WorldWideScience
1

Tracking Positions and Attitudes of Mars Rovers  

Science.gov (United States)

The Surface Attitude Position and Pointing (SAPP) software, which runs on computers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers, tracks the positions and attitudes of the rovers on the surface of Mars. Each rover acquires data on attitude from a combination of accelerometer readings and images of the Sun acquired autonomously, using a pointable camera to search the sky for the Sun. Depending on the nature of movement commanded remotely by operators on Earth, the software propagates attitude and position by use of either (1) accelerometer and gyroscope readings or (2) gyroscope readings and wheel odometry. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine-tune the position updates, particularly on high-wheel-slip terrain. The attitude data are used by other software and ground-based personnel for pointing a high-gain antenna, planning and execution of driving, and positioning and aiming scientific instruments.

Ali, Khaled; vanelli, Charles; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Martin, Alejandro San; Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Alexander, James

2006-01-01

2

Neuroscientists’ Classroom Visits Positively Impact Student Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary recommendation of the 2010 President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology report on K-12 education was to inspire more students so that they are motivated to study science. Scientists’ visits to classrooms are intended to inspire learners and increase their interest in science, but verifications of this impact are largely qualitative. Our primary goal was to evaluate the impact of a longstanding Brain Awareness classroom visit program focused on increasing learners understanding of their own brains. Educational psychologists have established that neuroscience training sessions can improve academic performance and shift attitudes of students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. Our secondary goal was to determine whether short interactive Brain Awareness scientist-in-the-classroom sessions could similarly alter learners’ perceptions of their own potential to learn. Teacher and student surveys were administered in 4th-6th grade classrooms throughout Minnesota either before or after one-hour Brain Awareness sessions that engaged students in activities related to brain function. Teachers rated the Brain Awareness program as very valuable and said that the visits stimulated students’ interest in the brain and in science. Student surveys probed general attitudes towards science and their knowledge of neuroscience concepts (particularly the ability of the brain to change). Significant favorable improvements were found on 10 of 18 survey statements. Factor analyses of 4805 responses demonstrated that Brain Awareness presentations increased positive attitudes toward science and improved agreement with statements related to growth mindset. Overall effect sizes were small, consistent with the short length of the presentations. Thus, the impact of Brain Awareness presentations was positive and proportional to the efforts expended, demonstrating that short, scientist-in-the-classroom visits can make a positive contribution to primary school students’ attitudes toward science and learning. PMID:24358325

Fitzakerley, Janet L.; Michlin, Michael L.; Paton, John; Dubinsky, Janet M.

2013-01-01

3

Attitude and position estimation on the Mars Exploration Rovers  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA/JPL 's Mars Exploration Rovers acquire their attitude upon command and autonomously propagate their attitude and position. The rovers use accelerometers and images of the sun to acquire attitude, autonomously searching the sky for the sun with a pointable camera. To propagate the attitude and position the rovers use either accelerometer and gyro readings or gyro readings and wheel odometiy, depending on the nature of the movement ground operators are commanding. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine tune the position updates, particularly in high slip environments. The capability also exists for visual odometry attitude updates. This paper describes the techniques used by the rovers to acquire and maintain attitude and position knowledge, the accuracy which is obtainable, and lessons learned after more than one year in operation.

Ali, Khaled S.; Vanelli, C. Anthony; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey J.; Maimone, Mark W.; Yang Cheng, A.; San Martin, Miguel; Alexander, James W.

2005-01-01

4

Accent imitation positively affects language attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian) of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating) the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants). After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers' perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory. PMID:23734137

Adank, Patti; Stewart, Andrew J.; Connell, Louise; Wood, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

5

Positive dissimilarity attitudes in multicultural organizations : The role of language diversity and communication frequency  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the field of diversity studies with novel insights on how language diversity and communication frequency influence dissimilarity attitudes. Design/methodology/approach – The authors examine language diversity and communication frequency as group-level antecedents for positive dissimilarity attitudes by use of questionnaire responses from 489 members of academic culturally diverse departments. Findings – The results showed that communication frequency has strong positive relationships with three variables depicting positive dissimilarity attitudes, namely openness to linguistic, visible and informational diversity. Contradicting our predictions, language diversity had positive associations with all variables portraying positive dissimilarity attitudes. The implications of these findings are discussed in detail. Originality/value – Few prior studies have dealt with the relations between language, communication and dissimilarity attitudes.

Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

2012-01-01

6

Position and attitude tracking control for a quadrotor UAV.  

Science.gov (United States)

A synthesis control method is proposed to perform the position and attitude tracking control of the dynamical model of a small quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), where the dynamical model is underactuated, highly-coupled and nonlinear. Firstly, the dynamical model is divided into a fully actuated subsystem and an underactuated subsystem. Secondly, a controller of the fully actuated subsystem is designed through a novel robust terminal sliding mode control (TSMC) algorithm, which is utilized to guarantee all state variables converge to their desired values in short time, the convergence time is so small that the state variables are acted as time invariants in the underactuated subsystem, and, a controller of the underactuated subsystem is designed via sliding mode control (SMC), in addition, the stabilities of the subsystems are demonstrated by Lyapunov theory, respectively. Lastly, in order to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method, the aerodynamic forces and moments and air drag taken as external disturbances are taken into account, the obtained simulation results show that the synthesis control method has good performance in terms of position and attitude tracking when faced with external disturbances. PMID:24534327

Xiong, Jing-Jing; Zheng, En-Hui

2014-05-01

7

Fostering Positive Attitudes Toward the Handicapped In School Settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provided are the proceedings of the Special Study Institute conference on Fostering Positive attitudes Toward the Handicapped in School Settings sponsored by the Division for Handicapped Children of the New York State Education Department. Presentations include the following topics: rationale for the conference (by Samuel Wallach); a review of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Special Education Instructional Materials Center.

8

Attitude toward obesity showed by the teacher-training pupils of the University of Huelva  

OpenAIRE

The present study analyses the attitude toward the obesity and the overweight that show the pupils of first and third course of the University of Huelva (N= 299) comparing the students of physical education (N= 123) with the students of kindergarten and primary education (N= 176). This design supposes a replication of the investigation made by O’Brien, Hunter and Banks (2006), who compared the attitude toward the obesity between one group of students of physical education and another group ...

Carmona Ma?rquez, Jose?; Tornero Quin?ones, Inmaculada; Gago Sampedro, Juan; Sierra Robles, A?ngela

2012-01-01

9

Relative position and attitude estimation of spacecrafts based on dual quaternion for rendezvous and docking  

Science.gov (United States)

The capacity to acquire the relative position and attitude information between the chaser and the target satellites in real time is one of the necessary prerequisites for the successful implementation of autonomous rendezvous and docking. This paper addresses a vision based relative position and attitude estimation algorithm for the final phase of spacecraft rendezvous and docking. By assuming that the images of feature points on the target satellite lie within the convex regions, the estimation of the relative position and attitude is converted into solving a convex optimization problem in which the dual quaternion method is employed to represent the rotational and translational transformation between the chaser body frame and the target body frame. Due to the point-to-region correspondence instead of the point-to-point correspondence is used, the proposed estimation algorithm shows good performance in robustness which is verified through computer simulations.

Qiao, Bing; Tang, Shuren; Ma, Kexin; Liu, Zhenya

2013-10-01

10

Multi-platform Integrated Positioning and Attitude Determination using GNSS:  

OpenAIRE

There is trend in spacecraft engineering toward distributed systems where a number of smaller spacecraft work as a larger satellite. However, in order to make the small satellites work together as a single large platform, the precise relative positions (baseline) and orientations (attitude) of the elements of the formation have to be estimated. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, the general term for systems as GPS and Galileo) receivers can be utilized to provide baseline estimates wit...

Buist, P. J.

2013-01-01

11

Fostering a positive attitude towards science through college courses  

Science.gov (United States)

For non-science majors, a general education course in college is often the last science course they will ever take. General education courses are often regarded by students as a right of passage in which they have no interest. Thus strict coursework might aggravate students against the matter taught, and decrease their general interest in the subject. To test whether general education courses killed the students' interest in science, we administered a science attitude inventory at the beginning and at the end of an introductory astronomy course. We compared the gain/loss in science attitude with that experienced by students of a writing course as a baseline. Finally, we evaluated the gain/loss in science attitude for students enrolled in a general education course on science and society, where no formal science knowledge was taught, but where the students discussed the different aspects of the relation between science and society.This study (once tested on a larger scale) could serve as a guideline for educational policies aiming to foster a positive attitude in the population of college graduates.

Flohic, Helene

2015-01-01

12

Attitude toward obesity showed by the teacher-training pupils of the University of Huelva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study analyses the attitude toward the obesity and the overweight that show the pupils of first and third course of the University of Huelva (N= 299 comparing the students of physical education (N= 123 with the students of kindergarten and primary education (N= 176. This design supposes a replication of the investigation made by O’Brien, Hunter and Banks (2006, who compared the attitude toward the obesity between one group of students of physical education and another group that studies psychology. In order to measure the attitude toward the obesity, explicit and implicit instruments, together with a questionnaire of physical-sport habits were used. The results confirm that all the pupils present a negative attitude toward the obesity and the overweight, being higher in the students of physical education, and among these higher in the pupils of third course. On the other hand, the pupils that show more interest toward the sport, and those students that practice more sports, possess a higher negative attitude toward the obesity and the overweight that those students that are not interested in or don’t practice sport

Carmona Márquez, José

2012-07-01

13

IMU/GPS System Provides Position and Attitude Data  

Science.gov (United States)

A special navigation system is being developed to provide high-quality information on the position and attitude of a moving platform (an aircraft or spacecraft), for use in pointing and stabilization of a hyperspectral remote-sensing system carried aboard the platform. The system also serves to enable synchronization and interpretation of readouts of all onboard sensors. The heart of the system is a commercially available unit, small enough to be held in one hand, that contains an integral combination of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, a differential GPS subsystem, and ancillary data-processing subsystems. The system utilizes GPS carrier-phase measurements to generate time data plus highly accurate and continuous data on the position, attitude, rotation, and acceleration of the platform. Relative to prior navigation systems based on IMU and GPS subsystems, this system is smaller, is less expensive, and performs better. Optionally, the system can easily be connected to a laptop computer for demonstration and evaluation. In addition to airborne and spaceborne remote-sensing applications, there are numerous potential terrestrial sensing, measurement, and navigation applications in diverse endeavors that include forestry, environmental monitoring, agriculture, mining, and robotics.

Lin, Ching Fang

2006-01-01

14

Inequality and union membership: the impact of relative earnings position and inequality attitudes  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we examine the connection between union membership and economic inequality. Using several surveys from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) covering the period 1985-2002, we initially examine the impact of relative earnings position on union membership and show that union membership is concentrated in the intermediate earnings groups. Next, we examine the impact of inequality attitudes on union membership. We show that union membership is not only affected by individ...

Checchi, Daniele; Visser, Jelle; Werfhorst, Herman G.

2007-01-01

15

Attitudes about Childlessness in the United States: Correlates of Positive, Neutral, and Negative Responses  

Science.gov (United States)

The study used cross-sectional analyses of the National Survey of Families and Households (1987-1988, 1992-1994) to examine attitudes about childlessness in the United States. It (a) assesses prevalence of positive, neutral, and negative attitudes about childlessness and (b) identifies the correlates of different attitudes in the population. About…

Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Pendell, Gretchen

2007-01-01

16

Using Visual Odometry to Estimate Position and Attitude  

Science.gov (United States)

A computer program in the guidance system of a mobile robot generates estimates of the position and attitude of the robot, using features of the terrain on which the robot is moving, by processing digitized images acquired by a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras mounted rigidly on the robot. Developed for use in localizing the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) vehicles on Martian terrain, the program can also be used for similar purposes on terrestrial robots moving in sufficiently visually textured environments: examples include low-flying robotic aircraft and wheeled robots moving on rocky terrain or inside buildings. In simplified terms, the program automatically detects visual features and tracks them across stereoscopic pairs of images acquired by the cameras. The 3D locations of the tracked features are then robustly processed into an estimate of overall vehicle motion. Testing has shown that by use of this software, the error in the estimate of the position of the robot can be limited to no more than 2 percent of the distance traveled, provided that the terrain is sufficiently rich in features. This software has proven extremely useful on the MER vehicles during driving on sandy and highly sloped terrains on Mars.

Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Matthies, Larry; Schoppers, Marcel; Olson, Clark

2007-01-01

17

A position and attitude vision measurement system for wind tunnel slender model  

Science.gov (United States)

A position and attitude vision measurement system for drop test slender model in wind tunnel is designed and developed. The system used two high speed cameras, one is put to the side of the model and another is put to the position where the camera can look up the model. Simple symbols are set on the model. The main idea of the system is based on image matching technique between the 3D-digital model projection image and the image captured by the camera. At first, we evaluate the pitch angles, the roll angles and the position of the centroid of a model through recognizing symbols in the images captured by the side camera. And then, based on the evaluated attitude info, giving a series of yaw angles, a series of projection images of the 3D-digital model are obtained. Finally, these projection images are matched with the image which captured by the looking up camera, and the best match's projection images corresponds to the yaw angle is the very yaw angle of the model. Simulation experiments are conducted and the results show that the maximal error of attitude measurement is less than 0.05°, which can meet the demand of test in wind tunnel.

Cheng, Lei; Yang, Yinong; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen; Bai, Xiangzhi

2014-11-01

18

An experimental study of the effect of green positioning on brand attitude  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reducing the environmental impact of a product or its manufacturing process not necessarily limits the company’s activities. In the context of a green branding strategy, it might as well open new business opportunities. Ecological positioning provides a strategic tool for the active implementation of green brands. The empirical study shows that more positive attitudes are developed towards a brand positioned by environmental attributes and that these effects vary as a result of the implementation of different types of ecological positioning strategies. Although most researchers in ecological marketing recommend rational persuasion strategies, in this study the effect of an ecological positioning by emotional brand benefits appears to be even stronger than effects of rational perceptions of functional benefits for the environment.

PATRIK HARTMANN

2004-06-01

19

STRAP V - Higher accuracy, lower drift attitude control system. [Stellar Tracking Rocket Attitude Positioning  

Science.gov (United States)

The STRAP V system was developed to provide higher accuracy and lower limit cycle fine pointing (+ or - 7 arcseconds) in all three axes at targets which cannot be tracked by startrackers or solar trackers. The system provides an increase in pointing performance over that obtainable with the STRAP IV (1) Attitude Control System (ACS). The STRAP IV concept of third axis updates is utilized to reduce pointing errors, using the flight-proven STRAP III (2) system as a first stage. Flight aspect photographs and telemetry records show that the STRAP V objectives have been met. The STRAP IV major error contributors have been significantly reduced and the tracking flexibility has been increased with only minor error contributions. Attention is given to the basic STRAP III control modes, major STRAP IV system error sources, tuned restrained inertial gyros (TRIGs), the programmable sequence timer, the STRAP V control box, third axis update, system gyro alignments, and STRAP V operational capabilities.

Budney, T. J.; Collinson, T. W.; Stone, R. W.

1982-01-01

20

Nonadherence to antipsychotics: The role of positive attitudes towards positive symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 50-75% of all patients do not take their antipsychotic medication as prescribed. The current study examined reasons why patients continue versus discontinue antipsychotic medication. We were particularly interested to which extent positive attitudes towards psychotic symptoms foster medication nonadherence. An anonymous online questionnaire was set up to decrease response biases. After a strict selection process, 91 participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were retained for the final analyses. On average, 6.2 different reasons for nonadherence were reported. Side-effects (71.4%), sudden subjective symptom improvement (52.4%) and forgetfulness (33.3%) emerged as the most frequent reasons for drug discontinuation. Approximately one fourth of all participants (27.3%) reported at least one positive aspect of psychosis as a reason for nonadherence. In contrast, patients reported on average 3.5 different reasons for adherence (e.g., want to live a normal life (74.6%) and fear of psychotic symptoms (49.3%)). The belief that paranoia represents a survival strategy (subscale derived from the Beliefs about Paranoia Scale) was significantly associated with nonadherence. Patients? attitudes toward medication and the individual illness model need to be carefully considered when prescribing medication. In particular for patients who are likely to discontinue psychopharmacological treatment complementary or alternative psychological treatment should be sought because of a largely increased risk of relapse in the case of sudden drug discontinuation. PMID:25444234

Moritz, Steffen; Hünsche, Alexandra; Lincoln, Tania M

2014-11-01

21

Implicit gambling attitudes in problem gamblers: positive but not negative implicit associations.  

OpenAIRE

Implicit attitudes (associations) are involved in the generation of substance use behaviors. However, little is known about the role of this automatic cognitive processing in deregulated behaviors without substance use, such as abnormal gambling. This study examined whether problem gamblers exhibit both positive and negative implicit attitudes toward gambling-related stimuli.

Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Hermant, Christine; Tibboel, Helen; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noe?l, Xavier

2013-01-01

22

Supporting or Opposing Privatization in Education: Teachers' Attitudes and Positions of Power in Israeli Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

The consequences of neoliberal policies in education are controversial. Based on the micro-political approach, this study had two aims: (1) to examine teachers' attitudes toward the effect of privatization on inequality and educational improvement; and (2) to examine the link between teachers' positions of power in school and their attitudes

Addi-Raccah, Audray

2012-01-01

23

Positive attitudes towards priority setting in clinical guidelines among Danish general practitioners: A web based survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: Increasing focus on improvement and optimisation of the treatment in primary care and reduction of healthcare costs emphasize the need to understand which factors determines adherence and non-adherence to clinical guidelines. In the present study, we examined attitudes towards clinical guidelines in Danish general practitioners (GPs. Methods: We conducted a survey among Danish GPs from all five regions of Denmark. In total, 443 GPs answered the web-based questionnaire that contained questions about attitudes and barriers to clinical guidelines. Results: More than 90% of the GPs reported that they have good knowledge of the guidelines and in general follows the guidelines. A majority of the GPs (81% found it acceptable that economic considerations are part of the guidelines. The most important factors for non- adherence to guidelines were “need of adjustment to clinical practice” and “lack of confidence in guidelines”. The attitudes to clinical guidelines were not significantly associated with practice characteristics such as gender, years of experience, practice organisation and localisation. Conclusions: Our findings show that clinical guidelines are an integrated or internalised part of everyday practice among GPs in Denmark. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Danish GPs are positive towards applying priority setting in their practice. This is decisive in the light of rising healthcare costs due to development of new expensive technologies and ageing populations that puts pressure on the healthcare system in general and primary healthcare in particular.

Pia K. Kjellberg

2013-02-01

24

Training Positive Attitudes: "I Tried Hard and Did Well!"  

Science.gov (United States)

The article describes an instructional intervention appropriate to improving student attitudes and achievement through attributional retraining and instruction in learning strategies, particularly mnemonic strategies. Application of the approach with learning-disabled students in reading comprehension and mathematics is reported. (DB)

Fulk, Barbara J. Mushinski; Mastropieri, Margo A.

1990-01-01

25

Facilitating positive attitudes towards an innovative programme for baccalaureate nursing education:  

OpenAIRE

A survey of nurse ward leaders understanding of, and their attitude to, community/ problem based learning (CPBL) approach adopted for the education of nursing students in the degree programme of the University of Natal in Durban (UND) was conducted. This was with a view to intervening, if necessary, to ensure positive understanding and attitude among the nurse leaders towards the non-traditional CPBL of UND nursing students. It was hypothesised that focused discussions, between facilitators a...

Adejumo, O.; Ganga-limando, M.

2000-01-01

26

Technology of forming a positive attitude to physical training students of special medical group  

OpenAIRE

Defined effective technology stages of forming a positive attitude towards physical education of students in special medical groups, stimulate motivation, epistemologically, informative, content-procedural, analytical and adjustment. For each stage technology offered special tools: lectures, seminars, analysis articles, mini conference on improving technique, racing games, mini-competitions, diagnostic interviews, questionnaires, analysis of log data on attendance. Selected criteria forming p...

Mukhamediarov N.N.

2013-01-01

27

Assessing Riverside Community College Nursing Student Attitudes toward Exposure to AIDS/HIV-Positive Patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…

Kross, Carolyn Sue

28

Beyond fear appeals: contradicting positive smoking outcome expectancies to influence smokers' implicit attitudes, perception, and behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smokers often have (implicit or explicit) positive smoking outcome expectancies that motivate them to smoke. For instance, they may feel that smoking is relaxing, that it improves concentration, or that it is seen as cool and attractive by peers. These expectations are, for the most part, illusory. In order to counteract these expectations, we designed cigarette package warning labels that contradicted common positive outcome expectancies. We investigated the effectiveness of our new warning labels in two experiments. We first measured smokers' implicit attitudes toward smoking using an affective priming method and found that our new warning labels changed positive attitudes into ambivalent attitudes. We then tested whether our warning labels changed smokers' self-reported positive outcome expectancies and smoking behavior. Smokers presented with the new warning labels immediately associated positive outcome expectancies less strongly with smoking and reported smoking fewer cigarettes in the 24 hours following the experiment. Explicitly taking the reasons for unhealthy behavior into account when trying to change people's habits could offer a valuable contribution to effective health campaigns. PMID:22178602

Glock, Sabine; Unz, Dagmar; Kovacs, Carrie

2012-04-01

29

Methamphetamine Use, Attitudes About Condoms, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men  

OpenAIRE

This study examined attitudes about condoms as a moderator of the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 297 HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM). To test for a moderating effect of attitudes towards condoms, an interaction term was included in multiple regression analysis along with age, income, negative condom attitudes, frequency of methamphetamine use, and Beck depression score. A post hoc analysis was conducted to d...

Nakamura, Nadine; Mausbach, Brent T.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Semple, Shirley J.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

30

Factors associated with a positive attitude towards change among employees during the early phase of a downsizing process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research on organizational changes in working life, including downsizing, focuses on the negative attitudes and negative consequences of the change. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the employee's previous learning experience and characteristics of the working environment were associated with positive attitudes towards organizational change. The 467 employees (73.5% males) working in a global oil company in the early phases of a downsizing process were asked to answer a questionnaire with demographic variables, perception of the working environment, and attitude to change (93% response rate). Corporate social responsibility (CSR), involvement and participation, team leadership and team effectiveness were important factors related to positive attitudes towards organizational change. Non-leaders and older employees were positive to change. We conclude that employees' perceptions of their psychosocial working environment, in particular the CSR, were highly related to their attitude to organizational change. PMID:17430368

Svensen, Erling; Neset, Gunnar; Eriksen, Hege R

2007-04-01

31

Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

2014-02-01

32

Nutritional knowledge, attitude, and practices among HIV-positive individuals in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

This descriptive study investigated the nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in India. Data relating to nutritional KAP and sociodemographic profile were gathered from a sample of 400 PLHIV from New Delhi, India, using preset multiple-choice questionnaire. The knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low; nutritional knowledge was moderate as 80% of respondents could answer 4 out of 7 questions correctly. The attitude toward disease and food was positive but the application of nutritional knowledge was lacking as indicated by the moderate practice score of 8.1 +/- 2.3 out of a total score of 15. There were no significant differences in scores between genders. The PLHIV had knowledge about importance of nutrition during infection, had positive attitude toward the disease and the importance of nutrition during the course of the disease but translation of this knowledge into practice was low. Thus, there is a need for continuous interventions primarily aiming at behaviour change to convert knowledge into healthy dietary practices. PMID:23930337

Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema

2013-06-01

33

A Precise Position and Attitude Determination System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Science.gov (United States)

In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy ? < 5 cm and attitude accuracy ? < 0.5 deg). In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Wieland, M.; Kuhlmann, H.

2013-08-01

34

Pose Versus State: are Sensor Position and Attitude Sufficient for Modern Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing?  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the advantages of using what we call sensor state parameters or sensor state to describe the geometrical relationship between a sensor and the 3D space or the 4D time-space that extend the traditional image pose or orientation (position and attitude) to the image state. In our concept, at some point in time t, the sensor state is a 12-dimensional vector composed of four 3-dimensional subvectors p(t), v(t), ?(t) and ?(t). Roughly speaking, p(t) is the sensor's position, v(t) its linear velocity, ?(t) its attitude and ?(t) its angular velocity. It is clear that the state concept extends the pose or orientation ones and attempts to describe both a sensor's statics (p(t), ?(t)) and dynamics (v(t), ?(t)). It is also clear that if p(t), ?(t) are known for all t within some time interval of interest, then v(t) and ?(t) can be derived from the former. We present three methods to compute the state parameters, two for the continuous case and one for the discrete case. The first two methods rely on the availability of inertial measurements and their derived time-Position-Velocity-Attitude (tPVA) trajectories. The first method extends the INS mechanization equations and the second method derives the IMU angular velocities from INS mechanization equations' output data. The third method derives lineal and angular velocities from relative orientation parameters. We illustrate how sensor states can be applied to solve practical problems. For this purpose we have selected three cases: multi-sensor synchronization calibration, correction of image motion blur (translational and rotational) and accurate orientation of images acquired with focal-plane shutters.

Colomina, I.; Blázquez, M.

2014-03-01

35

Creating a Positive Attitude towards e-learning at Work Posts  

OpenAIRE

Establishing e-learning in an organization represents a challenge, especially if most members do not have much knowledge about e-learning. The project should be carefully planned and run in order to create a positive attitude towards e-learning. As the objective of e-learning in the workplace is qualifying employees, focus should be made on the learners’ satisfaction and learning results. These can be achieved with appropriate use of web 2.0 technologies, usable e-learning system and constr...

Julija Lapuh Bele; Matjaz Debevc; Irena Morel; David Rozman

2008-01-01

36

Integrated navigation fusion strategy of INS/UWB for indoor carrier attitude angle and position synchronous tracking.  

Science.gov (United States)

In some GPS failure conditions, positioning for mobile target is difficult. This paper proposed a new method based on INS/UWB for attitude angle and position synchronous tracking of indoor carrier. Firstly, error model of INS/UWB integrated system is built, including error equation of INS and UWB. And combined filtering model of INS/UWB is researched. Simulation results show that the two subsystems are complementary. Secondly, integrated navigation data fusion strategy of INS/UWB based on Kalman filtering theory is proposed. Simulation results show that FAKF method is better than the conventional Kalman filtering. Finally, an indoor experiment platform is established to verify the integrated navigation theory of INS/UWB, which is geared to the needs of coal mine working environment. Static and dynamic positioning results show that the INS/UWB integrated navigation system is stable and real-time, positioning precision meets the requirements of working condition and is better than any independent subsystem. PMID:25121111

Fan, Qigao; Wu, Yaheng; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Zhou, Lijuan

2014-01-01

37

Integrated Navigation Fusion Strategy of INS/UWB for Indoor Carrier Attitude Angle and Position Synchronous Tracking  

Science.gov (United States)

In some GPS failure conditions, positioning for mobile target is difficult. This paper proposed a new method based on INS/UWB for attitude angle and position synchronous tracking of indoor carrier. Firstly, error model of INS/UWB integrated system is built, including error equation of INS and UWB. And combined filtering model of INS/UWB is researched. Simulation results show that the two subsystems are complementary. Secondly, integrated navigation data fusion strategy of INS/UWB based on Kalman filtering theory is proposed. Simulation results show that FAKF method is better than the conventional Kalman filtering. Finally, an indoor experiment platform is established to verify the integrated navigation theory of INS/UWB, which is geared to the needs of coal mine working environment. Static and dynamic positioning results show that the INS/UWB integrated navigation system is stable and real-time, positioning precision meets the requirements of working condition and is better than any independent subsystem. PMID:25121111

Wu, Yaheng; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Zhou, Lijuan

2014-01-01

38

Nonlinear control of marine vehicles using only position and attitude measurements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents new results on the design and analysis of nonlinear output feedback controllers for auto pilots and dynamic positioning systems for ships and underwater vehicles. Only position and attitude measurements of the vehicle are used in the control design. The underlying idea of the work is to use certain structural properties of the equations of motion in the controller design and analysis. New controllers for regulation and tracking have been developed and the stability of the resulting closed-loop systems has been rigorously established. The results are supported by simulations. The following problems have been investigated covering design of passive controller for regulation, comparison of two auto pilots, nonlinear damping compensation for tracking, tracking control for nonlinear ships, and output tracking control with wave filtering for multivariable models of possibly unstable vehicles. 97 refs., 32 figs.

Paulsen, Marit Johanne

1996-12-31

39

Challenging stereotypes and changing attitudes: Improving quality of care for people with hepatitis C through Positive Speakers programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive Speakers programs consist of people who are trained to speak publicly about their illness. The focus of these programs, especially with stigmatised illnesses such as hepatitis C (HCV), is to inform others of the speakers' experiences, thereby humanising the illness and reducing ignorance associated with the disease. This qualitative research aimed to understand the perceived impact of Positive Speakers programs on changing audience members' attitudes towards people with HCV. Interviews were conducted with nine Positive Speakers and 16 of their audience members to assess the way in which these sessions were perceived by both speakers and the audience to challenge stereotypes and stigma associated with HCV and promote positive attitude change amongst the audience. Data were analysed using Intergroup Contact Theory to frame the analysis with a focus on whether the program met the optimal conditions to promote attitude change. Findings suggest that there are a number of vital components to this Positive Speakers program which ensures that the program meets the requirements for successful and equitable intergroup contact. This Positive Speakers program thereby helps to deconstruct stereotypes about people with HCV, while simultaneously increasing positive attitudes among audience members with the ultimate aim of improving quality of health care and treatment for people with HCV. PMID:22783938

Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah; Rose, Grenville; Mackenzie, Althea; de Wit, John

2013-01-01

40

Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects  

Science.gov (United States)

In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

41

A case with radiation pneumonitis which showed positive {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We reported a case of one patient with radiation pneumonitis. Sixty-three-year-old man with mediastinal and right hilar lymphnode metastases and lung metastases from stomach cancer received radiotherapy at a dose of 60 Gy with a field including the right lung and mediastimun. Tl scintigraphy was useful for evaluating inflammatory activity of the radiation pneumonitis which Ga scan did not show positive findings, and CT showed consolidation and fibrotic change. Tl scintigraphy seems to be more useful than Ga scintigraphy and chest CT for evaluating the activity of radiation pneumonitis. (author)

Yokokawa, Tokuzou; Shirai, Tatsuo; Kikuchi, Yoshiro; Ban, Shigeyuki; Sugiyama, Takeo; Oshima, Motoo; Furui, Shigeru; Naruge, Hisao [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Hospital

1998-11-01

42

Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and their impact on buying intention : The role of positive sensory experience  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

European consumers are sceptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if actual sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence consumers' attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. An experiment was conducted in which subjects in the experimental group tasted cheeses, one of which was labelled as 'produced using GMOs.' The cheeses were selected in a way that ensured that the subject had a sensory preference for the GMO cheese. A control group tasted cheeses that were unlabelled. After the tasting, subjects completed a conjoint analysis task about cheese, in which the type of starter culture used (GMO/conventional) was one of the attributes. Subjects also were administered a set of items measuring attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. Results showed that for subjects in the experimental group (who believed that they had tasted a GMO cheese, with which they had a positive sensory experience) a) attitude towards GMO in food production was less negative, and b) type of starter culture used (GM/conventional) had less impact on their buying intentions with regard to cheese than for subjects in the control group.

Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

2004-01-01

43

Mortality Salience and Positive Affect Influence Adolescents' Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities: Terror Management and Broaden and Build Theories  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown…

Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

2011-01-01

44

Positive Attitude Change toward Psychiatry in Pharmacy Students Following an Active Learning Psychopharmacology Course  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Psychiatric care in many rural communities has been demonstrated to be less adequate compared with urban environments partially because of attitudes and stigmatization issues. Educated pharmacists with professional attitudes can have a major impact in helping mental health patients receive more accurate diagnostic assessments and safe…

Einat, Haim; George, Angela

2008-01-01

45

Positive Mood Risk Attitudes, and Investment Decisions : Field Evidence From Comedy Movie Attendance in the US.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Positive mood has been repeatedly shown to affect risk attitudes in laboratory settings, where subjects’ exposure to movie clips is among the most widely used and effective mood-induction procedures. Yet, conflicting lab results about the estimated sign of the mood effect have led researchers to formulate two alternative theories. The affect infusion model (AIM) argues that happy moods foster risk-prone behavior, whereas the mood-maintenance hypothesis (MMH) takes the opposite stance. In this paper I test the predictions of these two theories using real-world financial data and focusing on the same moodshifting mechanism commonly employed in lab studies. More specifically, I exploit the time-series variation in the domestic theatrical release of comedy movies as a natural experiment for testing the impact that happy mood (proxied by weekend comedy movie attendance) has on investment in risky assets (proxied by the performance of the U.S. stock market on the following Monday). My hypothesis rests upon the evidence that individual investors are more likely to ponder trading decisions during the weekend and trade on Mondays. To control for unobserved factors that may contemporaneously affect movie attendance and equity returns, I employ the percentage of theater screens dedicated to the comedy genre as an instrument. Using a sample of data from 1995 to 2010, I estimate that an increase in comedy attendance on a given weekend is followed by a decrease in equity returns on the subsequent Monday, which supports the MMH.

Lepori, Gabriele

46

Supervisor communication and motivation to learn as a predictor of positive individual attitudes and behaviors: A study in one city-based local authority  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human resource development literature highlights that the ability of supervisor to use good communication styles in training programs may motivate positive individual attitudes and behaviors (i.e., transfer of competency and job performance. Further, a careful observationof such relationships reveals that the effect of supervisor communication on individual attitudes and behaviors is indirectly affected by motivation to learn. The nature of thisrelationship is less emphasized in past research studies. Therefore, this study was conducted to gather data from 100 technical employees in one city-based local authority in East Malaysia (EMCBLAUTHORITY. Outcomes of stepwise regression analysis showed thatrelationship between motivation to learn and supervisor communication had been an important predictor of transfer of competency and job performance. This result confirms thatmotivation to learn does act as a full mediating role in the training model of the organizational sample. In addition, implications and limitations of the study, as well as directions of future research are discussed.

Azman Ismail

2009-06-01

47

Attitudes to reproductive genetic testing in women who had a positive BRCA test before having children: a qualitative analysis  

OpenAIRE

The scope of conditions for which preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is licensed has recently been expanded in the United Kingdom to include genetic predisposition to adult-onset cancer. This qualitative interview study explores reproductive decision making, knowledge of and attitudes to reproductive genetic testing (prenatal diagnosis and PGD) with 25 women aged 18–45 years who received a positive BRCA test in the United Kingdom before having children. In this cohort of younger women,...

Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Donnelly, Louise; Moynihan, Clare; Savona, Cornelie; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Lavery, Stuart; Watson, Maggie

2012-01-01

48

MIVIS image geocoding experience on merging position attitude system data and public domain GPS stream (ASI-GeoDAF)  

OpenAIRE

The use of airborne scanners involves geo-referencing problems, which are difficult because of the need to know the exact platform position and attitude for each scan line. The errors of the onboard navigation system are normally corrected using ground control point on the image. This post-processing correction procedure is too long in case of multiple flight campaigns, and besides it implies the need to have available 1:10000 orthophotoimages or maps in digital format. To optimize the above ...

Pignatti, S.; Avanzi, G.; Palombo, A.

2006-01-01

49

The association between Colombian medical students' healthy personal habits and a positive attitude toward preventive counseling: cross-sectional analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician-delivered preventive counseling is important for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Data from the U.S. indicates that medical students with healthy personal habits have a better attitude towards preventive counseling. However, this association and its correlates have not been addressed in rapidly urbanized settings where chronic disease prevention strategies constitute a top public health priority. This study examines the association between personal health practices and attitudes toward preventive counseling among first and fifth-year students from 8 medical schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods During 2006, a total of 661 first- and fifth-year medical students completed a culturally adapted Spanish version of the "Healthy Doctor = Healthy Patient" survey (response rate = 78%. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between overall personal practices on physical activity, nutrition, weight control, smoking, alcohol use (main exposure variable and student attitudes toward preventive counseling on these issues (main outcome variable, stratified by year of training and adjusting by gender and medical training-related factors (basic knowledge, perceived adequacy of training and perception of the school's promotion on each healthy habit. Results The median age and percentage of females for the first- and fifth-year students were 21 years and 59.5% and 25 years and 65%, respectively. After controlling for gender and medical training-related factors, consumption of ? 5 daily servings of fruits and/or vegetables, not being a smoker or binge drinker were associated with a positive attitude toward counseling on nutrition (OR = 4.71; CI = 1.6–14.1; p = 0.006 smoking (OR = 2.62; CI = 1.1–5.9; p = 0.022, and alcohol consumption (OR = 2.61; CI = 1.3–5.4; p = 0.009, respectively. Conclusion As for U.S. physician and medical students, a positive association was found between the personal health habits of Colombian medical students and their corresponding attitudes toward preventive counseling, independent of gender and medial training-related factors. Our findings, the first relating to this association in medical students in developing regions, also suggest that within the medical school context, interventions focused on promoting healthy student lifestyles can potentially improve future physician's attitudes toward preventive counseling.

Sarmiento Francisco

2009-07-01

50

Positive attitudes to pediatric HIV testing: findings from a nationally representative survey from Zimbabwe.  

OpenAIRE

Early HIV testing and diagnosis are paramount for increasing treatment initiation among children, necessary for their survival and improved health. However, uptake of pediatric HIV testing is low in high-prevalence areas. We present data on attitudes towards pediatric testing from a nationally representative survey in Zimbabwe.

Buzdugan, R.; Watadzaushe, C.; Dirawo, J.; Mundida, O.; Langhaug, L.; Willis, N.; Hatzold, K.; Ncube, G.; Mugurungi, O.; Benedikt, C.; Copas, A.; Cowan, F. M.

2012-01-01

51

The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy  

OpenAIRE

This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relati...

