnic majority peers, they often hold very positive school attitudes. Mickelson (1990) explained this attitude-achievement paradox by the existence of a double set of attitudes. Abstract attitudes reflect the dominant ideas about schooling, while concrete attitudes refer to a…

  2. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention.

  3. Examining Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes towards Teaching Profession and Pupil Control Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru O?UZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of teachers towards teaching profession is as important as teaching knowledge. It is estimated that teachers who have positive attitudes towards teaching profession may show humanistic attitudes and behaviors to students. Therefore, this study examines correlation between attitudes towards teaching profession and pupil control ideology of teacher candidates. The participants of the study comprise 281 teacher candidates at Ondokuz May?s University’s Faculty of Education. In this study, two instruments were used for data gathering. “Teaching Profession Attitude Scale” was used to evaluate the attitudes towards teaching profession of the teacher candidates. “Pupil Control Ideology Inventory” was used for determining the level of pupil control ideology of teacher candidates on a humanistic-custodial dimension. The results of Pearson moment correlation analysis indicated that the pupil control ideology was negatively correlated with the attitude towards teaching profession of teacher candidates. According to simple regression analysis, the attitude towards teaching profession is a significant predictor for pupil control ideology on teacher candidates T-test analysis indicated that there was no significant difference according to gender in terms of pupil control ideology and the attitude towards teaching profession of teacher candidates.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF ANIMATED AGENTS ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen UNAL-COLAK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Animated agents are electronic agents that interact with learners through voice, visuals or text and that carry human-like characteristics such as gestures and facial expressions with the purpose of creating a social learning environment, and provide information and guidance and when required feedback and motivation to students during their learning experience. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the use of pedagogical agents in learning materials designed in multimedia on the achievement and attitudes of students. A general evaluation of the research findings indicate that the use of multimedia software developed by using pedagogical agents positively affects student achievement and attitude. The achievement of the students who worked with the software significantly increased, but no significant difference in terms of different pedagogical agents was observed. The comparison of the student’s attitudes revealed no significant difference in terms of different pedagogical agents, yet the attitudes regarding “bearing human features” showed positively significant difference for the software with body shot of a real person. As it is seen in the unstructured interviews with the participants conducted during and after the experimental process, it should be stated that the students had positive attitudes towards the software and the use of pedagogical agent and expressed their liking.

  5. Pollen-specific, but not sperm-specific, genes show stronger purifying selection and higher rates of positive selection than sporophytic genes in Capsella grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, Ramesh; Josephs, Emily B; Williamson, Robert J; Wright, Stephen I

    2013-11-01

    Selection on the gametophyte can be a major force shaping plant genomes as 7-11% of genes are expressed only in that phase and 60% of genes are expressed in both the gametophytic and sporophytic phases. The efficacy of selection on gametophytic tissues is likely to be influenced by sexual selection acting on male and female functions of hermaphroditic plants. Moreover, the haploid nature of the gametophytic phase allows selection to be efficient in removing recessive deleterious mutations and fixing recessive beneficial mutations. To assess the importance of gametophytic selection, we compared the strength of purifying selection and extent of positive selection on gametophyte- and sporophyte-specific genes in the highly outcrossing plant Capsella grandiflora. We found that pollen-exclusive genes had a larger fraction of sites under strong purifying selection, a greater proportion of adaptive substitutions, and faster protein evolution compared with seedling-exclusive genes. In contrast, sperm cell-exclusive genes had a smaller fraction of sites under strong purifying selection, a lower proportion of adaptive substitutions, and slower protein evolution compared with seedling-exclusive genes. Observations of strong selection acting on pollen-expressed genes are likely explained by sexual selection resulting from pollen competition aided by the haploid nature of that tissue. The relaxation of selection in sperm might be due to the reduced influence of intrasexual competition, but reduced gene expression may also be playing an important role. PMID:23997108

  6. Individuals family history positive for alcoholism show functional magnetic resonance imaging differences in reward sensitivity that are related to impulsivity factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, MM; Meda, SA; Thomas, AD; Potenza, MN; Krystal, JH; Worhunsky, P; Stevens, MC; O'Malley, S; Book, GA; Reynolds, B.; Pearlson, GD

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substance-abusing individuals tend to display abnormal reward processing and a vulnerability to being impulsive. Detoxified alcoholics show differences in regional brain activation during a monetary incentive delay task. However, there is limited information on whether this uncharacteristic behavior represents a biological predisposition toward alcohol abuse, a consequence of chronic alcohol use, or both. METHODS: We investigated proposed neural correlates of substance disorder ri...

  7. How Chinese Face Perception Influences Consumer’s Implicit and Explicit Attitude towards Brand Country of Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuomin Shi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese people pay much attention to their faces. Face plays a very important role in Chinese daily life. Chinesepeople usually do kinds of Face Works in order to earn face, enhance face, or save face. Face work influencesconsumer’s attitude toward brand country of origin (BCO in China market. What’s more, face work makes itdifferent between implicit and explicit attitudes towards a certain brand. Although existing literatures haveverified some factors that affect implicit and explicit attitudes towards BCO, few research study the effect offace perception on BCO. The study uses both questionnaire and IAT technique to measure the effect of faceperception on the implicit and explicit attitudes toward BCO. Results showed that: (1 consumers with high faceperception have a more positive explicit attitude toward Japanese /American brands, and (2 face perceptionmoderates the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes towards BCO.

  8. Attitudes without Objects: Evidence for a Dispositional Attitude, its Measurement, and its Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive versus negative attitudes, a trait termed the Dispositional Attitude. Across four studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and...

  9. Attitudes of nursing school deans toward interprofessional education in Western Pacific Region countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takatoshi; Nozaki, Shinjiro; Lee, Bumsuk; Matsui, Hiroki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Shinozaki, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Hideomi

    2015-09-01

    A previous survey distributed to medical school deans in the Western Pacific Region (WPR) showed positive attitudes toward collaborative practice and interprofessional education (IPE). This study aimed to clarify the present state of IPE and the attitudes of nursing school deans in the WPR. The modified Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale (ATHCTS) and the modified Readiness of healthcare students for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) were used. Unexpectedly, the response rate was less than 20%. Deans of nursing schools with IPE courses showed significantly more positive attitudes than those of schools without IPE courses. The mean score of the modified ATHCTS and RIPLS of deans of nursing schools in rural areas were significantly higher than those in urban areas. Compared with medical schools, nursing schools in the WPR pay less attention to IPE and this may be one of the present characteristics of the region. PMID:26091372

  10. A case of bilateral renal cell carcinoma associated with long-term dialysis showing false-positive immunoreactivity for TFE3 as Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kurisaki-Arakawa, Aiko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Mitani, Keiko; Fukumura, Yuki; NAGASHIMA, YOJI; Argani, Pedrum; YAO, TAKASHI

    2013-01-01

    Renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/transcription factor 3 (TFE3) gene fusion (Xp11 translocation RCC) are a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma. A middle-aged Japanese man, who had a medical history of dialysis for more than 12 years, had bilateral renal cancers with a background of acquired cystic disease of the kidney and remarkable deposition of calcium oxalate in the tumorous area. The right renal tumor showed papillary architecture of clear cells with diffuse and str...

  11. Knowledge and attitude in relation to HIV/AIDS among in-service nurses of Calcutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, C; Bandyopadhyay, D

    1997-03-01

    Seventy-five senior nurses attending a workshop were surveyed with questionnaires and using two separate scales, their knowledge about transmission and precautionary measures, and their general attitude towards HIV/AIDS as well as willingness for patient-care were assessed. The nurses showed a satisfactory level of knowledge (mean percentage score 74.3), but misconceptions regarding disinfection and precautionary measures were present; 33% had overall negative attitudes and 24% unwilling to provide care for HIV-infected patients. Knowledge and attitude were positively correlated (r = .32). Knowledge deficits of some aspects of infection leading to fear of contagion and judgemental outlook towards HIV infection might lead to negative attitude impeding proper care. It is suggested that continuous in-service training be instituted to dispel misconceptions and to develop favourable and non-discriminatory attitude. PMID:9212574

  12. Effects of Puppetry on Elementary Students’ Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Individuals with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB) puppet shows onelementary school students’ knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities aredescribed. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and changeattitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both studies indicated that KOB performanceshad positive effects on both the knowledge and attitudes of second, third, and fourth grade students.Study 1 sh...

  13. Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: revisiting the relationship in nonexperimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil M; Yuen, Carlin

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether nonexperimental studies revealed an association between men's pornography consumption and their attitudes supporting violence against women. The meta-analysis corrected problems with a previously published meta-analysis and added more recent findings. In contrast to the earlier meta-analysis, the current results showed an overall significant positive association between pornography use and attitudes supporting violence against women in nonexperi...

  14. Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Inês Veiga

    2010-01-01

    Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

  15. Interactions among Attitudes toward Teaching and Personality Constructs in Early Childhood Pre-service Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    BEDEL, Emine Ferda

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine early childhood education teachers’ attitudes toward teaching, and their relationship to internal-external locus of control and sociotropy and autonomy orientations. The participants in this study were limited to 180 undergraduate students enrolled in early childhood education in three different universities in Ankara, Turkey. The results showed that the participants had fairly high positive attitudes toward teaching. On the other hand, despite th...

  16. Teachers’ Attitudes Towards inclusive Education in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rossmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the results of several empirical studies on teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of pupils with special education needs in different academic settings. The survey’s data sets of altogether 578 primary school teachers in Austria, queried in 1998 and 2009, were reanalyzed. The chosen instrument of investigation was Reicher’s scale “Einstellung zur Integration in der Schule (EIS [attitudes towards inclusion in school]“ (1988. Concerning reliability and factorial structure, the scale fulfills the requirements which an instrument of investigation has to achieve. With regards to content, the analysis of the data showed that teachers evaluate the inclusion of pupils with mental retardation as a greater challenge than the inclusion of pupils with physical or learning disabilities. With reference to the general attitude towards academic inclusion, there were no differences between primary school teachers and special education teachers. However, the results revealed a moderate effect of the field of work the respondents were engaged in. Teachers working in inclusive fields declare a more positive attitude towards academic inclusion than teachers in non-inclusive settings, disregarding the type of disability.

  17. The effects of dysphoria and personality on negative self-referent attitudes and perceptions of the attitudes of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Prentice, Jennifer L; Swan, Jennifer L; Dobson, Keith S

    2015-07-01

    The cognitive model of depression posits that depressed individuals harbor more dysfunctional self-referent attitudes, but little is known about how depressed individuals perceive the attitudes and perceptions of others in their social arena. This study examined whether dysphoric individuals perceive others to hold equally negative attitudes about themselves, and whether such perceptions depend on sociotropic (i.e., highly invested in social approval and relationship success) and autonomous (i.e., highly invested in vocational or academic achievement and goal attainment) personality styles. A sample of undergraduate students (N = 197) was recruited, and after the assessment of their depression symptoms and personality style, participants read vignettes that described negative scenarios, and imagined that these scenarios occurred to themselves or the general university student. After reading each vignette, participants also rated their agreement with a number of statements that assessed dysfunctional attitudes. Results indicated that elevated dysphoria (i.e., showing signs of depression) scores were positively associated with dysfunctional self-referent attitudes. Further, moderational analyses examining the interaction of sociotropy and dysphoria did not support the hypothesis that individuals higher on dysphoria and sociotropy were less likely to perceive others as harboring negative attitudes about themselves in comparison to those with elevated dysphoria and lower levels of sociotropy. Last, individuals showing elevated dysphoria and higher scores on subdomains of autonomy were more likely to perceive others as exhibiting negative attitudes about themselves than those with low levels of the trait. These findings, their implications, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are further discussed. PMID:25975576

  18. Attitude change toward food irradiation among conventional and alternative consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A US survey assessed the extent of attitude change toward food irradiation when consumers were given the opportunity to read about and discuss food irradiation. Consumers showed a higher level of concern for preservatives and chemical sprays than for the use of food irradiation for ensuring food safety. The study further revealed that consumer attitudes toward food irradiation can be positively influenced by an educational effort, and that this influence is most effective when the consumer can interact with someone knowledgeable about food irradiation. Willingness to buy irradiated foods was based on the safety of the process rather than on the advantages of any specific food product

  19. Nonlinear Robust Control for Spacecraft Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear robust control of the spacecraft attitude with the existence of external disturbances is considered. A robust attitude controller is designed based on the passivity approach the quaternion representation, which introduces the suppression vector of external disturbance into the control law and does not need angular velocity measurement. Stability conditions of the robust attitude controller are given. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the attitude controller.

  20. Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Kunz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN. Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001 and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004, has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.

  1. Analysis of Consumer Attitude Using Fishbein Multi-Attributes Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ramdhani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of today's economy growing rapidly, accompanied by increasingly sophisticated technological advances that led to the emergence of competition among firms.Increasing number of motorcycle brand in circulation led to a very tight competition in the motorcycle market, particularly in the type of motorcycle. This makes the consumer faced with various choices of brands, so the motorcycle manufacturers need to know the tastes and desires of consumers to create and sell a motorcycle can be favored by consumers. The purpose of this study were to determine what attributes are considered important by consumers to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, and to assess consumer attitudes toward product attributes motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, The model used is multi-attribute attitude model of Fishbein Attitude Toward To Object Model and the Theory Of Reasoned Action. The results of this study indicate that (1 that are considered important attributes are attached to the product brand motorcycle Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki is the attribute Price has the highest positive score compared * with a score of other attributes for each of the Honda brand motorcycle , Yamaha, and Suzuki. (2 consumer attitudes showed a positive attitude in which the score for the Honda is +60.03, +56.14 Yamaha, and Suzuki is +55.00. (3 the dominant factor influencing purchasing decisions motorcycle products for the Honda brand is a member of the family, while for the brand Yamaha, and Suzuki are the others

  2. ICT Learning by Older Adults and Their Attitudes toward Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Antonio; Ramírez, María Paz; Viadel, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have proven to be an effective way of helping older adults improve independence outcomes, but such technologies are yet not widely used by this segment of the population. This paper aims to study computer use and senior citizens' attitudes toward computer technology in the context of a 20-hour course in basic skills. A questionnaire was used to conduct pre- and postcourse analyses with a sample of 191 adults over the age of 60. The findings show that direct contact with computers generates more positive attitudes toward computer use and also positive relationships with attitudes, user behavior, training expectations, and self-confidence. Results are discussed in the light of need-to-know attitudes toward computer use and training in new technologies as an opportunity for life-long learning and for improving quality of life in old age. PMID:26346158

  3. The Impact of Balanced Risk-Benefit Information and Initial Attitudes on Post-Information Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, H; Fischer, A.R.H.; Jonge, J. de; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    In a realistic social context, people are confronted with both positive and negative information, yet research on this topic is relatively scarce. We present 2 studies examining the role of initial attitudes on the impact of one-sided vs. balanced positive and negative information on attitudes toward food production methods. The first experiment demonstrated that one-sided information influenced postinformation attitudes congruent to the direction of the message content. The second experiment...

  4. Landowner attitudes toward natural gas and wind farm development in northern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US has undergone a recent boom in the development of onshore wind farm and natural gas energy projects and contentious debates over the construction of these projects are common in communities across the US. A survey of landowners in a region of Northern Pennsylvania (N=1028) undergoing simultaneous development of both wind and natural gas development shows that landowners are generally much more polarized and negative towards gas development than wind farm development, and that attitudes toward natural gas development is highly dependent on environmental attitudes and industry leasing, development, or employment experience. Landowner proximity to the development explains a small amount of the variation in attitudes towards wind energy. Recommendations for energy policy and future research are discussed. - Highlight: ? A Pennsylvania survey reveals attitudes toward natural gas and wind development. ? Gas drilling attitudes became more negative; wind farm attitudes more positive. ? Environmental concern and industry experience influence attitudes toward energy. ? Proximity to wind is weakly related to attitudes; proximity to gas is not related.

  5. Determinanten für eine hausärztliche Berufswahl unter Studierenden der Medizin: Eine Umfrage an drei bayerischen Medizinischen Fakultäten [Predictors of a positive attitude of medical students towards general practice – a survey of three Bavarian medical faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schelling, Jörg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: Germany is witnessing an increasing shortage of general practitioners (GPs. The aim was to determine predictors of the job-related motivation of medical students of three medical faculties with different institutionalisation of general practice as an academic discipline.Methods: Medical students were surveyed with a standardised questionnaire about their attitudes towards general practice and their motivation to work as a GP in different working conditions. Predictors for positive attitudes and motivation were calculated using logistic regression models.Results: 940 (15.2% out of 6182 medical students from three Bavarian medical faculties participated in an online survey. 585 (62.7% were female, and the average age was 25.0 (standard deviation 3.7. The average grade of a university-entrance diploma was 1.6 (standard deviation 0.5. 718 (76.4% could imagine working as a GP. However, they favoured being employed within another organisation and not having their own private practice (65.5% vs. 35.1%. “Presence of a professorship of general practice” was associated with a positive attitude towards general practice (OR 1.57; 95%CI 1.13-2.417. Motivation for working as a GP was associated with “being female” (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.80-3.56 and “presence of a professorship of general practice” (OR 1.68; 95%CI 1.14-2.46. Having a lower grade for one’s university-entrance diploma was associated with a higher preference to work in one’s own practice (OR 1.39; 95%CI 1.02-1.90.Conclusion: A high amount of medical students were open-minded towards general practice. However, they favoured employment within an organization over working in their own practice. Institutionalisation of general practice as an academic discipline might be of importance to gain positive attitudes towards general practice and motivate medical students to work as a GP.[german] Zielsetzung: Der zunehmende Hausärztemangel wird immer mehr zu einem realen Versorgungsproblem. Ziel war es, an drei Universitäten mit unterschiedlichem Grad der Institutionalisierung des Fachs Allgemeinmedizin Einflussfaktoren zu ermitteln, die die Motivation für eine spätere hausärztliche Tätigkeit begünstigen. Methodik: In einem standardisierten Fragebogen wurde die Haltung gegenüber dem Fach Allgemeinmedizin und die Bereitschaft zur Niederlassung in eigener hausärztlicher Praxis bzw. Motivation zur Arbeit in Anstellungsverhältnissen erfasst. Einflussfaktoren auf Haltung und Motivation für eine spätere hausärztliche Tätigkeit wurden mittels binär logistischer Regression berechnet.Ergebnisse: 940 (15,2% Studierende von insgesamt 6182 Studierenden aus drei bayerischen Universitäten (Erlangen, LMU und TUM haben sich an einer internetbasierten Umfrage beteiligt. 585 (62,7% waren weiblich. Das Durchschnittsalter betrug 25,0 Jahre (Standardabweichung 3,7. Die durchschnittliche Abiturnote war 1,6 (Standardabweichung 0,5. 718 (76% der Studierenden könnten sich eine hausärztliche Arbeit vorstellen, wobei die Anstellung der Selbstständigkeit vorgezogen wird (65,5 vs. 35,1%. Für die wertschätzende Haltung gegenüber der Allgemeinmedizin zeigt sich die „Existenz eines Lehrstuhls“ als stärkster Prädiktor (OR 1,57; 95%CI 1,13-2,417. Die stärksten Prädiktoren für die Motivation zu einer späteren hausärztlichen Tätigkeit sind „weibliches Geschlecht“ (OR 2,56; 95%CI 1,80-3,56 und die „Existenz eines Lehrstuhls“ (OR 1,68; 95%CI 1,14-2,46. Eine weniger gute Abiturnote war mit einer höheren Bereitschaft zur Selbständigkeit assoziiert (OR 1.39; 95%CI 1.02-1.90.Schlussfolgerung: Diese Studie zeigt, dass durchaus viele Studierenden gegenüber einer hausärztlichen Tätigkeit aufgeschlossen sind, allerdings präferenziell im Angestelltenverhältnis und nicht in selbstständiger Niederlassung. Eine Institutionalisierung der Allgemeinmedizin scheint bedeutsam zu sein für eine positive Einstellung zum Fach und zur Motivation für eine spätere hausärztliche Tätigkeit.

  6. The Potential Positive Impact of Sup-ported Employment on the Oral Health Status, Attitudes and Behavior of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Margaritis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID con-stitute a unique but heterogeneous population, which includes a great variety of mental and developmental disorders, as well as congenital syndromes. Nowadays, many persons with mild or moderate ID, with specific training, can make considerable efforts to improve their lives, by having a job in either open or supported employment. On the other hand, since dental caries and periodontal diseases are among the most common secondary conditions affecting people with ID, oral diseases may detract the quality of life from disabled persons.The hypothesis: Employment (sheltered workshop, open or supported employment of persons with ID, may enable these individuals to improve their oral health status, attitudes and behavior, compared to the ID individuals who are not working, due to the development of specific socio-emotional characteristics and dexterities.Evaluation of the hypothesis: According to previous reports, employed people with ID demonstrated better self-esteem and greater autonomy, more satisfaction with their vocational/non-vocational ac-tivities and higher quality of life.

  7. Promoting positive attitudes to breastfeeding: the development and evaluation of a theory-based intervention with school children involving a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Melanie; Millar, Samantha; Armour, Cherie; McClenahan, Carol; Mallett, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to design, implement and evaluate an intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to enhance young peoples' motivations to breastfeed/support a partner to breastfeed. Six semi-structured focus groups were first conducted with 48 13-14-year-olds from two schools in Northern Ireland. The salient beliefs elicited were subsequently used to design a TPB-based questionnaire that was then administered to 2021 13-14-year-old pupils (852 males; 1169 females) from 36 post-primary schools to identify the most important determinants of breastfeeding. The results were used to inform the design and implementation of an intervention package that was subsequently evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 44 randomly selected schools across Northern Ireland. Questionnaires were administered to 18 intervention and 26 control schools at baseline and again at 1 and 6 months post-intervention to evaluate its effectiveness. Multi-level modelling was employed to analyse the data. The results revealed significant effects on women's intention to breastfeed, ??=?0.208, t(1275)?=?2.715, P?=?0.007; attitudes, ??=?0.223, t(1275)?=?4.655, P?behaviour intervention. PMID:24028173

  8. Examining Life Satisfaction Levels of High School Student in term of Parental Attitude and Some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedef Ünsal Seydoo?ullar?

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the correlation between life satisfaction levels of high school students with parental attitude. Life satisfaction levels of high school students was also investigated in terms of perceived academic achievement, perceived economic status, grade level, grown place, age, gender and parents’ education level. The participants of study consist of 245 students, 107 girls, 138 boys, between ages 15 and 19. The data were collected through the Satisfaction with Life Scale developed by Diener, Emmons, Laresen ve Griffin (1985 and adopted in Turkish by Köker (1991; Parentel Attitude Scale developed by Kuzgun and Eldeleklio?lu (1996 and Personal Information Form developed by researcher. Correlation analysis, regression analysis and t- test were used to analyze data. Results show that there were positive medium level correlation between democratic mother attitude and democratic father attitude with life satisfaction. There were also negative level correlation authoritarian and protective mother and father attitude and grade level with level of life satisfaction. In the direction of these relational findings; in regression analysis used method of enter mothers’ democratic attitude determined that perceived high academic achievement and perceived high socio-economic status are positively predictive whereas mother’s authoritarian attitude and grade level are negatively predictive of life satisfaction (F(1, 245= 12.002, p.05.© 2012 IOJES. All rights reserved

  9. Do medical students like communication? Validation of the German CSAS (Communication Skills Attitude Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busch, Anne-Kathrin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Attitudes towards communication skills of medical undergraduates can be gathered using the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS. We aimed to develop a German version of the CSAS (CSAS-G in order to explore attitudes towards communication skills in a German cohort. Additionally the potential influence of demographic factors was examined.Methods: We realized the CSAS-G and conducted a survey with 529 participants from 3 different years of study. We then carried out an explorative as well as confirmatory factor analysis and compared the attitudinal scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed.Results: The confirmatory analysis confirmed the two-subscale system revealed by the explorative factor analysis. Students indicate low levels of negative attitudes and moderate levels of positive attitudes. Attitudinal scores differ significantly in relation to gender.Conclusion: The CSAS-G can be used in German cohorts to evaluate attitudes towards communication skills. Medical students in our study show basically a positive approach. Further investigation is necessary to explore and understand attitudes towards communication skills of German medical students.

  10. Abuse of disabled parking: Reforming public's attitude through persuasive multimedia strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, W. A. J. W.; Zain, M. Z. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude's components are affective, cognitive and behavioral and may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled persons in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2 × 2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons With Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.

  11. Reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance and food behaviours, attitudes, knowledge and environments associated with healthy eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magarey Anthea M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project. Methods The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10–12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1. Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2 following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability and (b Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency. Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores. Results One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134 occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47–0.66 (p 0.05 for 10/12 (test-retest reliability and 3/7 (validity scores. Conclusion This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10–12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.

  12. Adolescents’ Attitudes toward Ecstasy Using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Seyedfatemi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Using illicit drugs such as Ecstasy is a deviant behavior in adolescents. Attitude toward using illicit drugs can predict its usage. This study was carried out in order to determine the adolescents' attitude toward using Ecstasy in 2006. Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, eight hundred adolescents aged 16-18 years who lived in the west of Tehran recruited from public regions of municipality. Data was gathered using authors-structured questionnaire. After filling in informed consents, the questionnaires were completed by the respondents. Results: Findings revealed that 78.9 % of the adolescents had negative attitudes and 17.5% had positive attitudes toward using Ecstasy. Boys and girls attitudes were not significantly different. Conclusion: Regarding relatively high negative attitudes among the adolescents toward Ecstasy using, it seems that investments in health promoting programs were appropriate. Nevertheless, along with these programs, parents and teachers should pay more attention to the issue.   Key words: adolescent, attitude, drug abuse, Ecstasy

  13. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Generally people are more positive towards offshore wind farms compared to on-land wind farms. However, the attitudes are commonly assumed to be independent of experience with wind farms. Important relations between attitude and experience might therefore be disregarded. The present paper gives a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement th...

  14. Medical students' attitudes to complementary medical therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Furnham, A.; D. Hanna; Vincent, CA

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and eighty medical students completed one of five versions of a questionnaire concerning their attitudes to five complementary therapies: acupuncture, herbalism, homoeopathy, hypnosis, and osteopathy. Very few significant statistical differences in students' attitudes to the five therapies were found, suggesting that students had similar attitudes, which were generally positive, despite the fact that they considered they knew little about the therapies. These results are discussed...

  15. Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brimble1

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

  16. Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: revisiting the relationship in nonexperimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil M

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether nonexperimental studies revealed an association between men's pornography consumption and their attitudes supporting violence against women. The meta-analysis corrected problems with a previously published meta-analysis and added more recent findings. In contrast to the earlier meta-analysis, the current results showed an overall significant positive association between pornography use and attitudes supporting violence against women in nonexperimental studies. In addition, such attitudes were found to correlate significantly higher with the use of sexually violent pornography than with the use of nonviolent pornography, although the latter relationship was also found to be significant. The study resolves what appeared to be a troubling discordance in the literature on pornography and aggressive attitudes by showing that the conclusions from nonexperimental studies in the area are in fact fully consistent with those of their counterpart experimental studies. This finding has important implications for the overall literature on pornography and aggression.

  17. Students' attitudes towards learning statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-05-01

    Positive attitude towards learning is vital in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. This is unexceptional in learning statistics course especially at the university level. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six variables or constructs have been identified such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The instrument used for the study is questionnaire that was adopted and adapted from the reliable instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics(SATS©). This study is conducted to engineering undergraduate students in one of the university in the East Coast of Malaysia. The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. The results are analysed in terms of descriptive analysis and it contributes to the descriptive understanding of students' attitude towards the teaching and learning process of statistics.

  18. Development of Metacognitive Knowledge of Reading Strategies and Attitudes Toward Reading in Early Adolescence: The Effect on Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Koli?-Vehovec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine developmental changes in metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading during early adolescence (from 10 to 14 years, taking gender into account. A secondary aim was also to test a model of the relationships among gender, attitudes toward reading, metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies, and reading comprehension. The sample for this longitudinal study consisted of 175 students. The first data collection took place when the students were enrolled in grade 4 (10 years old, and the follow-up measurements were conducted in grades 6 and 8. At each measurement point, measures of metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading were applied in addition to text comprehension tasks. The obtained results indicated that metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies continuously improved during early adolescence, while attitudes toward recreational reading showed continuous decline from the fourth to the eighth grade, and attitudes toward academic reading dropped significantly between sixth and eighth grades. Girls consistently demonstrated better metacognitive knowledge, as well as more positive attitudes toward both recreational and academic reading when compared to boys. The model that included only attitudes toward recreational reading fitted the data better than the model comprising both academic and recreational reading attitudes. The findings of the path analysis indicated that gender had an effect on recreational reading attitudes that consistently predicted text comprehension directly and indirectly through metacognitive knowledge during early adolescence. The model fitted the data better as students got older.

  19. Developing Positive Attitudes for Life in the Twenty-First Century: The 'Thought Power' Programme used with Teenage Students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Judy; Winter, Sam

    2000-01-01

    A version of Chapman's Thought Power Programme, which focuses on stress identification, emotional versus physical pain, and problem solving, was administered to Hong Kong secondary school students. Data on harmful thoughts; helpful thoughts; general well being; and locus of control all revealed positive benefits of the program. Findings suggest a…

  20. Attitudes of midwives and maternal child health nurses towards suicide: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Rosalind; McCauley, Kay; Barnfield, Jakqui; Moss, Cheryle; Cross, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    Perinatal women are at risk of depression and/or suicidality. Suicide is the highest cause of indirect maternal deaths in the perinatal period. Midwives and maternal child health nurses (MCHN), as key clinicians, need to be able to detect these mental health issues. Little is known about these clinicians' attitudes to suicide. In this paper, we report on the results of a cross-sectional study of midwives' and MCHN attitudes to suicide. A convenience sample of midwives (n?=?95) and MCHN (n?=?86) from south-eastern Victoria, Australia, was recruited into the study. Participants completed the Attitudes to Suicide Prevention Scale. The results showed that MCHN have more positive attitudes towards suicide prevention than midwives, and younger participants have more positive attitudes to suicide prevention compared to older participants. Midwives and MCHN could benefit from continuing professional education to build their knowledge and skills in assessing suicide risk for childbearing women and their families, increasing positive attitudes, improving detection, and mental health referrals. PMID:26350295

  1. Affect and Cognition in Attitude Formation toward Familiar and Unfamiliar Attitude Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Giesen, Roxanne I.

    2015-01-01

    At large attitudes are built on earlier experience with the attitude object. If earlier experiences are not available, as is the case for unfamiliar attitude objects such as new technologies, no stored evaluations exist. Yet, people are still somehow able to construct attitudes on the spot. Depending on the familiarity of the attitude object, attitudes may find their basis more in affect or cognition. The current paper investigates differences in reliance on affect or cognition in attitude formation toward familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. In addition, individual differences in reliance on affect (high faith in intuition) or cognition (high need for cognition) are taken into account. In an experimental survey among Dutch consumers (N = 1870), we show that, for unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, people rely more on affect than cognition. For familiar attitude objects where both affective and cognitive evaluations are available, high need for cognition leads to more reliance on cognition, and high faith in intuition leads to more reliance on affect, reflecting the influence of individually preferred thinking style. For people with high need for cognition, cognition has a higher influence on overall attitude for both familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects. On the other hand, affect is important for people with high faith in intuition for both familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects and for people with low faith in intuition for unfamiliar attitude objects; this shows that preferred thinking style is less influential for unfamiliar objects. By comparing attitude formation for familiar and unfamiliar realistic attitude objects, this research contributes to understanding situations in which affect or cognition is the better predictor of overall attitudes. PMID:26517876

  2. Development and validation of the attitudes about sadomasochism scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Megan R

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a new measure, the Attitudes about Sadomasochism Scale (ASMS). Exploratory factor analysis with 213 participants yielded four subscales (Socially Wrong, Violence, Lack of Tolerance, and Real Life). Confirmatory factor analysis with a different sample (n = 258) indicated that this four-factor model fit the data well. Validation analyses using all 471 participants showed that the ASMS positively correlated with other measures of social and sexual conservatism (right-wing authoritarianism, attitudes about lesbians and gay men, sexual conservatism, rape myth acceptance). However, a multiple regression analysis showed that the majority of the variance in the ASMS was not explained by the four measures of conservatism, indicating that the ASMS measures a unique attitudinal construct. Further validation analyses revealed that participants who had prior knowledge about sadomasochism (SM), participants who have engaged in SM, and participants who knew a friend involved in SM all endorsed more positive attitudes on the ASMS. Thus, this study presents a reliable and valid measure of stereotypical and prejudicial attitudes about individuals involved in these nontraditional sexual practices. PMID:19499457

  3. The Effects Of Grade Level, Gender, And Ethnicity On Attitude And Learning Environment In Mathematics In High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thienhuong N. Hoang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate different factors (grade level, gender, and ethnicity that might affect the attitudes and learning environment perceptions of high school mathematics students in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The study involved the administration of the administration of the What Is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC questionnaire and an attitude questionnaire based on the Test of Mathematics-Related Attitude (TOMRA to 600 Grades 9 and 10 mathematics students in 30 classes in one high school. Quantitative research method was used in collecting information from the sample. The quantitative data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results showed that male consistently reported slightly more positive perceptions of classroom environment and attitudes than did females. Anglo students’ scores consistently are a little higher than Hispanic students’ scores. There is strong evidence of associations between students’ attitudes and the learning environment.

  4. Attitudes without objects: evidence for a dispositional attitude, its measurement, and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-06-01

    We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PMID:23586409

  5. Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes; Attityd till slutfoervar av anvaent kaernbraensle. Struktur och orsaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart (Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research)

    2008-09-15

    This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

  6. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermoere, Frederic, E-mail: Frederic_Vandermoere@hks.harvard.ed [Program on Science, Technology and Society, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Blanchemanche, Sandrine [INRA Paris, Metarisk Department (France); Bieberstein, Andrea [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany); Marette, Stephan [INRA, UMR Economie publique (France); Roosen, Jutta [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer BWL - Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  7. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

  8. A Comparative Study of Attitude of Mental Health Versus Nonmental Professionals toward Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a major public health problem. Suicide can be prevented by understanding the disorder. Attitude plays a significant role in doing so. Aim: To assess the attitudes of mental health professionals and non-mental health professionals towards an act of suicide and to compare the two groups regarding their attitudes. Materials and Methods: A semistructured questionnaire having yes/no type questions was administered to 30 mental health and 30 nonmental health professionals. A blind analysis of the data was done. Statistical Analysis: Comparative analysis using mean and standard deviation and analysis of variance was performed to rate significance in differences of responses to questions that rate attitudes. Results: The results show a significant positive attitude of mental health professionals toward dealing with the patients who attempted suicide. Discussion: Considering the magnitude of the problem, simple training and education of nonmental health professionals can change their attitude toward patients who attempt suicide, which in turn leads to an optimal management. Conclusion: The study shows that the mental health professionals are much more positive in their approach towards a patient of parasuicide.

  9. ATTITUDES TOWARD ONLINE COMMUNICATIONS IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem ERDEM AYDIN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intended to reveal the results of a survey study in which the students’ attitudes toward online communication in open and distance learning were investigated. In the study, affects of the students’ gender and computer experience on their attitudes were also examined. A total of 626 subjects participated in the study and ‘Online Communication Attitude Scale’, developed by Ledbetter, was adapted as the data collection instrument. Mean, standard deviation, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests were used to analyze the data gathered. The results of the study indicated that students have in general positive attitudes toward online communication in ODL. Also, it showed that there is a significant difference in ‘miscommunication’, ‘social connection’ and ‘ease’ dimensions of online communication between the males and the female students. The female students see online environments as open to communication errors. On the other hand, the study supported the literature about the affect of the students’ computer experience and their attitudes toward online communication in ODL.

  10. Study of the effects of informational and persuasive messages on the attitudes of high school students toward the use of nuclear energy for electrical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation assessed the relationship between knowledge about and attitudes toward nuclear energy. The study's purpose was accomplished by attempting to manipulate knowledge about and attitude toward nuclear energy independently. Over two thousand high school students participated in the study. A Non-Equivalent Control Group quasi-experimental design was used involving random assignment by intact groups to treatments. A knowledge treatment was designed to increase student knowledge without affecting attitudes. An attitude treatment was designed to change attitudes without changing knowledge, and a control treatment was employed for comparison to the experimental treatments. Each treatment consisted of a videotape with a viewing guide and a homework assignment. The Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery was used as a pretest, post-test, and retention test. Males scored significantly higher in knowledge and positive attitudes, but no interaction between gender and treatment was found. The study concluded that (1) there is a correlation between nuclear knowledge and attitudes, (2) knowledge about nuclear energy can be changed without affecting attitude and attitude can be changed without affecting knowledge, and (3) students show differences and attitude based on gender

  11. Evaluation of relationship between metacognition components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metacognitive components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II. Methods: Thirty-six young adult outpatients with current diagnoses of BMD II(20 females and 16 males were recruited from Esfahan Counseling Center. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder-Clinical Version(SCID-CV. A battery of questionnaires including Metacognition Questionnaire and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale(DAS were self-assessed by patients before medical therapy. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the components of metacognition and its relationship with dysfunctional attitudes is positive and significant(r= 28/0, p<0/05. Multiple regression analysis showed that two of the metacognitive components emerged as potentially useful in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes(negative beliefs about uncontrollability, danger and thoughts control. Also, results indicated that those two components have a significant positive relationship with vulnerability, perfectionism and effectivenessR²= 0/29, 0/35; p<0/05. Components of positive beliefs about worry and beliefs about cognitive self-consciousness related to cognitive confidence in predicting the criterion variable and its components showed no significant contribution. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that DSM-IV BMD II outpatients with metacognitive distortions have shown higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes.

  12. Precision attitude determination for multimission spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Attitude determination algorithms for a multimission spacecraft are derived and their performance analyzed. The attitude determination system is composed of a strapdown Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), two fixed head star trackers, and an onboard computer. IRU data is processed to maintain real-time knowledge of spacecraft attitude relative to an inertial reference frame. Star tracker data is processed using Kalman filtering techniques to estimate and correct the attitude determination errors and the gyro drift compensation errors. The results of a star availability analysis for stellar, solar and earth pointing missions are presented. Linear covariance analysis techniques are used to evaluate nominal attitude determination performance, the effects of sensor measurement accuracy variations, the effects of errors in knowledge of sensor measurement accuracy, and the effects of star tracker misalignment errors. Results of a nonlinear simulation analysis of attitude determination performance are also presented. These analyses show that precision attitude determination for stellar, solar and earth pointing missions is achieved.

  13. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  14. Assessment of change in conservation attitudes through zoo education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Zoo in fall 2010 and subjects were students' ages 14-18 who either participated in a formal conservation education class led by zoo educators or in a field trip in which they were engaged in free-choice learning. Two research questions were: 1) Does a trip to the zoo affect conservation attitudes and 2) does learning experience, free-choice or formal, affect conservation attitudes? A criterion group design was used and the instrument used to measure conservation attitudes was Tool 4 from the Visitor Evaluation Toolbox produced by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums MIRP study (Falk, J., Bronnenkant, K., Vernon, C., & Heimlich, J., 2009). Group one (N=110) engaged in a free-choice (field trip only) experience and group two (N=367) engaged in a formal conservation education class. The survey was administered retrospectively to both groups upon completion of their learning experience at the zoo. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 17.0. A paired sample t-test showed the overall mean within both groups increased in a positive direction from 67.965 (retrospective) to 72.345 (present). With alpha set at .05 the two-tailed probability was <0.001, therefore confirming that the change in conservation attitudes was significant. An independent sample t-test of the change in scores between the groups produced p values of 0.792 and 0.773 and revealed that the change was not significant. Findings did illustrate that a trip to the zoo did positively and significantly affect conservation attitudes among teens and that the type of learning experience did not significantly affect change in conservation attitude scores.

  15. Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichaelJ.Tarr

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or “IAT” revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or “ALPS” and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

  16. Can singular examples change implicit attitudes in the real-world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Lebrecht, Sophie; Tanaka, James W; Tarr, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or "IAT" revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes toward African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or "ALPS" and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words-similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes. PMID:24046756

  17. An Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program: Effects on Attitudes Toward Women, Rape-Related Attitudes, and Perceptions of Rape Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzone-Glover, Holly A.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Jacobs, Cecilia Dine

    1998-01-01

    Studied the effects of an acquaintance-rape prevention program on college students' attitudes (n=152) toward rape and attitudes toward women, perceptions of acquaintance rape scenarios, and rape empathy. Positive attitude change was stronger among men, who became more certain of rape definitions. Contains 53 references. (SLD)

  18. Towards a different attitude to uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Pe'er

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ecological literature deals with uncertainty primarily from the perspective of how to reduce it to acceptable levels. However, the current rapid and ubiquitous environmental changes, as well as anticipated rates of change, pose novel conditions and complex dynamics due to which many sources of uncertainty are difficult or even impossible to reduce. These include both uncertainty in knowledge (epistemic uncertainty and societal responses to it. Under these conditions, an increasing number of studies ask how one can deal with uncertainty as it is. Here, we explore the question how to adopt an overall alternative attitude to uncertainty, which accepts or even embraces it. First, we show that seeking to reduce uncertainty may be counterproductive under some circumstances. It may yield overconfidence, ignoring early warning signs, policy- and societal stagnation, or irresponsible behaviour if personal certainty is offered by externalization of environmental costs. We then demonstrate that uncertainty can have positive impacts by driving improvements in knowledge, promoting cautious action, contributing to keeping societies flexible and adaptable, enhancing awareness, support and involvement of the public in nature conservation, and enhancing cooperation and communication. We discuss the risks of employing a certainty paradigm on uncertain knowledge, the potential benefits of adopting an alternative attitude to uncertainty, and the need to implement such an attitude across scales – from adaptive management at the local scale, to the evolving Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES at the global level.

  19. Attitudes of Consumers Towards the Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Elnecave Kruter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The demands regarding sustainable production and consumption are growing increasingly, the market is opening doors for companies to innovate in products and processes that present themselves as a solution to social and environmental problems facing society today. To this end, in 2010, a Brazilian company began producing the "green" polyethylene, or green plastic, which differs from conventional polyethylene because it is produced from the ethanol from cane sugar and not from naphtha oil. Because it is a new product on the market and little known, this study aims to understand consumer attitudes towards green plastic. Environmental concerns, ecologically conscious consumer behavior, purchase intention and previous knowledge of green plastic were also assessed. Were conducted initially in-depth interviews, which helped quantitative stage, an online survey, applied to a sample of 300 individuals. Results indicate that surveyed consumers have positive attitudes towards green plastic and intention to purchase products made ??with this material. Despite exhibiting a high degree of environmental awareness, they show only moderate attitudes in relation to sustainable consumption in practice. We can conclude that there is still much to be done by companies and society so that a greater degree of maturity and respect for the environment can be achieved.

  20. Attitudes toward Interracial Dating: Effects of Age, Sex, and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Judith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated attitudes toward interracial dating by surveying 400 individuals from integrated community. As predicted, men were more positive than women, the young were more positive than the old, and Caucasian Americans were somewhat more positive than African Americans in their attitudes. (Author/NB)

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE AND EXPERIENCE of USING A MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE PROGRAM (MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet A. OCAK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This correlation study examined the relationship between gender and the students’ attitude and prior knowledge of using one of the mathematical software programs (MATLAB. Participants were selected from one community college, one state university and one private college. Students were volunteers from three Calculus I classrooms (one class from each school in which MATLAB was used extensively. A survey regarding students’ attitude and experience on using the MATLAB program was administered to classes. The findings of the study indicated that gender differences are not related to students’ attitude and experience on the program. The results revealed slightly positive correlation between and students’ attitude and experience on the program. The implications of this study shows that teachers who use MATLAB in their instruction and classroom practices must pay attention on how much students use it, the obstacles students had to overcome to succeed in its use, and their general issues and concerns regarding MATLAB use.

  2. Attitudes and knowledge level of teachers in ICT use: The case of Turkish teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdo?an Tezci

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine teachers' influence in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT at schools. Various variables are examined such as years of experience, gender, the duration of computer and Internet use, and to determine the attitude, level of knowledge on and the frequency of ICT use among teachers. The study was conducted with 1540 primary school teachers using Knowledge, Use and Attitude Scales of ICT. The results show that the most commonly used and well-known ICT types among teachers are the Internet, e-mail and word processing, and teachers' attitudes towards computers and the Internet are generally positive. It was also found that their attitudes vary with their years of experience and levels of knowledge.

  3. Attitude Differentiates The Brand Selection (From the view of Generation Y people)

    OpenAIRE

    Alvi, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Attitude makes perception about anything, yes it cannot be neglected that in order to make some attitude towards specific brand; previous performance, good word of mouth or suggestion from other, attractive advertising and highly spend on promotional tools are play a vital role. Positive attitude and negative attitude influence a consumer in brand selection but a problem arises, some people also have a positive attitude but they do not buy brand. It was observed that some of people ...

  4. A quantitative research of consumer’s attitude towards food products advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Voicu Mirela-Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the consumers' attitude towards television/radio/press advertising is especially important, a fact which is highlighted by national and international speciality literature. The attitude of the consumer towards a television commercial influences the attitude towards the promoted product or brand. Thus, a positive attitude towards the commercial for a brand determines a positive attitude towards the respective brand and, eventually, may result in the formulation of the purchase inte...

  5. Vision-Based Attitude and Formation Determination System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To determine pointing and position vectors in both local and inertial coordinate frames, multi-spacecraft missions typically utilize separate attitude determination...

  6. ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTATIONS OF STUDENTS TOWARDS LEARNING OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yao Sua

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the policy of teaching science and mathematics in English in the Malaysian educational system by focusing on the attitudes and achievement orientations of secondary school students towards the learning of these two subjects. Attitudes and achievement are two important outcomes of learning that will determine the effectiveness of an education policy. This study is based on a sample of 400 secondary school students selected from four non-premier schools. It looks into the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics as well as their variations according to four background variables, i.e., gender, ethnicity, types of feeder school and English achievement grades. It also examines the inter-correlations between the students’ attitudes and achievement orientations. Findings from statistical analyses of collected data were supplemented by more in-depth interviews. This study shows that the students’ general attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics in English do not indicate that the policy has achieved its objective. However, their attitudes and achievement motivations vary according to the four background variables. The significant and positive inter-correlations between attitudes and achievement orientations towards learning of science and mathematics further confirm the causal relationship between these two important dimensions of learning.

  7. Attitude toward Plagiarism among Iranian Medical Faculty Members

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi; Kiarash Aramesh; Kiana Hassanpour; Abbas Norouzi-Javidan; Mahsa Ghajarzadeh

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess attitude towards plagiarism in faculty members of Medical School at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. One hundred and twenty medical faculty members ofTehran University of Medical Sciences were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were asked to answer to valid and reliable Persian version of attitude towards plagiarism questionnaire. Attitude toward plagiarism, positive attitude toward self-plagiarism and plagiarism acceptance were assessed. E...

  8. Attitudes, social representations and social attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Robert, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper plays the role of the devil's advocate in relation to Colin Fraser's paper "attitudes, social representations and widespread beliefs". It argues for the alternative perspective which Colin identifies that social representations and social attitudes are epistemologically incompatible theories.

  9. Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod

    2015-07-01

    This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N=8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms. PMID:25063421

  10. Principal-Teacher Interactions: How Affective Relationships Shape Principal and Teacher Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Heather E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Research finds that the attitudes of principals and teachers create an atmosphere for learning, often referred to as school climate, that influences school effectiveness. Other research shows that atmospheres of trust, shared vision, and openness create positive school climate conditions. Little is known, however, about how these climates…

  11. Factors predicting teachers' attitudes towards the use of ICT in teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ismail, Rohayati

    2015-10-01

    Technology has revolutionized in the field of Education. The importance of technology in schools cannot be ignored. While it is important that mathematics teachers should have positive attitudes towards adopting ICT in their teaching, various problems can arise when integrating ICT into classroom lessons. This study explored the factors that influence the attitudes of mathematic teachers in the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning process. A total of 187 mathematics teachers from the state of Selangor in Malaysia were randomly selected from a stratified cluster sample. The research examined five factors that were postulated to impact teachers' attitudes towards the integration of ICT in their lessons, viz. teachers' technology competence, school culture, access to ICT, school support, and years of classroom teaching experience. The findings showed that the teachers' attitudes towards using ICT in teaching and learning were positively correlated with the teachers' technology competence [r = .41; p attitudes towards using ICT in teaching and learning [r = -0.192; p attitudes towards using ICT in the classroom was explained by the variation in teachers' technology competence, school support and school culture, with the effects of teaching experience and ICT resource access being negligible.

  12. Usos y tendencias adictivas de una muestra de estudiantes universitarios españoles a la red social Tuenti: la actitud positiva hacia la presencia de la madre en la red como factor protector / Spanish university students' uses of the social network Tuenti and their addiction levels: the protective role of the positive attitude toward mothers' presence as contact

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mercedes, Durán; José M., Guerra.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar, desde el paradigma de usos y gratificaciones, el uso que los estudiantes universitarios españoles (N = 221) hacen de la red social Tuenti, y en qué medida estos usos se asocian con sus niveles de adicción a dicha red social. Además se analizó el papel que lo [...] s progenitores tienen como facilitadores o inhibidores de dichas tendencias adictivas y el impacto del género. Los resultados muestran cuatro categorías de usos de la red Tuenti: entretenimiento, comunicación a través del muro, comunicación a nivel privado e información social. Además, la actitud positiva hacia la presencia de la madre en la red Tuenti se muestra como un factor de protección de las tendencias adictivas a la red. Por último, se han encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género, tanto en los usos que realizan chicos y chicas, como en sus patrones de adicción a la red Tuenti, de tal manera que los chicos informan de niveles de adicción superiores a los informados por las chicas en el uso de esta red social. Abstract in english The present work aimed to study, from the uses and gratifications paradigm, the uses that Spanish university students (N = 221) do of the social networking site Tuenti, and the relationship between these uses and young's self-reported levels of addiction towards Tuenti. Also, the students' attitudes [...] towards the presence of their parents as contacts in Tuenti, and the impact of gender were analyzed. The results showed four different categories of uses: entertainment, public communication, private communication and social information. Also, young's positive attitude toward the presence of the mother in Tuenti played a protective role in their addition levels towards this social networking site. Finally, statistically significant gender differences in the uses of Tuenti and also in their addiction levels toward Tuenti were found.

  13. Lesbian and Gay Male Group Identity Attitudes and Self-Esteem: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.

    1993-01-01

    Ninety-six lesbians and gay men completed Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and modified version of Racial Identity Attitude Scale. Results indicated moderate inverse relationship between preencounter attitudes and self-esteem and positive relationship between internalization attitudes and self-esteem. Encounter and immersion-emersion attitudes were…

  14. Framing the EU as Common Project vs. Common Heritage: Effects on Attitudes Towards the EU Deepening and Widening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of framing the European Union (EU) as a common project vs. a common heritage on participants' attitude towards EU integration (Experiment 1) and EU enlargement (Experiment 2). An additional aim was exploring whether the different frames affected the strength of identification with the EU, and if the framing effect on attitudes was mediated by participants' identification with the EU and/or by their message evaluation (Experiment 3). Results showed that a common project-based frame was more effective than a common heritage-based frame in promoting positive attitude toward EU integration and enlargement, as well as participants' identification with the EU, which mediated the framing effect on both attitudes; the mediation of participants' message evaluation was not significant. The procedure of the last experiment was replicated on a British sample (Experiment 4), showing a similar pattern of results. PMID:25898068

  15. Positive cueing: Promoting sustainable consumer behavior by cueing common environmental behaviors as environmental

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Gert; Pandelaere, Mario; Warlop, Luk; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2006-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that cueing people with commonly performed ecological behaviours positively influences their attitudes towards ecological behaviour and renders their consumption decisions more ecologically sound. Ecological behaviours differ in diagnosticity for deriving consumers' green attitudes (study 1). A correlational study (study 2) and two experimental ones (studies 3 and 4) further show that an individual's perceived ease-of-retrieval of previously performed environ...

  16. ATTITUDES TOWARDS ECONOMIC RISK AND THE GENDER PAY GAP*

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Anh T.; Miller, Paul W.; Slutske, Wendy S; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the links between gender differences in attitudes towards economic risk and the gender pay gap. Consistent with the literature on the socio-economic determinants of attitudes towards economic risk, it shows that females are much more risk averse than males. It then extends this research to show that workers with more favorable attitudes towards risk are associated with higher earnings, and that gender differences in attitudes towards economic risk can account for a small, ...

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception (KAP Regarding Halal Pharmaceuticals among General Public in Penang State of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Sadeeqa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This was a cross-sectional study using a structured, self-administered questionnaires to evaluate the knowledge, attitude & perception (KAP regarding Halal pharmaceuticals, among general public of Penang state of Malaysia, from September 2012 to November 2012. Study was conducted on a sample of 458. Any Muslim having age 18 years or above and able to read and understand Malay language was included. Study settings included different shopping malls, bus stations, food courts and markets of Penang state. Data was collected through trained data collectors. Results revealed that public have a good knowledge and positive attitude & perception about Halal pharmaceuticals. Mean knowledge score out of maximum possible 9 score was 6.41 ± 1.35, while mean attitude and perception score out of maximum possible score of 35 each were 25.86±4.03 and 30.71±4.47 respectively. Mean overall KAP score out of maximum possible score of 79 was found to be 62.74±7.65. There was a significant positive but weak (0-0.25 correlation between knowledge and attitude (r=0.099, p=0.035 & attitude and perception (r=0.156, p=0.001. But a positive, significant and fair (0.25-0.5 correlation was found between knowledge and perception (r=.440, p=.036.This shows that better knowledge the respondents have on Halal pharmaceuticals, better their perception is towards Halal pharmaceuticals. P value of .05 or less was taken as statistically significant.

  18. CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOBILE MARKETING AND MOBILE COMMERCE IN CONSUMER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman BARUTÇU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in information and communication technologies are not only offering new marketing channels to companies but also significantly influencing the ways in which companies conduct their businesses and marketing activities. This paper analyses the possible significant impacts of mobile phone technology developments on marketing, and offers insights into mobile commerce and mobile marketing, which have not previously been investigated in Turkey. In the survey, mobile phone users’ attitudes towards mobile commerce and mobile marketing and their intentions to benefit from mobile phones are searched. The empirical results show that the mobile phone users’ adoption of mobile shopping is low, and apart from mobile shopping, mobile phone users have positive attitudes towards mobile advertising, entertainment, discount coupons and mobile marketing. Moreover, the demographics characteristics (age, income, occupation and employment of mobile phone users who have more positive attitudes towards mobile marketing tools are determined and managerial implications and recommendations are also given to increase mobile commerce and marketing adoption rates.

  19. Energy attitudes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy issues are at present heavily debated in Finland. Public discussion is very emotional and biased against nuclear power. The undetermined situation together with the need for a decision on increasing the nuclear capacity led Imatran Voima Oy (Imatra Power Company) to measure the prevailing attitudes. The paper discusses the energy opinion surveys recently made in Finland. The general results give evidence of the changes occurring in the values of life. Environmental issues and the purity of energy production are seen as the most important factors of energy policy. Low price or availability and reliability are considered less important. The results of the surveys show, however, that people think that more electricity will be needed in the future. Natural gas, peat and hydroelectric power are most favoured. The attitude towards the use of coal and nuclear power is clearly more diffuse. In the survey, 21% want to increase the share of nuclear power, 32% want to keep its use at the present level and 35% want to reduce it. This 35% includes the one-fifth of the population that would like to abandon nuclear power altogether. Nuclear wastes and accidents are considered the most important factors contributing to the formation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. The other main factors are discussed in the paper. A great desire for information on energy policy together with personal decision making interests reflect the general attitude in Finland also. Totally incorrect information on nuclear energy is, however, surprisingly prevalent, which makes opposition to nuclear power understandable. All these factors make taking a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland difficult. (author)

  20. Should it be illegal for HIV-positive persons to have unprotected sex without disclosure?: An examination of attitudes among US men who have sex with men and the impact of state law

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, K.J.; Weinmeyer, R.M.; Rosser, B.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the overall pattern and predictors of attitudes toward criminalizing unprotected sex without disclosure by persons living with HIV among a broad sample of MSM living in the US, and to examine whether attitudes and sexual risk behavior differ by states with HIV-specific laws or no such laws. Participants (n=1,725) were recruited in a 3.5 month period to complete a cross-sectional 70-minute online survey assessing attitudes and high risk sexual behavior. ...

  1. Employee’s Job Performance: The Effect of Attitude toward Works, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Susanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job and job experiences. The happier the individual, the higher is level of job satisfaction. It is assumed that positive attitude towards work and greater organizational commit­ment increases job satisfaction which in return enhances performance of the individual. Based on this phenomenon, this study is aimed to explain and empirically test the effect of attitude toward work, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment to the employee’s job performance at PT. Intech Anugrah Indonesia (PT. Intech. Data used in this study was primary data which were collected through closed questionnaires with 1-5 Likert scale. A sample of this study was 200 managerial and non-managerial staff of PT. Intech. Research carried out by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM which was run by AMOS 20.0 program. The results of this study showed that attitude towards work have positive but not significant effect to job satis­faction and employee performance. Different with attitude towards work, the organization's commitment has positive and significant effect on job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech. It means every improvement in organization’s commitment has a positive effect toward job satisfaction and employee performance at PT. Intech.