Mahsa Kazempour

2014-01-01

52

Few Girls With Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Show Positive Adjustment During Adolescence  

OpenAIRE

Employing data from 140 prospectively followed girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 88 age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls, we adopted a person-centered analytic approach to assess rates of adolescent positive adjustment (PA) across six domains: ADHD symptoms, externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, social skills, peer acceptance, and school achievement. During adolescence, between 19.8% and 61.1% of the girls with childhood ADHD met criteria for PA w...

Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Lee, Steve S.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

2009-01-01

53

Anxiety positive subjects show altered processing in the anterior insula during anticipation of negative stimuli  

OpenAIRE

Prior neuroimaging studies support the hypothesis that anticipation, an important component of anxiety, may be mediated by activation within the insular and medial prefrontal cortices including the anterior cingulate cortex. However, there is an insufficient understanding of how affective anticipation differs across anxiety groups in emotional brain loci and networks. We examined 14 anxiety positive (AP) and 14 anxiety normative (AN) individuals completing an affective picture anticipation ta...

Simmons, Alan; Stein, Murray B.; Strigo, Irina A.; Arce, Estibaliz; Hitchcock, Carla; Paulus, Martin P.

2010-01-01

54

Suture Granuloma Showing False-Positive Findings on FDG-PET  

OpenAIRE

We report a case of a 33-year-old male with a mixed germ-cell testicular tumor. Postoperative follow-up FDG-PET revealed concentration of FDG in the left inguinal area which is not tumor metastasis or local recurrence but suture reactivity granuloma. In this paper, we reviewed suture granulomas associated with false-positive findings on FDG-PET after surgery. If FDG-PET will be used more frequently in the future, it will be necessary to refrain from using silk thread in order to prevent any u...

Kohei Takahara; Hiroaki Kakinoki; Saya Ikoma; Kazuma Udo; Shohei Tobu; Yuji Satoh(Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571, Japan); Yuji Tokuda; Mitsuru Noguchi; Shigehisa Aoki; Jiro Uozumi

2013-01-01

55

Canadian outpatients and advance directives: poor knowledge and little experience but positive attitudes.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To examine the knowledge of, previous experience with, attitudes toward and perceived barriers to completing advance directives among outpatients at two general medicine clinics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire administered in face-to-face structured interviews. SETTING: General internal-medicine outpatient clinics at a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred and five adult outpatients who could communicate in spoken English and who consented to be interviewed. RE...

Sam, M.; Singer, P. A.

1993-01-01

56

Positive trends of public attitudes toward epilepsy after public education campaign among rural korean residents.  

OpenAIRE

To assess trends of public attitudes toward epilepsy in Korea, two surveys were performed in the same village using a common questionnaire before and after the schedule of public education on epilepsy. Cross-sectional studies were conducted by means of a door-to-door interview, in which all residents over 19 yr of age living in the survey area were targeted. Vehicles for the educational campaign took the form of lectures and small group discussions. The understanding of epilepsy among Korean ...

Kim, Myeong-kyu; Kim, In-kyu; Kim, Byeong-chae; Cho, Ki-hyun; Kim, Sei-jong; Moon, Jai-dong

2003-01-01

57

Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Science "and" Religion among Sixth-Form Pupils: Dealing with Scientism and Creationism  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude

Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.

2010-01-01

58

"Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2008-01-01

59

Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autobiographical memories are retrieved as images from either a field perspective or an observer perspective. The observer perspective is thought to dull emotion. Positive affect is blunted in depressed mood. Consequently, are positive events recalled from an observer perspective in depressed mood? We investigated the relationship between memory vantage perspective and depressive symptoms in a student sample. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) and assessed the perspective accompanying each memory. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008) were administered. The results showed a small positive association between depressive symptoms and the use of an observer perspective for positive autobiographical memories, but not for negative memories. Furthermore, comparing a subgroup with clinically significant symptom levels (dysphoric students) with non-dysphoric individuals revealed that dysphoric students used an observer perspective more for positive memories compared with negative memories. This was not the case for non-dysphoric students. The observer perspective in dysphorics was associated with a dampening cognitive style in response to positive experiences. PMID:23083015

Nelis, Sabine; Debeer, Elise; Holmes, Emily A; Raes, Filip

2013-01-01

60

Positioning accuracy analysis of adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel adjusting target mechanism of three-dimensional attitude is presented according to the characteristics of the target transport subsystem in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The mechanism consists of a tangent mechanism adjusting rotation angle and a set of orthogonal tangent mechanism adjusting two-dimensional deflection angles. The structural parameters of the adjusting target mechanism are analyzed according to principle errors, structure errors and motion errors of following. The analysis results indicate that the system error of the adjusting target mechanism is influenced by the displacement of the linear actuators, the actuator ball radius, the working radius of the tangent mechanism, the angle error of the inclined installation hole, the centralization error of the actuators, the orthogonal error of the two tangent mechanism, and the angle errors of the inclined target rod inclined rotation shaft. The errors of the inclined target rod and inclined rotation shaft are the two greatest impact factors, the spherical contact error is the next. By means of precise assembly and control system compensation, the accuracy of the adjusting target mechanism can be less than 0.1 mrad. (authors)

61

Metacognition, study habits and attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between fifth grade students’ metacognition levels, and their study habits and attitudes. Participants of the study consist of 221 students, 125 female and 96 male, enrolling to six public primary schools in Turkey. The results revealed that there is a medium positive relationship between metacognitive knowledge and skills and study habits (r = .351, p < .05, study attitudes (r = .415, p < .05 and study orientation (r = .434, p < .05. Additionally, the results of the study showed that there is no significant relationship between metacognition and study habits and attitudes for low and medium achievers but, there is a significant relationship for high achievers.

Gokhan ÖZSOY

2009-10-01

62

The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather’s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

Mahsa Kazempour

2014-02-01

63

Automated tracking of mitotic spindle pole positions shows that LGN is required for spindle rotation but not orientation maintenance  

OpenAIRE

Spindle orientation defines the plane of cell division and, thereby, the spatial position of all daughter cells. Here, we develop a live cell microscopy-based methodology to extract spindle movements in human epithelial cell lines and study how spindles are brought to a pre-defined orientation. We show that spindles undergo two distinct regimes of movements. Spindles are first actively rotated toward the cells’ long-axis and then maintained along this pre-defined axis. By quantifying spindl...

Corrigan, Adam M.; Shrestha, Roshan L.; Zulkipli, Ihsan; Hiroi, Noriko; Liu, Yingjun; Tamura, Naoka; Yang, Bing; Patel, Jessica; Funahashi, Akira; Donald, Athene; Draviam, Viji M.

2013-01-01

64

MIVIS image geocoding experience on merging position attitude system data and public domain GPS stream (ASI-GeoDAF  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of airborne scanners involves geo-referencing problems, which are difficult because of the need to know the exact platform position and attitude for each scan line. The errors of the onboard navigation system are normally corrected using ground control point on the image. This post-processing correction procedure is too long in case of multiple flight campaigns, and besides it implies the need to have available 1:10000 orthophotoimages or maps in digital format. To optimize the above procedure a new method to correct MIVIS navigational data in the post-processing phase has been implemented. The procedure takes into consideration the GPS stream in Rinex format of common knowledge and findable on the web, acquired at the ground stations of the Geodetic Data Archiving Facilities provided by ASI. The application of this correction entails the assumption that the environmental variables affecting both onboard and geodetic GPS equally affect the position measurements. The airborne data correction was carried out merging the two data sets (onboard and ground station GPS to achieve a more precise aircraft trajectory. The present study compares the geo-coded images obtained by means of the two post-processing methods.

S. Pignatti

2006-06-01

65

"Challenging Disabling Attitudes, Building an Inclusive Society": Considering the Role of Education in Encouraging Non-Disabled Children to Develop Positive Attitudes towards Disabled People  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty to…

Beckett, Angharad E.

2009-01-01

66

A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide.

Sara De Meyer

2014-07-01

67

Stability and change in adolescents' positive attitudes toward guidance in moral development.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 1,913 junior high school and college students tested between 1978 and 1988 responded to a 15-item questionnaire on the extent and type of influence they thought desirable in developing moral judgment in elementary, secondary, and college students. The average response across subjects, year of administration, and age of individuals for whom the item was being tapped was highest for the influence of the individual him/herself (2.52 on a 3-point scale), but also relatively high for the three institutions tapped: family (2.17), school (1.85), and clergy (1.45). Peers' influence was rated at 1.84. Differences on the other dimensions (year of questionnaire, sex, and age of subject) were rarely substantial, and while yielding some significant differences, did not show clear, strong patterns. PMID:1927659

Zern, D S

1991-01-01

68

College Students' Attitudes toward Computers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports a survey conducted at a private midwestern university to investigate 143 undergraduate students' attitudes toward computers. The study used a 10-item questionnaire called General Attitudes toward Computers. Results indicated that students had positive attitudes toward computers. There were no significant differences in attitudes

Leite, Pedro T.

69

Examining Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes towards Teaching Profession and Pupil Control Ideology  

OpenAIRE

The attitude of teachers towards teaching profession is as important as teaching knowledge. It is estimated that teachers who have positive attitudes towards teaching profession may show humanistic attitudes and behaviors to students. Therefore, this study examines correlation between attitudes towards teaching profession and pupil control ideology of teacher candidates. The participants of the study comprise 281 teacher candidates at Ondokuz May?s University’s Faculty of Education. In thi...

Og?uz, Ebru; Kalkan, Melek

2011-01-01

70

Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories.  

OpenAIRE

Autobiographical memories are retrieved as images from either a field perspective or an observer perspective. The observer perspective is thought to dull emotion. Positive affect is blunted in depressed mood. Consequently, are positive events recalled from an observer perspective in depressed mood? We investigated the relationship between memory vantage perspective and depressive symptoms in a student sample. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams and Broadbent...

Nelis, S.; Debeer, E.; Holmes, Ea; Raes, F.

2013-01-01

71

MD Anderson study shows targeted agent addition to herceptin has positive effect on metastatic HER-2 breast cancer:  

Science.gov (United States)

Adding Afinitor (everolimus) to Herceptin (trastuzumab), the main treatment for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, helps some women with disease that has been resistant to previous Herceptin-based therapies, according to a study led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

72

Embodied positioning/discourse analysis of a research based leadership development forum : Showing identity work as an in situ accomplishment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present article engages a discourse analysis of identity work as it is accomplished in a research and dialogue based leadership development forum in a university setting. It displays how different interactional setups in a positioning exercise prompt diverse spaces of possibilities that shape the identity work in situ. Through a micro-generic positioning analysis of the participants’ small story efforts (M. Bamberg, 2006; M. Bamberg & Georgakopoulou, 2008) combined with an analysis of dialogicality and other-orientation (Bakhtin, 1986; Linell, 2009) it is shown how counter and complicit discourses co-emerge in interaction giving space for certain lines of subjectification (Deleuze, 1992). The research contributes to a dawning field of scholars that study organizational (dialogical) practices up close and it questions the taken for granted assumptions of, for instance, staged dialogue as a natural positive phenomenon with attached emancipating consequences. It aspires to emphasize both the boarder (D) andthe local (d) dimensions of discourse, which is increasingly pursued and recommended within the field of interaction, dialogue and discourse studies. (Bager, 2013; Bager et al., forthcoming; Iedema, 2003; Linell, 2009; Phillips, 2011)

Bager, Ann

2015-01-01

73

Intending to stay: Positive images, attitudes, and classroom experiences as influences on students' intentions to persist in science and engineering majors  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary research on persistence in undergraduate education in science and engineering has focused primarily on identifying the structural, social, and psychological barriers to participation by students in underrepresented groups. As a result, there is a wealth of data to document why students leave their majors, but there is little direct empirical data to support prevailing presumptions about why students stay. Moreover, researchers have used widely differing definitions and measures of persistence, and they have seldom explored field differences. This study compared three ways of measuring persistence. These constituted three criterion variables: commitment to major, degree aspirations, and commitment to a science/engineering career. The study emphasized social factors that encourage students to persist, including four predictor variables---(1) positive images of scientists/engineers, (2) positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality, (3) positive classroom experiences, and (4) high levels of social integration. In addition, because researchers have repeatedly documented the degree to which women are more likely than men to drop out of science and engineering majors, the study examined the potential impact of gender in relation to these predictor variables. A survey was administered in the classroom to a total of 285 students enrolled in a required course for either a biological sciences and or an engineering major. Predictor variables were developed from standard scales, including the Images of Science/Scientists Scale, the Attitudes toward Women Scale, the Women in Science Scale, and the Perceptions of Prejudice Scale. Based on logistic regression models, results indicate that positive images of scientists and engineers was significantly related to improving the odds of students having a high commitment to major, high degree aspirations, and high commitment to career. There was also evidence that positive attitudes toward gender and racial equality as well as positive classroom experiences improved the odds of students' having high degree aspirations. There was limited evidence to suggest the significance of gender in interaction with the predictor variables. There was tentative evidence that field differences may play a critical role in persistence. The study concludes on two points. The first is that gender may be a more important factor in explaining why some students leave their science and engineering majors than in explaining why others stay. The second is that research directed at improving diversity in science would benefit from discussion about the measures of persistence.

Wyer, Mary Beth

2000-10-01

74

Secondary Counselors and Vocational Directors: Sex-Role Attitudes and Attitudes Toward Teenage Parents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the attitudes of secondary counselors and vocational directors toward teenage parenthood and sex roles. A positive relationship was found between the sample's attitudes toward adolescent parents and their sex role attitudes. (JOW)

Cunningham, Daisy L.; Burge, Penny L.

1983-01-01

75

Early rehabilitation model shows positive effects on neural degeneration and recovery from neuromotor deficits following traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used an experimental early rehabilitation model combining an enriched environment, multisensory (visual, acoustic and olfactory) stimulation and motor training after traumatic brain injury (via fluid-percussion model) to simulate early multisensory rehabilitation. This therapy will be used by brain injured patients to improve neural plasticity and to restore brain integration functions. Motor dysfunction was evaluated using a composite neuroscore test. Direct structural effects of traumatic brain injury were examined using Fluoro-Jade staining, which allows identification of degenerating neural cell bodies and processes. Animals in the rehabilitation model group performed significantly better when tested for neuromotor function than the animals in standard housing in the 7-day and 15-day interval after injury (7d: p=0.005; 15d: p<0.05). Statistical analysis revealed significantly lower numbers of Fluoro-Jade positive cells (degenerating neurons) in the rehabilitation model group (n=5: mean 13.4) compared to the standard housing group (n=6: mean 123.8) (p<0.005). It appears that the housing of animals in the rehabilitation model led to a clear functional increase in neuromotor functions and to reduced neural loss compared with the animal group in standard housing. PMID:16792466

Lippert-Grüner, M; Maegele, M; Pokorný, J; Angelov, D N; Svestková, O; Wittner, M; Trojan, S

2007-01-01

76

A case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer  

OpenAIRE

Abstract We report a case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy 6 years after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. The primary tumor was negative for HER-2 as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (1+, and ratio, 1.1), but examination of the recurrent lymph node metastasis showed positivity for HER-2 by FISH (ratio, 5.2). No lesions were d...

Haruta Rumi; Masumoto Norio; Emi Akiko; Sasada Tatsunari; Kajitani Keiko; Kobayashi Yoshie; Kadoya Takayuki; Shigematsu Hideo; Kataoka Tsuyoshi; Oda Miyo; Arihiro Kouji; Okada Morihito

2011-01-01

77

The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common ancestor of all the Deuterostomia.

Grondona Jesus M

2009-06-01

78

Actitud positiva: estrategia para superar el cáncer de mama: Relato de una superviente / Positive attitude: a strategy for overcoming breast cancer: Story of a survivor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cáncer de mama puede considerarse una de las enfermedades más agresivas para las mujeres, tanto por la afectación física como por la afectación psicológica que conllevan la enfermedad y sus tratamientos. La realización de este relato biográfico nos ha permitido compartir con la participante sus v [...] ivencias en relación con la superación de la enfermedad, su actitud ante este reto vital y la visión que tiene de la vida tras dejarlo atrás. A través del relato, nos transmite su actitud de superación, fuerza de voluntad y actitud positiva frente a la enfermedad, algo que para ella es tan importante como el seguimiento de las consultas médicas o la administración de tratamientos. El deseo de continuar con su vida habitual y cuidar a sus seres queridos hace que asuma los efectos secundarios de los tratamientos como algo de menor importancia. Abstract in english Breast cancer can be considered as one of the most aggressive diseases for women because of the physical and psychological affectation that disease and its treatments cause. The accomplishment of this biographical story has permitted us to share with the participant her experiences about overcoming [...] the disease, her attitude before this vital challenge and the vision that she has of life after leaving it behind. By the speech, we are transmitted her attitude to get over her illness, her willpower and positive attitude towards the disease, something that is so important for her as the follow-up of the medical consultations or the administration of treatments. The desire to continue with her habitual life and to take care of her beloved people make her assumes the side effects of the treatments as something less important.

Diego, Carrera Martínez; Beatriz, Braña Marcos; Estefanía, Vegas Pardavila; Mónica de la, Villa Santoveña.

2011-06-01

79

Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

2013-01-01

80

Moderator Effects of Ambivalence in Attitude Measurement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two studies investigated some attitude scales' concurrent validity in order to test the view that ambivalence is a moderator of attitude-behavior relationships. A measure of ambivalence was obtained by using pairs of unipolar scales to assess positive and negative attitudes toward a number of objects. When attitudes were correlated with relevant…

Moore, Michael

81

A study ofthe attitudes of students -teacher majored in Languages and social sciences toward instructional media at S.Q.U.  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate the students-teacher attitude in the Languages and social sciences toword instructional media at S.Q.U. The results showed that. The students-teacher had positive attitude toward instructional media . ? There was a Significant difference between the male and female attitude toward instructional media at alpha = (0.05 ). ? The major had no effect on the attitude toward instructional media.

El Hmaisat, Hamad

1997-01-01

82

A case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of HER-2-positive recurrent breast cancer showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy 6 years after primary treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. The primary tumor was negative for HER-2 as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH (1+, and ratio, 1.1, but examination of the recurrent lymph node metastasis showed positivity for HER-2 by FISH (ratio, 5.2. No lesions were detected in either her left breast or in other organs, and the patient was diagnosed as having HER-2-positive recurrent disease. Combination chemotherapy using weekly paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated, and a clinically complete response was achieved. This report suggests the benefit of routine evaluation of HER-2 status in recurrent breast cancer with the introduction of HER-2-targeting agents.

Haruta Rumi

2011-11-01

83

Cooking with Kids Positively Affects Fourth Graders' Vegetable Preferences and Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Food and Cooking  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background: Cooking with Kids (CWK), an experiential school-based food education program, has demonstrated modest influence on fruit and vegetable preference, food and cooking attitudes (AT), and self-efficacy (SE) among fourth-grade, mostly low-income Hispanic students in a quasiexperimental study with an inconsistent baseline. Effect was notably strong for boys and those without previous cooking experience. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of CWK with a mostly non-Hispanic white sample that assured no previous CWK exposure. Methods: The randomized, controlled assessment of CWK effect on fourth graders was conducted with 257 students in 12 classes in four public schools. CWK included a 1-hour introductory lesson, three 2-hour cooking classes, and three 1-hour fruit and vegetable tasting sessions led by trained food educators during the school day for one semester. Fruit preference, vegetable preference, and cooking AT and SE were assessed with a tested 35-item measure, shown to have test-retest reliability. Univariate analyses considered gender and previous cooking experience. Results: Intervention efficacy was confirmed in this mostly white sample (75%; 79% with previous cooking experience; 54% girls). Increases in vegetable preference, AT, and SE were all significantly greater in CWK students with ?p 2 of 0.03, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. CWK most strongly improved AT and SE for boys without previous cooking experience. Conclusions: CWK significantly improved fourth-grade students' vegetable preferences, AT, and SE toward food and cooking, which are factors important to healthful eating and obesity prevention. Noncookers, especially boys, benefitted from this intervention. PMID:24320723

Lohse, Barbara

2013-01-01

84

Characterization and expression of the CXCR1 and CXCR4 in miiuy croaker and evolutionary analysis shows the strong positive selection pressures imposed in mammal CXCR1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The innate immune system can recognize non-self, danger signals, and pathogen associated molecular patterns and provides a first line of antimicrobial host defense. Therefore, it plays an instructive role and is pretty important in vertebrates. In innate immune responses, CXCRs act as the main receptors of CXC chemokines and play a vital role in host defense and inflammation. In present study, we cloned two cDNA molecules of CXCR1 and CXCR4 in Miichthys miiuy (miiuy croaker). In these two genes, we found the most highly conserved DRY motif in the second intracellular loop adjacent to the third transmembrane domain. The expressions of CXCR1 and CXCR4 showed that they were ubiquitously expressed in ten normal tissues. After infection with Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio harveyi, the expressions of CXCRs in the immune tissues were significantly regulated in most of tissues except that of CXCR1 in the kidney after V. harveyi injection. Evolutionary analysis showed that only the ancestral lineages of CXCR4 in amphibians underwent positive selection, indicating that the ancestors of amphibians boarded the land and had to further evolve to adapt to terrestrial environments. Multiple ML methods were implemented to detect the robust positively selected candidates for sites. In total, we detected 12 and 3 positively selected sites in the subsets of current mammal and fish CXCR1 genes, and only one site under positive selection was found in mammalian CXCR4 subsets. These positively selected sites were mainly located in the extracellular domains of CXCRs. The sliding window analysis and evolution test tended to favor positive selection acting on the N-terminal domain of CXCR1, which was the critical region for ligand/receptor signaling for neutrophils and receptor-ligand interaction, indicating that the N-terminal of CXCR1 in mammals underwent more positive selection than that of fish. PMID:24333436

Xu, Tianjun; Zhu, Zhihuang; Sun, Yuena; Ren, Liping; Wang, Rixin

2014-05-01

85

Young Men, Religion and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper explains attitudes towards gays and lesbians, and explores the complex relationship of religiosity, youth, masculinity and support for gay rights. Based on a large, reliable and nationally representative study (n=1405 from PEW Center carried out in 2006, we estimate three logistic regression models predicting approval for gay marriage, gay adoption and gays in the military, which helps us to observe the differences. We conclude that while religiosity and fundamentalism negatively affect support for all three issues, the relationship varies by age and gender. Generally, young men do not show differences in their views of gay marriage, but men, especially religious, young men do show more negative attitudes than their female counterparts in support for gay adoption. Finally, men show more positive attitudes towards gays in the military.

Gilbert Zicklin

2007-11-01

86

NURSING STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS ALCOHOL, ALCOHOLISM AND ALCOHOLICS: A STUDY OF A BRAZILIAN SAMPLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective:Various international studies have reported on negative attitudes of nurses and nursing students towards substance misusers and have found that this issue receives little attention in professional nursing education. This research examined attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics in a Brazilian nursing student sample and analyzed associations between these attitudes and participants’ socio-demographic characteristics.Methods: Study participants were 144 last-year undergraduate students from two private colleges. A scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics was used for data collection.Results: The results showed that most participants had positive attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts. In addition, gender, age and the number of hours participants spent in lectures on alcohol and other drugs during their education were associated with positive attitudes towards their work and interpersonal relationships with alcoholics. This association was stronger in females (OR = 3.42, younger participants (OR = 2.18 and students who received more lecture hours on alcohol and other drugs during their education (OR = 3.53.Conclusion: In conclusion, the authors suggest that education and preparation in coping with drug problems increase nurses’ abilities at work and support more positive attitudes towards clients with drug problems. In addition, this study demonstrated that a significant part of students had negative attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts, despite the fact that positive attitudes prevailed in their schools. These results reflect the lack of importance granted to drug issues in undergraduate nursing curricula in Brazil.

Divane de Vargas

2012-01-01

87

Factors Influencing South African Attitudes toward Digital Piracy  

OpenAIRE

Digital piracy has become an important issue in today’s technology-driven world. This research looks at the factors that cause South Africans to choose digital piracy as a means of obtaining digital media. We tested a revised Digital Piracy Attitude Model incorporating individual and situational constructs using quantitative data. Constructs showing significant correlation to an individual’s attitude toward digital piracy were age, Machiavellianism, cognitive beliefs, positive affective b...

Kimi van der Byl; Jean-Paul Van Belle

2008-01-01

88

Gender differences in student attitudes toward science: A meta-analysis of the literature from 1970 to 1991  

Science.gov (United States)

A meta-analysis covering the literature between 1970 and 1991 was conducted using an approach similar to that suggested by Glass, McGaw, and Smith (1981) and Hedges, Shymansky, and Woodworth (1989). This analysis examined gender differences in student attitudes toward science, and correlations between attitudes toward science and achievement in science. Thirty-one effect sizes and seven correlations representing the testing of 6,753 subjects were found in 18 studies. The mean of the unweighted effect sizes was .20 (SD = .50) and the mean of the weighted effect size was .16 (SD = .50), indicating that boys have more positive attitudes toward science than girls. The mean correlation between attitude and achievement was .50 for boys and .55 for girls, suggesting that the correlations are comparable. Results of the analysis of gender differences in attitude as a function of science type indicate that boys show a more positive attitude toward science than girls in all types of science. The correlation between attitude and achievement for boys and girls as a function of science type indicates that for biology and physics the correlation is positive for both, but stronger for girls than for boys. Gender differences and correlations between attitude and achievement by gender as a function of publication date show no pattern. The results for the analysis of gender differences as a function of the selectivity of the sample indicate that general level students reflect a greater positive attitude for boys, whereas the high-performance students indicate a greater positive attitude for girls. The correlation between attitude and achievement as a function of selectivity indicates that in all cases a positive attitude results in higher achievement. This is particularly true for low-performance girls. The implications of these finding are discussed and further research suggested.

Weinburgh, Molly

89

Introduction of chromosome segment carrying the seed storage protein genes from chromosome 1V of Dasypyrum villosum showed positive effect on bread-making quality of common wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of wheat- D. villosum 1V#4 translocation lines; physically mapping the Glu - V1 and Gli - V1 / Glu - V3 loci; and assess the effects of the introduced Glu - V1 and Gli - V1 / Glu - V3 on wheat bread-making quality. Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci, located in the chromosome 1V of Dasypyrum villosum, were proved to have positive effects on grain quality. However, there are very few reports about the transfer of the D. villosum-derived seed storage protein genes into wheat background by chromosome manipulation. In the present study, a total of six CS-1V#4 introgression lines with different alien-fragment sizes were developed through ionizing radiation of the mature female gametes of CS--D. villosum 1V#4 disomic addition line and confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), chromosome C-banding, twelve 1V#4-specific EST-STS markers and seed storage protein analysis enabled the cytological physical mapping of Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci to the region of FL 0.50-1.00 of 1V#4S of D. villosum. The Glu-V1 allele of D. villosum was Glu-V1a and its coded protein was V71 subunit. Quality analysis indicated that Glu-V1a together with Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci showed a positive effect on protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value and the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough. In addition, the positive effect could be maintained when specific Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci were transferred to the wheat genetic background as in the case of T1V#4S-6BS · 6BL, T1V#4S · 1BL and T1V#4S · 1DS translocation lines. These results showed that the chromosome segment carrying the Glu-V1 and Gli-V1/Glu-V3 loci in 1V#4S of D. villosum had positive effect on bread-making quality, and the T1V#4S-6BS · 6BL and T1V#4S · 1BL translocation lines could be useful germplasms for bread wheat improvement. The developed 1V#4S-specific molecular markers could be used to rapidly identify and trace the alien chromatin of 1V#4S in wheat background. PMID:24408374

Ruiqi, Zhang; Mingyi, Zhang; Xiue, Wang; Peidu, Chen

2014-03-01

90

Changing Teachers' Negative Attitudes Toward Persons With Intellectual Disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study aims at changing teachers' negative attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities. The intervention is based on the argument that providing information is not sufficient to achieve lasting change of attitudes toward people with disabilities, and that contact is required as an additional element to show positive results. A pretest-posttest intervention was conducted using three conditions: (a) cognitive intervention, (b) cognitive and behavioral intervention involving contact with the target group, and (c) no-intervention control. The participants comprised 18 teachers, with 6 teachers in each group. Following baseline assessments of attitudes, attitude change was measured immediately following the intervention and at a follow-up 12 weeks postintervention. The cognitive intervention provided information about intellectual disability and challenged stereotypic conceptions about persons with intellectual disabilities. The behavioral intervention involved being engaged in work with and training persons with intellectual disabilities in sheltered workshops. The results showed that the cognitive intervention alone did not result in significant changes in attitudes toward persons with intellectual disabilities. However, the combined cognitive-behavioral intervention resulted in greater attitude change than the no-intervention condition, both immediately postintervention and at a 12-week follow-up. The findings are discussed with regard to models of attitude change. The study concludes with some recommendations for teacher training programs to be attended to. PMID:25488181

Hassanein, Elsayed Elshabrawy Ahmed

2014-12-01

91

Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

2014-05-01

92

Combination of novel HER2-targeting antibody 1E11 with trastuzumab shows synergistic antitumor activity in HER2-positive gastric cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synergistic interaction of two antibodies targeting the same protein could be developed as an effective anti-cancer therapy. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20-25% of breast and gastric cancer patients, and HER2-targeted antibody therapy using trastuzumab is effective in many of these patients. Nonetheless, improving therapeutic efficacy and patient survival is important, particularly in patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer. Here, we describe the development of 1E11, a HER2-targeted humanized monoclonal antibody showing increased efficacy in a highly synergistic manner in combination with trastuzumab in the HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cell lines NCI-N87 and OE-19. The two antibodies bind to sub-domain IV of the receptor, but have non-overlapping epitopes, allowing them to simultaneously bind HER2. Treatment with 1E11 alone induced apoptosis in HER2-positive cancer cells, and this effect was enhanced by combination treatment with trastuzumab. Combination treatment with 1E11 and trastuzumab reduced the levels of total HER2 protein and those of aberrant HER2 signaling molecules including phosphorylated HER3 and EGFR. The synergistic antitumor activity of 1E11 in combination with trastuzumab indicates that it could be a novel potent therapeutic antibody for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing gastric cancers. PMID:25306393

Ko, Bong-Kook; Lee, Sook-Yeon; Lee, Young-Ha; Hwang, In-Sik; Persson, Helena; Rockberg, Johan; Borrebaeck, Carl; Park, Dongeun; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Uhlen, Mathias; Lee, Jong-Seo

2015-02-01

93

Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

94

Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

95

Irish Mathematics Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper through the theoretical framework of constructive attitude theory explores mathematics teachers' attitudes and pedagogical strategies with reference to inclusive practice. The authors argue that though teachers may have formed positive inclusive attitudes, the translation of these into practice does not always occur and poses…

Whitty, Elaine; Clarke, Marie

2012-01-01

96

Multivariate Effects of Level of Education, Computer Ownership, and Computer Use on Female Students’ Attitudes towards CALL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating Iranian female students’ attitude towards CALL and its relationship with their level of education, computer ownership, and frequency of use. One hundred and forty-two female students (50 junior high-school students, 49 high-school students and 43 university students participated in this study. They filled in A-CALL questionnaire that assessed their attitudes towards CALL with respect to four factors: effectiveness of CALL vs. non-CALL, surplus value of CALL, teacher influence, and degree of exhibition to CALL. The findings revealed that the sample had a general positive attitude towards CALL while they showed the highest positive attitudes towards teacher influence and the lowest positive attitudes towards effectiveness of CALL vs. non-CALL. Students’ attitude toward CALL across level of education was found to be significantly different just in degree of exhibition to CALL; while university students had the highest level of positive attitudes in this regard. Further, computer ownership could make a difference in students’ attitude towards teacher influence. No statistically significant difference was found between the attitudes of those students who used computer more frequently and those students who did not use it quite often.

Mehrak Rahimi

2012-03-01

97

Candidate Teachers’ Attitude toward Scientific Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine candidate teachers’ attitude toward scientific research. The study was a descriptive survey. Study group was composed of 713 education faculty students. Data were collected with a scale called ‚Scale of attitude towards scientific research? developed by the researchers. Data analysis involved calculation of descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, min, max, frequency and percentile, analysis of variance (ANOVA, LSD, and t tests. As a result: Teacher candidates' attitude toward scientific researches levels are ‚high? according to all the factors. Teacher candidates' attitudes toward scientific researches levels are significantly different according to departments except ‚Positive Attitude toward Researches? factor. Teacher candidates' attitude toward scientific researches levels are significantly different according to genders for ‚Be ‚the reluctance of help researchers?, ‚Negative Attitude toward Researches? and ‚Positive Attitude toward Researches? factor.

Özgen KORKMAZ

2011-12-01

98

ATTITUDE OF STUDENT TEACHERS TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION  

OpenAIRE

Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers’ proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect on learning of the students. Attitude being a social construct is influenced by many factors like gender social strata ,age, stream ...

Bhargava, Anupama; MK PATHY

2014-01-01

99

ATTITUDE OF PARENTS TOWARDS THEIR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN1  

OpenAIRE

Parents of 50 mentally retarded children were investigated for their attitudes towards their retarded children. Both the parents showed more negative attitudes toward their severely retarded child. In general mothers exhibited more negative attitude than the fathers.

Rastogi, C. K.

1981-01-01

100

Negative Attitudes, Network and Education  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead to an ambiguous impact. Empirically, we consider immigrants’ high school attendance. On the macro-level, we confirm a signficant negative correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. On the individual level, we use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives and find no significant impact of negative attitudes.

Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth

101

The role of media and peer influences in Australian women's attitudes towards cosmetic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to examine the influence of media and peers on attitudes towards cosmetic surgery using a sociocultural framework. A sample of 351 Australian women aged 18-69 years completed measures of media exposure, friend conversations, internalisation of appearance ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. Correlational analysis showed that almost all media and friend variables were significantly correlated with positive attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. A structural equation model based on the sociocultural model showed a good level of fit to the data. The effects of media exposure and friend conversations on body dissatisfaction and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery were mediated by internalisation. We concluded that media exposure and friend conversations affected attitudes towards cosmetic surgery both directly and indirectly. Our results contribute to the understanding of the sociocultural mechanisms underlying women's motivations for cosmetic surgery. PMID:25129686

Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

2014-09-01

102

The tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism gene shows locus homogeneity on chromosome 15q11-q13 and evidence of multiple mutations in southern African negroids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the melanin pigmentary system. South African ty-pos OCA individuals occur with two distinct phenotypes, with or without darkly pigmented patches (ephelides, or dendritic freckles) on exposed areas of the skin. These phenotypes are concordant within families, suggesting that there may be more than one mutation at the ty-pos OCA locus. Linkage studies carried out in 41 families have shown linkage between markers in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region on chromosome 15q11-q13 and ty-pos OCA. Analysis showed no obligatory crossovers between the alleles at the D15S12 locus and ty-pos OCA, suggesting that the D15S12 locus is very close to or part of the disease locus, which is postulated to be the human homologue, P, of the mouse pink-eyed dilution gene, p. Unlike caucasoid [open quotes]ty-pos OCA[close quotes] individuals, negroid ty-pos OCA individuals do not show any evidence of locus heterogeneity. Studies of allelic association between the polymorphic alleles detected at the D15S12 locus and ephelus status suggest that there was a single major mutation giving rise to ty-pos OCA without ephelides. There may, however, be two major mutations causing ty-pos OCA with ephelides, one associated with D15S12 allele 1 and the other associated with D15S12 allele 2. The two loci, GABRA5 and D15S24, flanking D15S12, are both hypervariable, and many different haplotypes were observed with the alleles at the three loci on both ty-pos OCA-associated chromosomes and [open quotes]normal[close quotes] chromosomes. No haplotype showed statistically significant association with ty-pos OCA, and thus none could be used to predict the origins of the ty-pos OCA mutations. On the basis of the D15S12 results, there is evidence for multiple ty-pos OCA mutations in southern African negroids. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Kedda, M.A.; Stevens, G.; Manga, P.; Viljoen, C.; Jenkins, T.; Ramsay, M. (South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg (South Africa) Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

1994-06-01

103

Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological processes in the soil have been modelled with simulation model SWAP. The experiment started in 2010 and is ongoing. Data, collected so far show that the plots with controlled drainage (all compared with plots equipped with conventional drainage) conserve more rain water (higher groundwater tables in early spring), lower discharges under average weather conditions and storm events, reduce N-loads and saline seepage to surface waters, enhance denitrification, show a different 'first flush' effect and show similar crop yields. The results of the experiments will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of controlled drainage on complex hydrological en geochemical processes in agricultural clay soils, the interaction between ground- en surface water and its effects on drain water quantity, quality and crop yield.

schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

2014-05-01

104

Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

Science.gov (United States)

Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

2012-01-01

105

Examining Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes towards Teaching Profession and Pupil Control Ideology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The attitude of teachers towards teaching profession is as important as teaching knowledge. It is estimated that teachers who have positive attitudes towards teaching profession may show humanistic attitudes and behaviors to students. Therefore, this study examines correlation between attitudes towards teaching profession and pupil control ideology of teacher candidates. The participants of the study comprise 281 teacher candidates at Ondokuz May?s University’s Faculty of Education. In this study, two instruments were used for data gathering. “Teaching Profession Attitude Scale” was used to evaluate the attitudes towards teaching profession of the teacher candidates. “Pupil Control Ideology Inventory” was used for determining the level of pupil control ideology of teacher candidates on a humanistic-custodial dimension. The results of Pearson moment correlation analysis indicated that the pupil control ideology was negatively correlated with the attitude towards teaching profession of teacher candidates. According to simple regression analysis, the attitude towards teaching profession is a significant predictor for pupil control ideology on teacher candidates T-test analysis indicated that there was no significant difference according to gender in terms of pupil control ideology and the attitude towards teaching profession of teacher candidates.