  2. Saudi high school students' attitudes and barriers toward the use of computer technologies in learning English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabti, Ahmed Abdulateef; Chaichan, Rasha Sami

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the attitudes of Saudi Arabian high school students toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. The study also discusses the possible barriers that affect and limit the actual usage of computers. Quantitative approach is applied in this research, which involved 30 Saudi Arabia students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 15 males and 15 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. Two instruments, namely, Scale of Attitude toward Computer Technologies (SACT) and Barriers affecting Students' Attitudes and Use (BSAU) were used to collect data. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) of Davis (1989) was utilized. The analysis of the study revealed gender differences in attitudes toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. Female students showed high and positive attitudes towards the use of computer technologies in learning English than males. Both male and female participants demonstrated high and positive perception of Usefulness and perceived Ease of Use of computer technologies in learning English. Three barriers that affected and limited the use of computer technologies in learning English were identified by the participants. These barriers are skill, equipment, and motivation. Among these barriers, skill had the highest effect, whereas motivation showed the least effect. PMID:25187883

  3. Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M?=?31.42, SD?=?16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically to different types of meat. PMID:25312749

  4. THE EFFECT OF ACHIEVEMENT GOALS ON MORAL ATTITUDES IN YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carloc E. Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the hypothesis that achievement goal orientations will predict sportpersonship attitudes among young athletes, namely that task orientation will predict socially positive attitudes and ego orientation will predict socially negative attitudes. For hundred and eighty two athletes, aged 13 to 16 years completed the Portuguese versions of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQp and of the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQp. Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships between TEOSQp and SAQp. Afterwards, relationships between ego orientation and score agreement in cheating and gamesmanship as well as task orientation and score agreement in convention and commitment were examined through EQS (version 5.7. For the estimation of the model, the maximum likelihood method was used. A matrix correlation between the variables (task orientation, ego orientation, cheating, gamesmanship, convention and commitment showed positive correlations between task orientation and convention (r = 0.29, p < 0.01 and commitment (r = 0. 40, p < 0.01. Ego orientation appeared to be positively correlated with cheating (r = 0.30, p < 0.01 and gamesmanship (r = 0.33, p < 0.01, and negatively with convention (r = -0.16, p < 0.01.The fit of the model was evaluated using the CFI (0.97 and SRMR (0.04. The hypothesized model was confirmed. Task and ego orientations produced a significant effect on prosocial attitudes and on antisocial attitudes, respectively. Task-oriented goals in youth sport programs can represent a relevant framework for promoting prosocial attitudes and consequentely increment the effectiveness of educational interventions

  5. You-Attitude: A Linguistic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, Lilita

    2001-01-01

    Suggests how the teaching of "you-attitude" (or "you-perspective") in business communication classes can be enhanced by using politeness theories, case grammar, and information structure. Uses a brief written announcement to show how these linguistic theories can inform specific writing strategies. Suggests that a "you-attitude" is gradable…

  6. Bar??a Yönelik Tutumlar?n Özsayg? ve Cinsiyet De?i?kenleriyle ?ncelenmesi(Investigating the Peace Attitudes with Respect to Self -Esteem and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ery?lmaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the Peace Attitudes with Respect to Self -Esteem and GenderProblem Statement: It can be seen that studies which are about subjective well-being, optimism and peace have increased since positive psychology was developed. Societies can get better positions by means of positive psychology and peace psychology. We need scientific studies so as to establish this structure. The Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the peace attitudes with respect to self esteem and gender. Method: 471 persons (249 male; 222 female who are adolescents, emerging adults, adults, middle adults and old adults were participated. Peace Attitudes Li’Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. In the study Independent-Samples T-Test and Pearson Correlation methods were used. Results / Findings: Female’s peace attitudes were more positive (p<.01, t= -2.61 than male’s attitudes. Positive correlation was found between peace attitudes and self- esteem ( p<.01,.28. The results were discussed. Conclusions / Recommendations: This study shows that woman has an important role at peace process. For sustainable peace process, we need their support. In addition to this, it can be useful to have moderately self-esteem for peace.

  7. Neuroscientists’ Classroom Visits Positively Impact Student Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzakerley, Janet L.; Michlin, Michael L.; Paton, John; Dubinsky, Janet M

    2013-01-01

    The primary recommendation of the 2010 President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology report on K-12 education was to inspire more students so that they are motivated to study science. Scientists’ visits to classrooms are intended to inspire learners and increase their interest in science, but verifications of this impact are largely qualitative. Our primary goal was to evaluate the impact of a longstanding Brain Awareness classroom visit program focused on increasing learners unde...

  8. Consumers’ values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products: a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, M.G.; Perez-Cueto, Armando; Saab, M.S.M.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    Consumers’ attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not ...

  9. An Investigation of Students’ Attitudes and Motivations Toward Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Kerkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ attitudes and motivations toward online learning. Students in the online course, Introduction to the Visual Arts, were asked to complete questionnaires administered during the first and last week of the online course. A group of questions on Attitude was asked on both surveys. Questions on Interest, Self-management, and Locus of Control were asked only at the beginning of the course. The end of class survey included questions on Study Process Approach. Students in the study were found to have a strong internal Locus of Control. A significant correlation was found between a more internal locus of control and relying on surface strategies for learning. Another significant result was found on the Attitude pre- and post-course comparison regarding missing interaction with other students and getting more information through an online course. Generally, students’ attitude toward online learning was more positive during the last week of the course than in the first week. The study showed that this online course provided a sufficient amount of student to instructor interaction, a high amount of student to material interaction, and a low amount of student to student interaction.

  10. Learning Chemistry at the University level : Student attitudes, motivation, and design of the learning environment

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, C. Anders R.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of the research this thesis is based upon was to study students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry at university level and their motivation from three perspectives. How can students’ attitudes towards learning chemistry be assessed? How can these attitudes be changed? How are learning situations experienced by students with different attitude positions? An attitude questionnaire, assessing views of knowledge, learning assessments, laboratory activities, and perceived roles...

  11. STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTITUDE TOWARDS EDUCATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SECONDARY LEVEL MINORITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit Kumar Das

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Attitude is the belief that one has towards people and surroundings. In case of education, students’ positive attitude may influence their academic achievement. From the present study, the researchers also highlight that there are some prime factors like anxiety, socio-economical status etc. which may create barrier for academic achievement. In the present investigation, the researchers made an attempt to study the difference, if any, between boys and girls students of minority community in respect to their attitude towards education and academic achievement. The researchers also made an attempt to find out the correlation between attitude towards education and academic achievement. A sample of 257 (127 boys and 130 girls of secondary level minority students of class-X were selected randomly. Analyzing the data, the result shows that there is no significant difference between boys and girls students in attitude towards education and academic achievement scores. It was also found that attitude towards education and academic achievement have very low negative relation (-0.10 which is not statistically significant.

  12. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANDIPALLI RAMAKRISHNARAO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing Quality Education for All children in inclusive setting has beenidentified as the most challenging, yet the most important issue in education across theworld Inclusive Education is the practice of educating students with disabilitiesalongside children without disabilities in general classrooms. Right to Education (RTEAct, 2009 attempts to provide an enabling environment for all disabled children to enterschool, attend and complete elementary education on par with other children. Successfuland effective implementation of Inclusive Education depends upon teachers' knowledgeand positive attitudes towards it. The main aim of this study was to find out the attitudesof elementary school teachers towards Inclusive Education. The Attitude TowardsInclusive Education Scale (ATIES was administered to 78 teachers working inelementary schools in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. It was found thatelementary school teachers had a positive attitude towards Inclusive Education.Significant differences were found in the scores of attitude towards Inclusive Educationwith respect to gender, locality ,age, educational qualification and teaching experienceetc.

  13. Swedish high-school pupils’ attitudes towards drugs in relation to drug usage, impulsiveness and other risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mousavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Illicit drug use influences people’s lives and elicits unwanted behaviour. Current research shows that there is an increase in young people’s drug use in Sweden. The aim was to investigate Swedish high-school pupils’ attitudes, impulsiveness and gender differences linked to drug use. Risk and protective factors relative to drug use were also a focus of interest. Method. High school pupils (n = 146 aged 17–21 years, responded to the Adolescent Health and Development Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Knowledge, and the Attitudes and Beliefs. Direct logistic, multiple regression analyses, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the data. Results. Positive Attitudes towards drugs were predicted by risk factors (odds ratio = 37.31 and gender (odds ratio = .32. Risk factors (odds ratio = 46.89, positive attitudes towards drugs (odds ratio = 4.63, and impulsiveness (odds ratio = 1.11 predicted drug usage. Risk factors dimensions Family, Friends and Individual Characteristic were positively related to impulsiveness among drug users. Moreover, although boys reported using drugs to a greater extent, girls expressed more positive attitude towards drugs and even reported more impulsiveness than boys. Conclusion. This study reinforces the notion that research ought to focus on gender differences relative to pro-drug attitudes along with testing for differences in the predictors of girls’ and boys’ delinquency and impulsiveness. Positive attitudes towards drugs among adolescents seem to be part of a vicious circle including risk factors, such as friendly drug environments (e.g., friends who use drugs and unsupportive family environments, individual characteristics, and impulsiveness.

  14. Gender differences in tenth-grade students' attitudes toward science: The effect of school type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndakwah, Ernestine Ajame

    The focus of this mixed methods study was on 10th grade students' attitudes towards science. Its purpose was to examine the effect of gender and school-type on attitudes toward science. Research on attitudes toward science has focused on gender, school level, and classroom environment. Relatively little has been done on the effect of school type. In the present study, school type refers to the following variables; private vs. public, single-sex vs. coeducational and high vs. low-achieving schools. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there are gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the school type variables being investigated. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was the instrument used to provide quantitative data for this aspect of the study. TOSRA is a Likert scale consisting of seven subscales measuring different aspects of science attitudes. The qualitative component, on the other hand, explored students' perspectives on the factors, which were influential in the development of the attitudes that they hold. The events and experiences of their lives in and out-of-school, with respect to science, and the meanings that they make of these provided the data from which their attitudes toward science could be gleaned. Data for this component of the study was gathered by means of in-depth focus group interviews. The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. Statistical treatment of the questionnaire data involved the use of t tests and ANOVA. Findings did not reveal any gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were some differences on some of the subscales. School type did not appear to be a significant variable in students' attitudes to science. The results of both quantitative and qualitative components show that instructional strategy and teacher characteristics, both of which are components of the classroom environment are important factors shaping students' attitudes to science. These findings suggest that efforts to foster positive attitudes to science among high school students should focus on the enhancement of the high school science classroom environment.

  15. The importance of shiftwork attitudes and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author, a nuclear power plant operator at the Ginna pressurized water reactor, discusses the positive and negative aspects of 12-hour workshifts, the various schedules that have been developed to optimize performance during the 12-hour shifts, and the motivation required to prepare mentally and physically for the shift. A healthy work attitude is the best guarantee of high standards of performance whether the shift be of 8-, 10-, or 12-hour duration. This healthy work attitude will cause peers to improve their attitudes and attentiveness and strive to lift their own work levels to a higher standard

  16. Performance Information, Blame Avoidance, and Politicians’ Attitudes to Spending and Reform: Evidence From an Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Bækgaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Performance information has been argued to assist politicians in decision making on budgeting and reform, but research on how political decision makers respond to performance information is sparse. Building on blame-avoidance theory, we develop novel hypotheses concerning the impact of performance information on politicians’ attitudes to spending and reform. To isolate the causal effect of performance information, we conducted a randomized survey experiment among 844 Danish city councilors. Information treatments showing high and low performance had a positive effect on attitudes to spending, whereas information on average performance had a negative effect on spending attitudes. Moreover, information showing high performance rendered politicians less willing to pursue reform. We discuss the implications of these findings for the role of performance information in public administration.

  17. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified

  18. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r?=?0.701, p?GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions. PMID:25519248

  19. Changing Attitudes Toward Homeless People: A Curriculum Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, David; Rohr, Louis; Kehoe, Laura; Glick, Susan B; Jain, Sharad

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the impact of a 2-week required rotation in homeless health care on primary care residents’ attitudes toward homeless people. Attitudes were assessed before and after the course using the Attitudes Toward Homelessness Inventory (ATHI), an instrument previously validated among undergraduate students. Attitude scores on the ATHI improved from 46 to 52 (range of possible scores 11 to 66; P = .001). The ATHI subscales showed, after the course, that residents had a greater belief that ...

  20. ROMANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS TV COMMERCIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca B?BU? (COMIATI)

    2012-01-01

    As advertisements are broadcast on a daily basis, Romanian consumers are subject to an intensive media bombardment designed to influence them, trigger certain emotions, and make them develop an attitude to a particular brand or product. When designing the advertisement, great care must be taken so that it conveys positive feelings and emotions and fosters favourable attitudes to a brand. The object of the current research is to determine how consumers are able to assess the advertisement phen...

  1. Attitudes towards Carbon and Storage in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Berg-Hansen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the results of a 2010 Internet survey conducted on 999 Norwegian citizens aiming to investigate and explain the main determinants of public attitudes towards carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), a technology considered crucial for mitigating adverse consequences of global climate change. The results confirmed the main hypothesis, in line with previous research based on risk psychology and the risk-benefit model: Attitudes towards CCS were positively related to benefit...

  2. Knowledge and attitude of Rafsanjan physicians about complementary and alternative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mirzai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alternative or complementary medicine includes models for treatment or prevention of disease, which are different in method or efficacy from current biologic medicine. Interest in alternative and complementary medical practices have increased in recent years. This study has been conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of the general physicians about complementary and alternative medicine.Materials and method: This descriptive study was done on all general physicians of Rafsanjan city (n=80 in a census method. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, which included three parts; demographic, knowledge and attitude questions about complementary and alternative medicine. After collecting, the questionnaires, data were collected and entered in SPSS-16 software and were analyzed statistically by means of descriptive statistics (charts and tables and analytical statistics (Chi-squared and Fisher statistical tests.Results: The findings of this study (n=80 showed 53.8% (n=43 had a good knowledge and 5% (n=4 had a positive attitude about complementary and alternative medicine. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, knowledge and positive attitude of general physicians of Rafsanjan about complementary and alternative medicine is low. For promotion of their knowledge, continuous education is needed for proper attitude to be developed

  3. Environmental Awareness, Attitudes and Intention for Using Non-Recyclable Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Gonçalves Santos Queiroga de Deus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing discussion regarding consumer participation in environmental preservation through the formation of environmentally conscious behaviour. However, little is known about the influence of awareness, attitudes and behaving intention that direct personal choices, when it comes to environmental issues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship regarding the constructs of environmental awareness; attitude towards non-recyclable plastic bags; and the intention for using this product. For this purpose, a descriptive conclusive, survey type research was carried out, collecting a sampling of 279 students from a Business Administration College in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data were collected through questionnaires,using the Likert scale with five points, in order to evaluate the degree of agreementin relation to statements thatmake upthe constructs surveyed. By way of modelling of  structural equation, it has been possible to investigate the relationships between the three constructs: awareness, attitude and intention.Among the models tested, the one that showed the best fit reveals the positive impact of environmental awareness on the attitude towards non-recyclable plastic bags, as well as positive impact of attitude on the intended use of this product. The research did not confirm any direct influence of environmental awareness on the behavioural intention.

  4. National Identification and Intergroup Attitudes Among Members of the National Majority and Immigrants: Preliminary Evidence for the Mediational Role of Psychological Ownership of a Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asteria Brylka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined whether psychological ownership of the country one lives in (in this case, Finland mediates the relationship between national identification and intergroup attitudes among majority and minority group members (N = 647; Finns, n = 334, Russian-speaking immigrants, n = 313. Consistent with our predictions, both majority group members and immigrants whose national identification was strong experienced greater psychological ownership of Finland; as expected, this relationship was more pronounced among majority group members. Higher psychological ownership, in turn, was associated with less positive attitudes towards Russian-speaking immigrants among majority Finns but more positive attitudes towards Finns among immigrants. The findings also showed that among immigrants, the relationship between national identification and psychological ownership is likely to be reciprocal, with national identification similarly mediating the association between psychological ownership and attitudes towards members of the national group. No support for such reciprocity between national identification and psychological ownership was found among members of the majority group.

  5. Type of Birth, Depression and Anxiety as determinates of Breastfeeding Attitude among Nursing Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhonde H. O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined Type of Birth, Depression and Anxiety as determinates of Breastfeeding attitude among Nursing Mothers in Edo and Kogi State Nigeria. A total of two hundred (200 currently Breastfeeding mothers participated in the study. This comprises of a hundred and twenty breastfeeding mother drawn from the General Hospital Auchi Edo State and eighty drawn from Ajaokuta Steel Medical Centre Kogi State. A questionnaire was used in collecting data. The questionnaire consisted of four sections. The demographic variables, Breastfeeding attitude scale, Depression and Anxiety sub-scales. Results of the study revealed that mothers who had normal delivery reported positive attitude towards breastfeeding than mothers who gave birth through caesarian section (t=3.38, df 198 P < 0.05. There were no significant differences in the reported attitude of mothers scoring high and low on the Zung depression inventory towards breastfeeding. Likewise there were no significant differences in the reported attitude of mothers scoring high or low towards breastfeeding. Results obtained also shows that there was an interaction effect between type of delivery and depression on breastfeeding attitude among nursing mothers. An interaction existed also between type of Delivery and anxiety; Depression and anxiety but surprisingly, type of delivery, depression and anxiety did not have an interaction effect on the prediction of breastfeeding attitude among nursing mothers. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that there is need for counseling and enlightenment campaign embarked upon by government, and non-governmental organization as well as all health professional concerned within Nigeria to eliminate this wrong attitude and belief about Caesarean section birth as well as campaign on the nutritional values of breastfeeding milk to children. The need for mothers who went through CS to be counseled on the need to believe in themselves as well as the benefit of breastfeeding to the child and mother is very important.

  6. Classmate Characteristics and Student Achievement in 33 Countries: Classmates' Past Achievement, Family Socioeconomic Status, Educational Resources, and Attitudes toward Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Classmates can influence a student's academic achievement through immediate interactions (e.g., academic help, positive attitudes toward reading) or by sharing tangible or intangible family resources (books, stories of foreign travel). Multilevel analysis of 141,019 fourth-grade students' reading achievements in 33 countries showed that…

  7. Association of Group Learning with Mathematics Achievement and Mathematics Attitude among Eighth-Grade Students in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J.; McKenna, Cornelius M.; Hines, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a large, nationally-representative sample of eighth-grade students in the US to assess how the frequency of group learning activity in mathematics classrooms was associated with mathematics achievement and three measures of attitudes toward mathematics. Results showed that moderate amounts of group work in class had positive

  8. The Influence of Science Applications in Agriculture Courses on Attitudes of Illinois Guidance Counselors at Model Student-Teaching Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, James E.; Osborne, Edward W.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 16 guidance counselors in schools serving as agricultural education student teaching sites showed they had positive attitudes about agriculture and agricultural sciences but believed agricultural education was too vocational. Those in schools with applied sciences in agriculture gave high ratings to the quality of agriculture programs.…

  9. Experiments with small helicopter automated landings at unusual attitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bayraktar, S

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments involving small helicopters landing automated landing at unusual attitudes. By leveraging the increased agility of small air vehicles, we show that it is possible to automatically land a small helicopter on surfaces pitched at angles up to 60 degrees. Such maneuvers require considerable agility from the vehicle and its avionics system, and they pose significant technical and safety challenges. Our work builds upon previous activities in human-inspired, high-agility flight for small rotorcraft. However, it was not possible to leverage manual flight test data to extract landing maneuvers due to stringent attitude and position control requirements. Availability of low-cost, local navigation systems requiring no on-board instrumentation has proven particularly important for these experiments to be successful.

  10. Attitudes of pre-service teachers about computer supported education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Y?ld?r?m

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A lot of technologies can be used in education environment. Computer has an important place in these technologies. The aim of this study is to investigate the attitude of the students of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education Department towards computer supported education in terms of class level, income level, and gender. 120 pre-service teachers from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education at Kazim Karabekir Educational Faculty participated in the survey. The results showed that the participants have a high level positive attitude about Computer Supported Education (CSE. No significant differences obtained depending on class level, income level, and gender. However, differences among groups obtained in terms of the questionnaire items which are creativity skills, preferring traditional teaching CSE, encouraging computer usage, using computer actively, reconciled computer with education, educational addition of CSE according to spent work; and enjoying.

  11. Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges. PMID:23836312

  12. The impact of party on nuclar power attitudes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass attitudes to nuclear power in general and to the more specific problems having to do with the management of nuclear waste are related to each other. People with anti-nuclear attitudes tend to view many of the nuclear waste problems differently than persons who are positive to the use of nuclear power. Hence, the study of mass attitudes to nuclear power is of relevance for the study of attitudes to nuclear waste. The present study analyse attitudes to nuclear power as well as attitudes to nuclear waste. The emphasis, however, is on the development of mass attitudes to nuclear power. The setting is Sweden and the time-frame the last 20 years. (author)

  13. PSYCHOSOCIAL SPORT MARKETING ATTITUDES OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas E. Boye

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategy implementations in the achievement of the Nigeria Sport policy development is effective sport marketing (Onifade, 1999. The Nigerian government has been said to be solely responsible for funding and marketing sports hence, achieving the sports developmental goal is at its lowest ebb (Esuku, 2003.This study examined the socio- psychological sports marketing attitudes of the stakeholders in the achievement of sports goal by 2020. It also determined attitudes of stakeholders towards sports marketing. The participants for the study consisted 1,200 Nigerian sampled from twelve States and from the various professions, who are stakeholders to sports marketing (corporate and private organizations, sports Journalists, sports psychologists, sports councils, ministry of sports, coaches, labour unions, University and athletes. They were purposively sampled. The main research tool was the questionnaire that was used to obtain information on the different variables. The descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages were used for the analysis of the demographic information, while inferential statistics of one way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance. The results confirmed that Nigerian government is solely responsible for marketing sports which ought not to be if effective sports marketing must be realized toward the attainment of the millennium goals. Also revealed are fair positive socio- psychological attitudes of few corporate organizations, and negative socio- psychological attitudes from individuals of most corporate organizations. Suggestions were advanced towards the improvement of achieving the sports developmental goals.

  14. Alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e hísticas hepáticas en donantes de sangre con anticuerpo al VHC positivo / Clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and hystic hepatic alterations in blood donors showing positive hepatitis virus C antibody test results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustín, Mulet Pérez; Évora, Arencibia Vidal; Martha, Gámez Escalona; Menelio, Pullés Labadié; Marlen, Pérez Lorenzo; Agustín, Mulet Gámez.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de 69 donantes de sangre, con anticuerpos al virus C positivo detectados en el Banco de Sangre Provincial, remitidos a la consulta provincial del Hospital Universitario Provincial "Vladimir Ilich Lenin", entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2006, y a qui [...] enes se le realizó biopsia hepática translaparoscópica. Con el objetivo de estimar las alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e histopatológicas hepáticas se revisaron las boletas de solicitud de biopsia. Hubo predominio de las hepatitis crónicas con actividad mínima (12; 33,33 %) y ligera (13; 36,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes estaban asintomáticos (62; 89,9 %, y con transaminasas normales (47; 68,1 %). La laparoscopia constituyó una prueba muy específica, con un 84,4 % de especificidad, con un considerable valor de una prueba positiva, 75 %, para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica. Sin embargo, las bajas cifras de la sensibilidad (41 %) y del valor predictivo de una prueba negativa (57,1 %) para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica, reafirman que la biopsia hepática sigue siendo la prueba de oro para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Abstract in english An observational and descriptive study was made on 69 blood donors, who had positive C virus antibodies detected by the provincial blood bank and had been referred to "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" provincial university hospital from January 2000 to December 2006. They were performed translaparoscopic hepat [...] ic biopsy. For the purpose of estimating clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and histopathological hepatic disorders, the biopsy request forms were checked. Chronic hepatitis predominated, with minimal activity (12; 33.335) and slight activity (13; 36.1 %). Most of patients were asymptomatic (62; 89.9 %) and their transaminase values were normal (47; 68.1 %). Laparoscopy was a very specific test showing 84.4 % specificity, with a high value (75 %) in a positive test for chronic hepatitis diagnosis. However, low figures of sensitivity (41 %) and of the predictive value in a negative test (57.1 %) for chronic hepatitis diagnosis reaffirmed that hepatic biopsy continues to be the golden test for the diagnosis of this disease.

  15. Alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e hísticas hepáticas en donantes de sangre con anticuerpo al VHC positivo Clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and hystic hepatic alterations in blood donors showing positive hepatitis virus C antibody test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Mulet Pérez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de 69 donantes de sangre, con anticuerpos al virus C positivo detectados en el Banco de Sangre Provincial, remitidos a la consulta provincial del Hospital Universitario Provincial "Vladimir Ilich Lenin", entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2006, y a quienes se le realizó biopsia hepática translaparoscópica. Con el objetivo de estimar las alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e histopatológicas hepáticas se revisaron las boletas de solicitud de biopsia. Hubo predominio de las hepatitis crónicas con actividad mínima (12; 33,33 % y ligera (13; 36,1 %. La mayoría de los pacientes estaban asintomáticos (62; 89,9 %, y con transaminasas normales (47; 68,1 %. La laparoscopia constituyó una prueba muy específica, con un 84,4 % de especificidad, con un considerable valor de una prueba positiva, 75 %, para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica. Sin embargo, las bajas cifras de la sensibilidad (41 % y del valor predictivo de una prueba negativa (57,1 % para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica, reafirman que la biopsia hepática sigue siendo la prueba de oro para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad.An observational and descriptive study was made on 69 blood donors, who had positive C virus antibodies detected by the provincial blood bank and had been referred to "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" provincial university hospital from January 2000 to December 2006. They were performed translaparoscopic hepatic biopsy. For the purpose of estimating clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and histopathological hepatic disorders, the biopsy request forms were checked. Chronic hepatitis predominated, with minimal activity (12; 33.335 and slight activity (13; 36.1 %. Most of patients were asymptomatic (62; 89.9 % and their transaminase values were normal (47; 68.1 %. Laparoscopy was a very specific test showing 84.4 % specificity, with a high value (75 % in a positive test for chronic hepatitis diagnosis. However, low figures of sensitivity (41 % and of the predictive value in a negative test (57.1 % for chronic hepatitis diagnosis reaffirmed that hepatic biopsy continues to be the golden test for the diagnosis of this disease.

  16. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary

    2009-12-01

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV. PMID:20485857

  17. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan?ovi?ová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-10-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.

  18. A (trans border´s area. The attitude’s change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Amador

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes part of the research for my thesis on Linguistic Attitudes appearing in the western half of the Iberian Peninsula at the Spanish and Portuguese border region (Extremadura-Alentejo/ Beira. The article aims to show the positive change in attitude that is being generated in this area due to the good relationship between these two Iberian states despite their many cultural differences and difficult history. Besides, it’s clear the positive outlook where a renewed relationship that breaks with some of the most striking negative views inherited from the past. A good example would be the linguistic term "turn its back" related to the country across the borders. In this way is perceived as within the imagination of a nation, and the political and cultural imagination, the so called borders. Sometimes, this term becomes a metaphor for transgression, but the “boundaries” do not always fulfill that role. The West Iberian border, between Spain and Portugal, could well be the case of bilateral agreements, teamwork and good relationships. Recently, a change emerged thanks to the Statute of Autonomy from the Extremadura region and the interest that people have shown for each other's culture.

  19. EFFECTS OF CONSUMERS’ TRUST AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ONLINE SHOPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Al-Nasser; Rushami Zien Yusoff; Rabiul Islam; Abdullah ALNasser

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of consumers’ trust and attitude toward online shopping. Attitude is referred to as a positive or negative evaluation of people, activities, ideas, objects, event, or just about anything in the environment. Different facets of the e-shopping behavior of consumers have been investigated in previous literature. These facets can generally be divided into three namely, behavioral intention, actual behavior and attitude toward behavior. The ai...

  20. Current Language Attitudes of Mainland Chinese University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Meihua Liu; Shan Zhao

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of Chinese university EFL learners’ attitudes towards English and Chinese in relation to their motivation to learn the language and awareness of their ethnic identity. 302 university students answered a 22-item Language Attitudes Questionnaire and 112 of them answered four open-ended questions. Analyses of the data reveal that the participants held positive attitudes towards English, were motivated to learn the language, and valued their associatio...