Ebru O?UZ

2011-12-01

106

Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome  

OpenAIRE

We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

Nicoletta Testoni; Anna Ferrari; Claudia Venturi; Alessandro Broccoli; Ilaria Iacobucci; Maria Chiara Abbenante; Chiara Sartor; Cristina Papayannidis; Giovanni Martinelli

2013-01-01

107

Supermarkets in Portugal: corporate social responsibility image, attitude towards the brand and purchase intention  

OpenAIRE

Recently, companies developed strategies which may influence their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image. This paper discusses the image of four different supermarkets with stores in Portugal. The research compares CSR image and brand attitude of the four supermarkets. Empirical evidence shows that different supermarkets belonging to the same company have different CSR image and brand attitude. The research also confirms that there is positive correlation between CSR imag...

Pereira, Ine?s Veiga

2010-01-01

108

Parents' attitudes about their children's cleft lip and palate in Hong Kong  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates the concerns, attitudes and stress of Hong Kong parents of children with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP). Twenty-three parents participated and were asked to fill in two questionnaires. The results showed that parents generally had similar concerns to other parents in Hong Kong, including health, social development and performance in school. They tended to possess positive attitudes towards CLP. However, they would not want their children to have CLP if th...

Chu, Wing-yan; ???

2010-01-01

109

Nonlinear Robust Control for Spacecraft Attitude  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nonlinear robust control of the spacecraft attitude with the existence of external disturbances is considered. A robust attitude controller is designed based on the passivity approach the quaternion representation, which introduces the suppression vector of external disturbance into the control law and does not need angular velocity measurement. Stability conditions of the robust attitude controller are given. And the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the attitude controller.

Wang Lina

2013-07-01

110

Recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage in treatment with dasatinib in a patient showing SMAD4 mutation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Philadelphia positive and juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia.

Nicoletta Testoni

2013-06-01

111

Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes show reduced frequencies of CD4+ CD8+ double-positive T cells  

OpenAIRE

Even though the expression of CD4 and CD8 on thymocytes is considered mutually exclusive, CD4+ CD8+ double-positive T cells (DP) represent a small subset of T lymphocytes that have been described in the peripheral blood of normal individuals, as well as in some pathological conditions. In particular, an agedependent accumulation of monoclonal DP has been shown in elderly healthy subjects. From the functional point of view, DP are able to act as differentiated effec...

Fozza, Claudio; Contini, Salvatore; Virdis, Patrizia; Galleu, Antonio; Massa, Antonella; Bonfigli, Silvana; Longinotti, Maurizio Roberto

2012-01-01

112

Evaluation of three tumor markers (CEA, CA19-9, nm-23) in tumor tissues of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma showing positive peritoneal lavage solution for malignant cells  

OpenAIRE

Background: Approximately 50% of patients with serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma develop peritoneal recurrence and die of this disease during the first 2 years, even if curative resection is performed. Peritoneal lavage samples (PLS) from 31 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were obtained at laparotomy and the free cancer cells in the lavage solution were investigated. The aim of this study was to compare positive peritoneal lavage solution compare with expression in gastric carcinoma CEA,...

Fatma Tokat; I??n Soyuer; Hülya Akgün; Mehmet Aslan; Mustafa Kula

2007-01-01

113

Metacognition, study habits and attitudes  

OpenAIRE

This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between fifth grade students’ metacognition levels, and their study habits and attitudes. Participants of the study consist of 221 students, 125 female and 96 male, enrolling to six public primary schools in Turkey. The results revealed that there is a medium positive relationship between metacognitive knowledge and skills and study habits (r = .351, p < .05), study attitudes (r = .415, p < .05) and study orientation (r = .434, p < .05...

O?zsoy, Gokhan; Memi?s?, Aysel; Temur, Turan

2009-01-01

114

Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion  

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Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN. Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001 and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004, has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.

André Kunz

2010-12-01

115

Fulltime employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to explore the employees' attitudes towards working culture in Serbia in order to contribute to the efforts for positive changes in the Serbian economy. Qualitative survey of attitudes was realized through the use of focus groups. Participants were fulltime employees from five developed and underdeveloped locations in Serbia. The results showed that the main obstacle to improving the working culture of employees is massive failure of the labour inspections and unfavorable political environment. Until the state does not ensure effective implementation of ratified ILO Conventions and labour related adopted legislative, there are no conditions for developing quality working culture and economic progress in Serbia.

Kordi? Ljiljana

2012-06-01

116

Positive attitudes of French general practitioners towards A/H1N1 influenza-pandemic vaccination: a missed opportunity to increase vaccination uptakes in the general public?  

OpenAIRE

Attitudes of general practitioners (GPs) towards A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination are unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with computer-assisted telephone interviewing in the French Regional Panel of General Practices from June 16 to September 22, 2009. Of 1434 respondents representative of GPs in four French regions, 885 (61.7%) were willing to accept A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination for themselves. The personal history of seasonal flu vaccination was the strongest independent predictive fa...

Schwarzinger, Michae?l; Verger, Pierre; Guerville, Marc-andre?; Aubry, Catherine; Rolland, Sophie; Obadia, Yolande; Moatti, Jean-paul

2010-01-01

117

Evaluation of three tumor markers (CEA, CA19-9, nm-23 in tumor tissues of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma showing positive peritoneal lavage solution for malignant cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of patients with serosa-invasive gastric carcinoma develop peritoneal recurrence and die of this disease during the first 2 years, even if curative resection is performed. Peritoneal lavage samples (PLS from 31 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were obtained at laparotomy and the free cancer cells in the lavage solution were investigated. The aim of this study was to compare positive peritoneal lavage solution compare with expression in gastric carcinoma CEA, CA19-9, nm23 immunohistochemically and CEA and CA19-9 levels of systemic and portal venous blood.Materials and Methods: Peritoneal lavage samples from 31 patients with gastric carcinoma were obtained at laparotomy. To identify the free cancer cells in the samples, cytopathologic examinations were performed. Systemic venous blood samples were taken from all diagnosed gastric malignancy patients. In addition, portal blood samples were taken in order to measure CEA and CA 19-9 levels in the blood samples. By immunohistochemical analyses for CEA, CA19-9 and nm23 were performed all gastric operation specimens. For statistical analyses, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used.Results: The study group was comprised of 31 advanced gastric carcinoma patients. Of these patients, 16 were diffuse and the remaining 15 were diagnosed with intestinal type gastric carcinoma. Serosal invasion of tumor cells were established in 24 patients and of those patients, 6 had positive peritoneal lavage solutions. There were no patients with positive peritoneal lavage solution without serosal involvement. There was no significant correlation of immunohistochemical expression of CEA, CA19-9 and nm23 and PLS, although correlation of PLS and systemic CEA, CA19-9 and venous CEA levels were found to be significant (p<0.05.Discussion: Cytologic examination for malignant cell investigation in PLS is a simple, inexpensive and quick method, however the sensitivity of this method is not very high. Additional methods could be used for the investigation of malign cells in PLS.

Fatma Tokat

2007-02-01

118

Preservice teachers' attitudes toward the inclusion of heritage education in elementary social studies  

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Full Text Available This study explores pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward heritage education, an approach to teaching history grounded in first-hand experiences with material culture. The research was conducted at a large Midwestern university in the United States, in a methods course that included 28 pre-service teachers. Data were derived from both quantitative and qualitative instruments, including attitude surveys completed before and after classroom activities and a field trip to a local history museum; these activities aimed to introduce teachers to the meaning and purpose of using material history in elementary classrooms. We found that pre-service teachers already had highly positive attitudes toward inclusion of heritage education; that they considered heritage resources educationally valuable; and that they wanted to use such resources in their teaching. Participants’ attitudes, however, showed little or no change after participating in classroom activities, presumably because their initial perceptions of heritage materials were so uniformly positive

Cemil C. YE??LBURSA

2011-11-01

119

Values of Catholic science educators: Their impact on attitudes of science teaching and learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This quantitative study examined the associations between the values held by middle school science teachers in Catholic schools and their attitudes towards science teaching. A total of six value types were studied---theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. Teachers can have negative, positive, or neutral attitudes towards their teaching that are linked to their teaching practices and student learning. These teachers' attitudes may affect their competence and have a subsequent impact on their students' attitudes and dispositions towards science. Of particular interest was the relationship between science teaching attitudes and religious values. A non-experimental research design was used to obtain responses from 54 teachers with two survey instruments, the Science Teaching Attitude Scale II and the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that political values were negatively associated with attitudes towards science teaching. Data collected were inconsistent with the existence of any measurable association between religious values and attitudes towards science teaching. This study implies that science teacher preparation programs should adopt a more contextual perspective on science that seeks to develop the valuation of science within a cultural context, as well as programs that enable teachers to identify the influence of their beliefs on instructional actions to optimize the impact of learning new teaching practices that may enhance student learning.

DeMizio, Joanne Greenwald

120

Comparison of nursing students’ and clinical nurses’ attitude toward the nursing profession  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: To develop nursing education and promote nursing strategies, there is a need for a staff with positive attitude. The present study was conducted to compare the attitudes among clinical nurses and nursing students toward the nursing profession. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- analytical study 313 clinical nurses and 81 nursing students (total n = 394) of Tehran, Iran, were selected through a systematic sampling method and their viewpoints were investigated using a nursing professional attitude questionnaire. Results: The findings of this study showed that 72.6% of nurses and 65.4% of students had positive attitude toward their profession, and despite the high percentage of the clinical nurses’ positive outlook, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that approximately one-third of the students and nursing practitioners had neutral or negative attitude toward their occupation. Due to the serious effect of one’s professional attitude and commitment of service, it is necessary to have further studies about the current situation to eliminate such negative factors. PMID:23853651

Koushali, Ali Noruzi; Hajiamini, Zahra; Ebadi, Abbas

2012-01-01

121

Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PAD1 and FDC1 show a positive relationship with ferulic acid decarboxylation ability among industrial yeasts used in alcoholic beverage production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among industrial yeasts used for alcoholic beverage production, most wine and weizen beer yeasts decarboxylate ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, which has a smoke-like flavor, whereas sake, shochu, top-fermenting, and bottom-fermenting yeast strains lack this ability. However, the factors underlying this difference among industrial yeasts are not clear. We previously confirmed that both PAD1 (phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR538W) and FDC1 (ferulic acid decarboxylase gene, YDR539W) are essential for the decarboxylation of phenylacrylic acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAD1 and FDC1 in sake, shochu, wine, weizen, top-fermenting, bottom-fermenting, and laboratory yeast strains were examined to clarify the differences in ferulic acid decarboxylation ability between these types of yeast. For PAD1, a nonsense mutation was observed in the gene sequence of standard top-fermenting yeast. Gene sequence analysis of FDC1 revealed that sake, shochu, and standard top-fermenting yeasts contained a nonsense mutation, whereas a frameshift mutation was identified in the FDC1 gene of bottom-fermenting yeast. No nonsense or frameshift mutations were detected in laboratory, wine, or weizen beer yeast strains. When FDC1 was introduced into sake and shochu yeast strains, the transformants exhibited ferulic acid decarboxylation activity. Our findings indicate that a positive relationship exists between SNPs in PAD1 and FDC1 genes and the ferulic acid decarboxylation ability of industrial yeast strains. PMID:24507903

Mukai, Nobuhiko; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

2014-07-01

122

Do medical students like communication? Validation of the German CSAS (Communication Skills Attitude Scale)  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Attitudes towards communication skills of medical undergraduates can be gathered using the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS). We aimed to develop a German version of the CSAS (CSAS-G) in order to explore attitudes towards communication skills in a German cohort. Additionally the potential influence of demographic factors was examined. Methods: We realized the CSAS-G and conducted a survey with 529 participants from 3 different years of study. We then carried out an explorative as well as confirmatory factor analysis and compared the attitudinal scores. Multiple regression analysis was performed. Results: The confirmatory analysis confirmed the two-subscale system revealed by the explorative factor analysis. Students indicate low levels of negative attitudes and moderate levels of positive attitudes. Attitudinal scores differ significantly in relation to gender. Conclusion: The CSAS-G can be used in German cohorts to evaluate attitudes towards communication skills. Medical students in our study show basically a positive approach. Further investigation is necessary to explore and understand attitudes towards communication skills of German medical students.

Busch, Anne-Kathrin; Rockenbauch, Katrin; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar

2015-01-01

123

GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).  

CERN Multimedia

GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

2004-01-01

124

Attitude, interest, and motivation for adoption and foster care.  

Science.gov (United States)

This survey compares prospective foster and adoptive parents' attitudes, willingness, and motivations, and discusses implications for media campaigns. The results show that demographic profiles of targets for adoption and foster placements are the same, an opportunity exists to shape positive attitudes toward foster care in immigrant populations, the most compelling way to attract parents is to focus on the child in need, and testimonials of personal experiences of foster and adoptive parents should address perceived barriers to adopting or fostering. Political, religious, and environmental ideology were unrelated to attitudes or willingness to adopt or foster. Respondents with strong identifications with gay or lesbian lifestyles exhibited a higher than average willingness to adopt or foster. PMID:14736030

Tyebjee, Tyzoon

2003-01-01

125

“It’s Like Being in a Labyrinth:” Hispanic Immigrants’ Perceptions of Depression and Attitudes Toward Treatments  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to describe Hispanic immigrants’ perceptions of depression and attitudes toward treatments and to examine how demographics, acculturation, clinical factors, and past service use were associated with their perceptions and attitudes. A convenience sample of 95 Hispanic immigrant patients was presented a vignette depicting an individual with major depression. Structured interviews that included standardized instruments and open-ended questions were used to query patients about their views of depression and its treatments. Findings showed that Hispanic immigrants perceived depression as a serious condition caused by interpersonal and social factors. Consistent with existing literature, most patients endorsed positive attitudes toward depression treatments yet reported apprehensions toward antidepressants. Demographic factors, acculturation, depressive symptoms, and past mental health service use were related to patients’ views of depression and attitudes toward care. This study emphasizes the need to incorporate Hispanic immigrants’ perceptions and attitudes into depression treatments. PMID:17001516

Lester, Rebecca; Zayas, Luis H.

2011-01-01

126

Attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. Structure and causes; Attityd till slutfoervar av anvaent kaernbraensle. Struktur och orsaker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of a questionnaire survey of attitudes towards a final repository for the spent nuclear fuel. The questionnaire was mailed to 3,000 persons. Participants were young and older people in Oskarshamn municipality and Oesthammar municipality as well as in the rest of the country. Fifty-one percent responded. The questionnaire included a large number of questions of possible relevance for understanding the structure of and reasons for the person's attitude towards a final repository. Questions concerning nuclear power were dealt with in a special section. Men were more positively disposed towards a repository than women, older people more than young. The gender differences are mainly attributable to the variation in attitude towards nuclear power and concern about nuclear accidents. In the case of older people, interest was also a factor. Young people were not as interested in the issue. The most important factor in determining the attitude towards a final repository was the benefit it was expected to bring to the municipality. Moral and emotional aspects were also important. Risk played a relatively subordinate role. Social aspects were very important: those who frequently spoke with people who were positively disposed tended to be positive themselves, and vice versa for those who were negative. This factor could explain some of the gender differences in attitude. Attitudes in Oskarshamn were slightly more positive than in Oesthammar, probably due to the fact that the residents in Oskarshamn had a greater sense of participation in the municipality's decision in the matter. Information from SKB was also found to be an important factor for the differences in attitude between the municipalities. Eight percentage points more people had received information in Oskarshamn than in Oesthammar. The difference may be small, but it exists and does appear to be of some importance. Attitudes in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar continued to be much more positive than in the rest of the country, which was probably due to the availability of information but also to the fact that many people in these municipalities worked in the nuclear industry. Despite the positive attitude, there had been some decrease in positivity since 2005, especially among young people, perhaps due to the incidents in Forsmark in the summer of 2006 and in February 2007. It is interesting that there does not seem to have been a corresponding decrease in positivity in attitudes towards nuclear power in the country as a whole. When it came to nuclear power, the results showed that people had a fairly positive attitude towards the Swedish nuclear power programme, whose benefit was the most important component of this attitude. There was, however, some concern, and attitudes had become less positive in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar since 2005. Men were more positive than women, and older people more than young. Risk played a less important role, but a factor of great importance for attitudes was whether the person believed that a substitute could be found for nuclear power or not. Emotional reactions were important, but general values were less important for the attitude towards nuclear power. Social aspects seemed to play an important role for both the attitude towards a final repository and the attitude towards nuclear power: those who spoke with people who were negatively disposed tended to share that attitude, and the same was true of those who were positive. This factor may be part of the explanation for the gender differences in the attitude towards nuclear power, as well as the attitude towards a final repository

Sjoeberg, Lennart (Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research)

2008-09-15

127

Self-Directed Learning and Student Attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is a commonly held belief that students who enjoy their experience of school perform better academically. Thus, educators often struggle with the questions of how best to motivate students and how to make learning fun. Some parents and educators, however, have simply moved away from traditional educational practices and are choosing to let students take charge of their own learning. The intent of this study is to evaluate the attitudes of students in two Sudbury model schools - schools in which students from ages 4-19 are completely responsible for their own education - and to show the positive correlation between freedom and choice in the learning environment and positive student attitudes. This study involves the opinions of 23 students from two Sudbury model schools, forming a small focus group. The schools both volunteered for the study, and students were asked if they would like to participate. The students who participated ranged in age from 4-16. Each completed a questionnaire that included both scaled questions and open-ended questions. Overall, students reported having a very positive experience of school as assessed by the questionnaire. There were also recognizable trends in their narrative answers that pointed towards an overall appreciation for the level of freedom in their schools. In general, the study proved that in the group surveyed there is a positive correlation between freedom in the educational environment and the students' attitudes about school. This study points to the validity of self-direction in the learning environment, and notes several options for follow-up studies.

Jennifer Schwartz

2007-01-01

128

The morality of attitudes toward nanotechnology: about God, techno-scientific progress, and interfering with nature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using survey data, we examine public attitudes toward and awareness of nanotechnology in Germany (N = 750). First, it is shown that a majority of the people are still not familiar with nanotechnology. In addition, diffusion of information about nanotechnology thus far mostly seems to reach men and people with a relative higher educational background. Also, pro-science and technology views are positively related with nanotech familiarity. Results further show that a majority of the people have an indifferent, ambiguous, or non-attitude toward nanotechnology. Multinomial logit analyses further reveal that nanotech familiarity is positively related with people's attitudes. In addition, it is shown that traditional religiosity is unrelated to attitudes and that individual religiosity is weakly related to nanotechnology attitudes. However, moral covariates other than religiosity seem of major importance. In particular, our results show that more negative views on technological and scientific progress as well as more holistic views about the relation between people and the environment increase the likelihood of having a negative attitude toward nanotechnology.

Vandermoere, Frederic, E-mail: Frederic_Vandermoere@hks.harvard.ed [Program on Science, Technology and Society, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Blanchemanche, Sandrine [INRA Paris, Metarisk Department (France); Bieberstein, Andrea [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany); Marette, Stephan [INRA, UMR Economie publique (France); Roosen, Jutta [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer BWL - Marketing und Konsumforschung (Germany)

2010-02-15

129

Evaluation of relationship between metacognition components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metacognitive components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II. Methods: Thirty-six young adult outpatients with current diagnoses of BMD II(20 females and 16 males were recruited from Esfahan Counseling Center. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder-Clinical Version(SCID-CV. A battery of questionnaires including Metacognition Questionnaire and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale(DAS were self-assessed by patients before medical therapy. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the components of metacognition and its relationship with dysfunctional attitudes is positive and significant(r= 28/0, p<0/05. Multiple regression analysis showed that two of the metacognitive components emerged as potentially useful in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes(negative beliefs about uncontrollability, danger and thoughts control. Also, results indicated that those two components have a significant positive relationship with vulnerability, perfectionism and effectivenessR²= 0/29, 0/35; p<0/05. Components of positive beliefs about worry and beliefs about cognitive self-consciousness related to cognitive confidence in predicting the criterion variable and its components showed no significant contribution. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that DSM-IV BMD II outpatients with metacognitive distortions have shown higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes.

H Kazemi

2012-05-01

130

????????????????????????? A case study of faculty attitudes toward collaboration with librarians to integrate information literacy into the curriculum  

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Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Faculty-librarian partnership in information literacy (IL instruction through subject course has been advocated within LIS field over years. In order to understand faculty attitudes toward collaboration with librarians to integrate IL into their curriculum, a survey was conducted at Feng Chia University. Findings show positive attitudes from faculty while differences were observed among ages. Meanwhile, different attitudes were revealed between teaching higher order thinking skills and lower order thinking skills. Librarian Domain Knowledge, Librarian Professionalism, Curriculum Strategies, and Student Learning were identified as factorial dimensions influencing faculty-librarian collaboration.

Tien-Yu Cha

2009-06-01

131

Iranian EFL Learners’ Attitude towards Idioms in English  

OpenAIRE

Iranian EFL learners have proven to have a positive attitude towards English in general. This study is an attempt to investigate the attitude of the Iranian EFL learners towards learning and producing idioms in particular. A random number of 40 students majoring in English translation and Literature at Isfahan University, Iran was surveyed using an attitude questionnaire. The domains used for the purposes of the study were: a) interest in English, b) attitudes towards learning English, and...

Maedeh Tadayyon; Saeed Ketabi

2014-01-01

132

Beyond the Classroom Walls: Edmodo in Saudi Secondary School EFL Instruction, Attitudes and Challenges  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates the prospects of integrating Edmodo into Saudi EFL female secondary school instruction. It concentrates on students’ perceptions and challenges regarding Edmodo use and its effect on their attitudes towards EFL learning. The 42 participants were divided into two groups. The experimental group received traditional teaching plus a six-week daily interaction via Edmodo. The control group received traditional teaching only. Findings of the post-treatment questionnaire show that students’ perceptions towards Edmodo were highly positive andthat although there were considerable challenges to its integration, it appeared to have excellent potential for generating more positive attitudes towards EFL learning.

Fatimah Al-Kathiri

2014-12-01

133

Student nurses' attitudes towards professional containment methods used in psychiatric wards and perceptions of aggression.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine student nurses' attitudes towards professional containment methods used in psychiatric wards and its relation to their perception of aggression. We employed a cross-sectional descriptive design to evaluate nurses' attitudes. Participants included 120 student nurses who were enrolled in psychiatric nursing during their fourth (final) year of education. The 'Attitude to Containment Measures Questionnaire' and 'The Perception of Aggression Scale' were used for assessments. Student nurses exhibited positive attitudes toward 'intermittent observation', 'Pro re nata Medication' and 'Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit', respectively. The least approved method was 'net bed'. The data showed a negative correlation between approval of 'Intra-Muscular Medication' and 'mechanical restraint' with the perception that aggression was dysfunctional/unacceptable. Student nurses who believed that professional containment methods were effective also perceived aggression as less functional/acceptable. These results emphasize the importance of health care perceptions of aggression towards patients and their experience with containment measures. PMID:25157938

Ozcan, Neslihan Keser; Bilgin, Hülya; Bad?rgal? Boyac?o?lu, Nur Elçin; Kaya, Fadime

2014-08-01

134

Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on the development of implicit intergroup attitudes has placed heavy emphasis on race, leaving open how social categories that are prominent in other cultures might operate. We investigate two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of implicit and explicit attitudes towards these groups in minority-status Muslim children and majority-status Hindu children, the latter drawn from various positions in the Hindu caste system. Results from two tests of implicit attitudes find that caste attitudes parallel previous findings for race: higher-caste children as well as lower-caste children have robust high-caste preferences. However, results for religion were strikingly different: both lower-status Muslim children and higher-status Hindu children show strong implicit ingroup preferences. We suggest that religion may play a protective role in insulating children from the internalization of stigma. PMID:24205988

Dunham, Yarrow; Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dotsch, Ron; Barner, David

2014-03-01

135

Attitudes towards telework for continuity planning in Japan  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the suitability of telework for business continuity planning (BCP) in Japan by looking at how views on telework are shaped by demographic characteristics, organizational culture, and individuals' use of technology. The study surveyed regular employees with experience of the 2011 T¯ohoku earthquake (n=39) and their responses were analyzed using cross-tabulation analysis. The results showed generally positive attitudes towards telework, overwhelmingly so with respect to BCP...

Maria, Bourna; Hitoshi, Mitomo

2012-01-01

136

Metacognition, Study Habits and Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is conducted to investigate the relationship between fifth grade students' metacognition levels, and their study habits and attitudes. Participants of the study consist of 221 students, 125 female and 96 male, enrolling to six public primary schools in Turkey. The results revealed that there is a medium positive relationship between…

Ozsoy, Gokhan; Memis, Aysel; Temur, Turan

2009-01-01

137

What Research Says about Effective Teaching for Promoting Achievement and Positive Attitudes in Students. An Instructional Module Prepared for Undergraduate Teacher Education in the RAFT Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

This module, developed by the Research Applications for Teaching (RAFT) project, was written to introduce the preservice teacher to the research base for effective teaching. Particular attention was given to the characteristics of teachers and teaching found in research literature to be associated with achievement and the development of positive

Handley, Herbert M., Ed.

138

Effects of a Persuasive Communication on Beliefs, Attitudes, and Career Choice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uses Martin Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action to formulate a persuasive communication to influence unclassified U.S. college students to consider a career as a registered nurse. Finds the experimental group shows a significant positive change in beliefs, attitudes, and intentions, unlike the control group exposed to a neutral message only. (NL)

Strader, Marlene K.; Katz, Barry M.

1990-01-01

139

Language and Intergroup Contact: Investigating the Impact of Bilingual Instruction on Children’s Intergroup Attitudes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This study examined the impact of bilingual versus English-only instruction on the intergroup attitudes of White, English-speaking children in kindergarten through second grade. Replicating prior research, White children generally showed a clear preference toward the ingroup in terms of positive evaluations, friendship preference, and perceived similarity to the self. However, all three effects wer...

Wright, Stephen C.; Tropp, Linda R.

2005-01-01

140

Principal-Teacher Interactions: How Affective Relationships Shape Principal and Teacher Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Research finds that the attitudes of principals and teachers create an atmosphere for learning, often referred to as school climate, that influences school effectiveness. Other research shows that atmospheres of trust, shared vision, and openness create positive school climate conditions. Little is known, however, about how these climates…

Price, Heather E.

2012-01-01

141

Contact, Perspective Taking, and Anxiety as Predictors of Stereotype Endorsement, Explicit Attitudes, and Implicit Attitudes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract We proposed a model of intergroup contact wherein contact promotes understanding of outgroup perspectives, perspective taking relates to reduced intergroup anxiety that in turn is associated with lessened stereotyping and more positive intergroup attitudes. Additionally, we examined if implicit attitudes followed this model or were directly impacted by contact. White undergraduates (n = 153) completed measures of contact, perspective taking, intergroup anxiety, stereotype ...

Aberson, Christopher L.; Haag, Sarah C.

2007-01-01

142

Greek Nurses Attitudes towards Death  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies explore the attitudes of nurses caring for dying patients but this is the first oneexploring Greek nurses’ attitude toward death.Purpose/Objectives: To assess how Greek nurses feel about death and examine any relationships between theirattitudes and demographic factors.Design: Descriptive quantitative. The sample comprised of 150 hospital nurses (response rate 64%.Method: Voluntary and anonymous completion of the Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R, and ademographic questionnaire. The Death Attitude Profile–Revised (DAP-R (Wong, Reker, & Gesser, 1994 is a32-item scale that uses a seven-point Likert scale to measure respondents' attitudes toward death. Demographicdata, including gender, age, previous experience working with terminally ill patients, work setting (inpatientversus outpatient, years practising as an RN were collected. No identifying information was collected from theparticipants, ensuring the results were anonymous.Results: 82% of respondents were female with a mean age of 35.54 years (19 min 48 max. The mean nursingexperience was 12.1 years. Average scores on the DAP-R sub-scales ranged from 2.90 (escape sub-scale to 5.63(neutral sub-scale. Statistically significant relationships were noted among gender, and scores on the DAP-R.Nursing experience and age were the variables most likely to predict nurses' attitudes toward death. Nurses withspecific education on palliative care had less difficulty talking about death and dying. The existence ofHospital-based teams (known as palliative care teams, supportive care teams, or symptom assessment teams hadstatistically significant relationship with fear of death and neutral acceptance scoresConclusions: In Greek hospitals nurses with more work experience tended to have more positive attitudes towarddeath and caring for dying patients.

Malliarou Maria

2011-04-01

143

HER2-positive gastric cancer showing marked thickening of the gastric wall on ultrasonographic and computed tomographic scans. a chance phenomenon or a specific behaviour of this cancer type? Report of three cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, gastric cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed type of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Recently, it was demonstrated that 15-20% of advanced gastro-oesophageal carcinomas overexpress human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2), one of a family of four identified human epidermal receptors. As in HER2-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting HER2 receptor, with chemotherapy improves prognosis, time-to-progression and overall survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) imaging of gastric cancer has been previously reported, however, to our knowledge HER2-positive gastric adenocarcinoma appearance on US and CT scans has not been previously described and no CT and US images of this variant of adenocarcinoma have been found. We herein report three cases of patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer that showed a marked thickening of the gastric wall on US and CT examination. PMID:25202095

DI Cicilia, Roberto; Mordenti, Patrizia; Anselmi, Elisa; Paties, Carlo; Carella, Egidio; Cavanna, Luigi

2014-09-01

144

Energy attitudes in Finland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy issues are at present heavily debated in Finland. Public discussion is very emotional and biased against nuclear power. The undetermined situation together with the need for a decision on increasing the nuclear capacity led Imatran Voima Oy (Imatra Power Company) to measure the prevailing attitudes. The paper discusses the energy opinion surveys recently made in Finland. The general results give evidence of the changes occurring in the values of life. Environmental issues and the purity of energy production are seen as the most important factors of energy policy. Low price or availability and reliability are considered less important. The results of the surveys show, however, that people think that more electricity will be needed in the future. Natural gas, peat and hydroelectric power are most favoured. The attitude towards the use of coal and nuclear power is clearly more diffuse. In the survey, 21% want to increase the share of nuclear power, 32% want to keep its use at the present level and 35% want to reduce it. This 35% includes the one-fifth of the population that would like to abandon nuclear power altogether. Nuclear wastes and accidents are considered the most important factors contributing to the formation of attitudes towards nuclear energy. The other main factors are discussed in the paper. A great desire for information on energy policy together with personal decision making interests reflect the general attitude in Finland also. Totally incorrectttitude in Finland also. Totally incorrect information on nuclear energy is, however, surprisingly prevalent, which makes opposition to nuclear power understandable. All these factors make taking a decision on a fifth nuclear power plant in Finland difficult. (author)

145

Attitude toward Advertising in General and Attitude toward a Specific Type of Advertising – A First Empirical Approach  

OpenAIRE

The paper examines based on international research the differences between results of studies focused on consumers’ attitude toward advertising. The aim of this paper is to show that it is possible to find situations where the influence of attitudes towards specific ads in general (ASG) on attitudes toward advertising (Aad) can be observed and also it is possible to find no influence of attitudes toward ads in general (AG) on Aad. The paper shows that the problem comes from the definition o...

Dianoux Christian; Linhart Zdenek; Vnouckova Lucie

2014-01-01

146

The Effect of a School-Based Helper Program on Adolescent Self-Image, Attitudes and Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined effects of participation in school-based helper program on adolescents' self-image, attitudes, and behaviors. Seventh-grade students (n=171) were divided into 2 groups, 1 required to engage in volunteer helping activities. Gender-specific results showed that boys in helper program showed positive changes in self-esteem relative to other…

Switzer, Galen E.; And Others

1995-01-01

147

CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS MOBILE MARKETING AND MOBILE COMMERCE IN CONSUMER MARKETS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in information and communication technologies are not only offering new marketing channels to companies but also significantly influencing the ways in which companies conduct their businesses and marketing activities. This paper analyses the possible significant impacts of mobile phone technology developments on marketing, and offers insights into mobile commerce and mobile marketing, which have not previously been investigated in Turkey. In the survey, mobile phone users’ attitudes towards mobile commerce and mobile marketing and their intentions to benefit from mobile phones are searched. The empirical results show that the mobile phone users’ adoption of mobile shopping is low, and apart from mobile shopping, mobile phone users have positive attitudes towards mobile advertising, entertainment, discount coupons and mobile marketing. Moreover, the demographics characteristics (age, income, occupation and employment of mobile phone users who have more positive attitudes towards mobile marketing tools are determined and managerial implications and recommendations are also given to increase mobile commerce and marketing adoption rates.

Süleyman BARUTÇU

2008-01-01

148

Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

2011-01-01

149

Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M?=?31.42, SD?=?16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically to different types of meat. PMID:25312749

Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

2015-01-01

150

Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

151

An Investigation of Students’ Attitudes and Motivations Toward Online Learning  

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Full Text Available This study investigated students’ attitudes and motivations toward online learning. Students in the online course, Introduction to the Visual Arts, were asked to complete questionnaires administered during the first and last week of the online course. A group of questions on Attitude was asked on both surveys. Questions on Interest, Self-management, and Locus of Control were asked only at the beginning of the course. The end of class survey included questions on Study Process Approach. Students in the study were found to have a strong internal Locus of Control. A significant correlation was found between a more internal locus of control and relying on surface strategies for learning. Another significant result was found on the Attitude pre- and post-course comparison regarding missing interaction with other students and getting more information through an online course. Generally, students’ attitude toward online learning was more positive during the last week of the course than in the first week. The study showed that this online course provided a sufficient amount of student to instructor interaction, a high amount of student to material interaction, and a low amount of student to student interaction.

Dennis Kerkman

2007-01-01

152

Gender differences in tenth-grade students' attitudes toward science: The effect of school type  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this mixed methods study was on 10th grade students' attitudes towards science. Its purpose was to examine the effect of gender and school-type on attitudes toward science. Research on attitudes toward science has focused on gender, school level, and classroom environment. Relatively little has been done on the effect of school type. In the present study, school type refers to the following variables; private vs. public, single-sex vs. coeducational and high vs. low-achieving schools. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there are gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the school type variables being investigated. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was the instrument used to provide quantitative data for this aspect of the study. TOSRA is a Likert scale consisting of seven subscales measuring different aspects of science attitudes. The qualitative component, on the other hand, explored students' perspectives on the factors, which were influential in the development of the attitudes that they hold. The events and experiences of their lives in and out-of-school, with respect to science, and the meanings that they make of these provided the data from which their attitudes toward science could be gleaned. Data for this component of the study was gathered by means of in-depth focus group interviews. The method of constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the interview transcripts. Statistical treatment of the questionnaire data involved the use of t tests and ANOVA. Findings did not reveal any gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were some differences on some of the subscales. School type did not appear to be a significant variable in students' attitudes to science. The results of both quantitative and qualitative components show that instructional strategy and teacher characteristics, both of which are components of the classroom environment are important factors shaping students' attitudes to science. These findings suggest that efforts to foster positive attitudes to science among high school students should focus on the enhancement of the high school science classroom environment.

Ndakwah, Ernestine Ajame

153

Assessment of the attitude of nursing students about obesity in the Semnan University of Medical Sciences  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Anecdotes abound about obesity and obese person being ridiculed and society attitudes about obese persons are clearly negative and many of health care workers, also believes these myths. This study was performed to determine the attitudes of nursing students of Semnan University of medical sciences about obesity myths. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive-analytic study and was performed on 115 of the nursing students of the Semnan University of Medical Sciences in May 2006. Data was collected with researcher-made questionnaire, which it was composed of demographic data and 25 common myths about obesity. The myths were selected from the internet using key word "Obesity myths". We used 5-point Likert scale for the assessment of nursing student's attitude. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS program using chi-square and spearman correlation test. Results: The result of study showed that nursing students have anti-fat bias towards obese individuals and some of their attitudes need corrections, however, 59/1% of the students have positive attitudes about obesity myths (disagreement with obesity myths. Conclusion: Nurses are at first line of confrontation with clients and patients. Beliefs and attitudes of nurses can contribute to providing care of obese individuals. More education about obesity concept is necessary.

N. Raees Dana

2006-11-01

154

STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTITUDE TOWARDS EDUCATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SECONDARY LEVEL MINORITY STUDENTS  

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Full Text Available Attitude is the belief that one has towards people and surroundings. In case of education, students’ positive attitude may influence their academic achievement. From the present study, the researchers also highlight that there are some prime factors like anxiety, socio-economical status etc. which may create barrier for academic achievement. In the present investigation, the researchers made an attempt to study the difference, if any, between boys and girls students of minority community in respect to their attitude towards education and academic achievement. The researchers also made an attempt to find out the correlation between attitude towards education and academic achievement. A sample of 257 (127 boys and 130 girls of secondary level minority students of class-X were selected randomly. Analyzing the data, the result shows that there is no significant difference between boys and girls students in attitude towards education and academic achievement scores. It was also found that attitude towards education and academic achievement have very low negative relation (-0.10 which is not statistically significant.

Samit Kumar Das

2014-11-01

155

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION  

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Full Text Available Providing Quality Education for All children in inclusive setting has beenidentified as the most challenging, yet the most important issue in education across theworld Inclusive Education is the practice of educating students with disabilitiesalongside children without disabilities in general classrooms. Right to Education (RTEAct, 2009 attempts to provide an enabling environment for all disabled children to enterschool, attend and complete elementary education on par with other children. Successfuland effective implementation of Inclusive Education depends upon teachers' knowledgeand positive attitudes towards it. The main aim of this study was to find out the attitudesof elementary school teachers towards Inclusive Education. The Attitude TowardsInclusive Education Scale (ATIES was administered to 78 teachers working inelementary schools in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. It was found thatelementary school teachers had a positive attitude towards Inclusive Education.Significant differences were found in the scores of attitude towards Inclusive Educationwith respect to gender, locality ,age, educational qualification and teaching experienceetc.