  1. FAMILY INFLUENCE ON FORMATION OF CHILDREN'S MANIPULATIVE ATTITUDES

    OpenAIRE

    Liubov Ivanovna Ryumshina

    2013-01-01

    The article raises the issue of children's manipulation, and examines the conditions contributing to the formation of the manipulative attitudes. As such are analyzed: importance of these attitudes for the child, existence of manipulative attitudes in parents, family microclimate and position to the manipulations in society.According to the results of an empirical study, the characteristics of the family, provoking the development of manipulative behavior in children, are described. The membe...

  2. Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time: a comparison between 1996 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jong Judith D

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although medical specialists traditionally hold negative views towards working part-time, the practice of medicine has evolved. Given the trend towards more part-time work and that there is no evidence that it compromises the quality of care, attitudes towards part-time work may have changed as well in recent years. The aim of this paper was to examine the possible changes in attitudes towards part-time work among specialists in internal medicine between 1996 and 2004. Moreover, we wanted to determine whether these attitudes were associated with individual characteristics (age, gender, investments in work and whether attitudes of specialists within a partnership showed more resemblance than specialists' attitudes from different partnerships. Methods Two samples were used in this study: data of a survey conducted in 1996 and in 2004. After selecting internal medicine specialists working in general hospitals in The Netherlands, the sample consisted of 219 specialists in 1996 and 363 specialists in 2004. They were sent a questionnaire, including topics on the attitudes towards part-time work. Results Internal medicine specialists' attitudes towards working part-time became slightly more positive between 1996 and 2004. Full-time working specialists in 2004 still expressed concerns regarding the investments of part-timers in overhead tasks, the flexibility of task division, efficiency, communication and continuity of care. In 1996 gender was the only predictor of the attitude, in 2004 being a full- or a part-timer, age and the time invested in work were associated with this attitude. Furthermore, specialists' attitudes were not found to cluster much within partnerships. Conclusion In spite of the increasing number of specialists working or preferring to work part-time, part-time practice among internal medicine specialists seems not to be fully accepted. The results indicate that the attitudes are no longer gender based, but are associated with age and work aspects such as the number of hours worked. Though there is little evidence to support them, negative ideas about the consequences of part-time work for the quality of care still exist. Policy should be aimed at removing the organisational difficulties related to part-time work and create a system in which part-time practice is fully integrated and accepted.

  3. Danish consumers' attitudes towards functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    1. "Functional foods" is a relatively new term used to describe food products which have been enriched with natural substances/components with a specific physiological preventive and/or health-promoting effect. As yet, there are few actual functional foods in the Danish market, but in Japan and the USA, where these products are relatively common, sales are enjoying growth rates far above those for conventional products. 2. The aim of this study is to examine Danish consumers' attitudes to functional foods, including: whether enrichment with health-promoting substances results in a higher value perception among consumers; the relative importance consumers attach to enrichment compared with other product attributes; which beliefs consumers associate with enrichment; and, which beliefs influence and determine consumers' purchasing intentions and the relative importance of these beliefs. 3. The study consists of three analyses: focus-group interviews, the aim of which is to get an overview of the issue and generate input for the quantitative analyses. The quantitative analyses consist of a conjoint analysis and a survey based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. These analyses are based on concrete, non-existent examples of functional foods, a dairy product and a bread product, each of which has been enriched with three different substances: a) soluble food fibre, b) omega-3, and c) calcium and vitamin D. 4. The focus-group interviews show that the main beliefs which consumers associate with functional foods are the convenience of enrichment through daily diet, (un)naturalness, apprehension about changes in taste, higher price, uncertainty about belief in the effect of enrichment, dosage (when is there enough/ too much of the enrichment substance), own ignorance and uncertainty about manufacturers' knowledge of the health effects of eating enriched products. The respondents have very little knowledge of functional foods and were fairly sceptical. However, attitudes to concrete examples of functional foods were much morepositive than attitudes to the concept of functional foods. 5. The conjoint analyses show that, in general, consumers preferred the non-enriched variety, though with the exception of bread enriched with fibre, since the benefit of this is greater than for the conventional product. About 75% of consumers attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. For about 30% of consumers in the case of the dairy product and 50% in the case of the bread product, enrichment in one of the three forms resulted in a higher value perception, while about 25% and 40% respectively attached a lot of importance to the products not being enriched. 6. The cluster analysis identified several segments with a preference for the various enriched products. Two relatively large segments (25% and 20% of respondents respectively) had a higher value perception for the enriched than for the conventional product, especially as regards the calcium and vitamin D-enriched dairy product and the fibre-enriched bread product, and these segments also attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. The analysis also identified a large segment with a preference for the calcium and vitamin D-enriched bread product, about 30% of respondents saying they preferred this product variety and 35% saying they attached relatively great importance to enrichment. Only very few respondents preferred enrichment with omega-3, which was also the case for enrichment with fibre in the dairy product. 7. In general, attitudes to enrichment are more positive as regards the bread product and product varieties enriched with substances already present in the conventional product. However, attitudes are generally more negative as regards enrichment with omega-3 than with the two other substances. On the whole, consumers' attitudes to functional foods depend on both the type of product enriched, the enrichment substance and the combination of these. 8. The questionnaire survey shows that consumers' purchasing int

  4. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  5. Attitudes of pediatric nurses facing HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, N F; Nuttall, R L

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine health related attitudes, including willingness to provide care, of health care professionals toward HIV-infected patients. To control for attitudes toward people who may have engaged in high risk behaviors for HIV infection, such as intravenous drug use or homosexual behavior, attitudes of pediatric nurses were studied since children with HIV almost never acquire the infection through these behaviors. The research population consisted of 517 pediatric nurses (46% response rate) from twenty states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. The major findings were that those pediatric nurses with more experience caring for HIV-infected patients were more willing to care for these patients, and respondents reported more favorable attitudes after caring for people infected with HIV. Very few nurses would refuse to care for these children, although most acknowledged moderate fear of acquiring HIV from their patients. The level of experience caring for people with HIV was uncorrelated with reported likelihood of incidents of occupational HIV exposure risk. Greater occupational exposure risk was associated with less positive attitudes and less willingness to provide care. Implications of this study include that attitudes, including willingness to provide care, are more favorable with less suspected risk of infection and after more experience with such patients. In this study, where the sample of clients was adjusted to remove other biases, health caregivers were generally positive toward caring for HIV-infected patients. PMID:8658240

  6. The attitudes of medical students to research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, Nel; R J, Burman; R, Hoffman; S, Randera-Rees.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The workforce of 'physician-scientists' is ageing and decreasing in numbers. The responsibility to combat this trend rests on future generations of healthcare professionals and it is therefore valuable to evaluate medical students' attitudes towards research. OBJECTIVE: To establish the [...] attitudes of University of Cape Town (UCT) medical students towards research and to investigate the factors influencing these attitudes. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire was administered to medical students from years 1 to 6 studying medicine at UCT in 2011. Questions were primarily closed-ended and consisted of Likert scales. RESULTS: Out of a population of 1 195 medical students, 733 were sampled (63%); 65% were female, 53% were preclinical students (years 1 - 3) and 47% were in their clinical years (year 4 - 6). Overall, 61% of students had a positive attitude towards research and 74% felt that participation in research was important to their medical school education; 22% had been involved in voluntarily extracurricular research, 4% had presented at a scientific meeting and 3% had published in peer-reviewed journals. A number of perceived barriers to student research were identified including a lack of adequate training, time and research opportunities. CONCLUSION: Students believed that research was important and had a positive attitude towards it. However, few had been involved in voluntary research and produced work worthy of presentation and/or publication. Addressing identified barriers and improving students' attitudes may begin to reverse the trend in declining numbers of physician-scientists.

  7. Relationship between Drug Attitudes of Schizophrenic Patients on Discharge and Re-hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannaneh Taghizadeh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n "nObjective: Non-compliance is one of the major problems in treatment of patients with schizophrenia. It is also the most significant risk factor for relapse and re-hospitalization. Previous studies showed that 25-70% of all patients with schizophrenia have negative attitudes to drugs. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the relationship between drug attitude and discharge and the rate of re-hospitalization in patients with schizophrenia. "nMethod: This cohort study was carried out on 200 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI was completed for all the patients at the time of discharge. All patients were followed-up for one year for ehospitalization. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between drug attitude and specific risk factors. "nResults: The Mean age of patients was 37.34±10.74 years. Positive and negative drug attitudes were 68%.5 and 27% respectively. The rate of rehospitalization was 41.5% during the one year follow-up. The rate of negative attitude was not significantly different between the two groups with and without re-hospitalization. However, the mean DAI score was significantly lower in the re-hospitalized patients. Multivariate analysis showed that lower DAI score and being female were significant and independent risk factors for re-hospitalization. "n "nConclusion: The more negative attitude the patients with schizophrenia had towards drugs, the more rate of re-hospitalization they had. Moreover, female patients are at higher risk for re-hospitalization.

  8. Anaesthesiologists H attitude towards preoperative patients education needs in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Esmaeeli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: lack of information about anaesthisia and fear of post operation contiousness, pain, nausea and vomiting increases the patientsH anxiety. There are various reports about patiensH desire for preoperation information in Iran and other countries. However, there is no study related to anaesthesiologistsH view about patientsH needs before anaesthesia and operation in the literature.Materials and Methods: This descriptive (cross- sectional study was done in 2005 on 110 anaesthesiologists working in hospitals of Mazandaran province. Questionnaire containing 4 questions about demographic and 18 questions related to anaesthesia was prepared. Attitude of the anaesthesiologists was divided into 5 categories based on Likert rating scale as follows: completely agreed, agreed, partially agreed, not agreed, completely not agreed. Chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of the data.Results: Results of this study showed that the most positive attitude of anaesthesiologists about patient teaching was related to the proper explanation about duration of N.P.O before operation (%97.3. %52.7 of anaes the siologists were against giving explanation of the duration of N.P.O and post operation possible problems. In this regard no significant difference was observed between educational and non educational hospitals (P<0.018. No significant difference in terms of attitude was observed between anaesthesiologists at different level of education (P<0.07.Conclusion: Considering the positive attitude of the anaesthesiologists towards education and preoperation of the patients, it is recommended that such education be implemented and the patients be charged for preoperation consultation in order to give explanation about anaesthesia at proper time, when needed.

  9. Attitude/attitude-rate estimation from GPS differential phase measurements using integrated-rate parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshman, Yaakov; Markley, Landis

    1998-01-01

    A sequential filtering algorithm is presented for attitude and attitude-rate estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) differential carrier phase measurements. A third-order, minimal-parameter method for solving the attitude matrix kinematic equation is used to parameterize the filter's state, which renders the resulting estimator computationally efficient. Borrowing from tracking theory concepts, the angular acceleration is modeled as an exponentially autocorrelated stochastic process, thus avoiding the use of the uncertain spacecraft dynamic model. The new formulation facilitates the use of aiding vector observations in a unified filtering algorithm, which can enhance the method's robustness and accuracy. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  10. The Attitude-Behavior Linkage in Behavioral Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedkin, Noah E.

    2010-01-01

    The assumption that individual behavior has an antecedent evaluative foundation is an important component of theories in sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. In its simplest form, the antecedent evaluation is a positive or negative attitude toward an object that may affect an individual's object-related behavior. This attitude

  11. Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Marilyn S.

    2008-01-01

    This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

  12. Attitudes to Cadaveric Organ Donation in Irish Preclinical Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Rajunor R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation. It has been shown that the attitude of healthcare professionals can improve the rates of organ donation, and that educational programs aimed at improving both attitudes and knowledge base of professionals can have positive outcomes. Although there has been research carried out on this…

  13. Student Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Inclusion and Inclusive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion…

  14. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  15. Religious Outlook and Students' Attitudes toward the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontakharai, Sunanchai; Koul, Ravinder; Neanchaleay, Jariya

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey study on attitudes towards religion and the environment, carried out with 1000 undergraduate students enrolled in two universities in Bangkok and Chiangmai, Thailand. There is a positive relationship between students' religious outlook and their attitudes towards the environment, a finding that underlines…

  16. Changing Millennials' Attitude toward Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Anne Y.; Sciaraffa, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    The members of the Millennial Generation (born between 1981-1999) are now graduating from college and obtaining their first post-graduate positions. For many Millennials, this will be the first professional interaction they have with mature adults. This study surveyed the attitudes of the Millennial Generation using the Multidimensional Attitudes

  17. Psychological type and attitude toward Christianity: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J; Robbins, Mandy; Boxer, Anna; Lewis, Christopher Alan; McGuckin, Conor; McDaid, Charles J

    2003-02-01

    A sample of 149 university students completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales together with the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity. The data indicated that university students classified as Feeling Types hold a more positive attitude toward Christianity than those classified as Thinking Types. These findings replicate the 1999 report of Jones and Francis. PMID:12674263

  18. Attitudes of Visually Impaired Persons toward Cane Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainapel, S. F.

    1989-01-01

    Semistructured telephone interviews with 10 visually impaired adult cane users found that early negative attitudes of stigma were usually replaced by more positive attitudes and that there was a mean of 1 3/4 years between the onset of severe visual impairment and commencement of orientation and mobility training. (Author/DB)

  19. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  20. Implicit attitudes and psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Huijding, J.

    2006-01-01

    The past 15 years have witnessed an ever-growing interest in the role of implicit attitudes in mental and health-related problems and disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to this research area. More specifically the following issues will be addressed: 1) Why do researchers consider implicit attitudes to be of interest? 2) In what way have researchers in the field of experimental psychopathology studied implicit attitudes? and 3) What has this research yiel...

  1. Verbs with an Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Colonna Dahlman, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate some semantic and syntactical properties of verbs of propositional attitude, using data from English, German, Swedish, Italian and Gallipolino (a dialect from South Italy). The work is based on the distinction between situational and actional attitude as proposed by Ray Jackendoff (Jackendoff, Language, Consciousness and Culture, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2007). Within this theoretical framework, two types of propositional attitude verbs will be distinguish...

  2. Does Your Library Have an Attitude Problem towards "Marketing"? Revealing Inter-Relationship between Marketing Attitudes and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behaviour of librarians in thirty-three different libraries of Finland. Based on market-oriented behaviour, three kinds of libraries were found: "strong," "medium" and "weak." The findings indicate a positive relation between the marketing attitudes and…

  3. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Sara De Meyer; Lina Jaruseviciene; Apolinaras Zaborskis; Peter Decat; Bernardo Vega; Kathya Cordova; Marleen Temmerman; Olivier Degomme; Kristien Michielsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescent...

  4. Gender Role Attitude and Food Insecurity among Women in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a gendered colouration of food insecurity with more women than men being adversely affected. Yet, social norms regarding the roles of men and women appear to be traditionalistic and unfavourable to economic advancement among women thereby limiting their chances of being food secure. This study was therefore designed to examine gender role attitudes as it affects food insecurity while controlling the role of financial status among women in Ibadan metropolis. The work is a cross-sectional survey which featured the administration of 650 copies of a largely structured questionnaire among randomly and systematically selected women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Variables were measured with multi-item scales. Pearson r was used to assess relationships between pairs of gender role attitude, education, age and food insecurity. Partial r was further used to assess the relationship between gender role attitude and food insecurity while controlling for financial status. One way ANOVA was used to assess significant differences in means across sub-groups of marital status while post hoc test (LSD was used to identify homogenous sub-groups. Simple percentile analysis shows that 39.1% of respondents arbitrarily held traditional attitude towards gender roles while only 12.2% were non food insecure. Gender role attitude was significantly and positively related to food insecurity (p 0.05. The pattern of gender role attitude is quasi-traditional. Egalitarian disposition to gender role is yet to be firmly rooted and food insecurity is still a plague among women in the study area. Gender role attitude is consequential for food insecurity regardless of financial status among women. Being unmarried or married as opposed to being divorced or widowed and increasing education serves protective roles against food insecurity but age does not.

  5. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Assessment of Chinese Students: A Questionnaire Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Xie

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.

  6. An Investigation of Attitudes of 6-8th Graders Towards Universal Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender DURUALP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe attitudes of 6-8th graders towards universal values and examine the impact of their age, gender, grade level, academic performance, parental level of education, and family income on their attitudes towards universal values. The population consisted of 6-8th graders being taught in primary schools in Çank?r?, Turkey. The sample consisted of 361 students (203 girls, 158 boys randomly selected from Çank?r? ?smet ?nönü Elementary School located in Çank?r? which attracts the highest number of students from each level of socioeconomic status. The sociodemographic data of children and their parents were collected through a “General Information Form”, and the data related to attitudes towards universal values were obtained by the “Attitude Towards Universal Values Scale” developed by Demir and Koç (2009. Data were analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H tests, and Cronbach Alpha (? reliability coefficient. Results showed that girls (p>0.05, 8th graders, academically-talented children, those whose parents are university graduates, and those with a family income of minimum wage or more have more positive attitudes towards universal values (p<0.05.

  7. Identifying Organizational Identification as a Basis for Attitudes and Behaviors: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Suk; Park, Tae-Youn; Koo, Bonjin

    2015-09-01

    Organizational identification has been argued to have a unique value in explaining individual attitudes and behaviors in organizations, as it involves the essential definition of entities (i.e., individual and organizational identities). This review seeks meta-analytic evidence of the argument by examining how this identity-relevant construct functions in the nexus of attitudinal/behavioral constructs. The findings show that, first, organizational identification is significantly associated with key attitudes (job involvement, job satisfaction, and affective organizational commitment) and behaviors (in-role performance and extra-role performance) in organizations. Second, in the classic psychological model of attitude-behavior relations (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), organizational identification is positioned as a basis from which general sets of those attitudes and behaviors are engendered; organizational identification has a direct effect on general behavior above and beyond the effect of general attitude. Third, the effects of organizational identification are moderated by national culture, a higher-level social context wherein the organization is embedded, such that the effects are stronger in a collectivistic culture than in an individualistic culture. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:25984729

  8. Implicit and explicit interethnic attitudes and ethnic discrimination in hiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blommaert, Lieselotte; van Tubergen, Frank; Coenders, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    We study effects of explicit and implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in hiring. Unlike explicit attitudes, implicit attitudes are characterised by reduced controllability, awareness or intention. Effects of implicit interethnic attitudes on ethnic discrimination in the labour market remain under-researched. Moreover, previous experiments on the effects of explicit interethnic attitudes on discrimination have important drawbacks. We use data from a laboratory experiment (n=272) consisting of an Implicit Association Test, a questionnaire and a recruitment test in which participants reviewed résumés representing fictitious applicants who varied regarding ethnicity, gender, education and work experience. Participants graded applicants and selected applicants for an interview. Results show that only explicit interethnic attitudes affect discrimination in grades, but both explicit and implicit interethnic attitudes increase discrimination in selection. PMID:23017697

  9. VALIDITY OF THE EATING ATTITUDE TEST AMONG EXERCISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Matheson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items, oral control (7-items, and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10, the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09 showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06. Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10 and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08 showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06. Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients among exercise participants, and that future research is needed to investigate eating attitudes among samples of exercisers.

  10. Swedish People's Attitudes to Different Accents of English

    OpenAIRE

    Myrman, Franz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate Swedish people's attitudes to different accents of English. The focus is on Swedish female informants' attitudes to RP, non-standard English English, standard Irish English and non-standard Irish English. Furthermore, this study aims to give a wider perspective on how important experience of specific accents is, in order to have systematic attitudes to them. The results show that experience is very important. They also show that Swedish people have expe...

  11. Changing Second Graders' Attitudes toward People with Mental Retardation: Usng Kid Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Amy; Bronicki, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    A second-grader's science project examined effects on student attitudes of teaching 19 second grade students about mental retardation. She found that instruction resulted in increased positive attitudes compared to no significant differences in the attitudes of control Ss. (CL)

  12. Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics and Computers When Using DERIVE in the Learning of Calculus Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Matias Camacho; Rivero, Ramon Depool

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes Likert attitude questionnaires given to 28 engineering students during their first semester at a Venezuelan university. Investigates the evolution of students' attitudes when in laboratory sessions using the DERIVE Computer Algebra System (CAS). Suggests that use of DERIVE symbolic calculus software has a positive influence on attitudes

  13. Attitudes toward Information Technology of Teachers of the Gifted: Implications for Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This statewide study of teachers of intellectually gifted students examined teachers' attitudes toward information technology. Participants were 418 teachers of the intellectually gifted in a southeastern state who voluntarily responded to a survey about technology attitudes. Results indicated positive attitudes toward technology, with training in…

  14. An Anthropocentric Approach to Saving Biodiversity: Kenyan Pupils' Attitudes towards Parks and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ibrahim M.

    2006-01-01

    This study used an unobtrusive attitude survey and questionnaires to investigate Kenyan pupils' attitudes towards parks and wildlife. The positive attitudes found result from their understanding of the link between these resources and their own wellbeing. The sentiments about parks and wildlife expressed by the pupils are an extraction of the…

  15. Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Michael E.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

  16. (OUT)Siders at the Gates: Administrative Aspirants' Attitudes towards the Gay Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooms, Autumn; Alston, Judy A.

    2006-01-01

    "Using the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale" (ATLG) this study focused on two groups of graduate students in graduate level leadership preparation programs. Research questions that framed this study were: What are students' who are aspiring to school leadership positions attitudes toward lesbians and gays? What are students' attitudes

  17. The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature

    OpenAIRE

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta

    2009-01-01

    Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have...

  18. TEACHER'S ATTITUDES TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION -AS A DETERMINANT OF THEIR SUCCESS AND COMMITMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu A. Keshwan

    2014-01-01

    Good teacher is always loyal and truthful to their profession and to those they serve. A teacher's perception towards teaching directly affects the student. A teacher's attitude remarkably effects the achievement of a student. Some teachers see teaching as just their source of income and show no dedication and loyalty towards their profession. teacher occupies a pivotal position in the system of education. The teacher is the backbone of the educational system, maker of the...

  19. Farmer’s Attitude on Sustainable Agriculture and its Determinants: A Case Study in Behbahan County of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abolhasan Sadati

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive survey to study the attitudes and perceptions of Iranian farmers on the concepts and thoughts of sustainable agriculture and identifying effective factors on their attitude. The target population of this study consisted of 7314 Behbahan farmers of Khuzestan province of Iran. A sample consisting of 208 respondents was selected through Stratified Sampling. The instrument used for assessing the attitude of respondents on the concepts of sustainable agriculture was a questionnaire by reliability 0.78. Responses were grouped based on the differences in standard deviation of mean, which revealed that 73.4% of respondents had moderate attitude towards concepts of sustainable agriculture. The results of study showed that there is positive correlation between literacy, participation in extension courses, off-farm income, farmer's knowledge about sustainable agriculture, level of use of sustainable agriculture methods, extension contacts and job satisfaction and negative correlation between age, experience in agricultural activities, family size and agrarian land with attitude toward sustainable agriculture. According to result of regression the ‘extension contacts’, ‘Farmers knowledge about sustainable agriculture’, ‘Job satisfaction’ and ‘literacy’ are effective factors on farmers attitude toward sustainable agriculture and explained 52.6% of this scale.

  20. Finnish Consumer Attitudes Concerning Organic Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Peart, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was written as an independent study on the topic of consumer behaviour concerning organic grocery consumption. The main objective of the thesis was to find out the factors that influence attitude, belief and behaviour towards organic foods in both organic and non-organic consumer segments. The goal was to show how attitude and beliefs are affecting the overall popularity of organic food in Finland. The theoretical framework is based on consumer behaviour and to a less extent also ...

  1. A Theory of Rational Attitude Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Benoît, Jean-Pierre; Dubra, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated the possibility of attitude polarization. For instance, Lord, Ross & Lepper (1979) partitioned subjects into two groups, according to whether or not they believed the death penalty had a deterrent effect, and presented them with a set of studies on the issue. Believers and skeptics both become more convinced of their initial views; that is, the population polarized. Many scholars have concluded that attitude polarization shows that people process informa...

  2. ATTITUDE OF STUDENT TEACHERS TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama BHARGAVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers’ proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect on learning of the students. Attitude being a social construct is influenced by many factors like gender social strata ,age, stream of education and previous experience of the job .what bearing the gender and stream of education has on the attitude of student teachers towards teaching profession to throw light on this a study was conducted using a readymade tool. Study of different categories like Non-tribal male and female science stream, nontribal male and female social science stream, Tribal male and female science stream, Tribal male and female social science stream was undertaken. In a sample of hundred students ninety six students responded. The mean scores were considered and ‘ t’ value was calculated to find the difference in the attitude of different categories towards teaching profession.

  3. Using a Smartphone Camera for Nanosatellite Attitude Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmin, R.

    2014-09-01

    The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center has repeatedly flown a commercial cellphone in space. As this project continues, additional utility is being extracted from the cell phone hardware to enable more complex missions. The camera in particular shows great potential as an instrument for position and attitude determination, but this requires complex image processing. This paper outlines progress towards that image processing capability. Initial tests on a small collection of sample images have demonstrated the determination of a Moon vector from an image by automatic thresholding and centroiding, allowing the calibration of existing attitude control systems. Work has been undertaken on a further set of sample images towards horizon detection using a variety of techniques including thresholding, edge detection, applying a Hough transform, and circle fitting. Ultimately it is hoped this will allow calculation of an Earth vector for attitude determination and an approximate altitude. A quick discussion of work towards using the camera as a star tracker is then presented, followed by an introduction to further applications of the camera on space missions.

  4. Social activities, self-efficacy, game attitudes, and game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eui Jun; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2011-04-01

    This study examines whether social activities with parents, online and offline social self-efficacy, and attitudes toward gaming are associated with the degree of game addiction among adolescents. Using data from a survey of 600 middle- and high-school students in South Korea, we tested the relationships of personal characteristics (grade point average and time spent on gaming each day), social self-efficacy (both on- and offline), general social activities (with parents, friends, and teachers), gaming activities with parents, and attitudes toward gaming (those of self, parents, friends, and teachers) with the degree of game addiction. In addition, we conducted ANOVA tests to determine the differences among three groups: non-addicts (NA), possible (mild or moderate) addicts (PA), and Internet addicts (IA). The results show that social self-efficacy in the real world (offline) was negatively related with the degree of game addiction, whereas social self-efficacy in the virtual world (online) indicated a positive association. Social activities with parents are negatively associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:21067285

  5. CAVL: Does it develop learner’s attitude?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat MALEKI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual’s response to anything related to the immediate context can form attitudes concerning the learning situation where the language is taught. As an attempt to shed new light on the issues relevant to attitude, this study investigated the extent to which a Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Learning (CAVL, Mandegar, can improve learners’ perceptions about the program. To fulfill the aim, eighty first-grade high school learners, divided as control and experimental groups, were randomly selected. Two questionnaires, in the first and last session adopted from Altiner (2011 and Bulut & Farhan (2007 respectively, were administered to the participants to investigate their perception to use CAVL in the future. The results, obtained using Paired Samples T-Test (p=0.002 < .05, revealed a significant difference between CAVL users and nonusers in favor of the experimental group. Students in the experimental group showed a positive attitude toward CAVL and perceived its utility for helping them speed up vocabulary learning. The present finding might have important implications for decision makers and teachers to further involve Computer-Assisted based programs to increase Language learning.