KANDIPALLI RAMAKRISHNARAO

2013-05-01

156

Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

1990-01-01

157

Should it be illegal for HIV-positive persons to have unprotected sex without disclosure?: An examination of attitudes among US men who have sex with men and the impact of state law  

OpenAIRE

The aims of this study were to describe the overall pattern and predictors of attitudes toward criminalizing unprotected sex without disclosure by persons living with HIV among a broad sample of MSM living in the US, and to examine whether attitudes and sexual risk behavior differ by states with HIV-specific laws or no such laws. Participants (n=1,725) were recruited in a 3.5 month period to complete a cross-sectional 70-minute online survey assessing attitudes and high risk sexual behavior. ...

Horvath, K. J.; Weinmeyer, R. M.; Rosser, B. R. S.

2010-01-01

158

Attitudes towards Carbon and Storage in Norway  

OpenAIRE

This study presents the results of a 2010 Internet survey conducted on 999 Norwegian citizens aiming to investigate and explain the main determinants of public attitudes towards carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), a technology considered crucial for mitigating adverse consequences of global climate change. The results confirmed the main hypothesis, in line with previous research based on risk psychology and the risk-benefit model: Attitudes towards CCS were positively related to benefit...

Berg-hansen, Anders

2011-01-01

159

Dental students and faculty members' attitudes towards care for underserved patients and community service: do community-based dental education and voluntary service-learning matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to explore 1) how students across the four years of a dental curriculum differed in attitudes towards underserved patients and community service at the beginning and end of each school year; 2) how these attitudes changed as a function of participating in required vs. voluntary community-based activities; and 3) what attitudes faculty members held about the effects of community service-learning on students. Surveys were distributed to 440 students at one dental school at the beginning and end of the school year. The overall response rate for those surveys was 75 percent, with variations among classes: first year, 94 percent; second year, 92 percent; third year, 69 percent; and fourth year, 43 percent. Survey data were also collected from twenty-two students (out of a possible forty-seven) who participated in voluntary service-learning and from fifty-four faculty members (out of approximately 150). The results showed that, at the beginning of the year, the first-year students' attitudes were more positive than the responses of students in all other cohorts. However, at the end of the year, their attitudes were less positive. Participating in voluntary service-learning improved students' attitudes towards treating underserved patients only in the short run, and experiencing ten weeks of community-based dental education did not improve their attitudes. The faculty respondents' attitudes, however, were quite positive. The decrease in students' positive attitudes towards treating underserved patients and participating in community service should raise questions about why this loss of idealism occurred. PMID:25086145

Volvovsky, Mariya; Vodopyanov, Dmitry; Inglehart, Marita R

2014-08-01

160

Performance Information, Blame Avoidance, and Politicians’ Attitudes to Spending and Reform: Evidence From an Experiment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Performance information has been argued to assist politicians in decision making on budgeting and reform, but research on how political decision makers respond to performance information is sparse. Building on blame-avoidance theory, we develop novel hypotheses concerning the impact of performance information on politicians’ attitudes to spending and reform. To isolate the causal effect of performance information, we conducted a randomized survey experiment among 844 Danish city councilors. Information treatments showing high and low performance had a positive effect on attitudes to spending, whereas information on average performance had a negative effect on spending attitudes. Moreover, information showing high performance rendered politicians less willing to pursue reform. We discuss the implications of these findings for the role of performance information in public administration.

Nielsen, Poul Aaes; Bækgaard, Martin

2013-01-01

161

Team climate and attitudes toward information and communication technology among nurses on acute psychiatric wards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To describe the association of team climate with attitudes toward information and communication technology among nursing staff working on acute psychiatric wards. Background: Implementation of ICT applications in nursing practice brings new operating models to work environments, which may affect experienced team climate on hospital wards. Method: Descriptive survey was used as a study design. Team climate was measured by the Finnish modification of the Team Climate Inventory, and attitudes toward ICT by Burkes' questionnaire. The nursing staff (N?=?181, n?=?146) on nine acute psychiatric wards participated in the study. Results: It is not self-evident that experienced team climate associates with attitudes toward ICT, but there are some positive relationships between perceived team climate and ICT attitudes. The study showed that nurses' motivation to use ICT had statistically significant connections with experienced team climate, participative safety (p?=?0.021), support for innovation (p?=?0.042) and task orientation (p?=?0.042). Conclusion: The results suggest that asserting team climate and supporting innovative operations may lead to more positive attitudes toward ICT. It is, in particular, possible to influence nurses' motivation to use ICT. More attention should be paid to psychosocial factors such as group education and co-operation at work when ICT applications are implemented in nursing. PMID:24393065

Koivunen, Marita; Anttila, Minna; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Katajisto, Jouko; Välimäki, Maritta

2015-01-01

162

Attitudes of Intellectually Gifted Youth toward School.  

Science.gov (United States)

The School Attitude Measure was administered to 119 intellectually gifted students, grades 4-9. Results indicated that the students had very positive feelings and perceptions about their school performance and experiences, a good self-concept and confidence in their academic ability, and positive feelings about their interpersonal relationships.…

Karnes, Frances A.; Whorton, James E.

1988-01-01

163

PSYCHOSOCIAL SPORT MARKETING ATTITUDES OF  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the strategy implementations in the achievement of the Nigeria Sport policy development is effective sport marketing (Onifade, 1999. The Nigerian government has been said to be solely responsible for funding and marketing sports hence, achieving the sports developmental goal is at its lowest ebb (Esuku, 2003.This study examined the socio- psychological sports marketing attitudes of the stakeholders in the achievement of sports goal by 2020. It also determined attitudes of stakeholders towards sports marketing. The participants for the study consisted 1,200 Nigerian sampled from twelve States and from the various professions, who are stakeholders to sports marketing (corporate and private organizations, sports Journalists, sports psychologists, sports councils, ministry of sports, coaches, labour unions, University and athletes. They were purposively sampled. The main research tool was the questionnaire that was used to obtain information on the different variables. The descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages were used for the analysis of the demographic information, while inferential statistics of one way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance. The results confirmed that Nigerian government is solely responsible for marketing sports which ought not to be if effective sports marketing must be realized toward the attainment of the millennium goals. Also revealed are fair positive socio- psychological attitudes of few corporate organizations, and negative socio- psychological attitudes from individuals of most corporate organizations. Suggestions were advanced towards the improvement of achieving the sports developmental goals.

Tomas E. Boye

2011-05-01

164

Attitudes of pre-service teachers about computer supported education  

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Full Text Available A lot of technologies can be used in education environment. Computer has an important place in these technologies. The aim of this study is to investigate the attitude of the students of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education Department towards computer supported education in terms of class level, income level, and gender. 120 pre-service teachers from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education at Kazim Karabekir Educational Faculty participated in the survey. The results showed that the participants have a high level positive attitude about Computer Supported Education (CSE. No significant differences obtained depending on class level, income level, and gender. However, differences among groups obtained in terms of the questionnaire items which are creativity skills, preferring traditional teaching CSE, encouraging computer usage, using computer actively, reconciled computer with education, educational addition of CSE according to spent work; and enjoying.

Serkan Y?ld?r?m

2010-07-01

165

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV among the general staff of a public university in Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV. PMID:20485857

Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary

2009-12-01

166

Accent imitation positively affects language attitudes  

OpenAIRE

People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship an...

PattiAdank

2013-01-01

167

Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.

Fan?ovi?ová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

2010-10-01

168

Relationships between Attitudes to Irish, Social Class, Religion and National Identity in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on language attitudes in the Republic of Ireland has been greatly influenced by stratification theories. That is to say, differences in attitudes are seen to reflect the positions individuals occupy in the social structure. Research on language attitudes in Northern Ireland is less developed, but has tended to view such attitudes as…

Riagain, Padraig O.

2007-01-01

169

Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term “euthanasia” influences people’s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman’s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term “euthanasia”, the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it. PMID:23908751

Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

2011-01-01

170

Targeting Information to Market Segments: An Action Oriented Study of Attitudes Toward Vocational Education Among Target Populations. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research was conducted to show how segments of the population of minority and disadvantaged youth might be positively influenced by selective information campaigns to participate in vocational education programs. The first-year effort (stage 1) undertook to measure student attitudes and to develop recommendations for using this information in…

Sikorski, Linda A.; And Others

171

EFFECTS OF CONSUMERS’ TRUST AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ONLINE SHOPPING  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the effects of consumers’ trust and attitude toward online shopping. Attitude is referred to as a positive or negative evaluation of people, activities, ideas, objects, event, or just about anything in the environment. Different facets of the e-shopping behavior of consumers have been investigated in previous literature. These facets can generally be divided into three namely, behavioral intention, actual behavior and attitude toward behavior. The ai...

Mohammad Al-Nasser; Rushami Zien Yusoff; Rabiul Islam; Abdullah ALNasser

2014-01-01

172

GNSS Carrier Phase-based Attitude Determination: Estimation and Applications:  

OpenAIRE

Attitude determination through the use of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals is one of the many applications of satellite-based navigation. Multiple GNSS antennas installed on a given platform are used to provide orientation estimates, thus adding attitude information to the standard positioning service. Precise attitude estimates are obtained by exploiting the higher ranging resolution of the carrier phase observables, which are of two orders of magnitude more accurate tha...

Giorgi, G.

2011-01-01

173

MAN AND HIS WORLD-ATTITUDE. REPORT 2. WORLD-ATTITUDE AND SELF-DETERMINATION ??????? ? ??? ?????????????. ????????? 2. ????????????? ? ???????????????  

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Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of the interrelation of human world-attitude and self-determination. The author shows the differences in the nature of links of world-definition and world-creativity of environment as two procedural components of world-attitude and self-determination of a human being

Belyaev I. A.

2011-11-01

174

Danish consumers' attitudes towards functional foods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. "Functional foods" is a relatively new term used to describe food products which have been enriched with natural substances/components with a specific physiological preventive and/or health-promoting effect. As yet, there are few actual functional foods in the Danish market, but in Japan and the USA, where these products are relatively common, sales are enjoying growth rates far above those for conventional products. 2. The aim of this study is to examine Danish consumers' attitudes to functional foods, including: whether enrichment with health-promoting substances results in a higher value perception among consumers; the relative importance consumers attach to enrichment compared with other product attributes; which beliefs consumers associate with enrichment; and, which beliefs influence and determine consumers' purchasing intentions and the relative importance of these beliefs. 3. The study consists of three analyses: focus-group interviews, the aim of which is to get an overview of the issue and generate input for the quantitative analyses. The quantitative analyses consist of a conjoint analysis and a survey based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. These analyses are based on concrete, non-existent examples of functional foods, a dairy product and a bread product, each of which has been enriched with three different substances: a) soluble food fibre, b) omega-3, and c) calcium and vitamin D. 4. The focus-group interviews show that the main beliefs which consumers associate with functional foods are the convenience of enrichment through daily diet, (un)naturalness, apprehension about changes in taste, higher price, uncertainty about belief in the effect of enrichment, dosage (when is there enough/ too much of the enrichment substance), own ignorance and uncertainty about manufacturers' knowledge of the health effects of eating enriched products. The respondents have very little knowledge of functional foods and were fairly sceptical. However, attitudes to concrete examples of functional foods were much morepositive than attitudes to the concept of functional foods. 5. The conjoint analyses show that, in general, consumers preferred the non-enriched variety, though with the exception of bread enriched with fibre, since the benefit of this is greater than for the conventional product. About 75% of consumers attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. For about 30% of consumers in the case of the dairy product and 50% in the case of the bread product, enrichment in one of the three forms resulted in a higher value perception, while about 25% and 40% respectively attached a lot of importance to the products not being enriched. 6. The cluster analysis identified several segments with a preference for the various enriched products. Two relatively large segments (25% and 20% of respondents respectively) had a higher value perception for the enriched than for the conventional product, especially as regards the calcium and vitamin D-enriched dairy product and the fibre-enriched bread product, and these segments also attach relatively more importance to enrichment than the other product attributes. The analysis also identified a large segment with a preference for the calcium and vitamin D-enriched bread product, about 30% of respondents saying they preferred this product variety and 35% saying they attached relatively great importance to enrichment. Only very few respondents preferred enrichment with omega-3, which was also the case for enrichment with fibre in the dairy product. 7. In general, attitudes to enrichment are more positive as regards the bread product and product varieties enriched with substances already present in the conventional product. However, attitudes are generally more negative as regards enrichment with omega-3 than with the two other substances. On the whole, consumers' attitudes to functional foods depend on both the type of product enriched, the enrichment substance and the combination of these. 8. The questionnaire survey shows that consumers' purchasing int

Poulsen, Jacob

1999-01-01

175

EFL for Palestinian Security Personnel in Workplace: Exploring Officers’ Motivation and Attitudes  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at exploring the Palestinian security personnel motivation and attitudes towards English as a Foreign Language in workplace. In addition, the study sought to reveal the relationship between motivation and attitudes and some variables such as:  English language level and time in service. The study was conducted on a random sample of 381. The findings showed that Palestinian security personnel integrative motivation is very high, and their instrumental motivation is high. Results revealed that their personnel attitudes towards EFL learning and its culture are positive. Results also indicated that there were no significant differences in motivation; whereas there were significant differences on the EFL culture domain in favor of who had less than 5 years time in service.  Finally, results showed that there were significant differences in Palestinian security personnel motivation, attitudes toward learning EFL and native speakers’ culture due to level in English. Concerning the motivation domain, the significance was in favor of the intermediates; whereas, attitudes toward learning EFL, native speakers’ culture and the total score was in favor of beginners.

Hussam Qaddomi

2014-03-01

176

Biology teachers’ attitudes toward computer assisted learning  

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Full Text Available Based on the new technology initiative in Serbian education, we explored primary school teachers’ attitudes toward Computer Assisted Learning (CAL in biology teaching, as well as the relationships between the teachers’ attitudes and four independent variables: age, teaching experience, teachers’ competence to use modern teaching aids and their professional advanced training in the field of computer applied learning. Fifty-four elementary school biology teachers from Novi Sad participated in the study. The findings suggested that the teachers generally had positive attitudes toward CAL in biology teaching. Correlation analyses revealed significant relationships between age, teaching experience, teachers’ competence to use modern teaching aids in the teaching process, professional advanced training in the field of computer applied learning, and the teachers’ attitudes toward CAL. We offer suggestions for further research in this field. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179010

Županec Vera

2014-01-01

177

The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472

Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

2014-01-01

178

The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/SE-GNSS Attitude Determination  

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Full Text Available The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP, two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.

Jiancheng Zhu

2014-06-01

179

Awareness and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among residents of Kandy, Sri Lanka.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, interventions for HIV/AIDS control in Sri Lanka are only carried out among the most-at-risk populations. This study was conducted to identify the level of awareness and stigma-related attitudes among the general population of Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 869 residents of 18-64 years of age in Kandy, Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire was utilised to obtain information about stigma, discrimination and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Chi-square test and multivariate analysis were applied to find possible associations between HIV-related variables and socio-demographic indicators. Response rate was 82.0%. Overall, 93.5% of the participants have heard of HIV/AIDS but the knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low with an average score of 51.7%, no statistically significant difference between genders (p = 0.352). Only 58.1% were aware that a condom was an effective tool for its prevention. There were many misconceptions related to epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. The participants showed more positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) for all questionnaire items except for those listed under shame and blame. Positive attitudes towards PLHIV were observed to be greater among those with a better HIV/AIDS-related knowledge score. There was no significant association between the attitudes towards PLHIV and socio-demographic characteristics such as ethnicity and religion. There is a greater need of making attempts towards educating the public regarding HIV/AIDS to eliminate misconceptions prevalent in the society. Stigma-related attitudes are mainly due to shame and blame associated with the disease. As the attitudes towards PLHIV were more positive among those with a better HIV/AIDS-related knowledge score, targeted HIV/AIDS-related health education interventions maybe recommended in this regard. PMID:25303094

Navaratna, Samidi; Kanda, Koji; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Tennakoon, Sampath; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Jayasekara, Niroshan; Nagano, Katsutoshi; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

2015-03-01

180

The Relationship between Depression and Religious Attitudes in Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Depression is one of the main causes of debility all over the world. Its prevalence is reported to be 10% -64% in students. Various researches indicate that utilizing religious approaches play an efficient and effective role in treating mental disorders. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between depression and religious attitudes in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences (QUMS, Qom, Iran.Methods: In this descriptive– analytical study, 250 students of QUMS were assessed by means of three questionnaires; a standard depression test questionnaire, and religious attitude questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical procedures of Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal- Wallis test and Spearman Correlation Coefficient and P<0/05 was considered as the level of significance.Results: The study showed that 44.8%of the subjects had no depression, 37.2% had minor depression, 14.8% were moderately depressed, and 0.8% were intensely depressed while 2.4% very intensely depressed. The study also showed that 82% of the cases had positive attitudes toward religious beliefs and 18% had negative ones. Moreover, results showed that there was a meaningful but negative relationship between depression and religious attitudes (P<0/02.Conclusion: Regarding the positive effects of religious beliefs and practices on mental health, it is recommended to use this potential in community health planning especially when dealing with young adults.Keywords: Depression; Attitude; Religious; University Students.

Ahmari Tehran H.

2009-11-01

181

Factors Influencing Students' Attitude towards HIV/AIDS in a Public University, Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome has remained one of the priority global public health challenges. Theaim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among students in a publicuniversity in Malaysia. The students were selected based on a two-stage probability proportionate to size randomsampling method. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Out of the 1773 respondents, 57.3 % were femaleand the mean age was 22.5 years. The results showed that only 19.5 % stated that they will inform their partnersor family if diagnosed positive for HIV infection and 43 % were willing to care for an HIV infected person intheir own house. The overall mean attitude score was 24.1. Knowledge was significantly associated with theattitude towards HIV/AIDS among students. However, age, educational level, marital status, place of residencewas not associated with the attitude towards HIV/AIDS among students.

Rozina Rahnama

2011-04-01

182

Ethical ideology, animal rights activism, and attitudes toward the treatment of animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

In two studies, we used the Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ) to investigate the relationship between individual differences in moral philosophy, involvement in the animal rights movement, and attitudes toward the treatment of animals. In the first, 600 animal rights activists attending a national demonstration and 266 nonactivist college students were given the EPQ. Analysis of the returns from 157 activists and 198 students indicated that the activists were more likely than the students to hold an "absolutist" moral orientation (high idealism, low relativism). In the second study, 169 students were given the EPQ with a scale designed to measure attitudes toward the treatment of animals. Multiple regression showed that gender and the EPQ dimension of idealism were related to attitudes toward animal use. PMID:11651362

Galvin, Shelley L; Herzog, Harold A

1992-01-01

183

An Analysis of Social Factors Influencing Students’ Environmental Attitudes and Performance  

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Full Text Available Introduction Recent developments in theory and research give hope for building the understanding needed to effectively alter human behaviors that contribute to environmental problems. Behavior change strategies that are consistent with people’s knowledge and awareness of global environmental changes are therefore necessary in order for a sustainable policy to be developed. Environmental attitudes are conceptualized in terms of attitude theory as being composed of beliefs and affects toward an object .Because attitudes are viewed as hypothetical mental states underlying constructs which influence a variety of verbal statements, no single verbal statement yields a particularly good measure of attitude. Sociologists Dunlap and VanLiere(1978 have hypotheses sized a new environmental paradigm(NEP in contrast to what Pirages and Ehrlich(1974 call our society’s Dominant Social Paradigm(DSP, i.e., traditional values and beliefs such as economic growth, material progress and technological optimism. The NEP represents a constellation of values, attitudes, or beliefs which are ‘perhaps best captured by spaceship earth metaphor’. NEP scale (Dunlap et al., 2000 was used to measure environmental attitudes. The NEP addresses four aspects of an environmental worldview with three statements for each: the realization of limits to growth, anti – anthropocentrism, belief in the fragility of the balance of nature, rejection of human exceptionalism. Attitudes were measured with five – point, Likert type scales ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Among twelve statements, there are nine positively (pro – environmentally narrated statements and three negatively narrated statements. Sustainable development is a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are made consistent with future as well as present needs, to overcome environmental problems. Furthermore, sustainable environment requires manpower with compatible attitudes towards the environment and sustainability. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the environmental attitudes and behaviors of university students. Materials & Methods The present study utilized survey method and the main tool for data collection is questionnaire. Given that the focus of the study is to assess student’ environmental attitude and behaviors, the unit of analysis in this study is university student and level of analysis is micro. With calculations of Cochran formula, 406 of 10313 students were determined in seven state universities in Mazandaran province. A Survey method was applied and data-gathering tool was questionnaire, the validity of which was achieved by applying face validity. To this end, 406 students of different universities (including Mazandaran University, Babol Industrial Noshirvani University, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences, and Babol University of Medical Sciences were selected using stratified sampling. A total of 406 students were interviewed face to face, using questionnaire. Having examined the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, the main data sets were collected and analyzed. Four hypotheses were examined. Data entry, editing and final processing was performed by SPSS software. Discussion of Results & Conclusions The results of this research showed that 53 percent of the surveyed students used public media as the main source of environmental information. Urban student’ attitudes were more favorable to the environment. Environmental attitudes and behaviors of the sample students were not different in terms of gender. There was a weak relationship between environmental attitudes and behavior. Also, environmental attitudes and behaviors were different by the family ‘environmental performance, and informational resources related with environmental attitude and behavior. In conclusion, it can be said that based on the descriptive and inferential findings while students attitudes toward the en

Sadegh Salehi

2014-11-01

184

Anaesthesiologists H attitude towards preoperative patients education needs in 2005  

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Full Text Available Background and purpose: lack of information about anaesthisia and fear of post operation contiousness, pain, nausea and vomiting increases the patientsH anxiety. There are various reports about patiensH desire for preoperation information in Iran and other countries. However, there is no study related to anaesthesiologistsH view about patientsH needs before anaesthesia and operation in the literature.Materials and Methods: This descriptive (cross- sectional study was done in 2005 on 110 anaesthesiologists working in hospitals of Mazandaran province. Questionnaire containing 4 questions about demographic and 18 questions related to anaesthesia was prepared. Attitude of the anaesthesiologists was divided into 5 categories based on Likert rating scale as follows: completely agreed, agreed, partially agreed, not agreed, completely not agreed. Chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of the data.Results: Results of this study showed that the most positive attitude of anaesthesiologists about patient teaching was related to the proper explanation about duration of N.P.O before operation (%97.3. %52.7 of anaes the siologists were against giving explanation of the duration of N.P.O and post operation possible problems. In this regard no significant difference was observed between educational and non educational hospitals (P<0.018. No significant difference in terms of attitude was observed between anaesthesiologists at different level of education (P<0.07.Conclusion: Considering the positive attitude of the anaesthesiologists towards education and preoperation of the patients, it is recommended that such education be implemented and the patients be charged for preoperation consultation in order to give explanation about anaesthesia at proper time, when needed.

R. Esmaeeli

2006-01-01

185

Attitudes toward surveys, attitude accessibility and the effect on respondents' susceptibility to nonresponse  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyzes whether respondents' attitudes toward surveys explains their susceptibility to item nonresponse. In contrast to previous studies, the decision to refuse to provide income information, not to answer other questions and the probability of "don't know" responses is tested separately. Furthermore, the interviewers' overall judgments of response willingness was included as well. Respondents with a positive and cognitively accessible attitude toward surveys were expected to adop...

Stocke?, Volker

2004-01-01

186

Quechua Language Attitudes and Maintenance in Cuzco, Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

This article qualitatively and quantitatively investigates the Quechua language attitudes and maintenance practices of the members of two non-profit, non-governmental agencies in Cuzco, Peru. Within their respective agency/community contexts, the members of both groups claim to have significantly more positive attitudes toward Quechua and exhibit…

Manley, Marilyn S.

2008-01-01

187

Pretesting Artifacts: A Study of Attitudes toward Disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluated the impact of two movies ("A Different Approach" and "Like Other People") on Attitudes toward Disabled Persons (ATDP) scores for both pretested and non-pretested students (N=23) at two times. Non-pretested participants who viewed "A Different Approach" revealed relatively positive and stable attitudes toward disabled persons. (Author/JAC)

Matkin, Ralph E.; And Others

1983-01-01

188

Gender and Attitudes toward Nutrition in Prospective Physicians  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To examine gender differences in attitudes towards nutrition therapy within first- and fourth-year medical students. Methods: Participants (n=128) completed a computer self-administered questionnaire assessing attitudes towards nutrition therapy. Results: Analysis of covariance revealed that females report significantly more positive

Schulman, Jessica A.; Karney, Benjamin R.

2003-01-01

189

Changing Millennials' Attitude toward Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

The members of the Millennial Generation (born between 1981-1999) are now graduating from college and obtaining their first post-graduate positions. For many Millennials, this will be the first professional interaction they have with mature adults. This study surveyed the attitudes of the Millennial Generation using the Multidimensional Attitudes

Branscum, Anne Y.; Sciaraffa, Mary A.

2013-01-01

190

Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding  

Science.gov (United States)

Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

2013-01-01

191

Electrodynamic control for spacecraft attitude stability in the geomagnetic field  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrodynamic method of spacecraft attitude control is studied in an octupole geomagnetic field approximation. An analytical derivation is given for refined laws of control over spacecraft electrodynamic parameters, which ensure the required spacecraft guidance. Spacecraft equilibrium position is proved to be stable under continually acting disturbances. The effectiveness and practical feasibility of the proposed spacecraft attitude control method is confirmed by numerical analysis.

Antipov, K. A.; Tikhonov, A. A.

2014-11-01

192

White Racial Identity and Attitudes toward People with Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

This empirical study investigated the relationship between racial identity and attitudes toward people with disabilities. Results indicate that higher statuses of racial identity correlate positively while lower and more racist-oriented statuses correlate negatively with attitudes toward people with disabilities. The study supports the notion that…

Sciarra, Daniel; Chang, Tai; McLean, Ron; Wong, Daniel

2005-01-01

193

Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

2002-01-01

194

Student Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Inclusion and Inclusive Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion…

Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn

2012-01-01

195

Rethinking the Attitude-Achievement Paradox among Blacks  

Science.gov (United States)

Blacks offer positive responses to a wide range of survey questions gauging attitudes toward schooling, yet perform less well in school than do whites. The credibility of blacks' attitudes is a central issue among competing explanations for this paradox. In this article, the authors assess questions about the validity of blacks' pro-school…

Downey, Douglas B.; Ainsworth, James W.; Qian, Zhenchao

2009-01-01

196

Japanese Language Educator's Strategies for and Attitudes toward Teaching Kanji.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explored the attitudes of 251 second language teachers toward Kanji and their choices of instructional strategies for teaching Kanji. Principal component analysis resulted in the identification of six statistically reliable domains representing underlying attitudes toward teaching kanji. Descriptive statistics revealed that the mot positive

Shimizu, Hideko; Green, Kathy E.

2002-01-01

197

The Relationship of Income And Money Attitudes To Subjective Assessment of Financial Situation  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines a model of economic status satisfaction (money satisfaction) that controls attitudes toward money, income level and gender. Money attitudes were measured with SPP scale (G?siorowska, 2003), fully developed in Polish environment, and better adjusted to Polish conditions than other money attitudes scales. In the first study, path analysis showed that gender is the strong moderator of money attitudes - money satisfaction relationship. Money attitudes presented by females do ...

Ga?siorowska, Agata

2008-01-01

198

Consumer attitude toward food irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

199

Medical Students’ Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Studies from the USA have identified medical students as a major source of stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obese individuals. As data from Europe is scarce, medical students’ attitudes were investigated at the University of Leipzig in Leipzig, Germany. Design Cross-sectional survey containing an experimental manipulation consisting of a pair of vignettes depicting an obese and a normal weight 42-year-old woman, respectively. Vignettes were followed by the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), a semantic differential assessing weight related attitudes. In case of the overweight vignette a panel of questions on causal attribution for the overweight preceded administration of the FPS. Subjects 671 medical students were enrolled at the University of Leipzig from May to June 2011. Results The overweight vignette was rated significantly more negative than the normal weight vignette (mean FPS score 3.65±0.45 versus 2.54±0.38, p<0.001). A higher proportion of students had negative attitudes towards the overweight as compared to the normal weight individual (98.9% versus 53.7%, p<0.001). A “positive energy balance” was perceived as the most relevant cause for the overweight, followed by “negligent personality trait”, “societal and social environment” and “biomedical causes”. Attributing a “positive energy balance” or “negligent personality trait” as relevant cause for the overweight was positively associated with negative attitudes. Conclusion The results of this study confirm and complement findings from other countries, mainly the USA, and indicate that weight bias in the health care setting may be a global issue. Stigmatizing attitudes towards overweight and obesity are prevalent among a sample of medical students at the University of Leipzig. Negative attitudes arise on the basis of holding the individual accountable for the excess weight. They call for bringing the topic of overweight and obesity more into the focus of the medical curriculum and for enhancing medical students’ awareness of the complex aetiology of this health condition. PMID:23144850

Pantenburg, Birte; Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Schomerus, Georg; König, Hans-Helmut; Werner, Perla; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

2012-01-01

200

Attitudes toward menopause in HIV-infected and at-risk women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Diana Hartel1, Yungtai Lo1, Carolyn Bauer2, Nancy Budner1, Andrea A Howard1, Michelle Floris-Moore1, Julia H Arnsten1,2, Nanette Santoro3, Ellie E Schoenbaum1,2,31Departments of Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Medicine, and 3Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women’s Health, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAObjective: To study attitudes toward menopause in women with or at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV aged 35 to 60 in New York City, NY, USA.Design: Data were obtained at the baseline interview in a cohort study of menopause. Of 502 participating women, 92 were postmenopausal and 162 were perimenopausal.Results: Overall, 37.5% of women had a relatively favorable attitude toward menopause. African Americans had a 72% greater odds of a positive attitude (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.16–2.57 than all other groups after adjusting for covariates. Hispanic women had the least favorable view of menopause. Experience of >3 menopausal symptoms and negative life events—being a witness to a murder, and the death of a child—were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards menopause (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.42–0.93 and OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.93, respectively. Depressive symptoms, street drug use, and having a domestic partner, which is significant in single variable analyses, did not remain independent predictors in multivariate results. HIV status, menopause status, and age at interview were not associated with menopause attitudes.Conclusions: HIV-infected, drug-using, low-income women showed generally unfavorable attitudes towards menopause. High stress life events coupled with a high prevalence of depressive symptoms indicate this population has special needs marked by the menopause transition into older age.Keywords: menopause, attitudes, HIV, street drug users

Diana Hartel

2008-10-01

201

Associations among pain, pain attitudes, and pain behaviors in patients with metastatic breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients often experience pain which can trigger pain behaviors, such as distorted ambulation. Psychological variables, such as individuals' attitudes toward pain, play a role in pain intervention. In this study, we used the cognitive-behavioral model of pain to examine the influence of patients' attitudes toward pain (as measured by the survey of pain attitudes or SOPA) on their pain behaviors (as measured by the pain behaviors checklist). Two hundred-one MBC patients completed surveys at treatment initiation and again 3 and 6 months later. Linear Mixed Model with repeated measures analyses showed that SOPA-solicitude, SOPA-emotions, SOPA-cure, SOPA-disability, and SOPA-medication pain attitudes were consistently significantly associated with pain behaviors at each assessment time point. Additionally, the belief that a medical cure for pain exists buffered the positive association between pain severity and pain behaviors. Our findings support and extend the cognitive-behavioral model of pain and suggest that it may be useful to target pain attitudes in pain management interventions for MBC patients. PMID:23943140

Shen, Megan Johnson; Redd, William H; Winkel, Gary; Badr, Hoda

2014-08-01

202

HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Assessment of Chinese Students: A Questionnaire Study  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.

Chaojun Xie

2007-09-01

203

Electroconvulsive therapy: Effect of an educational experience on nursing students’ knowledge and attitudes  

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Full Text Available Objective: Despite the proved effectiveness of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in the treatment of many psychiatric emergencies and disorders, there are many misconceptions and groundless negative attitudes about its prescription and utilization by many health professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational experience including a two hours lecture on ECT and viewing a video of the ECT procedure on nursing students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards ECT. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used to conduct the current study. A 28 – items (two constructs measuring students’ attitudes and knowledge self administered questionnaire was administered before and after exposure to the two – hour lecture and a movie representing the ECT procedure to a non probability convenience sample of ninety seven female nursing students. Informed written consent was obtained from all students who agreed to participate in the study. Results: Paired sample T. test showed significant differences in students’ scores before and after their educational experience in the psychiatric/mental health nursing course as following: attitude scores (t = 20.507, P t = 20.697, p t = 23.849, p Conclusion: Positive educational experiences would increase the knowledge of ECT, which might in turn contribute to more favorable attitudes towards ECT. Proper educational materials and mass media programs aiming to increase students and practitioners’ awareness about ECT are recommended.

Eman Dawood

2013-02-01

204

Attitudes toward Euthanasia as a Function of Death Fears and Demographic Variables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied the relationship of attitudes toward euthanasia to death fears and demographic variables in a sample of 100 adults. Found the strongest predictors of euthanasia attitude were age and amount of education. Suggests individuals who are more experienced with life and death have a more positive attitude toward euthanasia. (Author)

Slezak, Michael E.

1982-01-01

205

[Attitudes and behaviors related to smoking habit among elementary and high school students].  

Science.gov (United States)

Survey in Krakow (2001) preceding implementing of the anti-nicotine program in elementary schools and gymnasiums was done in order to determine the frequency of smoking, attitudes towards smoking habit and smokers and the influence of family on developing these attitudes. In this survey questionnaire consisting of 32-41 questions (depending on the school type) on socio-demographic data and attitudes scale was used. Statistical analyses were done using chi2 test to evaluate significant relations between variables and multilevel logistic regression models to establish risk. Obtained results show, that in the recent years the number of pupils initiating smoking is not diminishing (13.8% of gymnasium pupils and 3.0% of elementary school pupils smoke and 19.3% and 8.2% smoked in the past, respectively). In majority pupils' attitude towards smoking was negative (89.2% in elementary schools and 74.5% in gymnasiums). However, attitudes towards smokers were more differentiated. Lack of defined attitude towards smokers presented 62.6% of elementary school pupils and only 32.4% of gymnasium pupils. Although smoking is not approved by majority of pupils, in particular gymnasium pupils are more tolerant towards smokers and more often have positive attitude towards smokers (25.8%) in comparison with their younger colleagues. The fact of lack of determined attitude towards smokers among 42.1% of gymnasium pupils and 30.3% of elementary school pupils is distressing. Odds ratio of lack of determined attitude towards smokers increases when at least one of parents smokes (OR=2.05) and also when older colleagues smoke and peers do not smoke (OR=24.5). It decreases for those, who were characterized by lack of acceptance for smoking (OR=0.172). Obtained results confirm the role of social environment (especially family) in developing of attitudes towards smokers among pupils. They also the presence of pupils together with psychosocial immaturity characteristic for process of development favors ambivalence of judgments and beliefs connected with this habit. PMID:15794277

Marmon, Grazyna; Flak, Elzbieta

2004-01-01

206

ATTITUDE OF STUDENT TEACHERS TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers’ proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect on learning of the students. Attitude being a social construct is influenced by many factors like gender social strata ,age, stream of education and previous experience of the job .what bearing the gender and stream of education has on the attitude of student teachers towards teaching profession to throw light on this a study was conducted using a readymade tool. Study of different categories like Non-tribal male and female science stream, nontribal male and female social science stream, Tribal male and female science stream, Tribal male and female social science stream was undertaken. In a sample of hundred students ninety six students responded. The mean scores were considered and ‘ t’ value was calculated to find the difference in the attitude of different categories towards teaching profession.

Anupama BHARGAVA

2014-07-01

207

The structure of ethnic attitudes: the effects of target group, region, gender, and national identity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was an assessment of attitudes of 410 ethnically Dutch adolescents toward three ethnic minority groups living in the Netherlands. Stereotypes, symbolic beliefs, affective associations, and the evaluation of possible interactions were used to predict the global evaluation of ethnic outgroups and accounted for much of the variance in ethnic attitudes. The relative importance of the four predictors varied by target group and location. Gender differences were found in the structure of attitudes; symbolic beliefs played a greater role in the attitudes of boys, whereas emotions played a more central role in the attitudes of girls. The evaluation of Dutch identity was related to the favorability of ethnic attitudes and also to the underlying structure. Respondents with a positive national identity had less favorable ethnic attitudes, and emotions were more predictive of their attitudes, whereas symbolic beliefs were most predictive among respondents with a less positive national identity. PMID:9259119

Verkuyten, M

1997-08-01

208

VALIDITY OF THE EATING ATTITUDE TEST AMONG EXERCISERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items, oral control (7-items, and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10, the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09 showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06. Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10 and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08 showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06. Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients among exercise participants, and that future research is needed to investigate eating attitudes among samples of exercisers.

Hilary Matheson

2004-12-01

209

Students' Attitude Towards Mathematics  

Science.gov (United States)

Students' success in mathematics depends upon attitude towards mathematics. It also influences the participation rate of learners. This study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitudes towards mathematics. Students of both the gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 685 students (male = 379…

Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Shah, Syed Zia Ullah

2008-01-01

210

Consumers’ Attitude towards Advertising  

OpenAIRE

Advertising is a growing business and with advances in the Internet technology, the dynamics and landscape ofthe business has changed as well. Prior findings on consumers’ attitude towards advertising are mixed. Thispaper is an attempt to examine young adults’ attitude towards advertising. We conceptualized a framework toexamine the influence of six independent variables namely consumer manipulation, product information,hedonic/pleasure, economic condition, soci...

Uchenna Cyril Eze; Chai Har Lee

2012-01-01

211

THE EFFECT OF ACHIEVEMENT GOALS ON MORAL ATTITUDES IN YOUNG ATHLETES  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of the study is to assess the hypothesis that achievement goal orientations will predict sportpersonship attitudes among young athletes, namely that task orientation will predict socially positive attitudes and ego orientation will predict socially negative attitudes. For hundred and eighty two athletes, aged 13 to 16 years completed the Portuguese versions of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQp) and of the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQp). Bivariate c...

Gonc?alves, Carloc E.; Silva, Manuel J. Coelho E.; Jaume Cruz; Miquel Torregrosa; Cumming, Sean P.

2010-01-01

212

Using a Smartphone Camera for Nanosatellite Attitude Determination  

Science.gov (United States)

The PhoneSat project at NASA Ames Research Center has repeatedly flown a commercial cellphone in space. As this project continues, additional utility is being extracted from the cell phone hardware to enable more complex missions. The camera in particular shows great potential as an instrument for position and attitude determination, but this requires complex image processing. This paper outlines progress towards that image processing capability. Initial tests on a small collection of sample images have demonstrated the determination of a Moon vector from an image by automatic thresholding and centroiding, allowing the calibration of existing attitude control systems. Work has been undertaken on a further set of sample images towards horizon detection using a variety of techniques including thresholding, edge detection, applying a Hough transform, and circle fitting. Ultimately it is hoped this will allow calculation of an Earth vector for attitude determination and an approximate altitude. A quick discussion of work towards using the camera as a star tracker is then presented, followed by an introduction to further applications of the camera on space missions.

Shimmin, R.

2014-09-01

213

Gender Role Attitudes, Work Decisions and Social Policies in Europe. A Series of Empirical Essays  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the thesis is to understand why European countries show a very different picture of female employment (in their fertile ages) which is not the case for men of the same age. We shed light on the various positions of countries in this framework of earner-carer models, in analysing policy designs, policy outcomes and policy determinants. That is, respectively, family policy indicators, employment of mothers and childless women, gender role attitudes and their interacting effect with p...

Henau, Je?ro?me

2006-01-01

214

Overcoming cop culture? Organizational justice and police officers' attitudes toward the public  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test theories of organizational justice in the context of a police agency. Design/methodology/approach: Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyze data from a survey of officers in a police force in England. Findings: The SEM showed that organizational justice was associated with positive attitudes towards serving members of the public. This relationship was mediated by commitment to elements of community policing and, for community police...

Myhill, A.; Bradford, B.

2013-01-01

215

Exploring the Relationship between Teaching Staff' Age and Their Attitude towards Information and Communications Technologies (ICT)  

OpenAIRE

Current research seeks to understand the relationship between teaching staff' age and their attitude toward ICT. Survey methodology is facilitated through the use of the questionnaires. The survey domain is a random sampling of teaching staff in Egyptian HEI. The population for this study was 500 full-time Faculty staff, and only 412 returned and completed questionnaires are considered as the study sample. The results showed that there is a moderate and positive relationship between the age o...

Mohamed Abdelaziz Elsaadani

2013-01-01

216

[Effectiveness of a training course on influenza vaccination in changing medical students' and healthcare workers' attitudes towards vaccination].  

Science.gov (United States)

A questionnaire study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a continuing medical education course on influenza vaccination, held in October 2011, in changing physicians', medical students' and other health care workers' attitudes towards receiving vaccination for seasonal influenza. The questionnaire contained questions regarding influenza, influenza vaccination, and attitudes towards vaccination. Results show that course participants were more likely to get vaccinated against seasonal influenza in 2011 (i.e. following the course) with respect to 2010 and that all professional categories, except students, were positively influenced by the course. PMID:24091841

Spadea, Antonietta; Unim, Brigid; Ursillo, Paolo; Saulle, Rosella; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Miccoli, Silvia; Barbato, Angelo; Corda, Bruno; D'Amici, Anna Maria; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

217

Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

Barnabei, Fred; And Others

218

Changes in Preservice Teacher Attitudes toward Inclusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite federal mandates to educate students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment, teachers continue to have mixed feelings about their own preparedness to educate students with disabilities in the general education setting. However, research has demonstrated that teachers with more positive attitudes toward inclusion are more…

Swain, Kristine D.; Nordness, Philip D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.

2012-01-01

219

Restoring the Suzaku Source Position Accuracy and Point-Spread Function  

OpenAIRE

We present an empirical correction of sky coordinates of X-ray photons obtained with the XIS aboard the Suzaku satellite to improve the source position accuracy and restore the point-spread function (PSF). The XIS images are known to have an uncertainty in position of up to 1 arcmin, and to show considerable degradations of the PSF. These problems are caused by a drifting of the satellite attitude due to thermal distortion of the side panel 7, where the attitude control syst...

Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ebara, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ishida, Manabu; Iizuka, Ryo; Ushio, Masayoshi; Inoue, Hirohiko; Okada, Shunsaku; Mori, Hideyuki; Ozaki, Masanobu

2008-01-01

220

Dental student attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated dental students' attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application and explored the impact of a one-semester course and year in school on students' attitudes, measured by the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Demographic characteristics and self-assessment of communication skills were also analyzed. The study employed a pretest-posttest survey design combined with cross-sectional data. Participants were first- and fourth-year students at a U.S. dental school. Out of a possible 120 students, 106 (fifty-seven D1 and forty-nine D4) participated in the pretest, an 88 percent response rate; out of a possible 121 students, 115 (fifty-seven D1 and fifty-eight D4) participated in the posttest, a 95 percent response rate. In the results, D4 students consistently demonstrated less positive attitudes towards communication skills instruction and more negative attitudes regarding the importance of interpersonal skills in clinical encounters than did their D1 counterparts. A single communications course had no discernible effect on attitudes or self-assessments for either cohort. Females reported more positive attitudes towards clinical application of interpersonal skills than did males. Gender significantly interacted with two demographic variables: primary language and parent as health care professional. Female children of health care professionals reported poorer attitudes towards clinical communication skills training and application than did their male counterparts. Generally, parental occupation in health care moderated the decrease in positive attitudes over time towards clinical usefulness of communication skills. The D4 students rated their communication skills higher than did the D1 students. Students who demonstrated more positive attitudes towards communication skills training and application were more likely to say their own skills needed improvement. PMID:25281672

McKenzie, Carly T

2014-10-01

221

A Study of Iranian Students’ Attitude towards Science and Technology, School Science and Environment, Based on the ROSE Project  

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Full Text Available

This study has investigated attitudes towards science and technology, school science and environmental issues among middle school students. The population included all 3rd grade students in Isfahan and a total of 250 students (120 female and 130 male were selected through stratified random sampling method. Research instrument was the Persian translation of the Relevance of Science Education (ROSE Questionnaire. After pilot study, data were analyzed by SPSS. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for this scale was set to be .94. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and one sample t-test and independent t-test were used. Results indicated that there is a positive attitude towards science and technology, school science and environmental issues among students in three components of study. However, there was not a positive attitude towards some items of these components. The results also showed that in three components of the study, only there is a meaningful difference between males and females points of views in attitude towards environmental issues. According to this result, males have higher averages than the females. The results of this research provide important information about Iranian students’ attitude towards science and could be used by science educators to development of science curricula and science text books.

Azizollah Arbabi Sarjou

2011-12-01

222

Measuring emergency department nurses' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm using the Self-Harm Antipathy Scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergency department is an important gateway for the treatment of self-harm patients. Nurses' attitudes towards patients who self-harm can be negative and often nurses experience frustration, helplessness, ambivalence and antipathy. Patients are often dissatisfied with the care provided, and meeting with positive or negative attitudes greatly influences whether they seek additional help. A quantitative design was utilised to measure emergency department nurses' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm. The 'Self-Harm Antipathy Scale', a validated questionnaire, was administered to a random sample of nurses in four emergency departments in the Republic of Ireland. A total of 87 questionnaires were returned (87% response rate). Results reveal that nurses show slightly negative antipathy overall, indicating positive attitudes towards self-harming patients. Attitudes were significantly different in accordance with a nurse's age. Education and social judgment also contribute to the way nurses view, interact and make moral decisions regarding self-harm patients. Evidence indicates there is need to improve the training, supervision and support of nurses caring for patients who self-harm, and that practical strategies should be implemented to manage the alienation process and inform practice. PMID:22243712

Conlon, Mary; O'Tuathail, Claire

2012-01-01

223

Elaborating on the attitude–behaviour gap regarding organic products : young Danish consumers and in-store food choice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Even though most consumers hold positive attitudes towards organic food, attitudes appear to translate into respective behaviour to the same extent. It has been found that the high and availability are major reasons for this attitude–behaviour gap, especially among young consumers. In Denmark, supermarkets offer a comparatively broad organic foodrange at relatively small price premiums; however, even in Denmark, market growth ratesare moderate. To explore in detail young consumer’s barriers to act upon their attitudes, we aimed at researching their thoughts and product associations at the point of sale. Qualitative accompanied shopping interviews with 10 young consumers holding positive attitudes towards organic were conducted. The analysis resulted in a model of the point-of-sale thoughts concerning organic food, showing that the conditions (expected quality, price premium) met in the store and the personal context (moral beliefs, household member influence) impact the argumentations, which lead toa choice decision and subsequent elaboration of the consequences of this choice. Price is discussed as a main barrier, but a temporary one: young consumers argue that they postpone organic purchases until a later stage in life.We conclude that to increase young Danish consumers’ choice of organic, the high price premium image needs to be lessened and the differentiation from conventional food improved. Furthermore, communication might trigger young consumers to consider acting now upon ethical values, instead of postponing it.

Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Aagaard, Emilie Marie Niebuhr

2014-01-01

224

Determinanten für eine hausärztliche Berufswahl unter Studierenden der Medizin: Eine Umfrage an drei bayerischen Medizinischen Fakultäten [Predictors of a positive attitude of medical students towards general practice – a survey of three Bavarian medical faculties  

OpenAIRE

[english] Objective: Germany is witnessing an increasing shortage of general practitioners (GPs). The aim was to determine predictors of the job-related motivation of medical students of three medical faculties with different institutionalisation of general practice as an academic discipline.Methods: Medical students were surveyed with a standardised questionnaire about their attitudes towards general practice and their motivation to work as a GP in different working conditions. Predictors fo...

Schelling, Jo?rg; Berberat, Pascal; Drexler, Hans; Fischer, Martin R.; Schneider, Antonius; Karsch-vo?lk, Marlies; Rupp, Alica

2013-01-01

225

A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador  

OpenAIRE

Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolesce...

Sara De Meyer; Lina Jaruseviciene; Apolinaras Zaborskis; Peter Decat; Bernardo Vega; Kathya Cordova; Marleen Temmerman; Olivier Degomme; Kristien Michielsen

2014-01-01

226

Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Workers towards Occupational Health and Safety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward occupational health and safety."nMethods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in Mahshahr Razy Petrochemical Complexm Ahwaz, Iran. A sample size of 210 was randomly selected. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Ques­tionnaire's validity was gained by content-validity and its reliability was validated by Kronbach's alpha. Data was analyzed using SPSS 13."nResults: Mean age of workers was 31.1 years. The mean of their knowledge, attitude and behavior was reported 26.02, 153.18 and 36, respectively. 52.9% of workers had low, 36.7% moderate and 10.5% high level of knowledge. In addition, 75.7% of the subjects had a positive attitude towards occupational health and safety; 30% of workers had low safety behavior and 70% had safe behavior. The mean of knowledge grade shows a significant relationship with education level. A same relationship was reported for the mean of attitudes and behavior with age."nConclusion: Managers should design and implement educational interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and safe behaviors of workers.

H Sanaei Nasab

2009-06-01

227

The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development  

Science.gov (United States)

A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude strength on the stability of attitudes towards wind farms. In this study, attitude strength did not have a major effect on the stability of attitudes. Perceived importance of the issue of wind farm development did result in slightly more stable attitudes towards renewable energy. These survey results were compared to responses provided by 28 residents who completed surveys before and after participating in an informational session about commercial wind farm development. A regression analysis found that participation in an informational event changed the substance and quality of participants' attitudes. Attitudes towards wind farm development became more positive, and confidence in those attitudes grew stronger. These findings suggest that the gap between general attitudes towards wind energy and attitudes towards specific wind farm proposals could be narrowed by providing information and opportunities for discussion in communities with potential for commercial wind farm development. Future research is needed to track local attitudes and attitude strength throughout a proposal and development process.

Bidwell, David Charles

228

Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

229

On attitude towards HIV/AIDS among Iranian students (case study: high school students in Shiraz City).  

Science.gov (United States)

Young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS. The present study investigated the attitude toward HIV/AIDS and related socio-cultural factors among 600 high school students in Shiraz, Iran. The method of sampling is a stratified one and the instrument for collecting data is a self-administrated questionnaire. In this research, attitude has three dimensions-knowledge, emotion and tendency to action. Descriptive statistics showed that students did not have enough knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The 44.3% of students had low knowledge, 36.9% moderate knowledge and only 18.8% had high knowledge. Also the results indicated that attitude for 69.8% of student has in middle level, 15.4% positive and 14.9% negative. Moreover, results suggested that loyalty to Islamic religious beliefs have an important role on attitude toward this disease. Major of study, sex, mother's occupation and use of some mass media such as books and newspapers were other main influencing factors in the students' attitude. Furthermore, this study showed that parent education, major of study, father's occupation and use of books and the Internet are the most important variables affecting on the participants' knowledge. Age, sex, parents' education, religious beliefs, use of some mass media such as TV, the internet, newspapers, satellite and books affect emotion. Finally, there is a relationship between religious beliefs, sex and major of study, use of satellite, television, radio and books with tendency to action. PMID:20506714

Movahed, Majeed; Shoaa, Seddigheh

2010-03-15

230

Attitudes to Audit  

OpenAIRE

An exercise in audit was arranged jointly by the Local Medical Committee and the Royal College of General Practitioners in the Doncaster area. This was followed up by a questionnaire enquiring about attitudes to the audit.

Wood, Jo

1983-01-01

231

Language Learners’ Acculturation Attitudes  

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Full Text Available Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian undergraduate students of English as a Foreign Language, following a one-semester academic sojourn in the United States. The data of the study were collected through a 29-item 5-point Likert scale acculturation attitude questionnaire. Findings indicated that sojourners tended to have close contact with the people of the target society while maintaining their original culture, adopting Integration and Assimilation strategies as their acculturation attitudes. The pedagogical implications of the findings suggested providing opportunities for students of English as a Foreign Language to immerse in the target language culture through organizing academic exchange programs.

Vahid Rafieyan

2013-12-01

232

Insecure attachment attitudes in the onset of problematic Internet use among late adolescents.  

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Studies on the role played by attachment attitudes among late adolescents who show Problematic Internet Use (PIU) are still lacking. Three self-report measures concerning attachment attitudes, childhood experiences of abuse, and Internet addiction were administered to 310 students (49 % males) aged 18-19 attending the last year of high school. Students who screened positive for PIU were more likely to be male and to have suffered childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse; they also scored higher than the other participants on scales assessing anxious and avoidant attachment attitudes. A logistic regression showed that the classification of participants in the PIU group was predicted by male gender, having suffered from physical and sexual abuse in childhood, and preoccupation with relationships. Keeping constant the effects of gender and childhood experiences of abuse in the equation model, increasing values of preoccupation with relationships were reflected by an exponential growth in the probability curve for PIU classification. Findings of the study support the hypothesis that insecure attachment attitudes (particularly the preoccupation with relationships) are involved in the development of PIU among late adolescents. PMID:24338269

Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Gervasi, Alessia Maria; Manzella, Sergio; Famà, Francesca Isabella

2014-10-01

233

Potential Game Theoretic Attitude Coordination  

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In this paper we consider potential game theoretic attitude coordination. We especially focus on two ordered configurations: “synchronization” and “balanced circular formation”. We first show that both problems constitute potential games by employing some global and individual objective functions, and a learning algorithm called Restrictive Spatial Adaptive Play (RSAP) leads robots to the ordered configurations with high probability even in the presence of mobility constraints. We moreover show that the problem also constitutes a group-based potential game and convergence of distribution of actions to stationary one can be accelerated. Finally, the effectiveness of the schemes is demonstrated by simulation.

Hatanaka, Takeshi; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Fujita, Masayuki

234

Attitudes towards suicide among adolescents  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Having a relatively high suicide rate of 19.5 per 100.000 inhabitants, the Republic of Serbia is in the first half on the list of the European countries concerning the number of suicides. However, the situation is particularly alarming in Vojvodina, which has been one of the areas with a very high population mortality rate caused by suicide for a long period of time not only in Serbia of nowadays, but also in former Yugoslavia. The number of suicides has increased by almost 50% over the last five and a half decades, and every eighth suicide was committed by a young person. The aim of this paper was to explore adolescents’ attitudes towards suicide and to find out whether the difference in age affects changes in attitudes regarding suicide. Material and Methods. The George Domino’s Suicide Opinion Questionnaire was completed by 254 adolescents divided into two age groups - 124 respondents were in the age group 13 to 15 and 130 of them in the age group 18 to 19. Results. The results of this study suggest that the attitudes of younger and older group of adolescents towards suicide mostly coincide and there is no statistically significant difference in the answers according to the analyzed clusters. Conclusion. This research shows that the attitudes of respondents of both age groups indicate a lack of awareness about suicide, its causes and dynamics of development of this public health problem. This leaves space for more intensive educational work in the mental health of the population, especially young people and for further research of the suicide problem as a basis for developing strategies.

?ankovi? Dušan

2013-01-01

235

Agricultural Specialists\\' Attitude toward and Intention for Application of VRT-Spraying Technologies Using Structural Equation Modeling  

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Full Text Available Variable rate technology-spraying technologies are new aspect of sustainable agriculture. In these technologies, the chemical is applied in the needed level of farm where there is a high intensity of pests and weeds. The purpose of this paper was to study the agricultural specialists' attitude toward and intention to use variable rate technology-spraying technologies in Jihad-e-Keshavarzi organization of Fars and Khuzestan provinces. A survey was conducted using a stratified random sampling to collect data from 249 agricultural specialists. The results showed that the specialists of Fars and Khuzestan provinces have intentions to use the variable rate technology-spraying technologies. The variables including attitude toward application, trialing, perceived usefulness, compatibility, and attitude of confidence all influence the intentions to use the variable rate technology-spraying technologies. Based on high positive intention of agricultural specialists, we recommend the use of these technologies in agricultural practices of the two provinces.

K Rezaee Moghadam

2009-04-01

236

Attitudes toward Counterfeit Products and Generation Differentia  

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Full Text Available Given growth in international trade in counterfeit products and whereas Consumers are the actual forces behind this counterfeiting trade, so, the study focuses on the demand side of counterfeiting, identifying and examining factors influencing on attitude of consumers of non-deceptive counterfeiting in terms of differences generations in Iran, second most populous country among the countries of Middle East. In this study, based on the four generation and the revolution in Iran, the generations are divided into two generations: combination generation and Y generation and also,Conceptual framework of the study emphasizes that Perceived Risk, Risk Averseness, Price-Quality preference, Subjective Norm, Integrity, Personal Gratification could affect on attitudes toward counterfeit products. Results of SEM from samples of combination generation (52.43% and Y generation (47.57 indicate that perceived risk and risk averseness have negative impact on attitudes toward counterfeit products and Personal Gratification no impact on it under both of generations but other variables have differences impacts on attitudes. Also in both of generations, the results indicated that attitudes toward counterfeit products are positively related to behavior intentions. Drawing on the results of the research, the researchers suggest that it may be necessary for the marketing practices for these two generations differ.

Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee

2012-01-01

237

Utilization of attitude maps in evaluating teachers' attitudes towards assessment  

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Full Text Available Various methods have been performed to identify teachers’ attitudes towards assessment. Recognizing the idea that mapping is one of the most efficient tools, this study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of attitude maps in the evaluation of teachers’ attitudes towards assessment. The instrument, composed of open-ended questions, was utilized during the semi-structured interview protocol and used as the study’s data collection tool. Attitude maps were constructed during the evaluation process to represent the pre-service teachers’ attitudes’ towards assessment. The participants’ attitudes were determined and categorized as traditional, close to traditional, transitional, close to constructivist, and constructivist. Criterion validity of the results was achieved by comparing the categories drawn from the attitude maps with the categories derived by the survey. Results indicate that attitude mapping is a useful way to evaluate teachers’ attitudes towards assessment.

Feral OGAN-BEKIROGLU

2008-06-01

238

Feedback attitude sliding mode regulation control of spacecraft using arm motion  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of spacecraft attitude regulation based on the reaction of arm motion has attracted extensive attentions from both engineering and academic fields. Most of the solutions of the manipulator’s motion tracking problem just achieve asymptotical stabilization performance, so that these controllers cannot realize precise attitude regulation because of the existence of non-holonomic constraints. Thus, sliding mode control algorithms are adopted to stabilize the tracking error with zero transient process. Due to the switching effects of the variable structure controller, once the tracking error reaches the designed hyper-plane, it will be restricted to this plane permanently even with the existence of external disturbances. Thus, precise attitude regulation can be achieved. Furthermore, taking the non-zero initial tracking errors and chattering phenomenon into consideration, saturation functions are used to replace sign functions to smooth the control torques. The relations between the upper bounds of tracking errors and the controller parameters are derived to reveal physical characteristic of the controller. Mathematical models of free-floating space manipulator are established and simulations are conducted in the end. The results show that the spacecraft’s attitude can be regulated to the position as desired by using the proposed algorithm, the steady state error is 0.000 2 rad. In addition, the joint tracking trajectory is smooth, the joint tracking errors converges to zero quickly with a satisfactory continuous joint control input. The proposed research provides a feasible solution for spacecraft attitude regulation by using arm motion, and improves the precision of the spacecraft attitude regulation.

Shi, Ye; Liang, Bin; Xu, Dong; Wang, Xueqian; Xu, Wenfu

2013-09-01

239

Development of the Hearing Attitudes in Rehabilitation Questionnaire (HARQ).  

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A questionnaire devised by Brooks to measure attitudes towards hearing impairment and provision of a hearing aid in older people was factor analysed and subsequently enlarged and modified into a new 40 item self-report scale. The Hearing Attitudes in Rehabilitation Questionnaire (HARQ) assesses three attitudes towards hearing impairment (personal distress/inadequacy, hearing loss stigma and minimization of loss) and four attitudes towards provision of a hearing aid (hearing aid stigma, aid-not-wanted, pressure to be assessed and positive expectation). Scale development, reliability and other psychometric properties are reported. Potential uses of the scale include identification of patients who may require counselling, evaluation of audiological rehabilitation and further empirical investigations of attitudes in this area. PMID:8818247

Hallam, R S; Brooks, D N

1996-06-01

240

The Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes Towards Teaching of Evolution Theory  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate of primary class and science teacher candidates’ attitudes towards teaching of evolution theory. A total of 236 students, 120 primary class teacher candidates and 116 primary science teacher candidates, volunteered to participate in the research. The data for the research were collected with a data-collection tool that included two parts as “Personal Information form” and “Teaching Evolution Theory Attitude Questionnaire (TETAQ”. In the analysis of the data, a multivariate analysis (MANOVA for more than two group comparisons were used. In this study result; The teacher candidates’ negative attitudes for lack proof evolution due to the teaching of evolution theory mean scores of teacher candidates were higher than the teacher candidates’ positive attitudes towards need to the teaching of evolution theory. According to this finding, It can be said that the teacher candidates are negative generally the attitudes towards teaching of evolution theory.

Mustafa Kahyao?lu

2013-06-01

241

Predicted torque equilibrium attitude utilization for Space Station attitude control  

Science.gov (United States)

An approximate knowledge of the torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is shown to improve the performance of a control moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum management/attitude control law for Space Station Freedom. The linearized equations of motion are used in conjunction with a state transformation to obtain a control law which uses full state feedback and the predicted TEA to minimize both attitude excursions and CMG peak and secular momentum. The TEA can be computationally determined either by observing the steady state attitude of a 'controlled' spacecraft using arbitrary initial attitude, or by simulating a fixed attitude spacecraft flying in desired orbit subject to realistic environmental disturbance models.

Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.; Robertson, Brent P.

1990-01-01

242

The Predictive Role of Self-efficacy, Outcome Expectancies, Past Behavior and Attitudes on Condom Use in a Sample of Female College Students  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of self-efficacy in relation to condom use. A sample of 87 female college students completed self-report measures related to their sexual history, attitudes towards condoms and past condom use, as well as their outcome expectancy and intention to use condoms in the future. The results showed a positive correlation between self-efficacy and positive attitudes towards condom use, as well as correlations between past behavior, self-efficacy and intention to use condoms in the future. Multiple linear regression models were used to further explore the relationship between self-efficacy, past condom use, outcome expectancy and attitudes toward condoms, with the intention to use condoms in the future. The results demonstrated that both self-efficacy and past condom use are significant predictors of an individual’s intention to use condoms in the future.

Daniele Artistico

2014-12-01

243

Anesthesiologist`s Attitude Towards Preoperative Patients` Education Needs  

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Full Text Available Lake of information about anaesthesia and fear of post operation consciousness, pain, nausea and vomiting increases patient`s anxiety. There are various reports about patient`s desire for preoperational information in Iran and other countries, but we don`t find any study related to anesthesiologist`s view about patient`s needs before anaesthesia and operation. This descriptive (cross- sectional study was done in 2005 on 110 anesthesiologists working in hospitals of Mazandaran province. Questionnaire containing 4 questions about demographic and 18 questions related to anaesthesia was prepared. Attitude of the anesthesiologists was studied by dividing in 4 categories based on Likert rating scale as follow: strongly agree, agree, particularly agree, disagree and strongly disagree. The obtained data were shown in table; chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results of this study showed that the most positive attitude of anesthesiologists about patient teaching was related to the proper explanation about duration of N.P.O before operation (97.3% and 52.7% were against about giving explanation of the during and post operation possible problems. In this regard no significant difference was observed between educational and non educational hospitals (p<0.018. No significant view point difference was observed between anesthesiologists at different level of education (p<0.07. Considering the positive attitude of the anesthesiologists towards education to preoperational patients, it is recommended that such education be implemented and the patients be charged for preoperational consultation. In order to give explanation about anaesthesia at proper time, when needed.

2008-01-01

244

Construct Validation of the Scale of Attitudes toward Disabled Persons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two investigations of the construct validity of the Scale of Attitudes toward Disabled Persons (SADP) showed that (1) scores on the SADP are not influenced by the response bias factor of social desirability, and (2) that the SADP appears to measure three domains of attitudes toward people who are disabled, with the first domain composed of three…

Antonak, Richard F.

1985-01-01

245

Living Arrangements and Family Formation Attitudes in Early Adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the impact of nonfamily living arrangements and cohabitation on changes in family formation attitudes at the individual level. Results indicate that both the experience and duration of cohabiting arrangements have significant effects on family formation attitudes but fail to show significant consequences of premarital, nonfamily living…

Axinn, William G.; Barber, Jennifer S.

1997-01-01

246

A Modified NEP/DSP Environmental Attitudes Scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

An understanding of how environmental concern is reflected in people's attitudes and value systems is important for the development of responsible environmental management. Effective environmental attitude scales exist; however, certain issues are not addressed. This study shows that it is possible to include references to the intrinsic value of…

Acott, Tim G.; La Trobe, Helen L.

2000-01-01

247

Differential Attitudes toward an Adult Education Program for Pharmacists  

Science.gov (United States)

The study measured post exposure attitude differences toward a series of continuing education programs for registered pharmacists. Analysis of variance revealed that hospital pharmacists held more negative general attitudes toward the series than community pharmacists. Graduation date (year since pharmacy school) showed no relationship to…

Kotzan, Jeffrey A.; Jowdy, Albert W.

1970-01-01

248

Students' attitudes towards learning communication skills: correlating attitudes, demographic and metacognitive variables  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at exploring the relationship of students' attitudes towards learning communication skills to demographic variables, metacognitive skills, and to the appreciation of patient-oriented care. Methods: The cross-sectional survey study involved first- and third-term students from two traditional and two problem-based curricula (N= 351. Demographic variables, attitudes towards communication skills learning, patient orientation, and awareness of learning strategies were assessed. Differences in attitude measures were assessed with t-tests and univariate comparisons. With multiple linear regressions predictor variables of students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and patient-oriented care were identified. Results: A positive attitude towards learning communica-tion skills was predicted by a caring patient orientation, self-regulation of learning strategies, and female gender (R[sup]2[/sup]= 0.23; F [sub](9,310[/sub] = 9.72; p < 0.001. Students' caring patient orientation was predicted by their attitudes towards learning communication skills, female gender, and higher age (R[sup]2[/sup]= 0.23; F [sub](9,307[/sub] = 13.48; p < 0.001. Students from a traditional curriculum were least interested in learning communication skills (F[sub] (3, 346 [/sub] = 26.75; p <0.001. Conclusions: Students' attitudes towards learning communication skills and their caring patient orientation are interrelated. However, communication skills are considered as more positive by students with good self-regulatory skills. Early training of self-regulation and the training of communication skills in mixed-gender groups are recommended.

Antje Lumma-Sellenthin

2012-10-01

249

Caring for dying people: Attitudes among Iranian and Swedish nursing students  

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Full Text Available Aim: To compare the attitudes of Iranian and Swedish nursing students toward caring for dying persons. Materials and Methods: Their attitudes were measured with the Frommelt?s Attitude Toward Caring of the Dying and the Death Attitude Profile Revised. Results: The results indicated that the participating Iranian students were more afraid of death and less likely to give care to dying persons than the Swedish participants. Conclusion: It is suggested that theoretical education should be individualized and culturally sensitive in order to positively influence the students? attitudes, and promote professional development.

Iranmanesh Sedigheh

2010-01-01

250

The impact of a summer Upward Bound Mathematics and Science program on student attitudes and beliefs  

Science.gov (United States)

This Project Demonstrating Excellence documents a study which was undertaken during 1998 on the impact of a summer Upward Bound Mathematics and Science (UBMS) program on students' attitudes toward science and students' beliefs in the nature of science. The students were 25 high school students enrolled in a UBMS program, Success in Understanding Math and Science (SUMS), at a college in the upper Midwestern United States. The research questions were: (1) What are the attitudes toward science and mathematics which students bring to the SUMS summer program? (2) What beliefs do these students bring about the nature and implications of science and technology? and (3) Do students' attitudes and/or beliefs change significantly during the six-week summer institute? Identical surveys were administered at the beginning and end of the summer institute. Each survey was composed of two parts, the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey/Science Student Form (CLES) and the Nature and Implications of Science/Technology Student Form (NIST). The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Students entered the six-week summer institute with attitudes toward science which were significantly higher than neutral on five of the six scales of the CLES and on the four scales of the NIST, showing positive attitudes and beliefs about science and their science learning environment. One scale on the CLES, the Shared Control scale, had lower than neutral scores in the pre-test. The scores on this scale rose significantly during the institute, but were still below the neutral score at the end. The scores on the other scales of the CLES and the NIST did not rise significantly. The students were a self-selected group who had chosen to enter the SUMS program, which may account for their high entering perceptions and the lack of significant positive gains.

Anway, Dorothy Wade

251

Atitudes linguísticas e r-forte em Carambeí = Linguistics attitudes and strong-R in Carambeí  

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Full Text Available Considerando que o município de Carambeí é bastante complexo cultural e linguisticamente, este estudo pretende, de acordo com o método etnográfico: a fazer um levantamento das atitudes linguísticas que os ‘holandeses’ manifestam em relação às línguas holandesa e portuguesa; b analisar a variedade de português falada pelos‘holandeses’ de Carambeí no que diz respeito ao uso do r-forte; e c estabelecer que tipo de relação se dá entre atitudes linguísticas e uso de determinada variante de r-forte no português. No que diz respeito às atitudes em relação ao holandês, os Grupos 1M, 1F e2Fa manifestam atitudes positivas, ao passo que os Grupos 2M e 2Fb têm atitudes negativas, assim como os Grupos 3M e 3F. Já em relação ao português, a comunidade como um todo manifesta atitudes positivas. No que diz respeito ao uso de r-forte, os grupos 1M e 1F usam vibrante múltipla e tepe; o Grupo 2M também usa a vibrante e otepe; já o Grupo 2Fa usa somente vibrante e tepe e o Grupo 2Fb usa fricativa e vibrante. Os Grupos 3M e 3F usam somente fricativa. Enfim, pode-se dizer que determinadas atitudes contribuem para o uso de determinada variedade de r-forte.Considering that Carambeí Township is fairly complex, both culturally and linguistically, this study intends to: a survey the linguistic attitudes that the ‘Dutch’ reveal concerning the Dutch and Portuguese languages; b analyze the variety of Portuguese spoken by the ‘Dutch’ of Carambeí regarding the use of strong-R; c establish what sort of relationship takes place between linguistic attitudes and use of certain varieties of the strong-R in Portuguese. About the attitudes regarding the Dutch language, Groups 1M, 1F and 2Fa show positive attitudes, while Groups 2M, 2Fb, 3M and 3F show negative attitudes.Portuguese, on the other hand, elicits positive attitudes in the community as a whole. Regarding the use of strong-R, groups 1M and 1F use trill and tap; group 2M also uses trill and tap; Group 2Fa uses trill and tap and Group 2Fb uses fricative and trill. Groups 3M and 3F use only fricative. Finally, we can assume that specific attitudes contribute to the use of certain varieties of the strong-R.

Letícia Fraga

2009-04-01

252

Catholic High School Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Snapshot of Incoming College Freshmen  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is a survey of incoming freshmen at a Midwestern Catholic university on their agreement with Church teachings on homosexuality. In general, females had more homo-positive attitudes than males, graduates of catholic high schools had more homo-positive attitudes than graduates from non-Catholic high schools, and graduates from…

Maher, Michael J.

2004-01-01

253

Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive

Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

2010-01-01

254

Effects of Pre-Purchase Search Motivation on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising: A Case of University Students  

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Full Text Available Since last few years, social media have profoundly changed the ways of social and business communication. Particularly, social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and number of users globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, businesses of various types use SNSs for commercial communication. Banner advertising is one of the common methods of commercial communication on SNSs. Advertising is a key source of revenue for many SNSs firms such as Facebook. In fact, the existence of many SNSs owners and advertisers is contingent upon the success of social network advertising (SNA. Users demand free SNS services which makes SNA crucial for SNSs firms. SNA can be effective only if it is aligned with user motivations. Marketing literature identifies pre-purchase search as a primary consumer motivation for using media. The current study aims to identify the effects of pre-purchase search motivation (PSM on user attitudes toward SNA. It also assesses the association between the attitudes toward SNA and users’ banner ad-clicking behavior on SNSs. Data was gathered from 200 university students in Islamabad using offline survey. Results show positive effects of PSM on user attitudes toward SNA. They also show positive association between user attitudes toward SNA and their SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. The firms which promote their products through SNSs to the young South Asian consumers may benefit from the findings of the current study.

Imran A Mir

2014-06-01

255

The Pluto debate: Influence of emotions on belief, attitude, and knowledge change  

Science.gov (United States)

In line with the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005), this study examined the influence of emotions during controversial conceptual change. Issues in science may trigger highly emotional responses (e.g., evolutionary theory). However, it is unclear whether these emotions facilitate or inhibit change. I investigated the nature of emotions engendered when learning about a controversial science topic, Pluto's reclassification, including the valence (positive/negative) and activation (activating/deactivating) of emotions (Pekrun et al., 2002). I also investigated whether belief, attitude, and/or conceptual change could be facilitated through rereading a refutation text and/or rereading during small group discussions. Refutation texts directly state a common misconception, refute it, and provide the scientific explanation as a plausible alternative (Hynd, 2001). Participants were randomly assigned to a group (reread text; reread text plus small group discussions). Participants in both groups read the same refutational text regarding the recent change in the definition of planet and Pluto's reclassification. The findings show that students' experienced a range of emotions towards Pluto's reclassification. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions. Both positive and negative emotions were shown to be predictive of student's attitudes and attitude change. Emotions were also predictive of students' knowledge of planets and conceptual change. This suggests that emotions may have promoted deep engagement and critical thinking. Negative emotions may also be linked with resistance to attitude and conceptual change. The refutation text was effective in promoting belief change, attitude change, and conceptual change across both conditions. Students in both conditions reported more constructivist nature of science beliefs after rereading the text. Students also reported a greater level of acceptance about Pluto's reclassification. Conceptual change was promoted through the text as students' initial misconceptions about why scientists rewrote the definition of planet. Students in the reread plus discussion group showed greater conceptual change regarding the reasons for rewriting the definition of planet than those in the reread group. This study supports the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005) in conceptual change research because it shows the interplay between emotions and the change process. The findings also suggest that belief, attitude, and conceptual change can be fostered through small group discussions.

Broughton, Suzanne H.

256

Attitudes Toward Mentally Retarded Persons: Effects of Attitude Referent Specificity  

Science.gov (United States)

In a study involving 75 female undergraduate education majors, attitudes toward a "mentally retarded person" referent were compared with attitudes toward mentally retarded referents who were described in more specific terms (retardation severity and chronological age). (Author/CL)

Gottlieb, Jay; Siperstein, Gary N.

1976-01-01

257

Campers with Disabilities: Encouraging Positive Interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Negative attitudes toward disabled people are fostered by society's body-beautiful ethic, success orientation, nondisabled guilt, the concept of "spread," and media stereotypes. Strategies for improving camper and staff attitudes toward disabled people include precamp training, social skills training, role playing, a positive camp philosophy, and…

Bedini, Leandra A.