  6. Religious attitude of students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2007 .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aasghar Zakavi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 12 Feb, 2008 ; Accepted 24 Sep, 2008 Abstract Back ground and purpose: Available evidence shows that religious attitude have noticeable effects on psychological aspects of human life. The purpose of this study was to determine the present situation of religious attitude of Students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Student’s attitude towards theoretical basis of Islam and Some other subsidiary rules of religion and moral values were studied in this investigation.Materials and methods: In this research descriptive field study on all the students of the university, stratified sampling method was employed and 384 students were recruited.A questionnaire consisting of 38 questions was used to collect the data. Attitude rates were quantified on the scale of –5 to +5. Results: The mean rates of attitude of associated to art students (2.53 ± 1.63 and B.S.C students (3.06±1.45 were statistically significant (p<0.01.Likewise, the mean rate of attitude of male and female students (2.94±1.7 and (2.97±1.4 were statistically significant (p<0.01.The attitude rate of the majority of students was between 2.5 to 4.5 (s. p 1.63. The top mark of 4.5 was gained by 57% of the students.Conclusion: The students have positive religious attitude. The lack of adequate religious practice among the subjects must not be interpreted as the low religious attitude. However it is necessary to study other factor that effects students practice. . Religious attitude of students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2007 . Ali Aasghar Zakavi* , Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini* , Mohammad Azadbakht **, Reza Ali Mohammadpour *** , Hossein Jalahi *** * Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran** Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran *** Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran(Received 12 Feb, 2008 ; Accepted 24 Sep, 2008 Abstract Back ground and purpose: Available evidence shows that religious attitude have noticeable effects on psychological aspects of human life. The purpose of this study was to determine the present situation of religious attitude of Students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Student’s attitude towards theoretical basis of Islam and Some other subsidiary rules of religion and moral values were studied in this investigation.Materials and methods: In this research descriptive field study on all the students of the university, stratified sampling method was employed and 384 students were recruited.A questionnaire consisting of 38 questions was used to collect the data. Attitude rates were quantified on the scale of –5 to +5. Results: The mean rates of attitude of associated to art students (2.53 ± 1.63 and B.S.C students (3.06±1.45 were statistically significant (p<0.01.Likewise, the mean rate of attitude of male and female students (2.94±1.7 and (2.97±1.4 were statistically significant (p<0.01.The attitude rate of the majority of students was between 2.5 to 4.5 (s. p 1.63. The top mark of 4.5 was gained by 57% of the students.Conclusion: The students have positive religious attitude. The lack of adequate religious practice among the subjects must not be interpreted as the low religious attitude. However it is necessary to study other factor that effects students practice. Keywords: Religious, attitude, student. Religious attitude of students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2006-2007 . Ali Aasghar Zakavi* , Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini* , Mohammad Azadbakht **, Reza Ali Mohammadpour *** , Hossein Jalahi *** * Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran** Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran *** Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran(Received 12 Feb, 2008 ; Accepted 24 Sep, 2008 Abstract Back ground and purpose: Available evidence shows that religious attitude have noticeable effects on psychological aspects of human life. The purpose of this study was to deter

  7. Positive Proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  8. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Blood Donation in Rural Puducherry, India

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    Umakant G Shidam, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, Suman Saurabh, Gautam Roy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Though the awareness regarding blood donation was high, the practice of voluntary blood donation was remarkably low. Education and motivation through various media is recommended to eliminate misbelieves and to reinforce positive attitudes towards blood donation."

  9. The Effect of Achievement Goals on Moral Attitudes in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Carloc E. Gonçalves; Manuel J. Coelho e Silva; Jaume Cruz; Miquel Torregrosa; Cumming, Sean P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the hypothesis that achievement goal orientations will predict sportpersonship attitudes among young athletes, namely that task orientation will predict socially positive attitudes and ego orientation will predict socially negative attitudes. For hundred and eighty two athletes, aged 13 to 16 years completed the Portuguese versions of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQp) and of the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQp). Bivariate c...

  10. Pornography and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)

  11. Hierarchical Models of Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Srinivas K.; LaBarbera, Priscilla A.

    1985-01-01

    The application and use of hierarchical models is illustrated, using the example of the structure of attitudes toward a new product and a print advertisement. Subjects were college students who responded to seven-point bipolar scales. Hierarchical models were better than nonhierarchical models in conceptualizing attitude but not intention. (GDC)

  12. Nursing students? attitude toward suicide prevention

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    Naresh Nebhinani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preventing suicide depends upon different health professionals? knowledge regarding suicide, attitude toward suicide attempters, skills to assess and manage suicidal risk. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the attitude of nursing students toward suicide prevention. Materials and Methods: 308 nursing students were recruited from the two institutions through total enumeration method. Attitude toward suicide prevention scale was administered. Study design was cross-sectional. Results: Majority were single females, from urban locality, who were pursuing BSc Nursing with the mean age of 20 years. Only minority had previous exposure to suicide prevention programs or workshops. Nearly half of the subjects had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Again half of the subjects considered unemployment and poverty as main causes of suicide and were quite hopeless about it and they also perceived that most of the suicidal people would not reveal their suicidal plans to others. Conclusions: Merely half of the students had positive attitude toward working with suicidal patients. Hence, there is strong need to organize more educational and training programs on suicide prevention so that these budding health professionals could be more equipped and trained to manage these suicidal patients.

  13. Elaborating on the attitude–behaviour gap regarding organic products : young Danish consumers and in-store food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Aagaard, Emilie Marie Niebuhr

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Even though most consumers hold positive attitudes towards organic food, attitudes appear to translate into respective behaviour to the same extent. It has been found that the high and availability are major reasons for this attitude–behaviour gap, especially among young consumers. In Denmark, supermarkets offer a comparatively broad organic foodrange at relatively small price premiums; however, even in Denmark, market growth ratesare moderate. To explore in detail young consumer’s barriers to act upon their attitudes, we aimed at researching their thoughts and product associations at the point of sale. Qualitative accompanied shopping interviews with 10 young consumers holding positive attitudes towards organic were conducted. The analysis resulted in a model of the point-of-sale thoughts concerning organic food, showing that the conditions (expected quality, price premium) met in the store and the personal context (moral beliefs, household member influence) impact the argumentations, which lead toa choice decision and subsequent elaboration of the consequences of this choice. Price is discussed as a main barrier, but a temporary one: young consumers argue that they postpone organic purchases until a later stage in life.We conclude that to increase young Danish consumers’ choice of organic, the high price premium image needs to be lessened and the differentiation from conventional food improved. Furthermore, communication might trigger young consumers to consider acting now upon ethical values, instead of postponing it.

  14. Comparisons of Sex Offenders with Non-Offenders on Attitudes Toward Masturbation and Female Fantasy as Related to Participation in Human Sexuality Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…

  15. Influence of 'soft' versus 'scientific' health information framing and contradictory information on consumers' health inferences and attitudes towards a food supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    It is a requirement that health claims be scientifically founded. However, their phrasing is criticised for being unappealing and cumbersome to communicate to consumers. Instead, it has been found that consumers respond favourably to non-scientifically phrased ‘soft’ health information. We aimed to explore to what extent health claims presented in the context of (thus framed) scientific phrasing of health information impacts health inferences and attitudes towards a product when compared to ‘soft’ health-related information framing. Different versions of mock resveratrol food supplement descriptions were presented in a between subjects experimental design conducted in the US and Denmark. Furthermore, respondents were shown mock-up media reports contradicting the earlier information and asked to repeat their assessment of health inferences and their attitude. This was done to assess how robust consumers’ health inferences and attitudes are in an environment of contradictory information. Results show that the soft information positively influences health inferences and attitudes in Denmark, while in the US, scientific information positively influences health inferences but not attitudes. Faced with contradictory information, US consumers reduce their favourable attitude towards the product to a lesser extent in the presence of scientific information. The findings underline the crucial role of the informational context as well as the country background for consumer perception of health claims. Non-scientific information can be potentially more powerful in communication, but a product assessment based on scientific information might be more robust to the detrimental impact of contradictory information.

  16. Relationships Among Values, Achievement Orientations, and Attitudes in Youth Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Martin J.; Whitehead, Jean; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the value-expressive function of attitudes and achievement goal theory in predicting moral attitudes. In Study 1, the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire (YSVQ; Lee, Whitehead, & Balchin, 2000) was modified to measure moral,competence, and status values. In Study 2, structural equation modeling on data from 549 competitors (317 males, 232 females) aged 12–15 years showed that moral and competence values predicted prosocial attitudes, whereas moral (negatively) and status v...

  17. Perception of Financial distress and Customers’ Attitude toward Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday Samson Babalola

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of perceived financial distress and customers’ attitude towards banking in Nigeria. Two hundred and one bank customers made up of 144 males and 57 females drawn from 27 banks in Lagos participated in the study. The result of the study showed that perceived financial distress and bank account customer had significant main effect on attitude towards banking. The study concluded that perceived financial distress has significant negative influence on attitude tow...

  18. Validity of the Eating Attitude Test among Exercisers

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Matheson; Andrew M. Lane; Lane, Helen J.

    2004-01-01

    Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT) is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items), oral control (7-items), and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items). The primary purpose...

  19. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude strength on the stability of attitudes towards wind farms. In this study, attitude strength did not have a major effect on the stability of attitudes. Perceived importance of the issue of wind farm development did result in slightly more stable attitudes towards renewable energy. These survey results were compared to responses provided by 28 residents who completed surveys before and after participating in an informational session about commercial wind farm development. A regression analysis found that participation in an informational event changed the substance and quality of participants' attitudes. Attitudes towards wind farm development became more positive, and confidence in those attitudes grew stronger. These findings suggest that the gap between general attitudes towards wind energy and attitudes towards specific wind farm proposals could be narrowed by providing information and opportunities for discussion in communities with potential for commercial wind farm development. Future research is needed to track local attitudes and attitude strength throughout a proposal and development process.

  20. Parental Influences on Adolescents' Negative Attitudes Toward Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Attitudes toward immigrants are a core component of adolescents' social identities. Although in a globalized world positive attitudes are functional, negative views toward immigrant are widespread. This study investigates the parent-adolescent transmission of attitudes toward immigrants between age 12 and 16. In a longitudinal five-wave cohort-sequential multi-informant survey study on German adolescents (N = 1289; 52.9 % female) and their parents (mothers N = 772; fathers N = 654), self-reported attitudes toward immigrants were measured at each time point. Changes in the adolescents' attitudes were predicted by maternal and paternal self-reported attitudes across time. Predictions of short-term changes revealed that the major effect of the parents' attitudes takes place in early adolescence (between grade 6 and 7). The prediction of the adolescents' long-term attitude changes indicates that these effects sustain until the age of 16. No between-parent differences were found. The results are discussed in terms of early adolescence being a sensitive period for parental effects on the development of adolescents' attitudes toward immigrants. PMID:25956291

  1. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy

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    Ensiyeh Mohebbi Kian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. Statistical Analysis: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed. Conclusion: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.

  2. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis / Potenciais evocados visuais mostram correlação positiva forte com a pressão intracraniana em pacientes com meningite criptocócica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva, Vieira; Maria do Amparo Salmito, Cavalcanti; Dorcas Lamounier, Costa; Kelsen Dantas, Eulálio; Otoni Cardoso do, Vale; Chrystiany Placido de Brito, Vieira; Carlos Henrique Nery, Costa.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo : Verificar a relação entre pressão intracraniana e potencial evocado visual por flash (PEV-F) em pacientes com meningite criptocócica. Método A amostra incluiu pacientes admitidos em um hospital de referência para doenças infecciosas. Realizou-se PEV-F antes de cada punção lombar. Calculo [...] u-se o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson e a equação de regressão linear entre as variáveis latência N2 e pressão intracraniana inferida através de raquimanometria. Resultados Dezoito pacientes foram submetidos a um total de 69 punções lombares. A latência N2 mostrou correlação positiva forte com a pressão de abertura verificada na primeira punção lombar a que cada paciente foi submetido (r = 0,83; IC = 0,60 ? 0,94; p Abstract in english Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP) in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients w [...] ere subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson?s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p

  3. Information and Attitudes toward Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Marilyn; Narcus, Margery

    1979-01-01

    Examined effects of two movies, Like Other People and The Music Box, on attitudes as measured by the Attitudes toward Disabled Persons scale. Results indicated more negative attitudes were induced in pretested participants by Like Other People at initial post-test; however, more favorable attitudes were exhibited by participants six weeks later.…

  4. Attitude towards the Environment and Green Products:Consumers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Booi Chen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The current rapid growth in the economy and the patterns of consumers’ consumption and behavior worldwide are the main cause of environmental deterioration. As the environment continues to worsen, it has become a persistent public concern in the developed countries and has recently awakens developing countries to the green movement. This paper is essentially exploratory in nature and has two objectives. The first objective is to compare gender with attitudes towards the environment and green products. The second objective is to investigate the relationship between attitude towards the environment and green products. Result from the independent sample t-test shows that there were no significant differences between gender in their environmental attitudes and attitudes on green products. The rotated factor matrix validated the underlying dimensions of environmental attitudes into three major dimensions (environmental protection, government’s role, and personal norm. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis revealed that consumer attitudes on the government’s role and their personal norm towards the environment contributed significantly to their attitude on green product. Further investigation revealed that personal norm was the most important contributor to the attitude towards green product. However, environmental protection did not contribute significantly to consumers’ attitudes on green product.Keywords: Environmental attitude; green products; consumer behaviour; Malaysia

  5. Insecure attachment attitudes in the onset of problematic Internet use among late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Gervasi, Alessia Maria; Manzella, Sergio; Famà, Francesca Isabella

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the role played by attachment attitudes among late adolescents who show Problematic Internet Use (PIU) are still lacking. Three self-report measures concerning attachment attitudes, childhood experiences of abuse, and Internet addiction were administered to 310 students (49 % males) aged 18-19 attending the last year of high school. Students who screened positive for PIU were more likely to be male and to have suffered childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse; they also scored higher than the other participants on scales assessing anxious and avoidant attachment attitudes. A logistic regression showed that the classification of participants in the PIU group was predicted by male gender, having suffered from physical and sexual abuse in childhood, and preoccupation with relationships. Keeping constant the effects of gender and childhood experiences of abuse in the equation model, increasing values of preoccupation with relationships were reflected by an exponential growth in the probability curve for PIU classification. Findings of the study support the hypothesis that insecure attachment attitudes (particularly the preoccupation with relationships) are involved in the development of PIU among late adolescents. PMID:24338269

  6. Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-11-01

    The study critically explored how culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude towards science. Their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning process determined their cultural preference or profile. Design and development of culture and language sensitive curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by these learners' cultural preference or profile. Pilot-study using interviews and focus group discussions with natives of Pangasinan and document analysis were conducted to identify the culture, practices, and traditions integrated in the lesson development. Comparison of experimental participants' pretest and posttest results on science attitude measure showed significant statistical difference. Appraisal of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data deduced from post implementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries showed the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study revealed that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning process of physics concepts enabled students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  7. Professionals' Attitudes towards Using e-Learning Implementation with Children with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farouk Mohamed Saleh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored e-learning attitudes reported by (98 professionals working in the field of children with disabilities, (60 teachers, (18 tutors working in diverse areas, (11 shadow teachers and (9 social workers, current study belongs to the pattern of descriptive analytical studies, a study Applied in ad hoc learning disabilities institution at Fayoum governorate south Egypt, The final results of Friedman technique confirmed that the attitudes of e-learning consists of three components Affective, Behavior and Cognitive components according (A,B,C MODEL, cognitive Component has achieved the first rank in terms of the importance at (2.29, the next is Affective component at mean rank (2.02, the third and final rank is behavioral or skills component at (1.69. in the other hand result shows that E-learning implementation barriers consisted of five items, the test confirmed that the rank of items (1 to (5, Content-Suitability barriers is the first by mean rank (4.10, the last rank is the Instructional barriers by mean rank (1.66, results enable us to accept the null hypothesis: there is no significance difference in the professionals attitudes towards e-learning courseVary according to (educational level, position, in the other hand result showed accepts the alternative hypothesis: there is a statistically significant association at a level (0.05 between e learning implementation barriers and staff attitudes towards e learning.

  8. Relationship among Iranian EFL Learners’ Self-efficacy in Writing, Attitude towards Writing, Writing Apprehension and Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Sarkhoush

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main trust of the present study was to investigate whether writing performance in students of English as a foreign language (EFL was related to self-efficacy in writing, writing apprehension,  and attitude towards writing. Fifty IELTS students (30 females and 20 males studying IELTS Writing participated in this study. In order to collect data, three instruments were used which were a writing apprehension test (WAT, a self-efficacy in writing scale (SWS, and a questionnaire on attitude towards writing (WAQ. In order to make the questionnaires more comprehensible, they were adapted to Iranian context. This study conducted in two phases. First, the questionnaires were administered in the fist hour. In the second phase participants were given 45 minutes to write an argumentative essay on a given topic. The compositions were scored according to IELTS Writing Band Descriptive for public version by two raters. The obtained marks were taken to indicate the students’ overall writing performance. The findings of the study suggested that, self-efficacy in writing and writing apprehension was negatively correlated. Moreover there was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and attitude towards writing. Besides, the results showed that self-efficacy and writing performance were positively correlated. The correlation between writing apprehension and attitude towards writing was negative. Finally there was a negative correlation between writing apprehension and writing performance. The results of a three-way ANOVA revealed that those learners with positive attitudes performed significantly better than those with negative attitudes on writing task. In terms of self-efficacy and apprehension levels no significant differences were found.  

  9. The Effect of Teaching Learning Strategies in an English Lesson on Students’ Achievement, Attitudes, and Metacognitive Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ba?

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of teaching learning strategies in an English lesson on students’ achievement, attitudes, and metacognitive awareness levels. The study was conducted in the 2010-2011 academic year in a primary school in Ni?de. Students in those schools were taught learning strategies. Totally, 60 8th graders from two different classrooms participated in the study. The study had a pre-test – post-test control group design. Means and standard deviations were reported in the study. In order to test the significance, Mann-Whitney U tests were performed. Results showed a significant difference between attitude scores of both groups. It was also found out teaching learning strategies was more effective in enhancing students’ achievement, lifting their metacognitive awareness levels up, and making them develop more positive attitudes toward English lesson than teaching via students’ course books.

  10. Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

  11. Generational cohorts and their attitudes toward advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Cyril de Run

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, 48 interviews were conducted and data were content-analyzed. The findings were then incorporated into the second phase of study to investigate cohorts’ views about advertising, using theory of reasoned action. A quantitative approach via questionnaire-based survey was administered, and 1,410 copies were collected for analysis. Five distinct cohorts are proposed in the initial findings. They are labeled as Neoteric Inheritors, Prospective Pursuers, Social Strivers, Idealistic Strugglers and Battling Lifers on the basis of their respective engagement with events during the coming-of-age years. The subsequent findings show that beliefs about advertising are significant predictors of the attitudes to advertising, and so are the attitudes with regard to the intention of every cohort. However, their beliefs and attitudes to advertising are found to differ significantly, especially in the older cohort. The study thus highlights the implication of generational differences on the attitudes to advertising.

  12. ROMANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS TV COMMERCIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca B?BU? (COMIATI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As advertisements are broadcast on a daily basis, Romanian consumers are subject to an intensive media bombardment designed to influence them, trigger certain emotions, and make them develop an attitude to a particular brand or product. When designing the advertisement, great care must be taken so that it conveys positive feelings and emotions and fosters favourable attitudes to a brand. The object of the current research is to determine how consumers are able to assess the advertisement phenomenon in general and the TV commercials in particular. Based on a representative sample of 550 Romanian consumers from the urban population, the study highlights the Romanian consumers’ attitude to various types of advertisements, endorsers and creative strategies used to design and execute the advertisements. The managerial as well as the scientific implications are considered by means of the correlations made according to the respondents’ social and demographic characteristics.

  13. Attitude profile design program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Attitude Profile Design (APD) Program was designed to be used as a stand-alone addition to the Simplex Computation of Optimum Orbital Trajectories (SCOOT). The program uses information from a SCOOT output file and the user defined attitude profile to produce time histories of attitude, angular body rates, and accelerations. The APD program is written in standard FORTRAN77 and should be portable to any machine that has an appropriate compiler. The input and output are through formatted files. The program reads the basic flight data, such as the states of the vehicles, acceleration profiles, and burn information, from the SCOOT output file. The user inputs information about the desired attitude profile during coasts in a high level manner. The program then takes these high level commands and executes the maneuvers, outputting the desired information.

  14. Attitudes towards immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose; Schroll, Sanne

    2008-01-01

    Using the European Social Survey 2002/3, we develop a new test of whether economic self-interest influences people's attitudes towards immigration, exploiting that people have widely different perceptions of the consequences of immigration

  15. The Predictive Role of Self-efficacy, Outcome Expectancies, Past Behavior and Attitudes on Condom Use in a Sample of Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Artistico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of self-efficacy in relation to condom use. A sample of 87 female college students completed self-report measures related to their sexual history, attitudes towards condoms and past condom use, as well as their outcome expectancy and intention to use condoms in the future. The results showed a positive correlation between self-efficacy and positive attitudes towards condom use, as well as correlations between past behavior, self-efficacy and intention to use condoms in the future. Multiple linear regression models were used to further explore the relationship between self-efficacy, past condom use, outcome expectancy and attitudes toward condoms, with the intention to use condoms in the future. The results demonstrated that both self-efficacy and past condom use are significant predictors of an individual’s intention to use condoms in the future.

  16. Exploring Student Students’ Attitudes and Beliefs Towards E-Portfolios and Technology in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma TUR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on student teachers’ attitude towards technology in education and e-portfolio processes. Attitude is closely related to teachers’ beliefs and the later have been defined as second-order barriers. While an important effort has been made to overcome first-order barrier such as resources, training and support, it cannot be observed that technology has been successfully introduced in education. Therefore, second-order barriers such as attitudes and beliefs are being considered nowadays in order to address the lack of innovative use of technology by teachers. It has been argued that the introduction of technology has to be directed towards the empowerment of cognitive and high-level thinking skills and has to be used based on student-centred approaches. Building e-portfolios and helping students which grow and curate their own Personal Learning Environments (PLE are two approaches to go beyond technology-centered models. E-Portfolios are viewed as part of students’ PLE so social media are used to enhance both e-portfolio processes and students’ PLEs. The research is based on a survey in four groups of students at the local branch in Ibiza of the University of the Balearic Islands. The participants have previously built their e-portfolios with Web 2.0 tools during one semester. Students are asked to document their learning weekly and reflect on the change experienced in the way they think about educational issues. Students are also asked to use new tools and social media services to give evidence of their own learning. The survey is based on a Likert scale so as to be able to analyse the students’ attitude and beliefs towards their e-portfolio and technology in education. The results show that a generally positive attitude is developed by students. Conclusions highlight the slight difference in student teachers’ attitude between technology and specific e-portfolio processes.

  17. Attitudes toward Counterfeit Products and Generation Differentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given growth in international trade in counterfeit products and whereas Consumers are the actual forces behind this counterfeiting trade, so, the study focuses on the demand side of counterfeiting, identifying and examining factors influencing on attitude of consumers of non-deceptive counterfeiting in terms of differences generations in Iran, second most populous country among the countries of Middle East. In this study, based on the four generation and the revolution in Iran, the generations are divided into two generations: combination generation and Y generation and also,Conceptual framework of the study emphasizes that Perceived Risk, Risk Averseness, Price-Quality preference, Subjective Norm, Integrity, Personal Gratification could affect on attitudes toward counterfeit products. Results of SEM from samples of combination generation (52.43% and Y generation (47.57 indicate that perceived risk and risk averseness have negative impact on attitudes toward counterfeit products and Personal Gratification no impact on it under both of generations but other variables have differences impacts on attitudes. Also in both of generations, the results indicated that attitudes toward counterfeit products are positively related to behavior intentions. Drawing on the results of the research, the researchers suggest that it may be necessary for the marketing practices for these two generations differ.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PATIENT'S ATTITUDE TOWARDS YOGA AND THE TREATMENT OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Poonam; Varma, V K; S.K. Verma; Pershad, Dwaraka

    1987-01-01

    Correlations were obtained between scores on the P.G.I. Yoga Attitude Scale and improvement in a group of 20 psychoneurotic patients undertaking yoga therapy of 4-6 weeks duration. A significant positive correlation was found between the improvement in social and vocational disability and scores on the P.G.I Yoga Attitude Scale at intake. However, during treatment and followup, there was a significant change in the attitude towards yoga - it became more positive. Correlations were also perfor...

  19. Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbaco, K. S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even he/she did not learned values in his/her mathematics class.

  20. From attitudes to commonplaces

    OpenAIRE

    Thøgersen, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    With a background in sociolinguistics, this paper presents the theoretical, methodological and epistemological issues the author was forced to negotiate in conducting the apparently simple task of investigating a few dozen people's attitudes towards the English influence on their own language. The paper discusses the fundamental epistemological shortcomings of different approaches to attitude research. Three different orders of analysis are attempted and reflected upon, a standardized quantit...

  1. Attitudes towards documentary soundstracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2010-01-01

    Musical experience is often related to an emotional and imaginative engagement of the listener. Discourses of journalistic documentaries relate primarily to inferential knowledge systems in which the uses of background music as a communicative device become an object of epistemological critique. By listening to different voices - primarily from four focus group interviews - the article will discuss attitudes towards musical soundtracks in documentaries, attitudes being negotiated between emotion...

  2. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems....

  3. Attitudes of the selfless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on political orientations, which can be understood as one's left- versus right-wing attitude, has shown that some personality factors yield explanatory power. In the current work, we consider the role of altruism - a personality construct which does not exclusively map onto one of the broad personality dimensions typically studied. Altruism was predicted to relate to left-wing attitudes due to an overlap regarding concerns for social equality, and a discrepancy between well-kno...

  4. Consumers’ Attitude towards Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Uchenna Cyril Eze; Chai Har Lee

    2012-01-01

    Advertising is a growing business and with advances in the Internet technology, the dynamics and landscape ofthe business has changed as well. Prior findings on consumers’ attitude towards advertising are mixed. Thispaper is an attempt to examine young adults’ attitude towards advertising. We conceptualized a framework toexamine the influence of six independent variables namely consumer manipulation, product information,hedonic/pleasure, economic condition, social integration, and materialism...

  5. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms : The influence of travel time and wind farm attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

    2011-01-01

    Generally people are more positive towards offshore wind farms compared to on-land wind farms. However, the attitudes are commonly assumed to be independent of experience with wind farms. Important relations between attitude and experience might therefore be disregarded. The present paper gives a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more positive attitudes compared to wind farms with fewer turbines.

  6. A quantitative research of consumer’s attitude towards food products advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu Mirela-Cristina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the consumers' attitude towards television/radio/press advertising is especially important, a fact which is highlighted by national and international speciality literature. The attitude of the consumer towards a television commercial influences the attitude towards the promoted product or brand. Thus, a positive attitude towards the commercial for a brand determines a positive attitude towards the respective brand and, eventually, may result in the formulation of the purchase intent. It is hard to say which aspects of advertising have the greatest influence on the formation of consumer attitudes and purchase intent formulation, but not impossible to find out. In this context, through this study, we aim at contributing to the determination of the consumers' attitude towards televised advertising aimed at promoting food products.

  7. Anesthesiologist`s Attitude Towards Preoperative Patients` Education Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake of information about anaesthesia and fear of post operation consciousness, pain, nausea and vomiting increases patient`s anxiety. There are various reports about patient`s desire for preoperational information in Iran and other countries, but we don`t find any study related to anesthesiologist`s view about patient`s needs before anaesthesia and operation. This descriptive (cross- sectional study was done in 2005 on 110 anesthesiologists working in hospitals of Mazandaran province. Questionnaire containing 4 questions about demographic and 18 questions related to anaesthesia was prepared. Attitude of the anesthesiologists was studied by dividing in 4 categories based on Likert rating scale as follow: strongly agree, agree, particularly agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The obtained data were shown in table; chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results of this study showed that the most positive attitude of anesthesiologists about patient teaching was related to the proper explanation about duration of N.P.O before operation (97.3% and 52.7% were against about giving explanation of the during and post operation possible problems. In this regard no significant difference was observed between educational and non educational hospitals (p<0.018. No significant view point difference was observed between anesthesiologists at different level of education (p<0.07. Considering the positive attitude of the anesthesiologists towards education to preoperational patients, it is recommended that such education be implemented and the patients be charged for preoperational consultation. In order to give explanation about anaesthesia at proper time, when needed.

  8. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867

  9. An Analysis of Social Factors Influencing Students’ Environmental Attitudes and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Salehi

    2014-05-01

    The results of this research showed that 53 percent of the surveyed students used public media as the main source of environmental information. Urban student’ attitudes were more favorable to the environment. Environmental attitudes and behaviors of the sample students were not different in terms of gender. There was a weak relationship between environmental attitudes and behavior. Also, environmental attitudes and behaviors were different by the family ‘environmental performance, and informational resources related with environmental attitude and behavior. In conclusion, it can be said that based on the descriptive and inferential findings while students attitudes toward the en

  10. IMPROVING UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL ATTITUDE THROUGH LEARNING BY DOING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidatol Akmaliah LOPE PIHIE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Employing effective pedagogy methods has been considered as influential in developing students’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship. However, there is limited empirical research on the impact of entrepreneurship pedagogical methods on students’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship. The core purpose of this study was to determine the influence of “learning by doing”, as one of the most suggested entrepreneurship pedagogy methods, in enhancing different aspects of students’ entrepreneurial attitude. A total of 193 students from one university in Malaysia were selected as respondents. The findings indicate that university students who had undertaken entrepreneurship course through “learning by doing” pedagogy scored significantly higher in achievement behaviour, achievement cognition, self-esteem cognition, and innovation cognition compared to their counterparts. However, t-test analysis was conducted to identify differences on entrepreneurial attitude based on students’ entrepreneurial aspiration. Findings revealed that students with positive aspiration toward entrepreneurship scored higher mean and significantly different compared to the others for most of the entrepreneurship attitude aspects

  11. The Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes Towards Teaching of Evolution Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kahyao?lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate of primary class and science teacher candidates’ attitudes towards teaching of evolution theory. A total of 236 students, 120 primary class teacher candidates and 116 primary science teacher candidates, volunteered to participate in the research. The data for the research were collected with a data-collection tool that included two parts as “Personal Information form” and “Teaching Evolution Theory Attitude Questionnaire (TETAQ”. In the analysis of the data, a multivariate analysis (MANOVA for more than two group comparisons were used. In this study result; The teacher candidates’ negative attitudes for lack proof evolution due to the teaching of evolution theory mean scores of teacher candidates were higher than the teacher candidates’ positive attitudes towards need to the teaching of evolution theory. According to this finding, It can be said that the teacher candidates are negative generally the attitudes towards teaching of evolution theory.

  12. Teaching with Sponsored Instructional Materials: Attitudes of Teachers in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndawula Stephen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the teachers’ attitudes towards using sponsored instructional materials provided by the Aga Khan Education Service (AES to primary schools in Uganda. The objectives of the study were: to establish teachers’ attitudes towards the AES materials in relation to the level of class taught, size of classes and the nature of subject (s taught. Data was gathered from twenty five class teachers, using interview schedules. Majority of the teachers (93% expressed positive attitude, while only 7% had negative attitudes over using the AES materials. Conclusions were drawn and recommendations focused on: sensitization of teachers on importance AES; improving on close work relationship between primary schools and AES; extending AES materials to non-project schools and; further research on other variables rather than teachers’ attitudes.

  13. Effects of Pre-Purchase Search Motivation on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising: A Case of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran A Mir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years, social media have profoundly changed the ways of social and business communication. Particularly, social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and number of users globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, businesses of various types use SNSs for commercial communication. Banner advertising is one of the common methods of commercial communication on SNSs. Advertising is a key source of revenue for many SNSs firms such as Facebook. In fact, the existence of many SNSs owners and advertisers is contingent upon the success of social network advertising (SNA. Users demand free SNS services which makes SNA crucial for SNSs firms. SNA can be effective only if it is aligned with user motivations. Marketing literature identifies pre-purchase search as a primary consumer motivation for using media. The current study aims to identify the effects of pre-purchase search motivation (PSM on user attitudes toward SNA. It also assesses the association between the attitudes toward SNA and users’ banner ad-clicking behavior on SNSs. Data was gathered from 200 university students in Islamabad using offline survey. Results show positive effects of PSM on user attitudes toward SNA. They also show positive association between user attitudes toward SNA and their SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. The firms which promote their products through SNSs to the young South Asian consumers may benefit from the findings of the current study.

  14. Predicted torque equilibrium attitude utilization for Space Station attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.; Robertson, Brent P.

    1990-01-01

    An approximate knowledge of the torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is shown to improve the performance of a control moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum management/attitude control law for Space Station Freedom. The linearized equations of motion are used in conjunction with a state transformation to obtain a control law which uses full state feedback and the predicted TEA to minimize both attitude excursions and CMG peak and secular momentum. The TEA can be computationally determined either by observing the steady state attitude of a 'controlled' spacecraft using arbitrary initial attitude, or by simulating a fixed attitude spacecraft flying in desired orbit subject to realistic environmental disturbance models.

  15. The Pluto debate: Influence of emotions on belief, attitude, and knowledge change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Suzanne H.

    In line with the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005), this study examined the influence of emotions during controversial conceptual change. Issues in science may trigger highly emotional responses (e.g., evolutionary theory). However, it is unclear whether these emotions facilitate or inhibit change. I investigated the nature of emotions engendered when learning about a controversial science topic, Pluto's reclassification, including the valence (positive/negative) and activation (activating/deactivating) of emotions (Pekrun et al., 2002). I also investigated whether belief, attitude, and/or conceptual change could be facilitated through rereading a refutation text and/or rereading during small group discussions. Refutation texts directly state a common misconception, refute it, and provide the scientific explanation as a plausible alternative (Hynd, 2001). Participants were randomly assigned to a group (reread text; reread text plus small group discussions). Participants in both groups read the same refutational text regarding the recent change in the definition of planet and Pluto's reclassification. The findings show that students' experienced a range of emotions towards Pluto's reclassification. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions. Both positive and negative emotions were shown to be predictive of student's attitudes and attitude change. Emotions were also predictive of students' knowledge of planets and conceptual change. This suggests that emotions may have promoted deep engagement and critical thinking. Negative emotions may also be linked with resistance to attitude and conceptual change. The refutation text was effective in promoting belief change, attitude change, and conceptual change across both conditions. Students in both conditions reported more constructivist nature of science beliefs after rereading the text. Students also reported a greater level of acceptance about Pluto's reclassification. Conceptual change was promoted through the text as students' initial misconceptions about why scientists rewrote the definition of planet. Students in the reread plus discussion group showed greater conceptual change regarding the reasons for rewriting the definition of planet than those in the reread group. This study supports the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005) in conceptual change research because it shows the interplay between emotions and the change process. The findings also suggest that belief, attitude, and conceptual change can be fostered through small group discussions.

  16. Atitudes linguísticas e r-forte em Carambeí = Linguistics attitudes and strong-R in Carambeí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Fraga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que o município de Carambeí é bastante complexo cultural e linguisticamente, este estudo pretende, de acordo com o método etnográfico: a fazer um levantamento das atitudes linguísticas que os ‘holandeses’ manifestam em relação às línguas holandesa e portuguesa; b analisar a variedade de português falada pelos‘holandeses’ de Carambeí no que diz respeito ao uso do r-forte; e c estabelecer que tipo de relação se dá entre atitudes linguísticas e uso de determinada variante de r-forte no português. No que diz respeito às atitudes em relação ao holandês, os Grupos 1M, 1F e2Fa manifestam atitudes positivas, ao passo que os Grupos 2M e 2Fb têm atitudes negativas, assim como os Grupos 3M e 3F. Já em relação ao português, a comunidade como um todo manifesta atitudes positivas. No que diz respeito ao uso de r-forte, os grupos 1M e 1F usam vibrante múltipla e tepe; o Grupo 2M também usa a vibrante e otepe; já o Grupo 2Fa usa somente vibrante e tepe e o Grupo 2Fb usa fricativa e vibrante. Os Grupos 3M e 3F usam somente fricativa. Enfim, pode-se dizer que determinadas atitudes contribuem para o uso de determinada variedade de r-forte.Considering that Carambeí Township is fairly complex, both culturally and linguistically, this study intends to: a survey the linguistic attitudes that the ‘Dutch’ reveal concerning the Dutch and Portuguese languages; b analyze the variety of Portuguese spoken by the ‘Dutch’ of Carambeí regarding the use of strong-R; c establish what sort of relationship takes place between linguistic attitudes and use of certain varieties of the strong-R in Portuguese. About the attitudes regarding the Dutch language, Groups 1M, 1F and 2Fa show positive attitudes, while Groups 2M, 2Fb, 3M and 3F show negative attitudes.Portuguese, on the other hand, elicits positive attitudes in the community as a whole. Regarding the use of strong-R, groups 1M and 1F use trill and tap; group 2M also uses trill and tap; Group 2Fa uses trill and tap and Group 2Fb uses fricative and trill. Groups 3M and 3F use only fricative. Finally, we can assume that specific attitudes contribute to the use of certain varieties of the strong-R.

  17. Boosting Students' Attitudes & Knowledge about Evolution Sets Them up for College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…

  18. Catholic High School Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Snapshot of Incoming College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This study is a survey of incoming freshmen at a Midwestern Catholic university on their agreement with Church teachings on homosexuality. In general, females had more homo-positive attitudes than males, graduates of catholic high schools had more homo-positive attitudes than graduates from non-Catholic high schools, and graduates from…

  19. Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive

  20. Attitude and Opinion of Parents about Sex Education of Adolescents and Its Contents in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammad-Alizadeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexuality is a factor that is influenced by and cultural norms and rules, and these rules and norms determine acceptable behaviors in any culture. Variations of cultures existing in the world produce considerable variety in sexual norms and extensive spectrum of values and beliefs in this regards. Methods: This descriptive study was done to determine the attitude of Kermaninan parents toward sex education for adolescents and their opinion about its contents of sex education for adolescents. The sample of study was 275 couples selected by cluster sampling method form 5 city regions. In this study, a research- made questionnaire was used for data collection after determining suitable validity and reliability. Data were analyzed by using central and tendency indexes, ANOVA, t. test and Post Hoc tests (Fisher, Tukey. Results: Findings showed that on comparing attitude of both parents, there was a significant difference only in two items (14, 16. Mean 42.57± 5/9 in husbands and 43/71± 9/56 in wives attitude score. In regard to the contents of sex education, the least important item, according to both men and women, with a slight significant diference atitued approximately 50% of the total score. This finding shows that parents have no positive attitude towards sex education for adolescents. Comparing men and women in regard to their opinions about the contents of sex education, showed no significant difference between them. In regard to the items emphasized by both parents as necessary items to the items emphasized by both parents as necessary items in sex education, the results were similar. Conclusion: Considering the results and importance of sexual health as claimed by WHO, we should promote knowledge and attitude of the community towards sex education.

  1. Public attitudes toward nuclear power generation. Focusing on measurement of attitude intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to 1) examine the differences of the perception between nuclear power generation (NPG) and electric power generation by nuclear fusion, 2) find the structural characteristics of the attitude toward NPG, 3) shed light on the characteristics of knowledge about NPG, and 4) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N = 1,582) were randomly assigned into 4 groups and were asked to answer a questionnaire including public attitudes toward NPG and related matters. The results were as follows: 1) the perception of electric power generation by nuclear fusion was less favorable than that of NPG; 2) Items which correlated with attitudes toward NPG were: 'sense of anxiety,' sensitivity to risk,' 'trust in science and technology,' 'evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy', 'evaluation of electric power companies,' and interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a better knowledge of NPG; 3) The evaluation of the amount of subjective knowledge concerning nuclear power and electric power generation was reliable as a measure of objective knowledge; 4) The measurement method used in this study was characterized by the use of biased questions(ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. An attempt was made to measure the attitude and its intensity taking into consideration gender, positive or negative attitude toward NPG, level of knowledge about NPG, age, and occupation. As a result, differences in intensity between different attributes were found. (author)

  2. Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Jordanian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zyoudi, Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education in Jordan, and the factors that influenced such attitudes. Qualitative research was used to gather information from all general education and special education teachers. The sample consisted of 90 teachers at 7 schools. The results of this study showed

  3. Attitudes Toward Busing as a Means of Desegregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, John A.; Patterson, Tom W.

    1974-01-01

    A study of attitudes toward enforced school busing shows that supporters of busing emphasize the provision of equal educational opportunities and improved communication among ethnic groups while the opposition emphasizes the disruption of the neighborhood school concept as the basis for their attitudes. (Author/KM)

  4. The Relationship between Values and Attitudes toward Three Therapy Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madell, Thomas O.

    1982-01-01

    Examined relationships between value dimensions and attitudes toward therapy with a sample of 65 college students who chose which counseling method they thought would be most helpful. Results showed attitudes toward the behavioral and rational-emotive approaches were related to values to a small degree. (JAC)

  5. Sex Differences in Correlates of Abortion Attitudes among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Barbara Agresti

    1981-01-01

    Data from a sample of students showed that males' abortion attitudes are related primarily to their degree of conventionality; females' abortion attitudes are related to sex-role conventionality, the value of children in their life plans, the "right to life" issue, and sexual and general conventionality. (Author)

  6. Student Attitudes on Sociomedical Issues: A Follow-Up Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilwein, John H.; Kilwein, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A study compared student attitudes in the first and last years of a pharmaceutical program toward the health care system, environmental protection, abortion, euthanasia, use of tranquilizers, and family vs. career. On some issues there was considerable change by the final year, while attitudes on other issues remained stable. Females showed the…

  7. Eating Attitudes among Japanese and American Elementary Schoolgirls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Takayo; McCloskey, Laura A.

    1996-01-01

    Examined familial and peer correlates of eating attitudes in 38 American and 70 Japanese preadolescent girls. Responses showed correlates of eating attitudes shared by American and Japanese girls were self-perception of being overweight, number of friends dieting, and frequency of talking with mother about food and diet. Japanese girls were more…

  8. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  9. Caring for dying people: Attitudes among Iranian and Swedish nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Iranmanesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the attitudes of Iranian and Swedish nursing students toward caring for dying persons. Materials and Methods: Their attitudes were measured with the Frommelt?s Attitude Toward Caring of the Dying and the Death Attitude Profile Revised. Results: The results indicated that the participating Iranian students were more afraid of death and less likely to give care to dying persons than the Swedish participants. Conclusion: It is suggested that theoretical education should be individualized and culturally sensitive in order to positively influence the students? attitudes, and promote professional development.

  10. Secondary analyses of data from four studies with fourth-grade children show that sex, race, amounts eaten of standardized portions, and energy content given in trades explain the positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals

    OpenAIRE

    BAXTER, SUZANNE DOMEL; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E.; Tebbs, Joshua M; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Finney, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Results from a 2012 article showed a positive relationship between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain that positive relationship, secondary analyses investigated 1) whether the relationship differed by sex and race, and 2) the relationship between BMI and six aspects of school-provided meals—amounts eaten of standardized portions, energy content given in trades, energy intake received in trades, energy intake from flavored milk, energy...

  11. Influence of a multidimensional measure of attitudes on motives to use social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Archana; Hunt, Daniel Scot

    2015-03-01

    Positive attitudes toward a new communication technology tend to be a significant motivator in subsequent adoption and use. The recent spurt in the adoption of social media tools such as social networking sites (SNSs) demands the examination of attitudinal variables on motives to use these Web sites. This study explicated a multidimensional measure of attitudes toward SNSs and tested a theoretical model to examine the effect of attitudes on motives to use SNSs and SNS activity. Participants (N=674) completed a cross-sectional survey consisting of measures of attitudes toward SNSs, motives of SNS use, and level of activity. Results showed support for a revised model in which attitudinal variables-ease of use, self-disclosure, and social connection-strongly predicted motives of SNS use such as passing time, information/entertainment, social conformity, and, most importantly, socialization. The motive of using SNSs as a social tool superseded the direct effect of other motives on SNS activity, suggesting that users' primary activity on SNSs was for socialization and for relational development and maintenance. PMID:25751048

  12. Attitudes toward antiretroviral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine in Chinese patients infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Simoni, Jane; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Zhang, Fujie; Starks, Helene; Zhao, Hongxin

    2009-01-01

    HIV is an emerging health issue in China, and effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now available throughout the country. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has been used in Chinese society for more than 5,000 years. In the West, CAM use is widespread among HIV-infected individuals; however, rates of CAM use among HIV-infected individuals in China are unknown. This qualitative study explores issues related to attitudes toward ART and CAM in HIV-infected individuals in Beijing, China. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were used to explore attitudes, experiences, and perceptions about ART and CAM among people living with HIV (PLWH). Results indicate that Chinese PLWH have both positive and negative attitudes toward ART and CAM, which led many to report taking CAM not only for daily discomforts but to counteract the side effects of ART. This study shows that social, cultural, and governmental factors coalesced to shape Chinese PLWH attitudes toward ART and CAM. PMID:19427598

  13. Jump for the Sun II: can a Monthly Program Change Girls' and Women's Attitudes about Stem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Mary

    The Environmental Institute of the Jump for the Sun II program was designed to change middle school girls' and teachers' attitudes about doing science and who does science and to increase interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The institute consisted of an intensive, 2-week summer congress followed by monthly sessions during the academic year. Female-friendly learning environments were created for middle school students and in-service educators, focusing on topics such as life expectancies, solid waste production, transportation gridlock, beach erosion, and biodiversity. In both 1998 and 1999, one group of participants completed the program, which was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. The quantitative results showed that the program did not improve girls' attitudes in any of the major categories under study; however, the posttest results indicated that in-service educators' attitudes improved significantly in three of the four categories (science experiences, perceptions of science and scientists, and science attitudes). The qualitative results indicated that the program positively affected some of the girls and in-service educators.

  14. An Investigation of Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Disinfection Procedures in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albano Luciana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisepsis/disinfection procedures; and sources of information. Results Only 29% acknowledged that urinary and respiratory tract infections were the two most common HAIs and this knowledge was significantly higher in those with a higher level of education. Attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols for disinfection procedures showed a mean score of 9.1. The results of the linear regression model indicated a more positive attitude in female nurses, in those with a lower number of years of activity, and in those needing additional information about disinfection procedures. Nurses with higher educational level and with a higher perception of risk of transmitting an infectious disease while working were more likely to perform appropriate antisepsis of the surgical wound and handwashing before and after medication. Conclusions Plan of successful prevention activities about HAIs and provide pointers to help optimize disinfection procedures and infection prophylaxis and management are needed.

  15. Assessing Attitudes of Female Freshman Agricultural Undergraduates towards Entering Agricultural Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Movahedi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing attitudes and perceptions of female freshman agricultural undergraduate students toward entering agricultural majors using survey and correlation methodologies. The statistical population consisted of 326 female freshman undergraduate students of agricultural fields in agricultural college at Bu-Ali-Sina University between 2008 and 2009. Among them, a number of 141 samples were selected randomly. Research tool was a questionnaire. Reliability of the questionnaire was tested during a pretest process by using Cronbach's Alpha test. The calculated Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was 86% (? = 0.86 that shows a high reliability of the research tool. Results of the study revealed that 53.3% of target females have agreed to agriculture by positive attitude, 24.5% by neutral attitude, and finally 21.1% of the students have been disagreed to agriculture by negative attitude. The most important factor affecting entering agricultural majors were respectively: the role and importance of agriculture in both food security and self-sufficiently, getting university certification, and reaching to a better social status.

  16. Attitudes and Perceptions of Students to Open and Distance Learning in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Olugbenga Ojo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the West African Region of Africa, the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN is the first full fledged university that operates in an exclusively open and distance learning (ODL mode of education. NOUN focuses mainly on open and distance teaching and learning system, and delivers its courses materials via print in conjunction with information and communication technology (ICT, when applicable. This ‘single mode’ of open education is different from the integration of distance learning system into the face- to- face teaching and learning system, which is more typical of conventional Universities in Nigeria and other parts of the world. Thus, NOUN reflects a novel development in the provision of higher education in Nigeria. This study assesses the attitudes and perceptions of distance teaching and learning by students enrolled in the NOUN and of the National Teachers’ Institute (NTI compared to their experiences at conventional universities. One hundred and twenty (n = 120 randomly selected NOUN and NTI students of NOUN were the subjects of the study. The Students’ Attitude and Perception Rating of Open and Distance Learning Institutions Inventory (SAPRODLII, developed by the researchers, was administered to the subjects to measure their attitudes and experiences. Results of the study showed that students generally have a positive perception and attitude towards ODL, compared to traditional forms of higher education.

  17. Exploring the Impact of Culture- and Language-Influenced Physics on Science Attitude Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2015-07-01

    "Culture," a set of principles that trace and familiarize human beings within their existential realities, may provide an invisible lens through which reality could be discerned. Critically explored in this study is how culture- and language-sensitive curriculum materials in physics improve Pangasinan learners' attitude toward science. Their cultural preference or profile defined their cultural dimensions, epistemological beliefs, and views on integration of culture and language in the teaching and learning processes. The culture- and language-influenced curriculum materials in physics were heavily influenced by Pangasinan learners' cultural preference or profile. Results of the experimental participants' pretest and posttest on science attitude measure, when compared, showed significant statistical difference. Assessment of science attitude enhancement favored the experimental group over the control group. Qualitative data gathered from postimplementation interviews, focus group discussions, and journal log entries indicated the same trend in favor of the experimental participants. The study yielded that culture and language integration in the teaching and learning processes of physics concepts allowed students to develop positive attitude to science, their culture, and native language.

  18. OPTIMISTIC ATTITUDE, EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ANXIETY AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS.

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    Kumbhar Rajendra Ramdas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at studying the differences in optimistic attitude, Emotional Intelligence and anxiety among Male and Female college students. Asample consists of 100 ( 50 male and 50 female was collected from Ahmednagar city. The age group of Sample was 19 to 25years. Optimistic-pessimistic attitude scale by Parashar (1992,Emotional intelligence Scale by Hyde, Pethe&Dhar(1991, and Anxiety scale by Sinha(2007 were used for data collection. Personal datasheet was also used for controlling the demographic variable of the respondents. For studying the differences in optimistic attitude, Emotional Intelligence and anxiety among Male and Female college students parametrictest ‘t’ test was used. The ‘t’ value for optimistic attitude,emotional intelligence and anxiety was 3.41, 8.73, and 4.61 respectively. These values were significant at 0.01 level. The mean difference in optimistic attitude, Emotional Intelligence and anxiety among Male and Female college students was significant. The correlation between optimistic attitude and emotional intelligencewas found positive whereas for optimistic attitude and anxiety it was found negative. (0.46,-0.28,-0.61, 0.36,-0.33, -0.49.The association between Anxiety and emotional intelligence was found negative. The correlation between optimistic attitude, emotional intelligence, and anxiety was found to be significant. The results were discussed in the light of relevant research.

  19. Meaning, Image and Attitude (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Vizental

    2010-01-01

    With every word the speaker utters, with every gesture he makes, he conveys not only a meaning, but also an image of himself and an attitude. To improve get access to higher social strata, the speaker learns to improve his language and paralanguage. The rise in society of Eliza Doolittle (the female protagonist of Shaw’s Pygmalion/Alan Jay Lerner’s My Fair Lady) is analyzed to show that a speaker of modest social origins may gain access into the highest social circles by putting on “the right...

  20. Test Candidates' Attitudes and Their Relationship to Demographic and Experiential Variables: The Case of Overseas Trained Teachers in NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jill C.; Riazi, A. Mehdi; Cross, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    One measure of the impact of a high-stakes test is the attitudes that test takers hold towards it. It has been suggested that positive attitudes produce beneficial effects while real or anticipated negative experiences can result in the development of attitudes that erode confidence and potentially impact negatively on performance. This study…

  1. Students' Attitudes and Motivation for Learning English at Dokuz Eylul University School of Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Kadim

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes and motivation are two of the key factors in second language learning since positive attitudes and high levels of motivation are considered as the predictors of a successful learning process. This study aims to reveal the relation between university preparatory students' attitudes towards learning English and their language learning…

  2. What Do Librarians Think about Marketing? A Survey of Public Librarians' Attitudes toward the Marketing of Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shontz, Marilyn L.; Parker, Jon C.; Parker, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes of public librarians toward the marketing of library services and relate these attitudes to selected independent variables. A questionnaire was mailed to individual members of the New Jersey Library Association. Although most of the respondents had generally positive attitudes toward library…

  3. Intergroup contact, attitudes toward homosexuality, and the role of acceptance of gender non-conformity in young adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Kate L.; Bos, Henny M. W.; SANDFORT, THEO G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Preliminary analyses showed that contact with lesbian/gay persons outside of school was positively associ...

  4. Relationship between Knowledge and Attitudes with Contraceptive Use among Women of Childbearing Age at the Comoro Health Centre, Dili, Timor Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Juvi Gonçalves

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Timor-Leste's population growth rate increased by 2.4%. Data in 2013 showed thecontraceptive use among women of childbearing is only 37.3%. This study was aimed to determine the relationshipbetween knowledge and attitudes with contraceptive use.Methods: A cross-sectional was conducted with 83 female respondents. The dependent variable was contraceptiveuse. Knowledge concerning contraceptive use and attitudes were the independent variables. Data were collectedthrough a self-administered questionnaire, however, for illiterate respondents, researcher assisted with questionnairecompletion. Data analysis was conducted in stages: univariate and bivariate (chi-squared test.Results: The majority of respondents 41 (49.4% were aged 25-34 years, 37 (44.6% respondents obtained high schooleducation, and 62 (74.7%, good knowledge regarding family planning (39.8% had positive attitude (45,8%. Resultsindicate that there was a significant relationship between maternal knowledge (p=0.006 and attitude (p=0.017 withcontraceptives use among women of childbearing age.Conclusion: Level of knowledge and attitude are correlated to contraceptive use among women at Comoro HealthCentre, Dili District, Timor Leste.Keywords: knowledge, attitudes, contraceptive use, Comoro Health Centre

  5. Attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of special needs children in general education classroom: the case of teachers in some selected schools in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Olufemi ADENIYI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes about inclusion are extremely complex and vary from teacher to teacher and schoolto school. This article explores the attitudes of teachers about inclusion of special needschildren in their secondary schools in general education. This study adopted a descriptivesurvey research design, with 60 teachers as participants from selected secondary schools inOyo State, Nigeria. Four hypotheses were postulated at the significant level of .05. Theinstrument, a questionnaire with question items on demographic information like gender,marital status, professionalism and teaching experience has a general reliability coefficientalpha of .83. A t-test method of analysis was the main statistical method used to test the 4generated hypotheses. The findings revealed that the attitude of male teachers is 39.4, whilethat of female teacher is 43.3, thus, the t-test analysis shows that the calculated t-test is2.107, which is greater than the critical t (t=1.960. This implies that female teachers havemore positive attitude towards the inclusion of special needs students than their malecounterparts. Furthermore, the results reveal that significant difference exists betweenmarried and single teachers in their attitude towards special need students. And thatprofessionally qualified teacher tends to have a more favourable attitude towards theinclusion of special need students than their non-professional qualified teachers. It wasrecommended that teachers should attend seminars and conferences to improve theirknowledge about ways of practicing and accepting inclusion for a better tomorrow for ourspecial needs children in Nigeria.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding smoking cessation among Chinese affiliates of women's organisations in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris Y P; Chan, Sophia S C; Fu, Idy C Y; Lam, Tai-hing

    2011-03-01

    Volunteers and staff of women's organisations who are highly active in engaging and providing community service can be recruited to motivate female smokers to quit. We described the knowledge and attitudes regarding tobacco control and smoking cessation among these affiliates in Hong Kong and identified factors associated with the practices of cessation interventions. Eight of 14 women's organisations joining the Women Against Tobacco Taskforce agreed to participate. All staff, volunteers, and members of the eight organisations were invited to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire during July and August 2006. A total of 623 out of 771 (80.8%) affiliates responded. Their knowledge on smoking and health (mean = 3.91, SD = 1.44 on a range of 0-7), smoking related diseases (mean = 2.91, SD = 0.97 on a range of 0-4), and women-specific diseases (mean = 2.93, SD = 1.87 on a range of 0-6), was considered to be inadequate. They had positive attitudes towards tobacco control (mean = 3.31, SD = 0.55) and their own role in smoking cessation counselling (mean = 3.19, SD = 0.56) on a 4-point Likert scale and 39.3% reported had attempted to offer quitting advice. Logistic regression analysis found that participants having direct contact with smokers who had a positive attitude towards their own role in smoking cessation counselling (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.67-3.95) and better knowledge of smoking and smoking-related diseases (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.06-1.71) were more likely to provide cessation counselling after controlling for gender; knowledge on smoking and health, and women-specific diseases; attitude towards tobacco control, negative and positive attitudes towards female smokers, and perceived self-efficacy in smoking cessation counselling. Women's organisations showed limited support towards tobacco control and their affiliates had a limited knowledge on smoking and health but had positive attitudes. Appropriate training, capacity building and establishing rapport with women's organisations are needed to promote smoking cessation and to support tobacco control in the community. PMID:21129069

  7. Hypochondriacal attitudes comprise heterogeneous non-illness-related cognitions

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    Schwenzer Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypochondriacal attitudes were associated with cognitions not related to illness: Social fears, low self-esteem, and reduced warm glow effect, i.e. less positive appraisal of familiar stimuli. Only a single study had investigated the correlation of hypochondriacal attitudes with the warm glow effect so far and the present study aimed to corroborate this association. Particularly, the present investigation tested for the first time whether social fears, low self-esteem, and reduced warm glow effect represent distinct or related biases in hypochondriacal attitudes. Methods Fifty-five volunteers filled in the Hypochondriacal Beliefs and Disease Phobia scales of the Illness Attitude Scales, two scales enquiring social fears of criticism and intimacy, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The interaction of valence and spontaneous familiarity ratings of Chinese characters indicated the warm glow effect. Results A stepwise regression model revealed specific covariance of social fears and warm glow with hypochondriacal attitudes independent from the respective other variable. The correlation between low self-esteem and hypochondriacal attitudes missed significance. Conclusions Hypochondriacal attitudes are embedded in a heterogeneous cluster of non-illness-related cognitions. Each social fears and a reduced cognitive capacity to associate two features – positive appraisal and familiarity - could diminish the susceptibility to safety signals such as medical reassurance. To compensate for reduced susceptibility to safety signals, multifocal treatment and repeated consultations appear advisable.