1995-01-01

258

Students' Attitudes and Motivation for Learning English at Dokuz Eylul University School of Foreign Languages  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitudes and motivation are two of the key factors in second language learning since positive attitudes and high levels of motivation are considered as the predictors of a successful learning process. This study aims to reveal the relation between university preparatory students' attitudes towards learning English and their language learning…

Öztürk, Kadim

2014-01-01

259

The Effectiveness of a Sexuality Education Newsletter in Influencing Teenagers' Knowledge and Attitudes about Sexual Involvement and Drug Use.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied effectiveness of a sexual and health issues newsletter written by teenagers in changing readers' knowledge and attitudes about sexual activity, condom use, and drug use. Found that newsletter reading produced more positive attitudes toward postponing sexual involvement, more negative attitudes toward using drugs, and particularly affected…

Sanderson, Catherine A.

2000-01-01

260

Shaping Adolescents' Attitudes towards Science and Religion in Northern Ireland: The Role of Scientism, Creationism and Denominational Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines adolescent attitudes towards Christianity, science, creationism, and scientism among high school students (n=1584) between the ages of 14-16. Reports that the apparent independence of attitude towards science and attitude towards Christianity is transformed into a positive relationship after taking into account individual differences in…

Francis, Leslie J.; Greer, John E.

2001-01-01

261

Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

1980-01-01

262

The Effect of Media on Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Astronomy and Achievement in Astronomy Class  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies show that it is hard to change students' attitudes toward science. This study specifically explored if media affect preservice science teachers' attitudes toward astronomy and their astronomy achievement. The sample for the pilot study consisted of 196 preservice science and mathematics teachers for attitude assessment and 230 preservice…

Bektasli, Behzat

2013-01-01

263

Attitudes toward Chinese-Accented Speech. An Investigation in Two Contexts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines Anglo- and Asian-American attitudes toward Mandarin Chinese-accented English. Studies involving 135 undergraduates reveal no negative attitudes toward a Chinese-accented speaker during a job interview, but do find negative attitudes within the college classroom. Results show a need to better understand the role of context in shaping…

Cargile, Aaron Castelan

1997-01-01

264

Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems : A study from mainland China  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In many Western countries, consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies on Western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about the level of Chinese consumers' attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 472 participants in six Chinese cities. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where traditional pig breeds are raised, over large-scale and small family farms. Farms with maximum attention to food safety which furthermore can provide lean meat with consistent quality are also preferred. Imported pig breeds and tasty, but variable meat were rejected. A 3-cluster solution found that consumers from Cluster 1 focus almost exclusively on the food safety aspect (food safety focused). Consumers from cluster 2 (indifferent) show generally weak attitudes to pig production systems in general. Cluster 3 (industrial production oriented) stands out by being very positive about industrial, large size farms and consistent quality. From a Chinese consumer's perspective, the industrial approach seems to represent values such as achievement, evolution, quality and safety, since pig production is moving away from low-cost, low-quality and low-safety family scale systems. A complex set of rural and environmental development, quality aspects and food safety measures are challenges that must be met by the stakeholders of pig production systems in China.

de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G

2013-01-01

265

Assessing Attitudes of Female Freshman Agricultural Undergraduates towards Entering Agricultural Majors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing attitudes and perceptions of female freshman agricultural undergraduate students toward entering agricultural majors using survey and correlation methodologies. The statistical population consisted of 326 female freshman undergraduate students of agricultural fields in agricultural college at Bu-Ali-Sina University between 2008 and 2009. Among them, a number of 141 samples were selected randomly. Research tool was a questionnaire. Reliability of the questionnaire was tested during a pretest process by using Cronbach's Alpha test. The calculated Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was 86% (? = 0.86 that shows a high reliability of the research tool. Results of the study revealed that 53.3% of target females have agreed to agriculture by positive attitude, 24.5% by neutral attitude, and finally 21.1% of the students have been disagreed to agriculture by negative attitude. The most important factor affecting entering agricultural majors were respectively: the role and importance of agriculture in both food security and self-sufficiently, getting university certification, and reaching to a better social status.

Reza Movahedi

2011-11-01

266

Attitudes and Perceptions of Students to Open and Distance Learning in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the West African Region of Africa, the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN is the first full fledged university that operates in an exclusively open and distance learning (ODL mode of education. NOUN focuses mainly on open and distance teaching and learning system, and delivers its courses materials via print in conjunction with information and communication technology (ICT, when applicable. This ‘single mode’ of open education is different from the integration of distance learning system into the face- to- face teaching and learning system, which is more typical of conventional Universities in Nigeria and other parts of the world. Thus, NOUN reflects a novel development in the provision of higher education in Nigeria. This study assesses the attitudes and perceptions of distance teaching and learning by students enrolled in the NOUN and of the National Teachers’ Institute (NTI compared to their experiences at conventional universities. One hundred and twenty (n = 120 randomly selected NOUN and NTI students of NOUN were the subjects of the study. The Students’ Attitude and Perception Rating of Open and Distance Learning Institutions Inventory (SAPRODLII, developed by the researchers, was administered to the subjects to measure their attitudes and experiences. Results of the study showed that students generally have a positive perception and attitude towards ODL, compared to traditional forms of higher education.

David Olugbenga Ojo

2006-06-01

267

Punitive attitudes against pedophiles or persons with sexual interest in children: does the label matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present research, we addressed the question of whether people harbor punitive attitudes against individuals sexually interested in children even if no sexual offense is mentioned and whether this effect is amplified by the clinical label pedophilia. In two online studies (total N = 345), participants rated the extent to which they saw individuals sexually interested in children as necessarily committing child sexual abuse (dangerousness), responsible for their sexual interest (intentionality), and clinically disordered (deviance) before judging their endorsement of means of punishment (punitive attitudes). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which either the "pedophilia" label or the descriptive term "sexual interest in (prepubescent) children" was included in all items. Across both studies, results showed high degrees of punitive attitudes against sexually deviant men, an effect that was particularly pronounced if the pedophilia label was present. Whereas this was only latently observable in Study 1 (concealed by a suppression effect of reduced ascriptions of intentionality), in Study 2 no such suppression was observed. Unlike any other stigma we know of, punitive attitudes against pedophiles were associated positively with social desirability, suggesting that participants saw it as particularly socially desirable to condemn someone based on their deviant sexual interest. PMID:25501864

Imhoff, Roland

2015-01-01

268

Psychometric evaluation of the Korean version of the Attitudes Toward Acute Mental Health Scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to adapt the Attitudes Toward Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS) into the Korean language and culture and then to determine the reliability and validity of it by administering it to a sample of Korean nursing students and nurses. We conducted a psychometric evaluation that included a two-step item analysis (analysis and reanalysis), exploratory factor analysis and concurrent validity. The ATAMHS was translated into Korean by bilingual nurses. Then, 429 participants (224 undergraduate nursing students and 205 nurses, all with psychiatric experience) completed the translated version of the ATAMHS. The item analysis revealed that nine items correlated poorly with the rest; thus, they were deleted from the scale. The final Korean version of the scale, which we refer to as the Korean version of the ATAMHS (ATAMHS-K), contains 24 items. The ATAMHS-K showed good internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors (professional perspective, semantic differentials and positive attitudes) that explained 39.5% of the variance. The ATAMHS-K had strong correlations with the Korean version of the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill Scale, thus confirming the concurrent validity. Therefore, the ATAMHS-K demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties as a measure of attitudes toward acute mental health in Korean nursing students and nurses. PMID:24842568

Gang, M; Song, Y; Park, S-Y; Yang, S

2014-12-01

269

TEACHER'S ATTITUDES TOWARDS TEACHING PROFESSION -AS A DETERMINANT OF THEIR SUCCESS AND COMMITMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Good teacher is always loyal and truthful to their profession and to those they serve. A teacher's perception towards teaching directly affects the student. A teacher's attitude remarkably effects the achievement of a student. Some teachers see teaching as just their source of income and show no dedication and loyalty towards their profession. teacher occupies a pivotal position in the system of education. The teacher is the backbone of the educational system, maker of the mankind and architect of the nation. Teaching is a scared profession. The society places high hopes on a teacher. Keeping the importance of Teaching Profession an attempt has made through this study by the investigators to know the attitude of school teachers towards Teaching Profession.. The present study was based on, the normative survey research method. It was found that, the attitude of secondary school teachers of is neither more favourable nor unfavourable towards Teaching Profession i.e., satisfactory or average in attitude towards Teaching Profession. Teaching is a profession that creates contributors to the future, or put another way, the future lies in the hands of teachers

Bindu A Keshwan

2014-06-01

270

RAPE SUPPORTIVE ATTITUDE SCALE: FIRST EVIDENCE ON ITS RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN THE SALVADORIAN SAMPLES  

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Full Text Available The tolerant attitudes towards sexual violence on women are important risk factor which should be considered whileexplaining this type of aggressive behaviour. One of the instruments to evaluate these attitudes is Rape SupportiveAttitude Scale (RSAS by Lottes. The scale has showed good indexes of reliability and validity in both American andSpanish university students. The purpose of the study is to explore the psychometric characteristics in El Salvador asit has been applied together with the Double Standard Scale by Caron, Davis, Haltelman and Stickle (1993 and Crowneand Marlowe (1960 Social Desirability Scale in two samples which consisted of 505 and 1499 students, respectively.The results indicate that the one-dimensional structure of the scale stays stable in the two samples reaching thecoefficients of internal consistence higher than .80, although it includes two items which requires to be reviewed infuture studies. Concerning the validity, the RSAS differentiates men and women in these types of attitudes and showssignificant positive correlation with double sexual standard.

Juan Carlos Sierra

2007-11-01

271

Jump for the Sun II: can a Monthly Program Change Girls' and Women's Attitudes about Stem?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental Institute of the Jump for the Sun II program was designed to change middle school girls' and teachers' attitudes about doing science and who does science and to increase interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The institute consisted of an intensive, 2-week summer congress followed by monthly sessions during the academic year. Female-friendly learning environments were created for middle school students and in-service educators, focusing on topics such as life expectancies, solid waste production, transportation gridlock, beach erosion, and biodiversity. In both 1998 and 1999, one group of participants completed the program, which was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. The quantitative results showed that the program did not improve girls' attitudes in any of the major categories under study; however, the posttest results indicated that in-service educators' attitudes improved significantly in three of the four categories (science experiences, perceptions of science and scientists, and science attitudes). The qualitative results indicated that the program positively affected some of the girls and in-service educators.

Crowe, Mary

272

Structure and intensity of public attitudes toward nuclear power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose was to (1) find the structural characteristics of the public attitudes toward nuclear power generation (NPG), and (2) develop a scale to measure the intensity in attitude toward NPG. Subjects (N=1,582) were asked to answer a partly different questionnaire including attitude toward NPG and related matters. The results were: (1) Items which correlated with attitude toward NPG were: 'Sense of anxiety about NPG,' 'Sensitivity to risk,' 'Trust in science and technology,' 'Evaluation of Japan's nuclear policy,' Evaluation of electric power companies,' and 'Interest in life and environmental issues.' Moreover, people with a strong attitude tended to be rational and had a detailed knowledge of NPG; (2) The measurement method used was characterized by the use of biased questions (ten positively and ten negatively biased questions) which were shown to the subjects using the split-half method. We compared the proportion of 'agree' answers to positively biased questions (P) and that of 'disagree' answers to negatively biased questions (N). The data analysis was done by the following measures: (1) 'Attitude toward NPG (P or N)', (2) 'Absolute Intensity (P - N)', and (3) Relative Intensity [(P - N)/{(P + N)/2}]'. As a result, differences in attitude and its intensity among different attributes were remarkably found. (author)

273

Assessing Employee Attitudes towards Organizational Commitment and Change: The Case of King Faisal Hospital in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the attitudes of employees toward organizational commitment and change. It was conducted at King Faisal Hospital in Al-Taif Governorate, KSA. It is the first empirical work in the field of Human Resources Management aiming at analyzing the attitudes of employees toward organizational commitment and change. The study tackles the linkage between employees’ attitudes towards organizational commitment and change which is one of the most significant constructs in organizational behavior. The present study investigates the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards organizational commitment and change. It will also illustrate the relationship between organizational commitment and change. Three groups of employees were examined. Of the 350 questionnaires that were distributed, 295 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 84%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards organizational commitment and change. Also, this study showed that there is an association between organizational commitment and change. Organizational commitment is one of the important elements that have impact on organizational change. It plays an important role in employee’s acceptance of change. It will result in willingness to accept organizational change. In sum, employees with high organizational commitment are more willing to exert more effort in a change project. Therefore, it is more likely to develop positive attitudes towards organizational change. Finally, the implications of this study are discussed.

Wageeh A. Nafei

2014-02-01

274

Attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of special needs children in general education classroom: the case of teachers in some selected schools in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attitudes about inclusion are extremely complex and vary from teacher to teacher and schoolto school. This article explores the attitudes of teachers about inclusion of special needschildren in their secondary schools in general education. This study adopted a descriptivesurvey research design, with 60 teachers as participants from selected secondary schools inOyo State, Nigeria. Four hypotheses were postulated at the significant level of .05. Theinstrument, a questionnaire with question items on demographic information like gender,marital status, professionalism and teaching experience has a general reliability coefficientalpha of .83. A t-test method of analysis was the main statistical method used to test the 4generated hypotheses. The findings revealed that the attitude of male teachers is 39.4, whilethat of female teacher is 43.3, thus, the t-test analysis shows that the calculated t-test is2.107, which is greater than the critical t (t=1.960. This implies that female teachers havemore positive attitude towards the inclusion of special needs students than their malecounterparts. Furthermore, the results reveal that significant difference exists betweenmarried and single teachers in their attitude towards special need students. And thatprofessionally qualified teacher tends to have a more favourable attitude towards theinclusion of special need students than their non-professional qualified teachers. It wasrecommended that teachers should attend seminars and conferences to improve theirknowledge about ways of practicing and accepting inclusion for a better tomorrow for ourspecial needs children in Nigeria.

Samuel Olufemi ADENIYI

2009-06-01

275

Breastfeeding Education in Term of Knowledge and Attitude through Mother Support Group  

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Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.

Lina Handayani

2012-01-01

276

Breastfeeding Education in Term of Knowledge and Attitude through Mother Support Group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.

Lina Handayani

2012-04-01

277

Chinese-Inspired Products: Value-Attitude-Behavior  

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Full Text Available This studyemployed a value-attitude-behavior model to investigate whether global anddomain-specific values affect US consumers’ attitudes and purchase behaviorstoward a Chinese-Inspired Product, with theperceived level of cultural design influence as a moderator between culturalopenness and domain-specific values. The results indicated that global values (i.e., cultural openness and need todifferentiate positively influenced domain-specific values (i.e., esthetic andemotional values and attitudes, which in turn affected US consumers’ behaviors(i.e., word of mouth and purchase intention; and theeffect of cultural openness on emotional value perception was greater forconsumers who had stronger perceptions of cultural design influence.

Wei Fu

2014-05-01

278

PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS USING CYBER RESOURCES.  

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Full Text Available This study is aimed to investigate the effect of computer training workshop on pre service teachers' attitude towards using cyber resources. The sample of 100 B.Ed. trainees was selected. The equivalent group design was used. The trainees in experimental group were exposed to computer training. The effectiveness of computer training was determined by comparing the scores of pretest and post test. The preservice teachers were found to possess positive attitude towards using cyber resources. The significant effect of computer training workshop on pre service teacher's attitude towards using cyber resources was found. Implications for teacher training and suggestion for further research are provided.

GUNWANT DHATRAK

2013-03-01

279

Utilization of Attitude Maps in Evaluating Teachers' Attitudes towards Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Various methods have been performed to identify teachers' attitudes towards assessment. Recognizing the idea that mapping is one of the most efficient tools, this study was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of attitude maps in the evaluation of teachers' attitudes towards assessment. The instrument, composed of open-ended questions, was…

Ogan-Bekiroglu, Feral

2008-01-01

280

Performance-Pay Setup in Texas Shows Promise  

Science.gov (United States)

Independent studies of the nation's largest performance-pay system suggest that the state-backed plans in Texas could be having positive effects on teacher attitudes, with educators reporting they collaborate more with colleagues and encourage students to work harder than they did before the plans were implemented. Schools participating in the…

Honawar, Vaishali; Keller, Bess

2008-01-01

281

Attitude in students of Health Sciences toward scientific knowledge  

OpenAIRE

Educating health professionals implies the challenge of creating and developing an inquiring mind, ready to be in a state of permanent questioning. For this purpose, it is fundamental to generate a positive attitude toward the generation of knowledge and science. Objective: to determine the attitude toward science and the scientific method in undergraduate students of health sciences. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was made by applying a self-administered survey, excluding tho...

Plazas Vargas, Merideidy; Go?mez Sua?rez, Marcela; Castro Moreno, Carlos Alberto

2013-01-01

282

Chinese-Inspired Products: Value-Attitude-Behavior  

OpenAIRE

This studyemployed a value-attitude-behavior model to investigate whether global anddomain-specific values affect US consumers’ attitudes and purchase behaviorstoward a Chinese-Inspired Product, with theperceived level of cultural design influence as a moderator between culturalopenness and domain-specific values. The results indicated that global values (i.e., cultural openness and need todifferentiate) positively influenced domain-specific values (i.e., esthetic andemotional values) and a...

Wei Fu; Wanmo Koo; Youn-Kyung Kim

2014-01-01

283

PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS USING CYBER RESOURCES.  

OpenAIRE

This study is aimed to investigate the effect of computer training workshop on pre service teachers' attitude towards using cyber resources. The sample of 100 B.Ed. trainees was selected. The equivalent group design was used. The trainees in experimental group were exposed to computer training. The effectiveness of computer training was determined by comparing the scores of pretest and post test. The preservice teachers were found to possess positive attitude towards using cyber resources. Th...

GUNWANT DHATRAK

2013-01-01

284

Attitudes of psychiatry residents toward mental illness  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Attitudes of lay people and physicians towards mentally ill patients are frequently highly biased. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in attitudes of psychiatry and internal medicine residents toward mental illness and to establish the relationship between their attitudes and their personal characteristics. Material and methods. The sample consisted of 45 psychiatry and 36 internal medicine residents. The attitudes toward mental illness were assessed using Opinions about Mental Illness Questionnaire (OMI and personality traits were examined using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ. Results. Our findings showed that in regard to internal medicine residents, psychiatry residents do not consider mentally ill patients to be inferior and dangerous. Psychiatry residents have a benevolent attitude toward the mentally ill. Personality traits of psychiatry residents were not related to their opinions about mental illness. Discussion. The results suggest that there is a need to develop strategies that would bring about changes in the curriculum of training programs for medical residents, including proper training in mental health issues. Such strategies should help in destigmatization of persons with mental disorders and increase the competence of physicians to deal with mentally ill. .

Pejovi?-Milovan?evi? Milica

2007-01-01

285

GPS-based attitude determination  

OpenAIRE

Inertial sensors and magnetometers are often used for attitude determination of moving platforms. This thesis treats an alternative method; GPS-based attitude determination. By using several GPS-antennas, and with carrier phase measurements determining the relative distance between them, the attitude can be calculated. Algorithms have been implemented in Matlab and tested on real data. Two commercial GPS-based attitude determination systems have also been tested on a mobile platform and compa...

Bejeryd, Johan

2007-01-01

286

Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age.

Larsen, Birthe

2012-01-01

287

Attitude that Matters  

OpenAIRE

In this article, I compare the operativity of radical avant-garde and new dialogical art forms from one selected viewpoint. I discuss the issue of the artist's attitude as a significance-producing element in the artwork. For decades, artist-issued interpretation of art has been problematic. Thus it is interesting to question the significance of the strong definition of the artist's attitude, inherent in the theories of the new dialogical art. New dialogical art-forms are for example new genre...

Tiina Purhonen

2007-01-01

288

Attitude Determination from Single-Antenna Carrier-Phase Measurements  

CERN Document Server

A model of carrier phase measurement (as carried out by a satellite navigation receiver) is formulated based on electromagnetic theory. The model shows that the phase of the open-circuit voltage induced in the receiver antenna with respect to a local oscillator (in the receiver) depends on the relative orientation of the receiving and transmitting antennas. The model shows that using a {\\it single} receiving antenna, and making carrier phase measurements to seven satellites, the 3-axis attitude of a user platform (in addition to its position and time) can be computed relative to an initial point. This measurement model can also be used to create high-fidelity satellite signal simulators that take into account the effect of platform rotation as well as translation.

Bahder, T B

2002-01-01

289

Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Preventive Oral Health Care at an Iranian Population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice toward preventive oral health care. Also a question was considered about the respondent’s resource for oral health prevention information. Mean score of knowledge was 0.54±0.56 (full score: 3. Higher scores were significantly more prevalent in women, younger’s, people with more income and higher level of education. Mean attitude score was 1.6±0.7 (full score: 3. only 17.6% of the respondents showed positive attitude. It showed significant correlation with level of education and monthly income. Mean of behavior score was 4.5±2.07 (full score: 8. Dental flossing was more reported in more educated (OR = 2.27 and non smoker people (OR = 1.85. Dental visit was more prevalent in more educated ones (OR = 1.34. The most important source of information was semiprofessional source (mass media and health care center staff. As conclusion knowledge of Mashhad’s people about preventive oral health care was low. Their mean attitude shifted to negative score and the average of behavior was moderate. This study certainly serves local health policy making. Reinforcing collaboration between dentist and semiprofessional sources could be suggested.

Taraneh Movahhed

2014-01-01

290

Consumers’ values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Consumers’ attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain.

de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, M.G.

2012-01-01

291

Consumers' values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products : a study from Q-PorkChains in Brazil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Consumers' attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain

de Barcellos, M.D; Perin, Marcelo G.

2012-01-01

292

Teacher Instructional Methods and Student Attitudes towards Mathematics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effect of behavioral objective-based (BOBIS and study question-based (SQBIS instructional strategies on students’ attitude towards Senior Secondary Mathematics. The three hypotheses for the study were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The issue of attitudinal changes of student in mathematics classroom is an evergreen topic which cannot be wished away. It is therefore important to search for more and simple methods/ways by which teachers could continually inspire positive attitude in mathematics classroom. The research adopted a pre-test, post-test, control group quasi experimental design. There were three treatment groups which are - two experimental groups (behavioral objective-based (group1, N=117 and study question-based (group II, N=95 instructional strategies and a control group (group III, N=100. A total of 312 students were involved in the study. The classrooms were randomly selected in each school and all the students in the selected classroom constitute the sample (intact class. Students’ Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ has a reliability coefficient of r = 0.81. Findings revealed a significant effect of treatments (BOBIS & SQBIS on students’ attitude towards Mathematics. The result was (F (2,311 = 72.95, P < 0.05. There was a significant difference in attitude between behavioural objective-based instructional strategy group and the control group with the BOBIS group having far better attitude to mathematics than the control group. Similarly, significant difference was found between the attitude of SQBIS group and the control group but no significant difference in attitude was found between BOBIS group and SQBIS group. Behavioral objective-based and Study-question-based groups were found to have similar attitude towards. In other words, there was significant differences between the attitudes of subjects exposed to behavioural objectives and control group and between those exposed to study question and the control group and no significant difference in attitude between the behavioural objective and study question groups. Both experimental groups (BOBIS and SQBIS proved to be superior to the control group. Based on the findings, behavioral objective-based and study question-based instructional strategies were found to be viable instructional strategies that could promote positive attitude towards mathematics. The implication of the result is that teachers’ method of instruction in classroom is important in changing students’ attitude and habits towards mathematics.

M. K. Akinsola

2008-02-01

293

Death Education and Death-Related Attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessed the impact of a death and dying course. Results showed no significant pre-test/post-test differences for the experimental or the control group, but indicated initial differences between the two groups, suggesting that students enrolling in a death and dying course have more favorable attitudes toward both suicide and abortion. (Author)

Hoelter, Jon W.; Epley, Rita J.

1979-01-01

294

Attitude sensors and attitude-control concepts for next-generation spacecraft  

Science.gov (United States)

The design concept of the attitude sensor being developed for the Tubsat experimental satellite is discussed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and photographs. The device is based on a CCD-detector star sensor which determines the attitude angle and the angular velocity of the spacecraft on the basis of any arbitrary star configuration (rather than from the position of a particular star or the earth or sun). The components include a single-chip microcomputer, a D/A converter, the CCD, and control and readout electronics. The sensor operates either in a barbecue mode (to stabilize the rotation rate) or a sun-oriented triaxially stabilized mode (to maintain, during eclipse periods, the attitude set by an analogous sun sensor while the sun is visible). The resolution of the sensor in the latter mode is less than 0.1 deg.

Balteas, N.; Simon, C.

295

Improving medical student attitudes toward older patients through a "council of elders" and reflective writing experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to reduce "agism" which is prevalent among medical trainees, a new geriatrics educational experience for medical students aimed at improving attitudes toward older patients was developed. Each 90-minute Older Adult Session included four components: initial reflective writing exercise; introduction to the session; 75-minute dialogue with the "Council of Elders," a group of active, "well" older adults; and final reflective writing exercise. The new session was provided to 237 first- and second-year medical students during the 2006/07 academic year at Indiana University School of Medicine. Session evaluation included comparing scores on the 14-item Geriatrics Attitude Scale administered before and after the session, identifying attitude changes in the reflective writing exercises, and a student satisfaction survey. Student responses on the Geriatrics Attitude Scale after the session were significantly improved in seven of 14 items, demonstrating better attitudes toward being with and listening to older people and caring for older patients. Analysis of the reflective writings revealed changing of negative to positive or reinforced positive attitudes in 27% of medical students, with attitudes not discernable in the remaining 73% (except one student, in whom positive attitudes changed to negative). Learner satisfaction with the Older Adult Session was high, with 98% agreeing that the session had a positive effect on insight into the care of older adults. A Council of Elders coupled with a reflective writing exercise is a promising new approach to improving attitudes of medical students toward their geriatric patients. PMID:19207146

Westmoreland, Glenda R; Counsell, Steven R; Sennour, Youcef; Schubert, Cathy C; Frank, Kathryn I; Wu, Jingwei; Frankel, Richard M; Litzelman, Debra K; Bogdewic, Stephen P; Inui, Thomas S

2009-02-01

296

Investigation of Undergraduate Students’ Environmental Attitudes  

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Full Text Available Environmental education has been viewed as an important way to educate students about environmental issues beginning from pre-school to higher education. This study is a part of this field- namely, undergraduate environmental education. The purpose of the study is to explore undergraduate students’ attitudes towards environment at the end of the course “Environment, Human, and Society”. In direction of this basic aim, environmental attitudes of university students were examined according to the gender and faculty type factors. The research was applied at Pamukkale University in School of Foreign Languages during the spring term of 2008-2009 education years. A questionnaire consisting of 2 parts titled “personal information” and “measuring attitude towardsenvironment” was utilized as the means of collecting data. As a result of the study, it could be concluded that undergraduate students had positive attitudes toward the environmentas regard to their gender and faculty types. It was emphasized that female students were more sensitive toward environment than male students. At the end, some advices were given in relation with environmental researches.

Sacit KÖSE

2011-01-01

297

Family practice residents' attitudes toward organ donation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shortage of organs for transplantation has been attributed in part to negative attitudes of medical personnel. As the demand for organ donations increases, it is likely that family physicians may encounter with increasing frequency situations in which they are in some way involved with the families of potential donors. This study was designed to assess residents' attitudes toward organ donation Overall attitudes were positive, with a mean attitude score of 1.275 (SD 1.415) where 0 = very favorable and 9 = very unfavorable. At the same time, however, concerns regarding premature declaration of death, feelings of the potential donor's family, and cost or benefit of organ donation were identified as well. Nearly one half the residents thought they had little knowledge about organ donation or transplant. Residents' feelings about donating their own organs were most predictive of their opinion of organ donation in general. Only 25 percent of residents had signed an organ donor card and had it witnessed. How much residents knew about organ donation and how they thought their own families felt were the best predictors of whether they had signed the donor form. PMID:3612040

Falvo, D R; Woehlke, P; Tippy, P

1987-08-01

298

Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.  

Science.gov (United States)

This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

299

Attitudes Towards Premarital Sex  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is used in a General Sociology class for undergraduate students. This activity looks attitudes towards prematiral sex in the U.S. by race, sex, age, political party and education. This activity uses General Social Survey data provided on the Wadsworth Publishing Company website. See instructions in the exercise documents under teaching materials to open the data analyzer.

Tracy Dietz

300

Attitudes towards Physics  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike in many other countries, physics in secondary education in Scotland is highly popular, with large numbers opting for study at the Higher Grade from which entry to higher education is possible. This paper reports a project which explored attitudes towards physics in Scotland, looking at students aged from about 10 to 20 years old. Overall, over 850 school pupils were surveyed along with 208 level 1 and 2 university physics students. The work was carried out mainly by use of questionnaires and interviewing. The approach allowed the development of 'snap shots' of attitudes held by pupils simultaneously at various stages of education. These attitudes can be compared at the different stages, although care must be taken in such comparison to allow for varying degrees of self-selection. The main factors attracting school pupils into a study of physics are described, together with the pattern of attitude changes which take place with age. From the picture obtained, it is possible to determine areas of the curriculum where there are difficulties. The enormous success of the applications-led course for Standard Grade is apparent in attracting and retaining pupils within physics, including girls. The outcomes suggest some ways by which physics curriculum planners can develop courses in physics which will prove attractive and robust.

Reid, Norman; Skryabina, Elena A.

2002-01-01

301

Change my body, change my mind: the effects of illusory ownership of an out group hand on implicit attitudes towards that outgroup.  

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Full Text Available The effect of multisensory-induced changes on body-ownership and self-awareness using bodily illusions has been well established. More recently, experimental manipulation of bodily illusions have been combined with social cognition tasks to investigate whether changes in body-ownership can in turn change the way we perceive others. For example, experiencing ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand reduces implicit bias against dark-skin groups. Several studies have also shown that processing of skin colour and facial features play an important role in judgements of racial typicality and racial categorization independently and in an additive manner. The present study aimed at examining whether using multisensory stimulation to induce feelings of body ownership over a dark-skin rubber hand would lead to an increase in positive attitudes towards black faces. We here show, that the induced ownership of a body-part of different skin colour affected the participants’ implicit attitudes when processing facial features, in addition to the processing of skin colour as shown previously. Furthermore, when the levels of pre-existing attitudes towards black people were taken into account, the effect of the rubber hand illusion on the post-stimulation implicit attitudes was only significant for those participants who had a negative initial attitude towards black people, with no significant effects found for those who had positive initial attitudes towards black people. Taken together, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that the representation of the self and its relation to others, as given to us by body-related multisensory processing, is critical in maintaining but also in changing social attitudes.

HarryFarmer

2014-01-01

302

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AND RESIDENTS’ ATTITUDE: A CASE STUDY OF YAZD, IRAN  

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Full Text Available The Yazd residents look at tourism development with a promising future to bring more income to the area that can be shared. Investors search to find new attractive business and middle and low classes in the community look to find better job opportunities. This paper assesses the attitude and perception of local residents toward this fast growing industry and also their expectation of authority regarding tourism development in Yazd city. A questionnaire was designed based on five point Likert scale and total 320 usable questionnaires were collected from local residents. Though the result shows positive attitude of local people towards tourism development but they are not totally satisfied with tourism management in the area.

Hamidreza Rastegar

2010-10-01

303

Survey Result for the Safety Culture Attitude of HANARO in 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the important aims of a nuclear management system is to foster a strong safety culture. The safety culture activities for HANARO have been implemented and the importance of safety management in nuclear activities has also been emphasized since its first operation. HANARO developed its own safety culture indicators by referring to the IAEA's documents for the purpose of the evaluation of the safety culture attitude. In June 2008 a survey on the safety culture was conducted based on the new safety culture indicators. The result of the survey shows that the safety culture activities contribute positively to its safe operation. But it is necessary to encourage some activities like training, resources and organizational culture. The survey was helpful to understand the general trends of the safety attitudes and to set the safety culture activities necessary for the improvement of its safe operation

304

Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.

Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

305

Television Quiz Show Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

306

Psychiatric nurses' attitudes toward patients with borderline personality disorder experiencing deliberate self-harm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this descriptive study was to explore the attitudes of psychiatric nurses toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) experiencing deliberate self-harm. A convenience sample of psychiatric nurses (N = 83) working on the adult behavioral health units of three psychiatric hospitals in Pennsylvania were surveyed about their attitudes toward BPD inpatients experiencing deliberate self-harm using the Adapted Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire. Psychiatric nurses had positive attitudes toward hospitalized BPD patients with deliberate self-harm issues. Psychiatric nurses with more years of nursing experience and self-reported need for further BPD continuing education had more positive attitudes toward hospitalized BPD patients with deliberate self-harm issues, findings that nurse educators need to consider when planning curricula. Future studies need to examine the longitudinal effect of continuing education on nurses' attitudes and outcomes for BPD patients with deliberate self-harm issues. PMID:23244348

Hauck, Judith L; Harrison, Barbara E; Montecalvo, Anthony L

2013-01-01

307

The aspect of personnel metal attitude in the production safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of an accident could always be traced to component/system failures and/or human error. The two factors are closely related to competency of the personnel's involved, in which mental attitude is a decisive factor. Furthermore mental attitude could be viewed as an element of Safety (S) Culture. Consequently, S. Culture could might created or at lea ts, be enhanced by the introduction of appropriate values, norms, as well as attitudes. The ABC and TBC of safety norm have been discussed briefly. Whereas mental attitude has been defined and discussed in detail and graded into six levels, namely: attending, responding, complying, accepting, preferring, and integrating. To assure highest level of safety, personnel must achieve integrating level of attitude, in the sense that he would merely do an action on the basis of safety values and/or norms prevailing in the system, not due to external pressure. Furthermore, considering the work as a physical and an emotional activity resulting in stress and strain on the body, Karate exercises have been promoted as an alternative for enhancing mental attitude by means of reducing personnel vulnerability to strain and stress. This method is accomplished by exploiting Roux's Low of conditioning effect and by implementation of an in-depth understanding on the spiritual aspect of Karate. It is concluded that in the field of production safety, there is a positive correlation between Karate, mental attitude, competence, performance, quality, and safety

308

Environmental Awareness and Attitude among Iranian Students in Malaysian Universities  

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Full Text Available This study focuses on environmental awareness and attitude among Iranian students in Malaysian universities. It evaluates the awareness and attitude of a group of 541 from 14 universities. The figure to 541 is considered the representativeof these students and the selection was based on Stratified Random sampling method and G-power soft ware. A set of questionnaire which comprised of 25 questions was applied as instrument for data collection. The results revealed that environmental awareness was overall moderate while environmental attitude was high. The study also found that there was no significant difference observed between sex groups while environmental awareness results indicated that there were significant difference among different levels of education. This trend was in contrast with observation for environmental attitude status. The age groups analysis results revealed significant difference in environmental awareness and attitude. It was also found that the media positively affected the level of environmental awareness and attitude among students. The study concluded that increase on age and level of education would improve the level of awareness and attitude regarding to environmental issues.

Z. Aminrad

2010-01-01

309

The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…

Fah, Lay Yoon

2008-01-01

310

Relationship Between The Professional Attitudes Of Secondary School Teachers With Their Teaching Behavior  

OpenAIRE

The problem under research was “Relationship between the Professional Attitudes of Secondary School Teachers with Their Teaching Behavior”. Teaching is considered to be the noblest of all the profession. It is termed as the profession of the prophets. A person serving in any profession must have Positive attitude and competence in his profession. This study may be significant for knowing to major sessions of teachers training in relation to their attitude towards their profession. The res...

Liaquat Hussain; Asif Jamil; Allah Noor; Muhammad Sibtain; Syed Muhammad Ali Shah

2011-01-01

311

'When the chips are down': The relation between stress, social support, and food product attitudes  

OpenAIRE

Previous research has shown that decision-making strategies and attitudes are often influenced by affective states (e.g., Clore et al. 2005; Isen 2001). In the present studies, we propose that stress can be such an affective state that influences (product) evaluations. Based on the self-regulation model (Baumeister, Heatheron, and Tice 1994), we hypothesized that stress leads to more positive attitudes towards unhealthy food products and more negative attitudes towards healthy food products. ...

Hoeven, C. L. Ter; Fransen, M. L.

2008-01-01

312

Collection and exploratory analysis of attitude sensor data in an epilepsy monitoring unit  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is to present the collection of attitude sensor data from an epilepsy monitoring unit and the results of standard exploration using principal component analysis. The collection of data from attitude sensors positioned on three limbs of epileptic patients at their bedside is described. The analysis of the data focuses, on one hand, on motor features extraction from attitude sensor data and on the other hand, on visual segmentation of seizures into events corresponding to ...

Becq, Guillaume; Bonnet, Ste?phane; Minotti, Lorella; Antonakios, Michel; Guillemaud, Re?gis; Kahane, Philippe

2007-01-01

313

Corporate Social Responsibility in Branding : A Study of The Body Shop's Visitor's Attitudes and Purchase Decisions  

OpenAIRE

Title Corporate Social Responsibility in Branding - A study of The Body Shop's visitors' attitudes and  purchase decisions Authors Sara Lundgren El-Salhy & Amanda Lundmark Seminar Date 2009-06-02 Level C-level Thesis Tutor Malin Näsholm Keywords CSR, The Body Shop, Corporate Identity, Corporate Image, Associations, Attitudes, Purchase Decision Problem Previous research suggests that by using well known CSR as a branding tool, companies can create positive consumer attitudes, and t...