  8. The Effect of Media on Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Astronomy and Achievement in Astronomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that it is hard to change students' attitudes toward science. This study specifically explored if media affect preservice science teachers' attitudes toward astronomy and their astronomy achievement. The sample for the pilot study consisted of 196 preservice science and mathematics teachers for attitude assessment and 230 preservice…

  9. Conservation Education and the Attitudes of Local Communities Living Adjacent to Mt. Elgon National Park, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonyu, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    A study of attitudes of 328 people living around Mt. Elgon National Park showed that more than three-quarters had favorable attitudes toward the conservation of the Park's forest and wildlife resources. They also had favorable attitudes toward the conservation education efforts of various agencies that operated in the area, particularly those of…

  10. Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

  11. Consumers’ values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Consumers’ attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain.

  12. Consumers' values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, M.D; Perin, Marcelo G.

    2012-01-01

    Consumers' attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain

  13. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

  14. Test-taking skills of secondary students: the relationship with motivation, attitudes, anxiety and attitudes towards tests

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hamzeh M, Dodeen; Faisal, Abdelfattah; Saleh, Alshumrani.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Test-taking skills are cognitive skills that enable students to undergo any test-taking situation in an appropriate manner. This study is aimed at assessing the relationship between students' test-taking skills and each of the following variables: motivation to learn mathematics; mathematics anxiety [...] ; attitudes towards mathematics; and attitudes towards tests. The study was conducted on a random sample of 626 (372 males and 254 females) secondary school students. The following instruments were used in the data collection: the Test-taking Skills Scale (TSS); the Mathematics Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MMSLQ); the Mathematics Anxiety Scale-Revised (MAS-R); the Mathematics Attitude Inventory (MAI); and the Attitude towards Tests Scale (ATS). A positive and significant relationship was reported between students' test-taking skills and each student's motivation to learn mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics, and attitudes towards tests; while mathematics anxiety was shown to have a significant negative relationship with test-taking skills. Test-taking skills account for more than 30% of the variation in motivation to learn mathematics, 25% in attitudes towards mathematics, 17% in mathematics anxiety, and more than 40% in attitude toward tests. The study concluded the improvement of secondary students' testing skills to be significantly correlated with variables that play a substantial role in a student's level of achievement in mathematics.

  15. Can Public Relations Pros Predict Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study comparing public attitudes with attitudes of public relations practitioners and measuring accuracy of practitioners' predictions of public attitudes. Provides limited support for the thesis that PR pros can perceive and predict public attitude with modest accuracy. (MS)

  16. Breastfeeding Education in Term of Knowledge and Attitude through Mother Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Handayani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.

  17. Attitudes toward Specific Advertising Media (AM): Informative or Manipulative?

    OpenAIRE

    Azizul Yaakop; Jane Hemsley-Brown

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes toward advertising in general (AG) is a concept which often raises ethical, social and cultural concerns, and yet in the context of specific media, consumers are often more positive, and find advertising entertaining, thought-provoking, amusing and informative. This paper focuses on attitudes toward advertising in three specific media (AM) (print, television and online advertising) and aims to provide input into the design decisions of an advertising campaign. The survey is based on...

  18. Attitude Towards Contract Farming Among Malaysian Agriculture Learning Institution Students

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaman A.S.J.L. D'Silva; Hayrol A.M. Shaffril; Jegak Uli

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The government’s effort in enhancing agriculture productivity cannot be argued. The introduction of contract farming is one of the ways. Contract farming includes a number of new agriculture activities such as leech rearing, worm rearing, vanilla farming, herbs, catfish and many more. However, is the youth who are the pillar of this industry have a positive attitude towards it? This was the main objective of this study, to investigate the attitude of Malaysian agricul...

  19. Social worker's attitudes to poverty and the poor

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Saul

    1987-01-01

    Field social workers are in daily working contact with the poor and deprived. In Britain as many as nine out of ten users of social work services are claimants of social security; over half are dependent on means tested social assistance. Most referrals to social workers are for benefit and housing problems. Social work trainers, managers, and agencies expect social workers to have positive attitudes to clients. Professional training is increasingly confronting racist and sexist attitude...

  20. Attitudes to chronic poverty in the 'global village'

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos, Armando; Neff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores attitudes to chronic poverty in a cross-section of developed and developing countries based on data from the World Values Survey Wave Three (1994-1998). The analysis finds a consistent belief among a majority of respondents that poverty is chronic. This paper also explores the factors that influence public attitudes to chronic poverty and finds that interests, position, knowledge, and shared values relating to social justice are important.

  1. Language attitudes and language shift among ethnic migrants in Khartoum

    OpenAIRE

    Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim Hamid

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates language attitudes among ethnic migrant groups in Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on language preference, language parents prefer their children to learn, and reasons for language preference. Results suggest that while positive attitude played a significant role in learning Arabic among some of the groups under investigation, it proved to be of no help in maintaining the groups’ ethnic languages. Arabic was reported as ve...

  2. Chinese-Inspired Products: Value-Attitude-Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Fu; Wanmo Koo; Youn-Kyung Kim

    2014-01-01

    This studyemployed a value-attitude-behavior model to investigate whether global anddomain-specific values affect US consumers’ attitudes and purchase behaviorstoward a Chinese-Inspired Product, with theperceived level of cultural design influence as a moderator between culturalopenness and domain-specific values. The results indicated that global values (i.e., cultural openness and need todifferentiate) positively influenced domain-specific values (i.e., esthetic andemotional values) and att...

  3. Hypochondriacal attitudes comprise heterogeneous non-illness-related cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenzer Michael; Mathiak Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hypochondriacal attitudes were associated with cognitions not related to illness: Social fears, low self-esteem, and reduced warm glow effect, i.e. less positive appraisal of familiar stimuli. Only a single study had investigated the correlation of hypochondriacal attitudes with the warm glow effect so far and the present study aimed to corroborate this association. Particularly, the present investigation tested for the first time whether social fears, low self-esteem, and...

  4. Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Preventive Oral Health Care at an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Movahhed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice toward preventive oral health care. Also a question was considered about the respondent’s resource for oral health prevention information. Mean score of knowledge was 0.54±0.56 (full score: 3. Higher scores were significantly more prevalent in women, younger’s, people with more income and higher level of education. Mean attitude score was 1.6±0.7 (full score: 3. only 17.6% of the respondents showed positive attitude. It showed significant correlation with level of education and monthly income. Mean of behavior score was 4.5±2.07 (full score: 8. Dental flossing was more reported in more educated (OR = 2.27 and non smoker people (OR = 1.85. Dental visit was more prevalent in more educated ones (OR = 1.34. The most important source of information was semiprofessional source (mass media and health care center staff. As conclusion knowledge of Mashhad’s people about preventive oral health care was low. Their mean attitude shifted to negative score and the average of behavior was moderate. This study certainly serves local health policy making. Reinforcing collaboration between dentist and semiprofessional sources could be suggested.

  5. Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja; Kissler, Johanna M; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Direct assessment of attitudes toward socially sensitive topics can be affected by deception attempts. Reaction-time based indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), are less susceptible to such biases. Neuroscientific evidence shows that deception can evoke characteristic ERP differences. However, the cerebral processes involved in faking an IAT are still unknown. We randomly assigned 20 university students (15 females, 24.65 ± 3.50 years of age) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design, requesting them to complete a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping without deception instruction, and with the instruction to fake positive and negative doping attitudes. Cerebral activity during BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Event-related potentials during faking revealed enhanced frontal and reduced occipital negativity, starting around 150 ms after stimulus presentation. Further, a decrease in the P300 and LPP components was observed. Source analyses showed enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus between 150 and 200 ms during faking, thought to reflect the suppression of automatic responses. Further, more activity was found for faking in the bilateral middle occipital gyri and the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Results indicate that faking reaction-time based tests alter brain processes from early stages of processing and reveal the cortical sources of the effects. Analyzing the EEG helps to uncover response patterns in indirect attitude tests and broadens our understanding of the neural processes involved in such faking. This knowledge might be useful for uncovering faking in socially sensitive contexts, where attitudes are likely to be concealed. PMID:26074798

  6. Attitudes to telehealth use among rural residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural communities tend to be underserved by medical services. Low access to medical services affects quality of life and may also affect settlement decisions. The use of telehealth has often been mentioned as an alternative way to provide health care services in remote, underserved areas. One prerequisite for successful delivery of health care by means of telehealth is the existence of positive attitudes toward telehealth solutions among the potential end beneficiaries. Purpose: The pur...

  7. Medical students’ attitudes toward gay men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matharu Kabir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N?=?371 with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25?years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.

  8. Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

  9. Attitude and Willingness towards Tissue Donation in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sanavi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue donation has been promising in prolonging the lives of people with life-threateningdiseases.Objective: To assess the attitude and willingness of high school students towards bone marrow (BM andblood (as tissue donation for maintaining a safe and adequate pool.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the high school girls, aged 15–18 years, whostudied in natural sciences, mathematics and humanities. All participants filled a questionnaire consistingof age, religion, education levels and study branch, attitude and willingness towards BM and blooddonation according to a Likert scale.Results: Out of 416 students, with the mean±SD age of 16.3±1.2 years, 31% studied in grade I, 27% ingrade II (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics, and 48% humanities, 26% in grade III (30% naturalsciences, 34% mathematics, and 36% humanities, and 16% in pre-university level (college (32% naturalsciences, 42% mathematics, and 6% humanities. The students had highly positive attitudes towardBM and blood donation (mean±SD score of 4.2±0.54. The willingness for BM and blood donation wasdeclared respectively, in 87% and 71% of respondents. Moreover, 16% of students wanted to donate onlyto their relatives and 84% to all persons in need of therapy. There was no significant correlation betweenthe donation willingness and educational levels and study branch; however, these variables significantlycorrelated with attitude towards tissue donation (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively.Conclusion: Despite positive attitude towards BM and blood donation, willingness for BM donation is lesserthan blood which may be attributed to insufficient information about this type of tissue donation. An organizededucational program for high school students in all aspects of tissue donation seems necessary.

  10. Autonomous satellite orbital navigation and attitude determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kau, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    A known linear landmark navigation system is described. It involves the use of an electro-optical sensor to provide sightings to linear earth features such as highways and coast lines. The sensor concept and the navigation system mechanization are described. Performance analysis results show that landmark sightings provide accurate navigation update and that this accuracy can be preserved using radar altimeter measurements. Description of a stellar inertial attitude determination system is also presented. Attitude reference performance consistent with the requirement of the navigation system is shown to be achievable by this method.

  11. Why Don’t Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers’ Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Morphett

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker’s addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual’s situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers’ views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers’ attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences.

  12. Why Don't Smokers Want Help to Quit? A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Attitudes towards Assisted vs. Unassisted Quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphett, Kylie; Partridge, Brad; Gartner, Coral; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne

    2015-06-01

    The development of prescription medication for smoking cessation and the introduction of evidence-based guidelines for health professionals has increasingly medicalised smoking cessation. There are debates about whether medicalisation is a positive development, or whether it has devalued unassisted quitting. In this debate the views of smokers have been neglected. This study explored the attitudes of smokers towards a range of quitting methods, and their considerations when judging their value. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 smokers and analysed data using thematic analysis. The results show that the perceived nature of an individual smoker's addiction was central to judgments about the value of pharmacological cessation aids, as was personal experience with a method, and how well it was judged to align with an individual's situation and personality. Unassisted quitting was often described as the best method. Negative views of pharmacological cessation aids were frequently expressed, particularly concerns about side effects from prescription medications. Smokers' views about the value of different methods were not independent: attitudes about cessation aids were shaped by positive attitudes towards unassisted quitting. Examining smokers' attitudes towards either assisted or unassisted quitting in isolation provides incomplete information on quitting preferences. PMID:26068089

  13. THE IMPACT OF RESIDENTIAL STATUS ON MOTIVATION AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS PHYSICAL-SPORT ACTIVITY AMONG STUDENTS 11 TO 14 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovski Luka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey is conducted on sample of 749 subjects aged from 11 to 14 years, divided into two sub samples of 349 male respondents and 391 female respondents with the main objective to determine the impact of the motives for engaging in physical sports activity, attitude to sport , socially perceived support from friends and family of the students with different residential status. For the goals of this research the first and second sub samples are divided into two specific groups depending on living location, one that live in urban and other that live in rural environment. The motives for physical activity are valued according to the scale Behavior Regulation Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ and Motives For Physical Activity Measure - Revised (MPAM-R, while the attitude toward the sport is valued according Kneerov inventory positions . The differences are processed in multivariant and univariant analysis of variance ( ANOVA and Mano . Having the obtained results as basis it can be concluded that boys from middle school age living in rural areas show higher values towards internal regulator - intrinsic motivation attitude towards sports , while male respondents living in urban areas perceived greater social support from parents and friends. The girls from middle school age which are living in rural areas have a positive attitude towards sport, while the girls from the same school age living in the urban areas perceive greater social support from parents.

  14. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with di...

  15. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age.

  16. Star trackers for attitude determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian

    1995-01-01

    One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star track...

  17. Star trackers for attitude determination

    OpenAIRE

    Liebe, Carl Christian

    2010-01-01

    One problem comes to all spacecrafts using vector information. That is the problem of determining the attitude. This paper describes how the area of attitude determination instruments has evolved from simple pointing devices into the latest technology, which determines the attitude by utilizing a CCD camera and a powerful microcomputer. The instruments are called star trackers and they are capable of determining the attitude with an accuracy better than 1 arcsecond. The concept of the star tr...

  18. Comprehension of Warnings and Resulting Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepkowska-White, Elzbieta; Parsons, Amy L.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 61 adults with at least a bachelor's degree and 44 high school dropouts showed that the latter perceived products with simply worded warnings as safer than those with difficult vocabulary. College-educated adults had more negative attitudes toward warnings with difficult words despite equal comprehension of both. (Contains 39…

  19. A study of undergraduate science education major students' attitudes towards science and science teaching at four-year teachers colleges in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Lutfullah

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated undergraduate students' attitudes toward science and science teaching who were majoring in science education at four-year teachers colleges in Turkey. Furthermore, the study examined pre-service Turkish science teachers' attitudes toward science and science teaching based on genders, class levels, teachers colleges, and several socio-demographic factors. The subjects for this study were 309 female and 303 male pre-service Turkish science teachers, who were freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors, from teachers colleges of Ataturk, Dokuz Eylul, Gazi, and Karadeniz Technical Universities in Turkey during the 1998 spring semester. The instrument used in this study was "Science Teaching Attitude Scale-II" (STAS-II) developed by Moore (1973) and revised by Moore and Foy (1997). The reliability coefficient of the Turkish translation of STAS-II was found to be .795 using test-retest method. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression analysis were the statistical techniques utilized to test the null hypotheses of the study. The results of the study showed that all of the subjects have positive attitudes toward science and science teaching. There was a statistically significant mean difference between class levels on attitudes of pre-service Turkish science teachers toward science and science teaching. This was primarily due to a statistically higher attitudinal mean of juniors than that of freshmen using three-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. However, when data were analyzed according to gender and teachers colleges, attitudes of pre-service Turkish science teachers toward science and science teaching did not indicate statistically significant mean differences. The subjects of families having higher level incomes had statistically significant higher mean on attitudes toward science and science teaching than other subjects. Therefore, the uniqueness of a nationwide science curriculum and the unification of the education system may develop substantially similar attitudes among pre-service science teachers in Turkey.

  20. The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fah, Lay Yoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…

  1. Survey Result for the Safety Culture Attitude of HANARO in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important aims of a nuclear management system is to foster a strong safety culture. The safety culture activities for HANARO have been implemented and the importance of safety management in nuclear activities has also been emphasized since its first operation. HANARO developed its own safety culture indicators by referring to the IAEA's documents for the purpose of the evaluation of the safety culture attitude. In June 2008 a survey on the safety culture was conducted based on the new safety culture indicators. The result of the survey shows that the safety culture activities contribute positively to its safe operation. But it is necessary to encourage some activities like training, resources and organizational culture. The survey was helpful to understand the general trends of the safety attitudes and to set the safety culture activities necessary for the improvement of its safe operation

  2. A Mixed-Method Approach on Digital Educational Games for K12: Gender, Attitudes and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Effie Lai-Chong; Gamble, Tim; Schwarz, Daniel; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D.; Holzinger, Andreas

    Research on the influence of gender on attitudes towards and performance in digital educational games (DEGs) has quite a long history. Generally, males tend to play such games more engagingly than females, consequently attitude and performance of males using DEGs should be presumably higher than that of females. This paper reports an investigation of a DEG, which was developed to enhance the acquisition of geographical knowledge, carried out on British, German and Austrian K12 students aged between 11 and 14. Methods include a survey on initial design concepts, user tests on the system and two single-gender focus groups. Gender and cultural differences in gameplay habit, game type preferences and game character perceptions were observed. The results showed that both genders similarly improved their geographical knowledge, although boys tended to have a higher level of positive user experience than the girls. The qualitative data from the focus groups illustrated some interesting gender differences in perceiving various aspects of the game.

  3. The Effect of the Virtual Laboratory on Students’ Achievement and Attitude in Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz TÜYSÜZ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In chemistry education laboratory activities increase students’ interest in the subject matters covered in the class and help their learning. Due to lack of laboratories at schools or insufficient instruments in laboratories, hands on experiments are rarely performed in state schools in Turkey. However, such experiments can be virtually done as a result of recent developments in Information Technology. In this study, a virtual laboratory related to ‚Separation of Matter? unit for 9th grade students was prepared and its effects on students’ achievements and attitudes were investigated. For this aim 16 virtual experiments prepared by using flash program and used in the experimental group. Result of this study showed that virtual laboratory applications made positive effects on students’ achievements and attitudes when compared to traditional teaching methods.

  4. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND RESIDENTS’ ATTITUDE: A CASE STUDY OF YAZD, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rastegar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Yazd residents look at tourism development with a promising future to bring more income to the area that can be shared. Investors search to find new attractive business and middle and low classes in the community look to find better job opportunities. This paper assesses the attitude and perception of local residents toward this fast growing industry and also their expectation of authority regarding tourism development in Yazd city. A questionnaire was designed based on five point Likert scale and total 320 usable questionnaires were collected from local residents. Though the result shows positive attitude of local people towards tourism development but they are not totally satisfied with tourism management in the area.

  5. Attitudes towards same-sex marriage in Portugal: predictors and scale validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, João Manuel; Lopes, Diniz; Cameira, Miguel; Nogueira, Conceição

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present research was to validate a Portuguese version of Pearl and Galupo's (2007) Attitudes toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM). Participants were 1,402 heterosexual men and women that completed an on-line questionnaire. The final 15-item scale formed a single factor showing high internal consistency (? = .95). This one factor structure was backed-up by a confirmatory factorial analysis. In a general way, the results indicate a clearly positive attitude toward same-sex marriage (overall mean was 63.79, SD = 12.66, above the scale mid-point, t(1401) = 55.55, p gay discrimination (? = .30, p marriage. On the whole, these results indicate that the Portuguese ATSM version is a reliable instrument for carrying out scientific research and measuring and monitoring public opinion on this subject. PMID:26054409

  6. Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an out group hand on implicit attitudes towards that outgroup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HarryFarmer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin colour and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes towards black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of different skin colour affected the participants’ implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin colour as shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes towards black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude towards black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes towards black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes.

  7. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities. PMID:25544718

  8. PROBLEM SOLVING ASSESSMENT IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL: ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS' ATTITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASHANT THOTE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Study investigated the attitude of students towards Problem Solving Assessment. Descriptive research design of the survey type was used. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A total of 200 secondary school students were selected through stratified random sampling technique. Avalidated questionnaire vetted by experts in measurement and research was used as an instrument for data collection. Independent t-test statistic was used for data analysis. The study revealed that students' attitude towards Attitude of Problem Solving Assessment were significantly positive; that gender and school location significantly influenced students' attitude towards Attitude of Problem Solving Assessment . The results further revealed that there are significant differences between attitude of male and female students in rural and urban schools towards Attitude of Problem Solving Assessment Based on these findings, the researchers recommended that school education board should open well equipped teaching with problem solving assessment in both urban and rural schools .

  9. Investigation of Undergraduate Students’ Environmental Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit KÖSE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental education has been viewed as an important way to educate students about environmental issues beginning from pre-school to higher education. This study is a part of this field- namely, undergraduate environmental education. The purpose of the study is to explore undergraduate students’ attitudes towards environment at the end of the course “Environment, Human, and Society”. In direction of this basic aim, environmental attitudes of university students were examined according to the gender and faculty type factors. The research was applied at Pamukkale University in School of Foreign Languages during the spring term of 2008-2009 education years. A questionnaire consisting of 2 parts titled “personal information” and “measuring attitude towardsenvironment” was utilized as the means of collecting data. As a result of the study, it could be concluded that undergraduate students had positive attitudes toward the environmentas regard to their gender and faculty types. It was emphasized that female students were more sensitive toward environment than male students. At the end, some advices were given in relation with environmental researches.

  10. Die verandering van houdings teenoor persone met fisieke gestremdhede: 'n Vernuwende intervensie vir die werksplek / Changing attitudes towards people with physical disabilities: An innovative workplace intervention

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronel, Kleynhans; Martina, Kotzé.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be a worldwide tendency for people of working age with disabilities to remain unemployed. The employment of people with disabilities remains a development issue as they are deprived of social, political and basic human needs when unemployed. Reasons for this exclusion include a lack o [...] f information and awareness about the abilities of people with disabilities, as well as the perceived financial, operational, and productivity related costs of hiring people with disabilities. Other reasons include bias and stereotyping towards people with disabilities. These factors, together with a general fear of the unknown and ignorance of how to respond to different individuals, increase the negative attitudes towards people with disabilities. This has a concomitant negative effect on all parties involved: People without disabilities keep their distance from people with disabilities, which often results in a lack of employment, placement, training and promotional opportunities for people with disabilities. The organisation, in turn, often fails to maximise the potential of people with disabilities, who are usually appointed in stereotypical positions, such as switchboard operators, where their qualifications tend to be overlooked.. Consequently, employers need a heightened awareness of, and an attitudinal change towards, the benefits ofincluding disabled people in the workplace. The forming and changing of an attitude is a complex process because it consists of cognitive, emotional and behavioural components. All three components of an attitude need to be addressed. In addition, both external and internal strategies must be applied to foster change in attitudes. However, interventions based on innovative attitude-changing learning strategies are hard to find in the literature. Therefore, a learning intervention based on attitude change theories and principles, as well as on experiential learning principles (including interactive drama), was developed and implemented in order to change employees ' attitudes towards people with physical disabilities in the workplace. The intervention was implemented by means of a programme comprising various units. People with different disabilities (i.e. hearing, sight and physical) took part in each of the interactive dramas, and also formed part of the facilitation sessions in each unit. At the end of each session, the participants completed an evaluation form. The research population consisted of adult learners without physical disabilities enrolled in a leadership programme at a business school in South Africa. The participants were selected by means of non-probability sampling, and were assigned to the experimental and control groups respectively based on courses they enrolled for in the leadership programme. The participants (people without physical disabilities) in both the experimental and the control group completed a biographical questionnaire and an attitude questionnaire, after which the experimental group was exposed to the intervention. At the end of the intervention, both groups completed the attitude questionnaire again in order to determine whether the attitude of the experimental group showed a statistically significant positive attitude change towards people with physical disabilities. The results of the quasi-experimental design indicated a positive attitude change after the implementation of the programme. Moreover, the results suggested that the attitudes of employees without disability, towards employees with physical disabilities, are influenced by contact with people with disabilities and knowledge about disability. The implementation of attitude-changing programmes could facilitate changes in attitude which would, hopefully, lead to the increased integration of people with disabilities into the work environment and general community and, ultimately, to the restoration of dignity.

  11. Nurses' Attitudes toward Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Maude H.; Robinson, Beverly H.

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether nurses' attitudes toward suicide are based on clinical specialty, age, and degree completed. Findings from 184 nurses revealed no significant differences between clinical specialty groups. Age and degree were significant only on Right to Die scale. Older nurses and those with advanced degrees were more likely to agree with…

  12. Working Memory and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Sook; Reid, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been shown to be an important factor in controlling understanding in the sciences. Attitudes related to studies in the sciences are also known to be important in relation to success in learning. It might be argued that if working memory capacity is a rate controlling feature of learning and success in understanding…

  13. Voluntary or Mandatory? The Valence Framing Effect of Attitudes Regarding HPV Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Walter, Nathan; Shir-Raz, Yaffa; Green, Manfred S

    2015-11-01

    This study addresses the issue of valence framing effect in the context of immunization, a preventive behavior often addressed by the equation of benefit versus risk. The authors examined how framing (support vs. oppose) the issue of HPV vaccination in Israel's immunization routine affects attitudes regarding vaccine regulations. The study also examined issue involvement as a moderator of valence framing effect. The results demonstrate that participants in the positive framing condition tended to express greater support for voluntary immunization than participants in the negative framing condition (77.5% and 48.5%, respectively). Among those who supported the mandatory HPV immunization policy, the negative framing condition was more prominent than the positive condition (51.5% and 22.5%, respectively). The analysis of interaction between valence framing and issue involvement showed that the latter tends to moderate the direct effect of framing on attitudes towards vaccination. Findings indicate that even attitudes towards such consequential preventive behaviors as vaccination could be affected by different framing of the issue, especially for those who are less involved. Implications of predilection for freedom of choice regarding vaccination are also discussed. PMID:26132725

  14. Patients' attitudes towards animal testing : "To conduct research on animals is, I suppose, a necessary evil"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    A strong argument for the practice of animal testing in medical research is the potential benefit to patients in getting improved pain relief, minimising morbidity and mortality. However, patients’ opinions on the ethics of animal testing are seldom sought, despite their role as principal stakeholders. This study compared the attitudes of patients and researchers on animal testing. Focus-group interviews were held with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting in a questionnaire that was distributed January–May 2011. The questionnaire was posted to patient members of the Swedish Rheumatism Association (n=1195) and to all scientific experts serving on Ethical Review Boards in Sweden (n=364), with response rates of 65 per cent and 60 per cent, respectively. Results show that patients hold a positive stance towards animal testing, but with many caveats, and the level of support is comparable to those held by the general public found in national surveys. A clear majority of researchers werepositive towards animal testing, and large statistical differences between patients and researchers were found regarding their attitudes towards testing animals commonly held as pets (P<0.001). Women were more critical than men regarding which species are used for what purposes (P<0.001). Researchers need to be aware that their more positive attitude towards animal testing is not shared to an equal degree with patients, who are the intended end-users and beneficiaries of medical research. The moral basis for using animals in research needs to be further discussed by all stakeholders.

  15. Knowledge of and attitudes towards periodontal health among adults in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, M; Pakdaman, A; Jafari, A; Virtanen, J I

    2014-03-01

    Determining what people know and believe about periodontal health and disease is important in order to establish prevention practices. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards periodontal health among adults in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey in 2011 of 791 adults aged 18-50 years using a stratified, multistage sampling method. We recorded demographic characteristics including age, sex, education, marital status, employment and economic status (housing density). The lowest percentage of correct answers was related to the definition of dental plaque (11.6%) and the highest was for the role of the dental visit in prevention (92.8%). Female sex, university education and higher economic status were significantly associated with a higher mean score on periodontal health knowledge. The regression analysis showed that positive attitudes were associated with higher periodontal health knowledge and having university education. In this study positive attitudes towards prevention were related to better knowledge. PMID:24950078

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERACTIVITY ON CONSUMER ATTITUDE OF ADVERTISING IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina SZUZ?POP (GHIRVU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Progress of new digital technologies has led to a new type of consumer, more dynamic and difficult to satisfy, which made the efficiency of the old promotion methods to decrease. Marketers who are looking for new ways to reach their audience found in online video games a reliable ally. Previous studies that have been conducted internationally showed that advertising through online games and delivering promotional messages in the virtual space mediated by Internet technology has a high degree of acceptance from the public. In Romania such studies are lacking , and this gap in the literature led to the need to study the potential that promoting in video game has on consumers from this market . In this paper we present some of the results of a larger quantitative research, which has investigated several aspects that influence consumer attitudes towards video games with advertising content, focusing on the factor with the most strongly impact - interactivity . The study used self-administered online questionnaire method to collect primary data that were further analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and factor analysis . The results revealed that in general the consummers from Romania have a positive attitude towards advertising presented in video games and the interactivity given by the game construction that allows the manipulation of branded objects during a play session has a direct and positive influence on the attitude.