Lundgren El-salhy, Sara; Lundmark, Amanda

2009-01-01

314

Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

315

Comparisons of Physicians' and Nurses' Attitudes towards Computers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Before starting the implementation of integrated hospital information systems, the physicians' and nurses' attitudes towards computers were measured by means of a questionnaire. The study was conducted in Dubrava University Hospital, Zagreb in Croatia. Out of 194 respondents, 141 were nurses and 53 physicians, randomly selected. They surveyed by an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 8 closed questions about demographic data, computer science education and computer usage, and 30 statements on attitudes towards computers. The statements were adapted to a Likert type scale. Differences in attitudes towards computers between groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney test for post-hoc analysis. The total score presented attitudes toward computers. Physicians' total score was 130 (97-144), while nurses' total score was 123 (88-141). It points that the average answer to all statements was between "agree" and "strongly agree", and these high total scores indicated their positive attitudes. Age, computer science education and computer usage were important factors witch enhances the total score. Younger physicians and nurses with computer science education and with previous computer experience had more positive attitudes towards computers than others. Our results are important for planning and implementation of integrated hospital information systems in Croatia. PMID:16160325

Brumini, Gordana; Kovi?, Ivor; Zombori, Dejvid; Luli?, Ileana; Bilic-Zulle, Lidija; Petrovecki, Mladen

2005-01-01

316

Life course influences of physical and cognitive function and personality on attitudes to aging in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Background: Reports of attitudes to aging from older people themselves are scarce. Which life course factors predict differences in these attitudes is unknown. Methods: We investigated life course influences on attitudes to aging in healthy, community-dwelling people in the UK. Participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed a self-report questionnaire (Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire, AAQ) at around age 75 (n = 792, 51.4% male). Demographic, social, physical, cognitive, and personality/mood predictors were assessed, around age 70. Cognitive ability data were available at age 11. Results: Generally positive attitudes were reported in all three domains: low Psychosocial Loss, high Physical Change, and high Psychological Growth. Hierarchical multiple regression found that demographic, cognitive, and physical variables each explained a relatively small proportion of the variance in attitudes to aging, with the addition of personality/mood variables contributing most significantly. Predictors of attitudes to Psychosocial Loss were high neuroticism; low extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; high anxiety and depression; and more physical disability. Predictors of attitudes to Physical Change were: high extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; female sex; social class; and less physical disability. Personality predictors of attitudes to Psychological Growth were similar. In contrast, less affluent environment, living alone, lower vocabulary scores, and slower walking speed predicted more positive attitudes in this domain. Conclusions: Older people's attitudes to aging are generally positive. The main predictors of attitude are personality traits. Influencing social circumstances, physical well-being, or mood may result in more positive attitudes. Alternatively, interventions to influence attitudes may have a positive impact on associated physical and affective changes. PMID:24622392

Shenkin, Susan D; Laidlaw, Ken; Allerhand, Mike; Mead, Gillian E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

2014-03-13

317

Assessing patients' know ledge, attitude and practice with coronary artery diseases and one of their family's member about theraputic regimen advises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nThis reasearch is a discriptive study. the purpose of this study was to assess"npatients' knowledye , attitude and practice with coronary artery diseases and of their family . member about theraputic Regimen advises . In this study , 50 patients with Coronary artery diseases and 50 members of their family have been studied randomly . Two questionnaires were prepared, one for patients and another for their families, which both of them included 4 parts as follows : Demographic data, question related to knowledge, the kind of attitude and quality of practice ."nThen the Scores of patients > knowledge and also their family's were determined Separately and the relation ship between their variables together in patients with their family w&s measured."nThe results of investigation showed that, most percentage of patients and their family possesing high knowledge and positive attitude about theraputic regimen and most percentage of patients have had disireable practice and their families have had non - disireable practice."nThe results showed that there was a significant relation between patients >"nknowledge and their attitude , and between their familys > practice and their attitude.

2000-05-01

318

Homemade Laser Show  

Science.gov (United States)

With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.

2012-07-09

319

ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTION IN CONSUMER’S INSURANCE DECISION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumers attitudes are both an obstacle and an advantage in the decision proccess. Choosing to discount or ignore consumers’ attitudes of a particular product or service, while developing a marketing strategy,guarantees limited success of a campaign.Differences in attitudes dependes also by the gender of decidents. the different features between men and women in the perception of risk and decisional process of making an insurance. Women are more risk averse than men. Over an initial range, women require no further compensation for the introduction of ambiguity but men do. Differences appear also in which concerns risk taking, overconfidence and information processing. Perhaps the attitude s formed as the result of a positive or negative personal experience and by other psychological factors outside the common market manipulation.

MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

2013-05-01

320

ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTION IN CONSUMER’S INSURANCE DECISION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumers attitudes are both an obstacle and an advantage in the decision proccess. Choosing to discount or ignore consumers’ attitudes of a particular product or service, while developing a marketing strategy,guarantees limited success of a campaign.Differences in attitudes dependes also by the gender of decidents.the different features between men and women in the perception of risk and decisional process of making an insurance. Women are more risk averse than men. Over an initial range, women require no further compensation for the introduction of ambiguity but men do.Differences appear also in which concerns risk taking, overconfidence and information processing.Perhaps the attitude s formed as the result of a positive or negative personal experience and by other psychological factors outside the common market manipulation.

Mihaela Andreea Stroe

2013-11-01

321

La innovación educativa desde la metodología: Mejora de las actitudes y competencias científicas de los alumnos (Educational innovation in research methodology: Improving students' scientific skills and attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A programme of educational innovation was implemented to improve the attitude toward research methods for psychology students. Students used real data to test their own hypotheses using different statistical methods. Specifically, they implemented two key methodological principles in research methods: sample size and ordinal claims (Frick, 1996. Students had to work in teams, using Internet data bases for developing the theoretical background of the study, the definition of the objectives, the definition of variables, data analysis, and discussion of results. We assessed the attitudes towards research methods before and after the study. Results showed that: 1 the students improved their skills in research methods, and 2 the attitudes towards methodology were more positive.

Joan Pascual

2010-12-01

322

Intergroup Contact, Prejudicial Attitudes, and Policy Preferences: The Case of the U.S. Military's "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data from 115,052 active United States military personnel were analyzed to explore links between contact with gay people and attitudes about repealing "Don't Ask, Don't Tell." Results showed that prejudice against homosexuals significantly mediated the association between contact and supporting repeal of "Don't Ask, Don't Tell"; quality of contact in the military was a stronger predictor than other measures of contact. Quality and quantity of contact interacted: more contact quantity had opposing statistical effects on policy attitudes for people experiencing high versus low quality contact. Findings are discussed in terms of contact theory, the association between intergroup attitudes and policy preferences, and practical implications for situations in which groups' access to new positions or roles is limited, and hence contact opportunities are rare. PMID:25185519

Harwood, Jake

2015-01-01

323

Study of the Attitudes of University Students coming from Social Sciences and Psychology: Relevance of the Information and Contact with the Disabled  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to know university student´s attitudes towards people with disabilities coming from Social Sciences and Psychology, registered in subjects in which information is provided on the disability. Also it is tried to analyze the influence of the contact with disabled. One scale measured subject´s attitudes towards people with disabilities, Escala de Actitudes Hacia las Personas con Discapacidad of Verdugo, Jenaro & Arias (1995. This scale was administered to 470 student´s from University of Granada. The results showed that the students presented positive attitudes towards the disabled persons, existing differences according to the degree and being in addition excellent the fact to maintain contact with the disabled person. These findings are discussed in relation to previous research and suggestions for future research are addressed

María Támara Polo Sánchez

2011-01-01

324

Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, 'openness' and 'conscientiousness' were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with 'negative affectivity' showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there is a relationship between the BF dimensions of personality traits and anxiety towards the dissection room experience (at the start of the course, 'negative emotionality' was related to an increased level of anxiety). We conclude that medical students agree on the importance to their studies of both science in general and gross anatomy in particular, and that some personality traits relate to their attitudes that could affect clinical competence. PMID:23594196

Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

2014-03-01

325

Secondary analyses of data from four studies with fourth-grade children show that sex, race, amounts eaten of standardized portions, and energy content given in trades explain the positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals  

OpenAIRE

Results from a 2012 article showed a positive relationship between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain that positive relationship, secondary analyses investigated 1) whether the relationship differed by sex and race, and 2) the relationship between BMI and six aspects of school-provided meals—amounts eaten of standardized portions, energy content given in trades, energy intake received in trades, energy intake from flavored milk, en...

Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-aiken, Amy E.; Tebbs, Joshua M.; Royer, Julie A.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Finney, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

326

The influence of female social models in corporate STEM initiatives on girls' math and science attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States' Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) workforce is growing slower than in the past, in comparison to demand, and in comparison to other countries. Competitive talent conditions require the United States to develop a strong pipeline of STEM talent within its own citizens. Given the number of female college graduates and their underrepresentation in the STEM workforce, women provide the greatest opportunity for fulfilling this need. The term social model represents the individuals and media that shape children's self-perceptions. Social models have been shown to positively influence girl's perceptions of the value of math and science as well as their expectations of success. This study examined differences in attitudes towards math and science among student participants in corporate STEM programs. Differences were measured based on participant gender and ethnicity, their mentor's gender and ethnicity, and program design differences. The research purpose was to inform the design of corporate STEM programs to improve female participants' attitudes towards math and science and eventually increase the number of women in the STEM workforce. Over three hundred students in differing corporate STEM programs completed math and science attitudinal scales at the start and end of their programs. Study results revealed, prior to program start, female participants had a better attitude towards math and science than male participants. Analysis of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study data showed similar results. Overall program results demonstrated higher post program math and science attitudes with no differences based on gender, age, or ethnicity of the participant or mentor. Participants with high program or mentor satisfaction were found to have higher attitudes towards math and science. These results may suggest improving female academic choice requires more focus on their expectations of success than perceived task value. Male attitudes towards women's role in STEM fields may also require attention. Increasing attitudes seems best achieved through ensuring a highly satisfying experience with the program and their mentor. Study results suggest this requires more considerations than simply matching mentor and mentee race or gender. Reliability results of attitudinal scales provided guidance on assessment strategies.

Medeiros, Donald J.

327

Imagining Intergroup Contact Can Improve Intergroup Attitudes  

OpenAIRE

Abstract We investigated whether simply imagining contact with outgroup members can improve intergroup attitudes. In Experiment 1, young participants who imagined talking to an elderly person subsequently showed lower levels of intergroup bias than participants who imagined an outdoor scene. In Experiment 2, young participants who imagined talking to an elderly person subsequently showed lower levels of intergroup bias than participants who simply thought about elderly people, ruli...

Turner, Rhiannon N.; Crisp, Richard J.; Lambert, Emily

2007-01-01

328

Attitudes towards wind power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planning permission for the construction of a small 'farm' of wind turbines at Delabole (Deli windfarm) had been obtained and it was intended to use this source of renewable energy by generating electricity and selling it to the electrical power companies for distribution through the National Grid. It was important, therefore, to establish just what the attitudes of local residents were to the proposed development. A programme of research was discussed with the developer and it was agreed that an attitude survey would be conducted in the local area in the summer of 1990, before the turbines were erected, and before the tourist season was completely spent in order to obtain the views of visitors as well. A similar survey would then be done one year later, when the Deli windfarm was established and running. In addition, control samples would be taken at these two times in Exeter to give baseline information on attitudes toward this topic. This proposal was put to the developer and agreement was reached with him and the UK Department of Energy who were providing financial support for the research. The results of the research are reported. (author)

329

Nonlinear Attitude Filtering Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a survey of modern nonlinear filtering methods for attitude estimation. Early applications relied mostly on the extended Kalman filter for attitude estimation. Since these applications, several new approaches have been developed that have proven to be superior to the extended Kalman filter. Several of these approaches maintain the basic structure of the extended Kalman filter, but employ various modifications in order to provide better convergence or improve other performance characteristics. Examples of such approaches include: filter QUEST, extended QUEST, the super-iterated extended Kalman filter, the interlaced extended Kalman filter, and the second-order Kalman filter. Filters that propagate and update a discrete set of sigma points rather than using linearized equations for the mean and covariance are also reviewed. A two-step approach is discussed with a first-step state that linearizes the measurement model and an iterative second step to recover the desired attitude states. These approaches are all based on the Gaussian assumption that the probability density function is adequately specified by its mean and covariance. Other approaches that do not require this assumption are reviewed, including particle filters and a Bayesian filter based on a non-Gaussian, finite-parameter probability density function on SO(3). Finally, the predictive filter, nonlinear observers and adaptive approaches are shown. The strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches are discussed.

Markley, F. Landis; Crassidis, John L.; Cheng, Yang

2005-01-01

330

Change in student beliefs about attitudes toward science in grades 6-9  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study reports on an investigation of the impact of a Science-Technology-Society (STS approach in promoting more positive student attitudes toward science that are recommended by current reform documents. A total of 609 students from grades six through nine were selected for a survey of attitudes in two class sections assigned as either experimental (STS oriented class or control group (textbook oriented class. The results indicate that students in classes taught with an STS approach develop more positive attitudes toward science when compared to students in classes taught with a textbook-oriented approach. The STS approach to science teaching works equally well for male and female students regarding student attitudes toward science. Significant differences were not found between male and female students in terms of improving positive attitudes concerning science study.

Hakan AKCAY

2010-06-01

331

Using response-time latencies to measure athletes’ doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes’ real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). Methods We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping–dislike/like–[health food]). Results Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges’s g?=?-0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95?=?-0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. Conclusion This study demonstrates that athletes’ attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports, perhaps as a complementary measure in evaluations of the effectiveness of doping prevention interventions. PMID:25209168

2014-01-01

332

OI Positive: A Look at Unbreakable Spirits  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author reflects on the positive outlook of parents and children with OI (Osteogenesis Imperfecta or simply, brittle bones), who attended the 15th Biennial National OI Conference. The author believes that the attendees positive attitudes comes from the positive influences they have had from the beginning. One example of an…

Carlson, Priscilla

2007-01-01

333

Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to some extent unexplained as well. The reasons for the development towards more positive attitudes cannot be determined with any certainty at this point. However, it should be mentioned that attitude to nuclear power per se became more positive during the studied period, both in the two municipalities and in the nation as a whole. Nuclear power attitude was strongly correlated with policy intention in the present data (0.67). Yet, adding nuclear power attitude to the analysis of covariance model mentioned above did not result in a substantially weaker effect of the time factor (or of gender). This result suggests that whatever factor accounts for the changes observed, beyond the ones measured and investigated here, probably are area specific and possibly connected with the SKB program of information - a question for future research to answer.

Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

2006-09-15

334

Industrial psychology students' attitudes towards statistics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english ORIENTATION: The attitude of students toward statistics may influence their enrolment, achievement and motivation in the subject of research and Industrial Psychology. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of the survey of attitudes toward statistics [...] (SATS-36) for a South African sample and to determine whether biographical variables influence students' attitudes. MOTIVATION FOR STUDY: Students could be better prepared for, and guided through, a course in statistics if more is known about their attitudes towards statistics. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used and the SATS36 was administered to a sample of convenience consisting of 235 students enrolled in Industrial and Organisational Psychology at a large tertiary institution in South Africa. MAIN FINDINGS: Results revealed that even though students perceive statistics to be technical, complicated and difficult to master, they are interested in the subject and believe statistics to be of value. The degree to which students perceived themselves to be competent in mathematics was related to the degree to which they felt confident in their own ability to master statistics. Males displayed slightly more positive feelings toward statistics than females. Older students perceived statistics to be less difficult than younger students and also displayed slightly more positive feelings concerning statistics. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: It seems that in preparing students for statistics, their perception regarding their mathematical competence could be managed as well. CONTRIBUTION: This study provides the first preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the SATS-36 for a sample of South African students.

Sanet, Coetzee; Pieter van der, Merwe.

335

Changes in Participants’ Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs During an Astronomical Citizen Science Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizen science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on changes that may occur to their volunteer participants. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers’ attitudes towards science and beliefs in the nature of science changed over six months of participation in an astronomy-themed citizen science project and (2) how the level of project participation accounted for these changes. To measure attitudes towards science and beliefs about the nature of science, identical pre- and post-tests were used. We used pre-test data from 1,375 participants and post-test data collected from 175 participants. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. The pre-test sample was used to create the Rasch scales for the two scientific literacy measures. For the pre/post-test comparisons, data from those who completed both tests were used. Fourteen participants who took the pre/post-tests were interviewed. Results show that overall scientific attitudes did not change, p = .812. However, we did find significant changes related towards two scientific attitude items about science in the news (positive change; p < .001, p < .05) and one related to scientific self-efficacy (negative change, p < .05). These changes were related to the participants’ social activity in the project. Beliefs in the nature of science significantly increased between the pre- and post-tests, p = .014. Relative positioning of individual items on the belief scale did not change much and this change was not related to any of our recorded project activity variables. The interviews suggest that the social aspect of the project is important to participants and the change in self-efficacy is not due to a lowering of esteem but rather a greater appreciation for what they have yet to learn.

Price, Aaron

2012-01-01

336

Rehabilitation Service Providers: Their Attitudes towards People with Physical Disabilities, and Their Attitudes towards Each Other.  

Science.gov (United States)

Articles on attitudes of rehabilitation service providers were reviewed for: (1) attitudes toward disabled people; (2) correlates of attitudes; (3) attitude changes; (4) attitude and outcome; (5) attitudes toward other team members. Much of the research was unsatisfactory from design and sampling points of view. Recommendations are made. (Author)

Pederson, Linda L.; Carlson, Peter M.

1981-01-01

337

Mothers’ Attitudes and Self-Esteem among Deaf Children in Iranian High Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between mothers’ attitude and self-esteem among deaf children who are currently enrolled in deaf high schools in Iran. While family system theory is typically used in trying counseling and therapy, much can be learned from examining it by studying the relationship between deaf children and their mothers. Family systems theory has been used in trying to understand problems of communication between children and their families (Widerman, 1995. In general, attention with some significant findings has been focused on environmental factors such as parenting, communication at home, and type of schooling as potential contributors to self-esteem (Crocker, 2008. However, the role of other variables such as family’s attitude has not been systematically explored. This implies that the picture is far from complete. It is also not clear what kind of factors effect on deaf children’s self-esteem. Henceforth, the findings of this study may be helpful in the development of curriculum goals for increasing self-esteem in deaf children. Counselors and social workers can do much to promote positive family relationships as well as acceptance of disabilities in deaf children. The sample consisted of 200 deaf children (100 boys and 100 girls and 200 normal-hearing mothers. The study was conducted at deaf high schools in Iran. Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, Parental Attitudes towards Deafness and interviews Scale were used. The results showed that a relationship existed between mothers’ attitude and deaf children’s self-esteem. Additionally, according to the Pearson correlation test, there is a relationship between the mothers’ attitudes and self-esteem in deaf children. Children whose mothers ably communicated had higher self-esteem scores than their counterparts whose mothers could not ably communicate. The findings of this study may be helpful in the development of curriculum goals for increase of self-esteem in deaf children. Counselors can do much to promote positive family relationships as well as acceptance of disabilities in deaf children. Also, these findings may expand our understanding of the characteristics of deaf children’s self-esteem and their families’ attitudes. In terms of practical value, it is hoped that these findings provide information that may help determine efficacy of self-esteem, for deaf children and their families.

Effat Hamed Sardar

2012-01-01

338

Change in Student Beliefs about Attitudes toward Science in Grades 6-9  

Science.gov (United States)

The study reports on an investigation of the impact of a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach in promoting more positive student attitudes toward science that are recommended by current reform documents. A total of 609 students from grades six through nine were selected for a survey of attitudes in two class sections assigned as either…

Akcay, Hakan; Yager, Robert E.; Iskander, Srini M.; Turgut, Halil

2010-01-01

339

Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado

2013-01-01

340

Effects of an Intergenerational Friendly Visit Program on the Attitudes of Fourth Graders toward Elders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Instruction on aging and stereotypes was followed by weekly visits by 22 fourth-graders to elderly nursing home residents. Students' attitudes toward elders were mixed, but their attitudes toward their own aging changed positively and empathy increased. (Contains 24 references.) (SK)

Schwalbach, Eileen; Kiernan, Sharon

2002-01-01

341

The Effect of a Student-Designed Data Collection: Project on Attitudes toward Statistics  

Science.gov (United States)

Students often enter an introductory statistics class with less than positive attitudes about the subject. They tend to believe statistics is difficult and irrelevant to their lives. Observational evidence from previous studies suggests including projects in a statistics course may enhance students' attitudes toward statistics. This study examines…

Carnell, Lisa J.

2008-01-01

342

The Attitudes of Primary School Teachers toward Inclusive Education in Rural and Urban China  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the attitudes of primary school teachers from the selected rural and urban areas in China toward inclusive education. The results indicated that, (1) teachers' attitudes are composed of three dimensions: positive and negative effects of inclusion, and benefits of segregated special education; (2) most surveyed teachers…

Deng, Meng

2008-01-01

343

Impact of an Oncology Course on the Attitudes of Freshman Medical Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous attempts to change the prevailing negative attitudes of health professionals toward cancer and cancer patients have consisted mainly of elective courses for small groups of students at advanced levels of medical training. In order to develop more positive attitudes, the Cancer Coordinating Committee at the Medical College of Pennsylvania…

Appel, Marilyn H.; And Others

344

Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Experiences of High School Students with and without Disabilities in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

High school students in Taiwan with disabilities (N=1204) were compared with nonhandicapped adolescents (N=754) on their sexual knowledge, attitudes, and experiences. Although the nonhandicapped students were most knowledgeable and demonstrated the most positive attitudes toward sexuality, the hearing-impaired group were the most sexually…

Duh, Jengjyh

1999-01-01

345

Internationalization at Home: Using Learning Motivation to Predict Students' Attitudes toward Teaching in a Foreign Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Fostering foreign language proficiency is an important goal of university teaching. We identified German university students' (N = 1265) goal orientations developed during secondary school as predictors of attitudes toward receiving instruction in English at university. Mastery goal orientation was proposed to "directly" promote positive attitudes

Gorges, Julia; Kandler, Christian; Bohner, Gerd

2012-01-01

346

An Empirical Study of Hospitality Management Student Attitudes toward Group Projects: Instructional Factors and Team Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of positive attitudes in team-based work is important in management education. This study investigates hospitality students' attitudes toward group projects by examining instructional factors and team problems. Specifically, we examine how the students' perceptions of project appropriateness, instructors' support, and evaluation…

Choi, Youngsoo; Ro, Heejung

2012-01-01

347

The Attitudes of Hong Kong Primary School Principals toward Integrated Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive attitudes of key stakeholders, such as school principals, towards a new policy are considered a necessary pre-requisite to implement any such policy. Hong Kong has recently formulated a policy that supports the integration of students with disabilities into regular schools. This study investigated the attitudes of Hong Kong primary school…

Sharma, Umesh; Chow, Emily W. S.

2008-01-01

348

Study Of The Attitudes Of Secondary School Teachers Towards Teaching Profession  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The teacher occupies a unique place in the educational system. He is the pivot of the entire education process. So if teachers are to be efficient in their work they should have adequate professional information, sound philosophy of work and positive attitude towards teaching as well as a favorable attitude towards the profession.

K,Sumita Rao

2012-09-01

349

Study Of The Attitudes Of Secondary School Teachers Towards Teaching Profession  

OpenAIRE

The teacher occupies a unique place in the educational system. He is the pivot of the entire education process. So if teachers are to be efficient in their work they should have adequate professional information, sound philosophy of work and positive attitude towards teaching as well as a favorable attitude towards the profession.

K, Sumita Rao

2012-01-01

350

AN EVALUATION ABOUT TURKISH TEACHER CANDIDATES’ CRITICAL THINKING ATTITUDE’S IN TERMS OF DIFFERENCE VARIABLE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In accordance with regenerated Turkish teaching programmes in 2004-2005, it has been aimed to bring up individuals who are “using language clearly, effectively, thinking as critically and examined knowledges”. Critical thinking ability has provided to individuals a “doubt-based approach, interpreting and decisioning with this approach”. While converting this ability to acqusition for learners, Turkish teachers’ critical thinking attitudes are very important. For this reason, it must be examined that what Turkish teachers’ and candidates’ critical thinking attitude and what they are impressed by difference variable. This study have been aimed that Turkish teacher candidates’ critical thinking attitudes’ changing according to difference variables. 144 students who are in Gazi University Gazi Education Faculty Department of Turkish Teaching has been constituted this research’s exemplify. For data gathering, Likert-based critical thinking attitude scale has been used in this research. For data analysis, t-tests in independence group, ANOVA and descriptive statistics have been used in this research. According to research conclusion, in terms of critical thinking ability, Turkish teacher candidates are in middle level. Also, conclusions showed that their attitudes are not impressed by their gender, age, school, parents’ education, yearly income, high school type, reading book and newspaper.

Ülker ?EN

2009-10-01

351

Physics Attitude Scale: Development, Validity and Reliability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a “Valid and Reliable Physics Attitude Scale” which can be used to identify the attitudes of high school students to physics, to related subjects and research studies after the renewed physics curriculum. In the development of the draft scale, initial items are prepared in terms of an expert’s opinions after the related physics attitude scales has been reviewed. The scale was administered to 841 high school students at 7 high schools in Trabzon. Factor analysis was conducted in order to determine the construct validity and the Cronbach-Alpha, total internal reliability coefficient, of the scale was calculated as 0.95. Results show that the scale has 3 factors, and its items, in terms of total item correlation, changed between 0.58 and 0.71. It was also determined that the nature of factors of scale was appropriate to the attitudes and values of new physics curriculum. Some suggestions were made in the light of findings.

Mehmet Altan KURNAZ

2010-06-01

352

Obesity in show cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

Corbee, R J

2014-12-01

353

A vector autopilot system. [aircraft attitude determination with three-axis magnetometer  

Science.gov (United States)

Current technology has evolved low cost, highly reliable solid state vector magnetometers with excellent angular resolution. This paper discusses the role of a three-axis magnetometer as a new instrument for aircraft attitude determination. Using flight data acquired by an instrumented aircraft, attitude is calculated using the earth's magnetic field vector and compared to measured attitudes. The magnetic field alone is not adequate to resolve all attitude variations and the need for a second reference angle or vector is discussed. A system combining the functions of heading determination and attitude measurement is presented to show that both functions can be implemented with essentially the same component count required to measure heading alone. It is concluded that with the correlation achieved in calculated and measured attitude there is a potential application of vector magnetometry in attitude measurement systems.

Pietila, R.; Dunn, W. R., Jr.

1976-01-01

354

VALORES Y ACTITUDES SOCIALMENTE RESPONSABLES EN UNIVERSITARIOS CHILENOS / SOCIALLY-RESPONSIBLE VALUES AND ATTITUDES IN CHILEAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Como aporte a la comprensión del comportamiento socialmente responsable en estudiantes universitarios, el estudio pretende identificar sus valores y actitudes hacia la responsabilidad social; determinar diferencias según sexo, promoción y área de pertenencia de la carrera e identificar la relación e [...] ntre valores, actitudes hacia esta y el comportamiento socialmente responsable. Se encuestó a 2.876 estudiantes de seis universidades chilenas con CAVSR y CACSR (Proyecto MECESUP UCO0303, 2004-2008). Los resultados muestran una relación positiva muy significativa entre valores, actitudes y comportamiento socialmente responsable; compromiso con valores y actitudes vinculados a las vivencias próximas a los universitarios y menor compromiso con aquellos vinculados al bienestar social, la ciudadanía, democracia y participación. Se observan, además, diferencias significativas según sexo, promoción y área de pertenencia de la carrera. Como conclusión, se observa la necesidad de impulsar prácticas educativas que activen valores menos preponderantes y promuevan actitudes positivas hacia ellos a fin de lograr un ejercicio pleno de la responsabilidad social. Abstract in english As a contribution to comprehension of the socially responsible behaviour in college students, this study tries to identify their values and attitudes towards social responsibility; to determine differences according to gender, promotion and career areas and to identify the relationship among values, [...] attitudes towards social responsibility and a socially responsible behaviour. It surveyed 2.876 students from six Chilean universities by CAVSR and CACSR (Project MECESUP UCO0303, 2004-2008). Results show a very positive and significant relation among values, attitudes and socially responsible behaviour, commitment with values and attitudes that are closer to college student experiences and less commitment with those linked to social wellbeing, citizenship, democracy and participation. There are significant differences according to gender, promotion and career areas. As a conclusion, there is a need to stimulate educational practices that activate less preponderant values and promote positive attitudes towards them in order to achieve a social responsibility full exercise.

Gracia, Navarro; Paula, Boero; Gladys, Jiménez; Liliana, Tapia; Reinier, Hollander; Arturo, Escobar; Margarita, Baeza; Álvaro, Espina.

2012-07-01

355

The Effect of Initial Brand Image on Category Fitness and Brand-Extension Attitude  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The introduction of products with a similar brand name can function as a lever on the brand image, brand awareness and in general in reaching the brand equity in the established markets, the relation or connection of an existing brand with a new product can affect the relations and connections of the existing brand image as well as the loyalty to the brand. This effect can be positive or negative. Through investigating this image the researcher tried to help the company to guaranty a fit image, compete in the global scene and stabilize its position. The study in this research took place on Tehran districts. As the sample, the researcher chose 500 of Faloodeh-ice-cream consumers of Mihan Company through simple cluster sampling and gained the required data about the consumers’ views and ideas through questionnaire. The data has been analyzed by using Lisrel software. The research findings showed that the brand image has positive and direct influence on the perceived category fitness, the perceived category fitness on the brand-extension attitude and the initial brand image on the brand -extension attitude respectively. Companies had better avoid ruining the original brand position in the consumers’ mind by maintaining the appropriateness of their new products which were produced in proportion with the consumers’ ideas and needs.

Ebrahim Zarepour Nasirabadi

2013-07-01

356

A Study of Students and Teachers' Preferences and Attitudes towards Correction of Classroom Written Errors in Saudi EFL Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is no doubt that teacher written feedback plays an essential role in teaching writing skill. The present study, by use of questionnaire, investigates Saudi EFL students' and teachers' preferences and attitudes towards written error corrections. The study also aims at identifying the difficulties encountered by teachers and students during the feedback process. The questionnaire findings reveal that both teachers and students have positive attitudes towards written error correction. The study also shows that while teachers and students share such common preferences as the importance of error correction and the types of errors, there are considerable discrepancies as to the techniques of error correction. For instance, students favor the overall correction, whereas most teachers do not. However, the results show that students prefer teacher correction to peer and self-correction. Moreover, both the teachers and students have encountered a number of difficulties, so suggestions have been investigated so as to deal with the problems.

Arafat Hamouda

2011-08-01

357

The Impact of School Supervision of Work and Job Quality on Adolescent Work Attitudes and Job Behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a sample of nearly 1,800 adolescents in work experience programs, job quality had the greatest positive impact on work attitudes and job satisfaction and was associated with negative job behaviors. Good supervisory relationships were linked to positive attitudes and behaviors. However, school supervision of work did not appear to influence…

Stone, James R., III; Josiam, Bharath

2000-01-01

358

Impact of media violence on aggressive attitude for adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study was mainly to examine the impact of media violence on aggressive attitude among Chinese adolescents by using a modified STROOP task. 74 adolescents participated in this study, 37 were assigned to violent movie group and 37 were assigned to non-violent movie group. The results showed significant Movie Type and Trait Aggressiveness interaction, and adolescents with high aggressiveness (HA had a significantly higher aggressive attitude than adolescents with mild aggressiveness (MA and low aggressiveness (LA after watching violent movies. Furthermore, the relation between significant Movie Type and Gender interaction was also found, and boys showed a significantly higher aggressive attitude than girls after watching violent movies. This implied that violent movies could effectively affect aggressive attitude for adolescents in China.  

Qian Zhang

2013-12-01

359

Greek Cypriot attitudes toward Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examined the attitudes of 106 Greek Cypriots toward Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants on Cyprus. The authors examined Greek Cypriot attitudes, willingness to cohabit with Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants, and the reasons behind their attitudes in terms of their social-identity perceptions, victimization experiences, and human-rights concerns. A series of repeated measures analyses of variance showed that Greek Cypriots were more willing to cohabit with and had less negative attitudes toward Turkish Cypriots than they were with and toward Turkish immigrants. Women felt more victimized by Turkish Cypriots and Turkish immigrants than did men. Perceived differences in social identity predicted unwillingness to cohabit with Turkish Cypriots. Feelings of victimization predicted negative attitudes toward Turkish Cypriots. Differences in social identity and victimization experiences predicted unwillingness to cohabit with Turkish immigrants. Differences in social identity predicted negative attitudes toward Turkish immigrants. The authors discussed the findings in terms of support for realistic group conflict theories of attitudes and their implications for the coexistence of these ethnic groups in Cyprus and of other ethnic groups in multicultural societies. PMID:16894701

Danielidou, Liana; Horvath, Peter

2006-08-01

360

Investigation of Preschool Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes Towards Learning and Their Entrepreneurship Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since learning to learn and entrepreneurship as lifelong learning competencies get importance, it is expected from teacher candidates to have positive attitudes towards learning and to be entrepreneur. Owing to this, it was aimed to investigate preschool teacher candidates’ attitudes towards learning and their entrepreneurship levels in terms of various variables in addition to determine the effect of their attitudes towards learning on their entrepreneurship levels. The research was carried out via participation of 170 teacher candidates having been educated at department of preschool education at Mersin University. “Atitude Scale towards Learning” developed by Kara (2010 to determine teacher candidates’ attitudes towards learning and “Entrepreneurship Scale for Undergraduate Students” developed by Y?lmaz and Sünbül (2009 to determine their entrepreneurship levels were used. Descriptive statistics was done to determine preschool teacher candidates’ attitudes towards learning and their entrepreneurship levels. Tests of differentiation among means was carried out to define whether differentiation occurs in preschool teacher candidates’ attitudes and perceptions on entrepreneurship levels according to such variables as gender, grade and the frequency of use of ICT for learning. Path analysis was carried out to state the effect of preschool teacher candidates’ attitudes towards learning on their perception about entrepreneurship levels by using Lisrel Program. The findings of the study indicated preschool teacher candidates’ positive attitudes towards learning and high perceptions on entrepreneurship. Moreover, it was concluded that attitude towards learning wasn’t a variable affecting entrepreneurship level.

Gamze Yavuz Konokman

2014-12-01

361

Education Statistics Slide Show  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Grace York, coordinator of the University of Michigan's Documents Center, the Education Statistics Slide Show is an online presentation demonstrating how to locate, obtain, and manipulate educational data on the Web. The presentation consists of 72 slides and offers instruction on the use of several Websites including the US Census Bureau's American Factfinder site (see the April 2, 1999 Scout Report), the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) Census Mapping site, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) site, the FEDSTATS site (see the May 30, 1997 Scout Report), and many more. The tutorial presentation also provides ten practice questions and a detailed Webliography.

362

Relationships between school support, school facilities, ICT culture and mathematics teachers' attitudes towards ICT in teaching and learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Information communication Technology (ICT) has been a major influence in the Malaysian Education System, especially in the teaching of mathematics. Since 2003, the Malaysian Ministry of Education has provided incentives to mathematics teacher to motivate them to use ICT using English as the medium of instruction, during the teaching and learning process. However, there are barriers that prevented mathematics teachers from using ICT in the classrooms. This study is to determine factors that influenced the attitudes of Malaysian Mathematic Teachers in integrating ICT in their teaching and learning. One hundred ninety one mathematics teachers were randomly selected for the purpose of this study. The three factors investigated were school support, school facilities and school culture which had been selected to be correlated with teachers' attitudes towards integrating ICT in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Findings showed that significant positive relationships existed between teachers' attitudes toward integrating ICT in the teaching and learning and school support, school facilities and ICT culture and This finding indicated that, in order to develop teachers' attitudes in using ICT during their teaching and learning process, they needed support from the school principals and also their colleagues. Apart from that, school facilities and also ICT culture were also found to be essential.

Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ismail, Rohayati

2012-05-01

363

ACTITUDES SOCIALES HACIA EX RECLUSOS: UN ESTUDIO EXPLORATORIO / SOCIAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS EX-CONVICTS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar algunos factores sociales relacionados con la reinserción social de las personas que salen de prisión. Para ello, se midieron las actitudes hacia la contratación laboral de ex reclusos en una muestra no aleatoria de estudiantes universitarios (n=180). Se encon [...] tró que las actitudes fueron menos favorables hacia ex convictos condenados por delitos sexuales, contra las personas, por robo y reincidentes, y fueron más favorables para los delincuentes primarios, jóvenes y mujeres. Haber tenido un familiar o amigo cercanos detenidos se asoció con algunas actitudes más favorables hacia ex reclusos. Abstract in english The aim of this research was to study social factors related to social reinsertion for ex-inmates. Attitudes towards the hiring of released inmates were measured in a non-randomized sample of university students (n=180). Results showed less favorable attitudes for hiring sexual, physic or property o [...] ffenders, and more favorable attitudes towards first offense, young or women inmates. Knowing a relative or friend prisoner was associated with some positive attitudes towards ex-convicts.

José Ignacio, Ruiz.

2010-07-01

364

Teachers’ Attitudes towards and Comfort about Teaching School-Based Sexuality Education in Urban and Rural Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teachers’ attitudes towards sexuality education are among the important predictors of their willingness to teach sexuality education programmes in schools. While there is a plethora of studies on teachers’ attitudes towards sexuality in developed countries, there is a paucity of such studies in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Tanzania in particular.  This study examined teachers’ attitudes towards and comfort in teaching sexuality education in rural and urban Tanzania. The results show that an overwhelming majority of teachers in both rural and urban districts supported the teaching of sexuality education in schools, and the inclusion of a wide range of sexuality education topics in the curriculum. Nevertheless, though teachers expressed commitment to teaching sexuality education in schools, they expressed difficult and discomfort in teaching most of the key sexuality education topics. This implies that declaration of positive attitudes towards teaching sexuality education alone is not enough; there is a need for facilitating teachers with knowledge, skills and confidence to teach various sexuality education topics.