  17. Contribution of parents' adult attachment and separation attitudes to parent-adolescent conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Marta; Rodrigo, María José; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Máiquez, María Luisa

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the contribution to parent-adolescent conflict resolution of parental adult attachment styles and attitudes toward adolescent separation. Questionnaires were completed by 295 couples with early to late adolescent children. Structural equation models were used to test self and partner influences on conflict resolution for three attachment orientations: confidence (model A), anxiety (model B) and avoidance (model C). Model A showed self influences between parents' confidence orientation and negotiation and also via positive attitudes towards separation. Also, the fathers' use of negotiation was facilitated by the mothers' confidence orientation and vice versa, indicating partner influences as well. Model B showed self influences between parents' anxiety orientation and the use of dominance and withdrawal and also via negative attitudes towards separation. Model C showed self influences between parents' avoidance orientation and dominance and withdrawal, and a partner influence between fathers' avoidance and mothers' use of dominance. The results indicated that the parents' adult attachment system and the parenting system were related in the area of conflict resolution, and that self influences were stronger than partner influences. PMID:24117437

  18. Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.

  19. Show Me the Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  20. Sexual attitudes and behaviors among medical students in Dokuz Eylul university, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, S; Aras, S; Semin, S; Orcin, E

    2005-09-01

    Gaining a healthy sexual attitude and behavior and being able to show appropriate approaches to patients in terms of sexual issues are important acquisitions for medical students. The aim of the present study was to determine, compare, and evaluate the sexual attitudes and behaviors of Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine students. An anonymous questionnaire was filled in by first- and sixth-year students in order to determine their sexual attitudes and behaviors. While information sources in the adolescence period for both genders were friends in the first place, these sources were mostly mothers, books, newspapers--magazines for females, and newspapers--magazines and television for males. The opinion of males about having sexual intercourse before marriage for males was positive, and females were more tolerant about males having this experience before marriage as compared to females having sexual experience before marriage. Rates of expression of having sexual intercourse and masturbation were found to be higher for male students. The first sexual experience with a sex worker or sentimentally insignificant partner was high among males. In general, the rate of condom use was lower, and the rate of coitus interruptus was found to be higher than in foreign studies. All the students declared 'my own will and values' as the most frequent factor affecting their sexual attitudes and behaviors, and high rates for 'social factors', 'religious requirements', 'the expectations of families', and 'protection from sexually transmitted diseases' were observed. The findings lead to the conclusions that gender differences exist in the sexual attitudes and behaviors of medical students; the enhancing effect of the traditional structure on gender discrimination is still continuing; students are not provided with sufficient scientific approach or training prior to the university education; and beyond biomedical training, they should receive more support in those fields during their medical education. PMID:16318965

  1. Religious beliefs and public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.; Shih, Tsung-Jen; Dalrymple, Kajsa E.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2009-02-01

    How do citizens make sense of nanotechnology as more applications reach the market and the mainstream media start to debate the potential risks and benefits of technology? As with many other political and scientific issues, citizens rely on cognitive shortcuts or heuristics to make sense of issues for which they have low levels of knowledge. These heuristics can include predispositional factors, such as ideological beliefs or value systems, and also short-term frames of reference provided by the media or other sources of information. Recent research suggests that `religious filters' are an important heuristic for scientific issues in general, and nanotechnology in particular. A religious filter is more than a simple correlation between religiosity and attitudes toward science: it refers to a link between benefit perceptions and attitudes that varies depending on respondents' levels of religiosity. In surveys, seeing the benefits of nanotechnology is consistently linked to more positive attitudes about nanotechnology among less religious respondents, with this effect being significantly weaker for more religious respondents. For this study, we have combined public opinion surveys in the United States with Eurobarometer surveys about public attitudes toward nanotechnology in Europe to compare the influence of religious beliefs on attitudes towards nanotechnology in the United States and Europe. Our results show that respondents in the United States were significantly less likely to agree that nanotechnology is morally acceptable than respondents in many European countries. These moral views correlated directly with aggregate levels of religiosity in each country, even after controlling for national research productivity and measures of science performance for high-school students.

  2. The Relationship of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms with Menstrual Attitude and Sleep Quality in Turkish Nursing Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem A?c?

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Symptoms induced by premenstrual syndrome (PMS adversely affect the women in reproduction period and decrease their quality of life. In literature, it is a common opinion thought that PMS could be associated with both sleep quality and menstrual attitudes. However, there has been no sufficient number of studies to define in what ways the PMS symptoms are correlated with sleep quality and menstrual attitudes. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of PMS symptoms with menstrual attitude and sleep quality. Methods: The data were collected from 183 nursing students at Health School of Artvin Çoruh University by using a correlational design. Voluntary students completed a questionnaire involving socio-demographic characteristics, Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS, Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Results: Average age was 19.9 (1.8. The study determined a positively significant correlation between score of PMSS and mean scores of PSQI (r=0.306; P<0.001, and a negatively significant correlation between score of PMSS and total mean score of MAQ (r=-0.317; P<0.01. Similarly, multiple linear regression analysis showed that PSQI total score (?b=5.412; P<0.001 and MAQ total score (? b=-27.455; P=0.001 significantly affected total score of PMSS.Conclusion: The intensity of PMS symptoms is associated with poor sleep quality and negative menstrual attitudes. Determining the methods of coping with PMS and strengthening the young girls on this subject may enhance their quality of future life.

  3. Who owns implicit attitudes? Testing a metacognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Erin; Payne, B Keith; Loersch, Chris; Lei, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Metacognitive inferences about ownership for one's implicit attitudes have the power to turn implicit bias into explicit prejudice. In Study 1, participants were assigned to construe their implicit attitudes toward gay men as belonging to themselves (owned) or as unrelated to the self (disowned). Construing one's implicit responses as owned led to greater implicit-explicit attitude correspondence. In Study 2, we measured ownership for implicit attitudes as well as self-esteem. We predicted that ownership inferences would dictate explicit attitudes to the degree that people had positive views of the self. Indeed, higher ownership for implicit bias was associated with greater implicit-explicit attitude correspondence, and this effect was driven by participants high in self-esteem. Finally, in Study 3, we manipulated inferences of ownership and measured self-esteem. Metacognitions of ownership affected implicit-explicit attitude correspondence but only among those with relatively high self-esteem. We conclude that subjective inferences about implicit bias affect explicit prejudice. PMID:25422315

  4. The aspect of personnel metal attitude in the production safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of an accident could always be traced to component/system failures and/or human error. The two factors are closely related to competency of the personnel's involved, in which mental attitude is a decisive factor. Furthermore mental attitude could be viewed as an element of Safety (S) Culture. Consequently, S. Culture could might created or at lea ts, be enhanced by the introduction of appropriate values, norms, as well as attitudes. The ABC and TBC of safety norm have been discussed briefly. Whereas mental attitude has been defined and discussed in detail and graded into six levels, namely: attending, responding, complying, accepting, preferring, and integrating. To assure highest level of safety, personnel must achieve integrating level of attitude, in the sense that he would merely do an action on the basis of safety values and/or norms prevailing in the system, not due to external pressure. Furthermore, considering the work as a physical and an emotional activity resulting in stress and strain on the body, Karate exercises have been promoted as an alternative for enhancing mental attitude by means of reducing personnel vulnerability to strain and stress. This method is accomplished by exploiting Roux's Low of conditioning effect and by implementation of an in-depth understanding on the spiritual aspect of Karate. It is concluded that in the field of production safety, there is a positive correlation between Karate, mental attitude, competence, performance, quality, and safety

  5. Environmental Awareness and Attitude among Iranian Students in Malaysian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Aminrad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on environmental awareness and attitude among Iranian students in Malaysian universities. It evaluates the awareness and attitude of a group of 541 from 14 universities. The figure to 541 is considered the representativeof these students and the selection was based on Stratified Random sampling method and G-power soft ware. A set of questionnaire which comprised of 25 questions was applied as instrument for data collection. The results revealed that environmental awareness was overall moderate while environmental attitude was high. The study also found that there was no significant difference observed between sex groups while environmental awareness results indicated that there were significant difference among different levels of education. This trend was in contrast with observation for environmental attitude status. The age groups analysis results revealed significant difference in environmental awareness and attitude. It was also found that the media positively affected the level of environmental awareness and attitude among students. The study concluded that increase on age and level of education would improve the level of awareness and attitude regarding to environmental issues.

  6. A study of the relationship between attitudes towards the questioner and academic achievement in science

    OpenAIRE

    Shan-zhang REN; Chen, Zhi-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Behavior is the reflection of the workings of the mind, and different minds will influence the study behaviors of students.These behaviors will be reflected in students’ academic achievements in studying science. According to the statistical results, students hold different mental attitudes, especially for those who like to ask questions. Positive mental attitude results in more successful academic achievements in science and negative attitude will have an adverse effect. Moreover, the author...

  7. Belief Dimensions and Viewer’s Attitude towards TV Advertising in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chuthamas Chittithaworn; Md Aminul Islam; Orachot Thooksoon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TVadvertising. Earlier research was mainly explored in the west with some finding were positive and some beingnegative on certain aspects of viewers perception. Whilst this study is exploratory in nature in understanding therelationship between Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TV advertising. Generally the Thai TVviewers tend to have a more negative attitude towards TV adve...

  8. Change in the Attitudes of Hospital Personnel Towards an Automated Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Edward M.; Hardy, Dorcas R.; Armstrong, Peter S.

    1980-01-01

    The attitudes of all hospital personnel impact the success of the implementation of an automated information system. The University of Southern California Center for Health Services Research conducted a study of the change in personnel attitudes towards the use of computers in hospitals pre- and post-implementation of an automated order entry system. The results of that study indicate a generally positive shift in attitudes over a two-year period during which the system was implemented. Areas...

  9. Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students.

    OpenAIRE

    Rustad Aase-Bente; Skoglund Tom; Kjelsberg Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In...

  10. Faculty Attitudes towards Computer Assisted Instruction at the University of Gaziantep

    OpenAIRE

    TILFARLIO?LU, Filiz Yalç?n; ÜNALDI, ?hsan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims at revealing faculty attitudes towards computer assisted instruction at University of Gaziantep, Turkey in a multifaceted way. Additionally, it tries to determine underlying factors that shape these  attitudes. After a pilot study, the questionnaire was applied to a sample population of 145 faculty that were chosen randomly. The results revealed that faculty attitudes towards computer assisted insruction are positive. Age, sex, teaching experience, level of proficiency in Engl...

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility in Branding : A Study of The Body Shop's Visitor's Attitudes and Purchase Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren El-Salhy, Sara; Lundmark, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Title Corporate Social Responsibility in Branding - A study of The Body Shop's visitors' attitudes and  purchase decisions Authors Sara Lundgren El-Salhy & Amanda Lundmark Seminar Date 2009-06-02 Level C-level Thesis Tutor Malin Näsholm Keywords CSR, The Body Shop, Corporate Identity, Corporate Image, Associations, Attitudes, Purchase Decision Problem Previous research suggests that by using well known CSR as a branding tool, companies can create positive consumer attitudes, and these...

  12. Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working me...

  13. Therapist's Gender and Gender Roles: Impact on Attitudes toward Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Artkoski, Tytti; Saarnio, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of therapist's gender and gender roles on attitudes toward clients. Attitudes toward motivational interviewing were also a focus as MI can be hypothesized to be feminine rather than masculine in nature. The subjects (N = 246) were Finnish substance abuse therapists. Their attitudes toward clients were measured using a vignette task. Results indicated that female therapists were significantly more positive toward clients than were ...

  14. Low risk and high return: Affective attitudes and stock market expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Kempf, Alexander; Merkle, Christoph; Niessen-Ruenzi, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the impact of affective attitudes on risk and return estimates of stocks. Participants rate well-known blue-chip firms on an affective scale and forecast risk and return of the firms' stock. We find that positive affective attitudes lead to a prediction of high return and low risk, while negative attitudes lead to a prediction of low return and high risk. This bias increases with participants' confidence in their ratings and decreases with financial litera...

  15. Attitudes toward psychotropic medications among patients with chronic psychiatric disorders and their family caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine attitudes towards psychotropic medications among patients with chronic psychiatric disorders as well as their family caregivers by using factor analysis. Materials and Methods: The study included 200 patients and their family caregivers with chronic psychiatric disorders who are attending the psychiatry outpatient services. A self-designed 18-item self-rated questionnaire was used to evaluate the attitude toward psychotropics and factor analysis was done to study the different models of attitudes. Results: In general both patients and caregivers had positive attitude toward the psychotropic medications and there was no significant difference between the patients and caregivers on the various items of the questionnaire assessing the attitude. Factor analysis of the questionnaire indicated that either two-factor or four-factor models explained the attitude of the patients and caregivers. In the two-factor model there was one positive and one negative attitude factor, whereas the four-factor model comprised of two positive and two negative attitude factors. The four-factor model of attitudes provided a more comprehensive solution to how attitudes might be formed among patients and their family caregivers. Factors one and four in the four-factor solution still reflected positive attitudes, but appeared to portray a risk-benefit approach, in which benefits such as the efficacy of psychotropic medications in treating mental illnesses and preventing relapse, and medications being better than other options were being contrasted with the risks of side effects and permanent damage or harm. Conclusion: Attitudes of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders and their caregivers toward psychotropic medications appear to be shaped by factors such as perceived efficacy or benefit from medicines, the necessity for taking treatment and concerns such as side effects, harm or expense.

  16. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  17. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa ?Protagonistas de novela? y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión ?trash?, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  18. Can participation in a school science fair improve middle school students' attitudes toward science and interest in science careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Valerie

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether participation in a school-based science fair affects middle school students' attitudes toward science and interest in science and engineering careers. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare students' pre- and posttest attitudes toward and interest in science. Forty-eight of the 258 participants completed a school-based science fair during the study. In addition, twelve middle school science teachers completed an online survey. Both the Survey of Science Attitudes and Interest I and II (SSAI-I and II) measured students' attitudes toward and interest in science and science and mathematics self-efficacy, asked about classroom inquiry experiences and gathered demographic information. An online survey gathered qualitative data about science teachers' perceptions of school science fairs. The results showed no significant interactions among completion of a science fair project and attitudes toward and interest in science, science and mathematics self-efficacy or gender. There were significant differences at both pre- and posttest in attitudes between the students who did and did not complete a science fair project. All participating teachers believed that participation in science fairs could have a positive effect on students' attitudes and interest, but cited lack of time as a major impediment. There was significant interaction between level of classroom inquiry and attitudes and interest in science; students who reported more experiences had higher scores on these measures. Classroom inquiry also interacted with the effects of a science fair and participants' pre- and posttest attitude scores. Finally, the amount and source of assistance on a science fair project had a significant impact on students' posttest measures. Major limitations which affect the generalization of these findings include the timing of the administration of the pretest, the number of participants in the experimental group and differences in the science fair procedures at the participating schools. Embedded in a curriculum that includes the teaching of inquiry practices, science fairs may play a role in the inspiration of future scientists, but more research needs to be done on the quality of students' experiences, including amount and type of classroom instruction before and during the science fair process.

  19. Outcomes of three different models for sex education and citizenship programs concerning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Márcia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls. Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.

  20. Study of the Attitudes of University Students coming from Social Sciences and Psychology: Relevance of the Information and Contact with the Disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Támara Polo Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to know university student´s attitudes towards people with disabilities coming from Social Sciences and Psychology, registered in subjects in which information is provided on the disability. Also it is tried to analyze the influence of the contact with disabled. One scale measured subject´s attitudes towards people with disabilities, Escala de Actitudes Hacia las Personas con Discapacidad of Verdugo, Jenaro & Arias (1995. This scale was administered to 470 student´s from University of Granada. The results showed that the students presented positive attitudes towards the disabled persons, existing differences according to the degree and being in addition excellent the fact to maintain contact with the disabled person. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and suggestions for future research are addressed

  1. La innovación educativa desde la metodología: Mejora de las actitudes y competencias científicas de los alumnos (Educational innovation in research methodology: Improving students' scientific skills and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Pascual

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A programme of educational innovation was implemented to improve the attitude toward research methods for psychology students. Students used real data to test their own hypotheses using different statistical methods. Specifically, they implemented two key methodological principles in research methods: sample size and ordinal claims (Frick, 1996. Students had to work in teams, using Internet data bases for developing the theoretical background of the study, the definition of the objectives, the definition of variables, data analysis, and discussion of results. We assessed the attitudes towards research methods before and after the study. Results showed that: 1 the students improved their skills in research methods, and 2 the attitudes towards methodology were more positive.

  2. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China. PMID:26418161

  3. Attitudes in China about Crops and Foods Developed by Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Zhou, Dingyang; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jie; Zhang, Qingwen; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton has been planted in China since 1997 and, in 2009, biosafety certificates for the commercial production of Bt rice and phytase corn were issued by the Chinese government. The public attitude in China toward agricultural biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) crops and foods has received considerable attention worldwide. We investigated the attitudes of consumers, Bt cotton farmers and scientists in China regarding GM crops and foods and the factors influencing their attitudes. Data were collected using interview surveys of consumer households, farmer households and scientists. A discrete choice approach was used to elicit the purchase intentions of the respondents. Two separate probit models were developed to examine the effect of various factors on the choices of the respondents. Bt cotton farmers had a very positive attitude because Bt cotton provided them with significant economic benefits. Chinese consumers from developed regions had a higher acceptance and willingness to pay for GM foods than consumers in other regions. The positive attitude toward GM foods by the scientific community will help to promote biotechnology in China in the future. Our survey emphasized that educational efforts made by government officials, the media and scientists can facilitate the acceptance of GM technology in China. Further educational efforts will be critical for influencing consumer attitudes and decisions of government agencies in the future. More effective educational efforts by government agencies and public media concerning the scientific facts and safety of GM foods would enhance the acceptance of GM crops in China. PMID:26418161

  4. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Zhou, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology. The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitude...

  5. Attitudes towards chemistry among engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo Delgado, Carlos J.

    The attitudes towards chemistry of the engineering students enrolled in an introductory course at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico were explored (n = 115). A mixed methodology was used in an exploratory-oriented research approach. The first stage consisted of the administration of a Likert scale attitudinal survey which was validated during the study's design process. The survey allowed collecting information about the participant's attitudes towards their personal opinion, their perspectives about peer's or relatives' opinion, relevant aspects of the discipline, and difficulty-increasing factors in the chemistry course. The scale internal reliability was measured in a pilot study with a convenience simple, obtaining an acceptable coefficient (Cronbach alpha = 0.731). Survey results evidenced a mainly neutral attitude towards the chemistry course, not highly negative or highly positive, in contrast with other studies in this field. On the other hand, the normality hypothesis was tested for the scores obtained by participants in the survey. Although the pilot study sample had an approximately normal distribution, the scores in obtained by the participants in the survey failed the normality test criteria. The second stage of the study was accomplished using a case study. Among the survey participants, some students were invited to in-depth interviews to elucidate the reasons why they have certain attitudes towards chemistry. Study time, instructor, motivation, term of study, and course schedule are the factors that interviewees agreed as contributors to success or failure in the chemistry course. Interview's participants emphasized that study time is determinant to pass the class. This methodological approach, quantitative followed by qualitative, was useful in describing the attitudes towards chemistry among university students of engineering.

  6. ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTION IN CONSUMER’S INSURANCE DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumers attitudes are both an obstacle and an advantage in the decision proccess. Choosing to discount or ignore consumers’ attitudes of a particular product or service, while developing a marketing strategy,guarantees limited success of a campaign.Differences in attitudes dependes also by the gender of decidents. the different features between men and women in the perception of risk and decisional process of making an insurance. Women are more risk averse than men. Over an initial range, women require no further compensation for the introduction of ambiguity but men do. Differences appear also in which concerns risk taking, overconfidence and information processing. Perhaps the attitude s formed as the result of a positive or negative personal experience and by other psychological factors outside the common market manipulation.

  7. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDE AND TEST ANXIETY AMONG 8TH STD. STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopashree. B. J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was meant to study the influence of scientific attitude on test anxiety of viii std. students. The study comprised 200 students from three different types of schools of Tumkur City. The tools used for data collection were scientific attitude scale by Avinash grewal and test anxiety scale by L.N.K.Simha. The obtained data were analysed by using pearson product moment correlation and by using student‘t’ test .The results revealed that a significant positive influence of scientific attitude on test anxiety of 8th std. students of Tumkur City and significant difference was found between high, moderate and low level scientific attitude students with respect to their test anxiety

  8. Do differences in attitudes explain differences in national climate change policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In meeting the threat posed by climate change nations have responded quite differently. Using an extensive data set this study explores factors that affect individuals' attitudes towards climate change and how those attitudes ultimately affect national climate change policy. The results show that attitudes do indeed matter in implementing policy and that attitudes are shaped not only by how individuals react to the specific attributes of climate change, but also by information, by the openness of society and by attitudes toward the trustworthiness of government. (author)

  9. The influence of female social models in corporate STEM initiatives on girls' math and science attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Donald J.

    The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task value. Male attitudes towards women's role in STEM fields may also require attention. Increasing attitudes seems best achieved through ensuring a highly satisfying experience with the program and their mentor. Study results suggest this requires more considerations than simply matching mentor and mentee race or gender. Reliability results of attitudinal scales provided guidance on assessment strategies.

  10. Evaluating Students' Attitudes in Introductory Geoscience Courses as a Function of Pedagogy and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayon, A. K.; Eyssautier, C.

    2008-12-01

    Introductory geoscience courses at large urban institutions have the potential to increase the scientific literacy of the general population. Therefore, engaging all students in the classroom is critical. As instructors of these courses for non-majors, we have all observed students disengaging from the class for a number of reasons. One hypothesis is students feel out of their element in a large, academic institution. This is particularly true for underrepresented minority, low-income first generation, and immigrant college students - the students on one side of the postsecondary science enrollment gap. This research addresses how, through pedagogy and content, we can engage a more diverse population of students by changing their attitudes towards science. We administered the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) instrument, modified for geology, to students enrolled in introductory geology courses (GEO1001 and PsTL1171) at the University of Minnesota - Twin Cities. This survey consists of 42 questions that measure students" pre- and post-course attitudes towards geology and physical sciences. GEO1001 is a large lecture course where the laboratory content is independent from lecture content. PSTL1171 is offered through the Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning; this course has smaller class sizes, and lecture and laboratory content are fully integrated. Demographically, students of color comprise 23% of the student population in GEO1001, in contrast to 73% in PsTL1171. Overall, responses from all students surveyed show a positive shift in attitudes and confidence. However, in comparing responses from only students of color, those enrolled in PsTL1171 demonstrated greater favorable shifts in the categories of personal interests and problem solving confidence. The pre-course responses also indicate that students of color in PsTL1171 started the course with more favorable attitudes towards real world connections than those students in GEO1001. These preliminary survey results reinforce the connection between attitude, confidence, and pedagogy, particularly for underrepresented minority students. Furthermore, the knowledge of increased attitude towards real world connections among students of color can be used in course content development in order to engage a more diverse student population. Future research will address the role of pedagogy on the acquisition and retention of knowledge in these introductory courses.

  11. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  12. General practitioners? attitudes toward reporting and learning from adverse events: results from a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, ThorbjØrn H.; Sokolowski, Ineta

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate GPs' attitudes to and willingness to report and learn from adverse events and to study how a reporting system should function. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: General practice in Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GPs' attitudes to exchange of experience with colleagues and others, and circumstances under which such exchange is accepted. SUBJECTS: A structured questionnaire sent to 1198 GPs of whom 61% responded. RESULTS. GPs had a positive attitude towards discussing adverse events in the clinic with colleagues and staff and in their continuing medical education groups. The GPs had a positive attitude to reporting adverse events to a database if the system granted legal and administrative immunity to reporters. The majority preferred a reporting system located at a research institute. CONCLUSION: GPs have a very positive attitude towards discussing and reporting adverse events. This project encourages further research and pilot projects testing concrete reporting systems.

  13. Change in student beliefs about attitudes toward science in grades 6-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan AKCAY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study reports on an investigation of the impact of a Science-Technology-Society (STS approach in promoting more positive student attitudes toward science that are recommended by current reform documents. A total of 609 students from grades six through nine were selected for a survey of attitudes in two class sections assigned as either experimental (STS oriented class or control group (textbook oriented class. The results indicate that students in classes taught with an STS approach develop more positive attitudes toward science when compared to students in classes taught with a textbook-oriented approach. The STS approach to science teaching works equally well for male and female students regarding student attitudes toward science. Significant differences were not found between male and female students in terms of improving positive attitudes concerning science study.

  14. The Effect of Initial Brand Image on Category Fitness and Brand-Extension Attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Zarepour Nasirabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of products with a similar brand name can function as a lever on the brand image, brand awareness and in general in reaching the brand equity in the established markets, the relation or connection of an existing brand with a new product can affect the relations and connections of the existing brand image as well as the loyalty to the brand. This effect can be positive or negative. Through investigating this image the researcher tried to help the company to guaranty a fit image, compete in the global scene and stabilize its position. The study in this research took place on Tehran districts. As the sample, the researcher chose 500 of Faloodeh-ice-cream consumers of Mihan Company through simple cluster sampling and gained the required data about the consumers’ views and ideas through questionnaire. The data has been analyzed by using Lisrel software. The research findings showed that the brand image has positive and direct influence on the perceived category fitness, the perceived category fitness on the brand-extension attitude and the initial brand image on the brand -extension attitude respectively. Companies had better avoid ruining the original brand position in the consumers’ mind by maintaining the appropriateness of their new products which were produced in proportion with the consumers’ ideas and needs.

  15. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the article is to analyse the Danish policies used to promote entrepreneurship during the last 30 years. The initiatives to promote entrepreneurship have been implemented as part of Danish industrial policy. The initiatives are presented and ordered according to a model of planned social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether the target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action.

  16. Pharmacy students? use, knowledge and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine at Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Abdulrahman Al-Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey was conducted to explore use, knowledge and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among pharmacy students at the college of pharmacy, King Saud University. A total of 133 fourth- and fifth-year pharmacy students completed a questionnaire designed to explore their use, knowledge and attitudes toward CAM therapies at the college of pharmacy, King Saud University. Study lasted for 3 months from 1 st of October until 31 st of December in 2007. Nutrition and herbal medicine therapies were the most known therapies by 65% and 53% of the students, respectively. Knowledge about CAM therapies among the students was limited. Thirty-nine percent of the students reported use of some form of CAM at least once in their lifetime. CAM was used for acute, chronic and mild illness as well as nutrition. Herbal medicine, nutrition, massage, relaxation exercises, yoga and mega-dose vitamin were the most CAM used. Lectures were the chief CAM information source. More than one half of the respondents (53-70% believed that five of the 15 CAM modalities were useful, namely massage, herbal medicine, nutrition, yoga and relaxation exercises. Respondents had a positive attitude toward statements that favoured CAM. Most students strongly agreed or agreed that most CAM therapies were efficacious, whereas 52.6% of the respondents did believe that CAM therapies can be harmful to public health. The study showed that the students had positive attitude toward CAM and exhibited relatively high level of self-reported use of CAM therapies. Overall, students? knowledge of CAM is limited. The students perceived interest in learning and training in CAM. A separate course in CAM including its various components is needed. Also, availability of a reliable CAM information sources will aid the students to increase their knowledge of CAM.

  17. Changes in Participants’ Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs During an Astronomical Citizen Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on changes that may occur to their volunteer participants. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers’ attitudes towards science and beliefs in the nature of science changed over six months of participation in an astronomy-themed citizen science project and (2) how the level of project participation accounted for these changes. To measure attitudes towards science and beliefs about the nature of science, identical pre- and post-tests were used. We used pre-test data from 1,375 participants and post-test data collected from 175 participants. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. The pre-test sample was used to create the Rasch scales for the two scientific literacy measures. For the pre/post-test comparisons, data from those who completed both tests were used. Fourteen participants who took the pre/post-tests were interviewed. Results show that overall scientific attitudes did not change, p = .812. However, we did find significant changes related towards two scientific attitude items about science in the news (positive change; p Beliefs in the nature of science significantly increased between the pre- and post-tests, p = .014. Relative positioning of individual items on the belief scale did not change much and this change was not related to any of our recorded project activity variables. The interviews suggest that the social aspect of the project is important to participants and the change in self-efficacy is not due to a lowering of esteem but rather a greater appreciation for what they have yet to learn.

  18. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals in high-skilled labor abundant countries, and vice versa in a considerable share of low-skilled labor abundant countries. Our novel international survey data combine a number of desirable features which al...

  19. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    What is the impact of a predominantly negative debate about social assistance on public and individual support for the social benefit? Over the course of a year the public debate about social assistance flared up twice in Denmark. The debates drew on classic stereotypes of the social assistance recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave pan...

  20. Combinators for Paraconsistent Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    In order to analyse the semantics of natural language sentences a translation into a partial type logic using lexical and logical combinators is presented. The sentences cover a fragment of English with propositional attitudes like knowledge, belief and assertion. A combinator is a closed term of the lambda calculus possibly containing lexical and/or logical constants. Such combinators seem promising from both a cognitive and computational point of view. There is approximately one lexical combin...