Kitila Alexander Mkumbo

2012-05-01

365

Determining students’ attitude towards physics through problem-solving strategy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of teacher-directed and self-directed problem-solving strategies on students’ attitudes toward physics were explored. Problem-solving strategies were used with the experimental group, while the control group was instructed using traditional teaching methods. The study was conducted with 270 students at various high schools in Turkey. Data obtained from the sample was analyzed using a one-way ANOVA analysis. The findings indicated that students in the experimental group made more positive improvement in attitude towards physics than the control group. Thus, teachers may integrate problem based strategies in their teaching practice and let their students increase their positive attitude toward physics. As a result of this increase, students could have better success in physics.

Naki ERDEMIR

2009-12-01

366

Instantaneous BeiDou-GPS attitude determination: A performance analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The advent of modernized and new global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) has enhanced the availability of satellite based positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) solutions. Specifically, it increases redundancy and yields operational back-up or independence in case of failure or unavailability of one system. Among existing GNSS, the Chinese BeiDou system (BDS) is being developed and will consist of geostationary (GEO) satellites, inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites, and medium-Earth-orbit (MEO) satellites. In this contribution, a BeiDou-GPS robustness analysis is carried out for instantaneous, unaided attitude determination. Precise attitude determination using multiple GNSS antennas mounted on a platform relies on the successful resolution of the integer carrier phase ambiguities. The constrained Least-squares AMBiguity Decorrelation Adjustment (C-LAMBDA) method has been developed for the quadratically constrained GNSS compass model that incorporates the known baseline length. In this contribution the method is used to analyse the attitude determination performance when using the GPS and BeiDou systems. The attitude determination performance is evaluated using GPS/BeiDou data sets from a real data campaign in Australia spanning several days. The study includes the performance analyses of both stand-alone and mixed constellation (GPS/BeiDou) attitude estimation under various satellite deprived environments. We demonstrate and quantify the improved availability and accuracy of attitude determination using the combined constellation.

Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Raziq, Noor

2014-09-01

367

Small Satellite Passive Magnetic Attitude Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive Magnetic Attitude Control (PMAC) is capable of aligning a satellite within 5 degrees of the local magnetic field at low resource cost, making it ideal for a small satellite. However, simulation attempts to date have not been able to predict the attitude dynamics at a level sufficient for mission design. Also, some satellites have suffered from degraded performance due to an incomplete understanding of PMAC system design. This dissertation alleviates these issues by discussing the design, inputs, and validation of PMAC systems for small satellites. Design rules for a PMAC system are defined using the Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat as an example. A Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) is defined for the attitude determination of a PMAC satellite without a rate gyro. After on-orbit calibration of the off-the-shelf magnetometer and photodiodes and an on-orbit fit to the satellite magnetic moment, the MEKF regularly achieves a three sigma attitude uncertainty of 4 degrees or less. CSSWE is found to settle to the magnetic field in seven days, verifying its attitude design requirement. A Helmholtz cage is constructed and used to characterize the CSSWE bar magnet and hysteresis rods both individually and in the flight configuration. Fitted parameters which govern the magnetic material behavior are used as input to a PMAC dynamics simulation. All components of this simulation are described and defined. Simulation-based dynamics analysis shows that certain initial conditions result in abnormally decreased settling times; these cases may be identified by their dynamic response. The simulation output is compared to the MEKF output; the true dynamics are well modeled and the predicted settling time is found to possess a 20 percent error, a significant improvement over prior simulation.

Gerhardt, David T.

368

Optimal magnetic attitude control  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Magnetic torquing is attractive as means of control for small satellites. The actuation principle is to use the interaction between the earth's magnetic field and a magnetic field generated by a coil set in the satellite. This control principle is inherently time-varying, and difficult to use because control torques can only be generated perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector. This has been a serious obstacle for using magnetorquer based control for three-axis stabilization of a low earth orbit satellite. The problem of controlling the spacecraft attitude using only magnetic torquing is realized in the form of a infinite horizon periodic controller.

Wisniewski, Rafal; Markley, F.L.

1999-01-01

369

Not a "reality" show.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

2013-01-01

370

HIV/AIDS stigma-associated attitudes in a rural Ethiopian community: characteristics, correlation with HIV knowledge and other factors, and implications for community intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether scale-up of HIV prevention and care will reduce negative attitudes and discriminatory practices towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH is uncertain. An HIV knowledge and attitude survey was conducted in a rural Ethiopian community where HIV prevention and treatment was being rapidly scaled up. Data were analyzed to identify prevalence of and factors associated with stigma-associated attitudes towards PLWH. Methods We surveyed 561 adults from 250 randomly selected households in the rural town of Arba Minch and surrounding villages about positive or negative attitudes towards PLWH, as well as demographic characteristics, and knowledge about HIV transmission and treatment. Results Eighty percent of respondents agreed with???1 negative statements indicating blame or shame towards PLWH and 41% agreed with???1 negative statements associated with distancing themselves from PLWH. However, only 14% expressed negative responses about whether PLWH should receive support from their communities. In multivariate analysis, a greater number of negative attitudes towards PLWH was significantly (p? Conclusions In a rural Ethiopian setting in which rapid scale-up of HIV treatment occurred, many respondents still characterized HIV as associated with shame or blame, or indicated PLWH would be isolated or discriminated against. HIV stigma can hamper both prevention and treatment programs. We identified multiple issues which, if addressed, can help promote a more positive cycle in which PLWH are appreciated as members of one’s own community who are affirmatively interacted with and supported. Stigma reduction programs should address knowledge gaps such as fears of casual contact contagion, and lack of awareness of medical interventions to help prevent HIV disease, as well as building upon community-based attitudes of the importance of supporting and showing compassion for PLWH.

Lifson Alan R

2012-05-01

371

The relationship between marital quality, attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Society imposes different roles on women and men in the family and the society, concerning their gender. “Gender Role Concept” is very important in terms of the fact that it is related all parts of life of individuals, behaviors, perceptions and attitudes of men and women (Çelik, 2008. In this perspective, gender roles, which affect individuals’ lives, cannot be isolated from the factors which affect marriage. In this context, the reflections of gender roles on marriage and also the effects of marriage, which is one of most important decisions of individuals, on quality of life were explored. For this purpose, the relationships between these three concepts were discussed. This research was a study of the relational model. The universe of this study included married individuals living in the province of Bayburt and Erzurum, and 639 individuals were participated to the research which was voluntary basis. The data were collected by using the “Marital Life Scale”, “Gender Roles Attitudes Scale” and “Life Satisfaction Scale”. These analyses were made on the data obtained from the study; t-test for independent groups, regression and correlation. According to study a positive and significant relationship was found between the marital quality, gender roles and the life satisfaction. There was found a significant differentiation; between the quality of the marriage and having children or family intervention; between the attitudes towards gender roles and gender, spouse’s employment status or having children; between the life satisfaction and gender or spouse’s employment status.

Ba?aran Gençdo?an

2014-11-01

372

Americans' attitudes toward premarital sex and pornography consumption: a national panel analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

National panel data gathered in 2008 (T1) and 2010 (T2) from 420 Black and White US adults aged 18-89 years (M = 45.37, SD = 15.85) were employed to assess prospective associations between pornography consumption and premarital sex attitudes. Premarital sex attitudes were indexed via a composite measure of perceptions of the appropriateness of adults and teenagers having premarital sex. Wright's (2011) sexual script acquisition, activation, application model (3AM) of media sexual socialization was used as the guiding theoretical framework. The 3AM maintains that sexual media may be used by consumers to inform their sexual scripts but that attitude change from exposure to sexual media is less likely when media scripts are incongruent with consumers' preexisting scripts. Consistent with these postulates, the association between pornography consumption at T1 and more positive attitudes toward premarital sex at T2 was strongest for younger adults, who are less oppositional to premarital sex than older adults. Contrary to the position that associations between pornography consumption and premarital sex attitudes are due to individuals who already have positive attitudes toward premarital sex selecting content congruent with their attitudes, premarital sex attitudes at T1 did not predict pornography consumption at T2. PMID:25273378

Wright, Paul J

2015-01-01

373

Czech Student Attitudes towards Geography  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates 540 Czech lower secondary students' attitudes towards geography. It examined the general influence of gender and grade level on attitudes towards geography with an emphasis on four specific areas in particular: geography as a school subject; geography and the environment; the importance of geography; and the relevance of…

Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

2012-01-01

374

Attitude towards English and ESP acquisition as an L2 or L3 at university  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although several researchers have already investigated whether knowing more than one language will help students acquire additional languages (Edwards, 1995; Klein, 1995; Cenoz & Genesse, 1998b, one of the still unexplored areas when considering the difference between bilingualism and trilingualism is that of linguistic behaviour referred to adults (Hoffmann, 1999. The present study reflects on the socio-cultural and sociopolitical situation in the Basque Country and its relationship with performance in English as L2 or L3. Thus, a research was carried out by testing matched groups of Monolingual (Ml (Spanish versus Bilingual (Bl (Basque/Spanish university students, acquiring English for Specific Purposes (ESP within the following fields: Engineering "mechanical branch", Business Administration, and Nursing. Participants were tested on acquisition of specific technical vocabulary from their fields of study, and they were invited to complete a questionnaire on attitudes towards English. The Bls as a whole outperformed slightly the Mls, suggesting that Bls' immediate/academic aims are somewhat more easily achieved but the differences were not statistically significant. As far as their attitudes towards English are concerned, the differences between Mls and Bls were not significant either, both groups showing overall positive attitudes towards English.

Joseba Mikel González Ardeo

2003-10-01

375

Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs on HIV/AIDS Among Tertiary Students in Papua New Guinea  

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Full Text Available This cross-sectional study among 1597 tertiary level students, 757 (48% males and 832 (52% females (9 respondents no mention of gender, from 12 institutions, across Papua New Guinea, examined their level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. The study revealed that the majority of the students have a very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS; in general students have a considerate and compassionate attitude towards those infected with HIV/AIDS; and the students have positive and healthy attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. Among the demographic variables of gender, province and the institution of their study a significant difference showed in their levels of knowledge and also a statistically significant association was found between beliefs and knowledge. Interestingly, about 58% of the students think that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God. Almost half (46.5% of the respondents think that learning about sex and the use of condoms could also encourage young people to engage in more frequent sex. Although, in general the students have a very good knowledge, they indicate the need for more sex education and awareness pro-grams about HIV/AIDS that could be given in high schools.

Rose Begani

2011-06-01

376

Eating habits and attitudes and their relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: To study the differences in eating attitudes and habits between subjects of normal weight and subjects who are overweight and to analyze in each group the relationship between these habits and attitudes and BMI, taking gender as a modulating variable. Methods: A total of 191 subjects, 117 women and 74 men, took part in this study. 102 subjects made up the overweight/obesity group and 82 subjects made up the control group. All of them were given a questionnaire comprising 26 items (EAT 26 Eating Attitudes Test plus an additional group of 10 extra items. Results: The overweight group shows a significantly higher score in mood-related ingestion than the group with normal weight. Subsequent analyses indicate that while in the overweight/obesity group there is a positive correlation between the oral control scale and BMI, in the normal weight control group there is a negative correlation between oral control and BMI. Amongst the women in the overweight group a significant relationship was observed between skipping meals, oral control and BMI. 50.7% of the dieters stated that their attempts to lose weight had generally been followed by an even greater weight increase. Furthermore, 88.5% of the dieters stated that they had been unable to maintain the weight loss in the long term. Conclusions: The results indicate that the same restrictive practices can have different effects depending on the BMI and the sex of the subjects.

Ana Rodríguez Santamaría

2009-12-01

377

The Great Cometary Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

378

Cadaveric donotransplantation: nurses' attitudes, knowledge and behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human organ transplantation is an important treatment for certain medical conditions, and for irreversible organ failure. There is a shortfall in the number of organs required for transplantation. The close and continuous proximity of nurses to potential donors and their families make them critical links in the organ donation process. Therefore, success in organ procurement may depend on nurses' awareness and integration of knowledge about donotransplantation (the process of organ/tissue donation and transplantation). Postal questionnaires were distributed throughout the United Kingdom (UK) to 2465 registered nurses, to assess their personal attitudes, knowledge and behaviour regarding cadaveric donotransplantation. One thousand, three hundred and thirty-three questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 54%. Overall, nurses held positive attitudes to donotransplantation, with 78% agreeing with organ donation and only 10% clearly being opposed. However, nurses were found to share ambivalent attitudes of altruism and fear which appear to surround decisions about donation. Factor analysis was used to further explore nurses' attitude structure. Six factors were confirmed providing a non-significant likelihood ratio fit (P = 0.468) and a well reproduced correlation matrix. The factors related to: (1) the value and contribution made by donotransplantation; (2) the unique idea of having another's tissue in one's own body; (3) the importance of organ donation; (4) the individual's moral, and nurses' professional rejection of the responsibility for organ/tissue donation; (5) the post-mortem mutilation of the body; and, (6) the potential distress donation may cause a bereaved family. Comparisons were made between certain of nurses' specialist groups and significant differences were found. Comparisons of factor scores between certain specialist groups or other strata were assessed by analysis of variance. Nurses working in renal units were significantly more in favour of donotransplantation than any other group of nurses. PMID:10641806

Sque, M; Payne, S; Vlachonikolis, I

2000-02-01

379

Attitudes of Nigerian College Students towards Fundamental Human Rights.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessed the attitudes of Nigerian college students (N=570) on human rights issues. Results indicated that university students in Nigeria seem to have a fairly positive assessment of the institutional, political, and legal opportunities for the enjoyment and defense of human rights in Nigeria. (LLL)

Atolagbe, Emman O.; Otubanjo, Femi

1984-01-01

380

The Development and Evaluation of an Elementary Environmental Attitudes Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study grew out of a concern for a way to develop positive attitudes in children towards environmental problems. It was conducted using 29 student teachers, 15 of whom were arbitrarily assigned as the experimental group. This group participated in instructional sessions designed to assist them in implementing a special program - Elementary…

Leith, Sylvia G.; Butts, David P.

381

College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors regarding Sex and Contraceptives  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…

Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani

2012-01-01

382

Diversity Experiences and Attitudes toward Literacy: Is There a Link?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on a study that explored whether diversity experiences influence students' attitudes toward literary activities during the first year of college. Interactional diversity and attending a diversity workshop had a positive net influence on the outcome measure. Exposure to curricular diversity, however, had only a chance…

Loes, Chad N.; Salisbury, Mark H.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

2013-01-01

383

Assessing Aptitude and Attitude Development in a Translation Skills Course  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effects on EFL students of using Blackboard technology and online dictionaries in developing translating skills and building positive attitudes towards translation in male Saudi college students. The study compares two groups of students in a translation course; one in a traditional, face-to-face setting (control) and…

Mekheimer, Mohamed Amin A.

2012-01-01

384

The Teacher Attitudes Toward Inclusion Scale (TATIS) Technical Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Teacher attitudes toward the inclusion of children with disabilities into general education classrooms have been found to be strong predictors of the success of efforts to create inclusive learning communities. Specifically, research has shown that when teachers have positive mindsets toward inclusion, they more readily adapt their teaching…

Cullen, Joseph P.; Gregory, Jess L.; Noto, Lori A.

2010-01-01

385

The Relationship between Depression and Religious Attitudes in Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background and Objectives: Depression is one of the main causes of debility all over the world. Its prevalence is reported to be 10% -64% in students. Various researches indicate that utilizing religious approaches play an efficient and effective role in treating mental disorders. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between depression and religious attitudes in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences (QUMS, Qom, Iran.

Methods: In this descriptive– analytical study, 250 students of QUMS were assessed by means of three questionnaires; a standard depression test questionnaire, and religious attitude questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical procedures of Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal- Wallis test and Spearman Correlation Coefficient and P<0/05 was considered as the level of significance.

Results: The study showed that 44.8%of the subjects had no depression, 37.2% had minor depression, 14.8% were moderately depressed, and 0.8%  were intensely depressed while 2.4% very intensely depressed. The study also showed that 82% of the cases had positive attitudes toward religious beliefs and 18% had negative ones. Moreover, results showed that there was a meaningful but negative relationship between depression and religious attitudes (P<0/02.

Conclusion: Regarding the positive effects of religious beliefs and practices on mental health, it is recommended to use this potential in community health planning especially when dealing with young adults.

H Ahmari Tehran

2012-05-01

386

STRAP 4 sounding rocket attitude control system  

Science.gov (United States)

A sounding rocket attitude control system is reported that uses rate integrated gyros operating in both closed loop and open loop modes at very low drift rates. In normal operation the gyros are zeroed on a nearby star and torqued to the proper location in the closed loop mode; rate output is electronically integrated to provide a position displacement signal. Once closed loop torquing is completed, the caging loop is opened and the gyro is operated as angular displacement sensor to provide limit cycle control while viewing the target.

Shrewsberry, D. J.

1973-01-01

387

Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?  

Science.gov (United States)

The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

Markley, F. Landis

2003-01-01

388

An algebraic approach to general aggregation theory: Propositional-attitude aggregators as MV-homomorphisms  

OpenAIRE

This paper continues Dietrich and List's [2010] work on propositional-attitude aggregation theory, which is a generalised unification of the judgment-aggregation and probabilistic opinion-pooling literatures. We first propose an algebraic framework for an analysis of (many-valued) propositional-attitude aggregation problems. Then we shall show that systematic propositional-attitude aggregators can be viewed as homomorphisms in the category of C.C. Chang's [1958] MV-algebras. Since the 2-eleme...

Herzberg, Frederik

2011-01-01

389

Study Habits and Attitudes of Freshmen Students: Implications for Academic Intervention Programs  

OpenAIRE

The substantive aim of this study was to investigate the favorable and unfavorable study habits and study attitudes of the freshmen students and determine its implications in formulating academic intervention programs. The Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (SSHA) instrument developed by Brown and Holtzman (1969) was used to assess the study habits and attitudes of the students. Results show that students generally do not approve teacher methods and classroom management, and have inefficien...

Luisa Baquiran Aquino

2011-01-01

390

Employee Attitude to Management Style : case: International equitable association Nigeria Limited.  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the study is to reveal employees’ attitudes to management style in International equitable association Limited, Aba, Nigeria (IEA). IEA is a soap and detergent manufacturing company. The company uses modern management styles to drive employee performance. This study set out to investigate employee attitudes to the various management styles in use at IEA. The study used a framework which shows that employee attitude is driven by the employee’s awareness, the employee’s applica...

Osondu, Marshall

2012-01-01

391

Improving facilities, transforming attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Providing an effective healing environment for patients facing a wide range of mental health issues, while balancing their needs with security, safety, and affordability considerations, will be key area of focus at this year's Design in Mental Health (DIMH) conference and exhibition, taking place from 13-14 May at the National Motorcycle Museum in Bickenhill near Solihull. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports, conference speakers will include the director of estates and new business at the Priory Group; the chief executive of mental health charity, Mind; architects and designers with substantial mental healthcare experience; top academics, and service-users--all with their own perspective on the 2014 conference theme, 'Improving facilities, transforming attitudes'. PMID:24783329

Baillie, Jonathan

2014-04-01

392

Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Juvenile Sex Offenders  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment…

Sahlstrom, Kimberly J.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

393

Risk Attitudes and Profits among Small Enterprises in Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyses the effect of risk attitudes of firm owners on profits among micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Lagos, Nigeria. Higher risk perceptions are shown to have a significant positive effect on profits, whereas risk propensity has a negative or no effect. Education, age, being male, and firm size are all positively related to profit, while young firms earn lower profits. Overall, the results suggest that being aware and dealing cautiously with risk leads to higher profitability.

Lammers, Judith; Willebrands, Daan; Hartog, Joop

2010-01-01

394

Communication attitude of stuttering adults  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the thesis was to research the attitude of adults who stutter on speech communication and to compare them to the attitude of those adults who don’t. In order to achieve it, BigCAT-SLO, a 35-item self-report test was translated, the original aim of which was to measure the speech-associated attitude of adults who stutter. BigCAT-SLO was verified by 27 adults who stutter who were, during the time of the research, in the diagnostic phase of the logopedic treatment. They repre...

Blaz?ic?, Tea

2013-01-01

395

Analysis of Teachers’ Attitude towards Internet Use: Example of Chemistry Teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web technology is changing rapidly every day and the Internet has become a lifestyle for people all over the world. It is obvious that the life style of societies is in a process of change, as new habits are acquired. Even though Internet use is one of the new social habits, it is one of the most important factors that induce this change as regards the convenience it brings to communication and other areas. The widespread use of Internet implies the idea that it can also be more widely used for educational purpose. Since chemistry teachers have a very important function in education, the determination of teachers’ attitude towards Internet use is also important. In the literature it is possible to see many studies on teacher candidates’ attitude towards Internet use; however studies on appointed teachers’ attitude are not very common. In our study, which aims to determine the attitude of appointed chemistry teachers according to different variables, we used the Internet use attitude scale. Participant teacher’s attitude towards Internet use was analyzed and interpreted according to the variables of gender, years on the job, type of school at which they are teaching, and duration of their weekly Internet use. It was seen that a vast majority of the teachers have personal computers, they connect to Internet at home and have positive attitude towards Internet use. It was also seen that female teachers have more positive attitude than male teachers in use of Internet for social interaction and communication.

Orhan Ercan

2012-06-01

396

Investigating the Attitude of Top Managers of National Jihad-e Keshavarzi Organizations in Iran toward Privatized Agricultural Extension Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, privatization of agricultural extension services is recognized as an appropriate approach to compensate for any weakness that the traditional extension system might have. The primary objective of this research was to study the attitude of the national top managers (including general managers, their deputies, and extension managers of Jihad-e Keshavarzi Organizations (JKO, toward privatization of agricultural extension. Twenty JKOs from 20 provinces were randomly selected for study. A questionnaire was developed to the gather information needed and 107 general managers, deputies, and extension managers were randomly selected for this purpose. A pilot test was conducted on a similar population and reliability coefficients of (A Cronbach Alpha 81%, and 89% were obtained for the attitude and managerial characteristics of the questionnaire respectively. The results showed that 93.83% of the subjects had either “positive” or “relatively positiveattitude toward privatization of agricultural extension. The majority of the subjects indicated that privatization of extension could provide a “supplementary means to complement the existing public extension services”. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the independent variables collectively are responsible for 17.4% (R2 =0.174 of the variation in dependent variables. This indicates that a considerable amount of variances in dependent variables are yet unaccounted for that could be explained by variables that were not investigated in this study (requiring further study.

H. Sedighi

2005-01-01

397

Expectations and changing attitudes of bar workers before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Scotland on March 26, 2006 a comprehensive prohibition on smoking in all enclosed public places was introduced. This study examines bar workers' attitudes towards a smoke-free working environment. Methods An intervention study comparing bar workers' opinions before and after the implementation of the smoke-free legislation. Bars were randomly selected in three Scottish cities (Glasgow, Edinburgh & Aberdeen and towns (Aberdeenshire & Borders. Bar workers were recruited from 72 bars that agreed to participate from159 approached. Pre- and post-implementation attitudes towards legislation, second-hand smoke and smoke-free working environments were compared. Results Initially the majority of bar workers agreed with the proposed legislation on smoking (69% and the need for it to protect the health of workers (80%, although almost half (49% thought the legislation would damage business. In 266 bar workers seen at both surveys, a significant positive attitudinal change towards the legislation was seen. Post-implementation, support for the legislation rose to 79%, bar workers continued to believe it was needed to protect health (81% and concerns about the impact on business were expressed by fewer than 20%. Only the statement that the legislation would encourage smokers to quit showed reduced support, from 70% pre-implementation to fewer than 60% post-implementation. Initial acceptance was greater among younger bar workers; older workers, initially more sceptical, became less so with experience of the legislation's effects. Conclusion This study shows that bar workers had generally positive attitudes towards the legislation prior to implementation, which became stronger after implementation. The affirmative attitudes of these key stakeholders are likely to contribute towards the creation of 'smoke-free' as the new social norm.

MacCalman Laura

2007-08-01

398

Measuring emergency department nurses' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm using the Self-Harm Antipathy Scale.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The emergency department is an important gateway for the treatment of self-harm patients. Nurses\\' attitudes towards patients who self-harm can be negative and often nurses experience frustration, helplessness, ambivalence and antipathy. Patients are often dissatisfied with the care provided, and meeting with positive or negative attitudes greatly influences whether they seek additional help. A quantitative design was utilised to measure emergency department nurses\\' attitudes towards deliberate self-harm. The \\'Self-Harm Antipathy Scale\\

Conlon, Mary

2012-01-31

399

Atitudes parentais em relação à educação inclusiva Parental attitudes toward inclusive education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever as atitudes parentais em relação à inclusão escolar, 445 pais de alunos de primeira à quarta série do ensino fundamental de duas escolas municipais da cidade de São Paulo, responderam um questionário e uma escala de atitudes tipo Likert denominada Inventário Geral de Atitudes quanto à Educação Inclusiva (IGAEI. Participaram do estudo 169 (37,98% pais de alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais em processo de inclusão (G1 e 276 (62,02% progenitores de discentes que, de acordo com as instituições, não possuíam tal característica (G2. Os instrumentos foram aplicados coletivamente em reunião de pais e mestres com resposta individual. Os resultados obtidos revelam que ambos os grupos de pais tendiam a possuir atitudes favoráveis em relação à educação inclusiva. Porém, as atitudes dos pais de estudantes com necessidades educacionais especiais eram mais favoráveis à inclusão. São apresentados, ainda, resultados referentes a outras variáveis pesquisadas, como, por exemplo, tipos de necessidades educacionais em processo de inclusão. O estudo tende a corroborar resultados obtidos em pesquisas realizadas em outros países, ainda que algumas discrepâncias tenham sido percebidas. Conclui-se enfatizando a necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre o tema no contexto brasileiro e ressaltando a importância dos pais no desenvolvimento de sistemas educacionais inclusivos.In order to describe parental attitudes toward school inclusion, 445 parents of elementary school students from first to fourth grade of two municipal schools of the city of São Paulo answered a questionnaire and the Likert scale General Inventory of Attitudes toward Inclusive Education (IGAEI for assessing attitudes. The participants were 169 (37,98% parents of students with special educational needs included in regular schools (G1 and 276 (62,02% parents of students the school directors said did not have special needs (G2. The instruments were collectively applied during a parent teacher meeting using individual answer sheets. The results showed that both groups of parents tended to have positive attitudes in relation to inclusive education. However, parents of special educational needs students' attitudes were more positive. Results referring to other researched variables, i.e. types of special educational needs in inclusion process, are also presented. This study tends to corroborate research results from other countries, though some discrepancies have been perceived. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of parental involvement in the development of inclusive educational systems and suggests that more research is required in the Brazilian educational context.

Altemir José Gonçalves Barbosa

2007-12-01

400

Atitudes parentais em relação à educação inclusiva / Parental attitudes toward inclusive education  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de descrever as atitudes parentais em relação à inclusão escolar, 445 pais de alunos de primeira à quarta série do ensino fundamental de duas escolas municipais da cidade de São Paulo, responderam um questionário e uma escala de atitudes tipo Likert denominada Inventário Geral de Atit [...] udes quanto à Educação Inclusiva (IGAEI). Participaram do estudo 169 (37,98%) pais de alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais em processo de inclusão (G1) e 276 (62,02%) progenitores de discentes que, de acordo com as instituições, não possuíam tal característica (G2). Os instrumentos foram aplicados coletivamente em reunião de pais e mestres com resposta individual. Os resultados obtidos revelam que ambos os grupos de pais tendiam a possuir atitudes favoráveis em relação à educação inclusiva. Porém, as atitudes dos pais de estudantes com necessidades educacionais especiais eram mais favoráveis à inclusão. São apresentados, ainda, resultados referentes a outras variáveis pesquisadas, como, por exemplo, tipos de necessidades educacionais em processo de inclusão. O estudo tende a corroborar resultados obtidos em pesquisas realizadas em outros países, ainda que algumas discrepâncias tenham sido percebidas. Conclui-se enfatizando a necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre o tema no contexto brasileiro e ressaltando a importância dos pais no desenvolvimento de sistemas educacionais inclusivos. Abstract in english In order to describe parental attitudes toward school inclusion, 445 parents of elementary school students from first to fourth grade of two municipal schools of the city of São Paulo answered a questionnaire and the Likert scale General Inventory of Attitudes toward Inclusive Education (IGAEI) for [...] assessing attitudes. The participants were 169 (37,98%) parents of students with special educational needs included in regular schools (G1) and 276 (62,02%) parents of students the school directors said did not have special needs (G2). The instruments were collectively applied during a parent teacher meeting using individual answer sheets. The results showed that both groups of parents tended to have positive attitudes in relation to inclusive education. However, parents of special educational needs students' attitudes were more positive. Results referring to other researched variables, i.e. types of special educational needs in inclusion process, are also presented. This study tends to corroborate research results from other countries, though some discrepancies have been perceived. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of parental involvement in the development of inclusive educational systems and suggests that more research is required in the Brazilian educational context.

Altemir José Gonçalves, Barbosa; Daniella Collado, Rosini; Alessandra Almeida, Pereira.

2007-12-01

401

Nursing students' attitudes toward science in the nursing curricula  

Science.gov (United States)

The nursing profession combines the art of caregiving with scientific concepts. Nursing students need to learn science in order to start in a nursing program. However, previous research showed that students left the nursing program, stating it included too much science (Andrew et al., 2008). Research has shown a correlation between students' attitudes and their performance in a subject (Osborne, Simon, & Collins, 2003). However, little research exists on the overall attitude of nursing students toward science. At the time of my study there existed no large scale quantitative study on my topic. The purpose of my study was to identify potential obstacles nursing students face, specifically, attitude and motivation toward learning science. According to research the nation will soon face a nursing shortage and students cite the science content as a reason for not completing the nursing program. My study explored nursing students' attitudes toward science and reasons these students are motivated to learn science. I ran a nationwide mixed methods approach with 1,402 participants for the quantitative portion and 4 participants for the qualitative portion. I validated a questionnaire in order to explore nursing students' attitudes toward science, discovered five different attitude scales in that questionnaire and determined what demographic factors provided a statistically significant prediction of a student's score. In addition, I discovered no statistical difference in attitude exists between students who have the option of taking nursing specific courses and those who do not have that option. I discovered in the qualitative interviews that students feel science is necessary in nursing but do not feel nurses are scientists. My study gives a baseline of the current attitude of nursing students toward science and why these students feel the need to learn the science.

Maroo, Jill Deanne

402

A dynamic attitude measurement system based on LINS.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dynamic attitude measurement system (DAMS) is developed based on a laser inertial navigation system (LINS). Three factors of the dynamic attitude measurement error using LINS are analyzed: dynamic error, time synchronization and phase lag. An optimal coning errors compensation algorithm is used to reduce coning errors, and two-axis wobbling verification experiments are presented in the paper. The tests indicate that the attitude accuracy is improved 2-fold by the algorithm. In order to decrease coning errors further, the attitude updating frequency is improved from 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. At the same time, a novel finite impulse response (FIR) filter with three notches is designed to filter the dither frequency of the ring laser gyro (RLG). The comparison tests suggest that the new filter is five times more effective than the old one. The paper indicates that phase-frequency characteristics of FIR filter and first-order holder of navigation computer constitute the main sources of phase lag in LINS. A formula to calculate the LINS attitude phase lag is introduced in the paper. The expressions of dynamic attitude errors induced by phase lag are derived. The paper proposes a novel synchronization mechanism that is able to simultaneously solve the problems of dynamic test synchronization and phase compensation. A single-axis turntable and a laser interferometer are applied to verify the synchronization mechanism. The experiments results show that the theoretically calculated values of phase lag and attitude error induced by phase lag can both match perfectly with testing data. The block diagram of DAMS and physical photos are presented in the paper. The final experiments demonstrate that the real-time attitude measurement accuracy of DAMS can reach up to 20? (1?) and the synchronization error is less than 0.2 ms on the condition of three axes wobbling for 10 min. PMID:25177802

Li, Hanzhou; Pan, Quan; Wang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Juanni; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Xiangjun

2014-01-01

403

A Dynamic Attitude Measurement System Based on LINS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dynamic attitude measurement system (DAMS is developed based on a laser inertial navigation system (LINS. Three factors of the dynamic attitude measurement error using LINS are analyzed: dynamic error, time synchronization and phase lag. An optimal coning errors compensation algorithm is used to reduce coning errors, and two-axis wobbling verification experiments are presented in the paper. The tests indicate that the attitude accuracy is improved 2-fold by the algorithm. In order to decrease coning errors further, the attitude updating frequency is improved from 200 Hz to 2000 Hz. At the same time, a novel finite impulse response (FIR filter with three notches is designed to filter the dither frequency of the ring laser gyro (RLG. The comparison tests suggest that the new filter is five times more effective than the old one. The paper indicates that phase-frequency characteristics of FIR filter and first-order holder of navigation computer constitute the main sources of phase lag in LINS. A formula to calculate the LINS attitude phase lag is introduced in the paper. The expressions of dynamic attitude errors induced by phase lag are derived. The paper proposes a novel synchronization mechanism that is able to simultaneously solve the problems of dynamic test synchronization and phase compensation. A single-axis turntable and a laser interferometer are applied to verify the synchronization mechanism. The experiments results show that the theoretically calculated values of phase lag and attitude error induced by phase lag can both match perfectly with testing data. The block diagram of DAMS and physical photos are presented in the paper. The final experiments demonstrate that the real-time attitude measurement accuracy of DAMS can reach up to 20? (1? and the synchronization error is less than 0.2 ms on the condition of three axes wobbling for 10 min.

Hanzhou Li

2014-08-01

404

Physicians' attitudes about obesity and their associations with competency and specialty: A cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians frequently report negative attitudes about obesity which is thought to affect patient care. However, little is known about how attitudes toward treating obese patients are formed. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of physicians in order to better characterize their attitudes and explore the relationships among attitudes, perceived competency in obesity care, including report of weight loss in patients, and other key physician, training, and practice characteristics. Methods We surveyed all 399 physicians from internal medicine, pediatrics, and psychiatry specialties at one institution regarding obesity care attitudes, competency, including physician report of percent of their patients who lose weight. We performed a factor analysis on the attitude items and used hierarchical regression analysis to explore the degree to which competency, reported weight loss, physician, training and practice characteristics explained the variance in each attitude factor. Results The overall response rate was 63%. More than 40% of physicians had a negative reaction towards obese patients, 56% felt qualified to treat obesity, and 46% felt successful in this realm. The factor analysis revealed 4 factors–Physician Discomfort/Bias, Physician Success/Self Efficacy, Positive Outcome Expectancy, and Negative Outcome Expectancy. Competency and reported percent of patients who lose weight were most strongly associated with the Physician Success/Self Efficacy attitude factor. Greater skill in patient assessment was associated with less Physician Discomfort/Bias. Training characteristics were associated with outcome expectancies with newer physicians reporting more positive treatment expectancies. Pediatric faculty was more positive and psychiatry faculty less negative in their treatment expectancies than internal medicine faculty. Conclusion Physician attitudes towards obesity are associated with competency, specialty, and years since postgraduate training. Further study is necessary to determine the direction of influence and to explore the impact of these attitudes on patient care.

Sherman Scott

2009-06-01

405

A CO RELATIONAL STUDY OF HANDWRITING ANALYSIS AND ATTITUDES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research deals with applied psychology of handwriting, in articular with theuse of graphology. Graphology is the study and analysis of handwriting especially in relation tohuman psychology. In the medical field, it can be used to refer to the study of handwriting as anaid in diagnosis and tracking of diseases of the brain and nervous system. There are two methodsof handwriting analysis: Graphology is the method of psychological analysis, while forensicdocument examination or handwriting identification which is the examination of documentsand writing samples by a known source, or person. In this paper relationship between Handwriting analysis and Attitude regarding the college students. 60 college students areparticipated in this study from Ahmednagar. The age range of sample selected between 18 to 22 years. Research concluded that, there is positive co Relation between Handwriting features withoptimistic Attitudes and pessimistic attitude regarding the college student.

Kale Madhukar Dnyandeo

2015-01-01

406

Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness  

Science.gov (United States)

Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

1974-01-01

407

Attitudes towards the use of GMOs in food production and willingness to buy cheese produced using GMOs for respondents with and without tasting experience  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

European consumers are sceptical towards genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production, and their willingness to buy such products is low. Previous research also shows that these attitudes are quite resistant to attempts to change them by giving additional information. The aim of the study was to investigate if actual sensory experience with a (purportedly) GMO-based food product would influence consumers' attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. An experiment was conducted in which subjects in the experimental group tasted cheeses, one of which was labelled as 'produced using GMOs.' The cheeses were selected in a way that ensured that the subject had a sensory preference for the GMO cheese. A control group tasted cheeses that were unlabelled. After the tasting, subjects completed a conjoint analysis task about cheese, in which the type of starter culture used (GMO/conventional) was one of the attributes. Subjects also were administered a set of items measuring attitude towards the use of GMOs in food production. Results showed that for subjects in the experimental group (who believed that they had tasted a GMO cheese, with which they had a positive sensory experience) a) attitude towards GMO in food production was less negative, and b) type of starter culture used (GM/conventional) had less impact on their buying intentions with regard to cheese than for subjects in the control group.

Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

408

Perceptions and attitudes of car owners on innovative automobiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To abate the detrimental effects of transport a transition is foreseen from the conventional fossil cars to energy-sustainable cars. A successful transition requires a major behavioral change of car consumers who need to make choices about new options for transport with uncertain costs and benefits compared to their current car. This paper examines consumers' perceptions about innovative cars and considerations for buying or not buying innovative cars (hybrid, electric, plug-in electric, hydrogen, flexifuel). In this study an on-line questionnaire on attitudes, interests and social norms regarding innovative cars was conducted among 339 Dutch respondents who recently bought a new car. To obtain in-depth understanding of the answers, a follow-up study was conducted consisting of two focus groups with a sample of survey participants. These focus groups respectively concentrated on respondents' perceptions of innovative cars, and on the personality traits of the 'typical' innovative car driver. The results of the survey shows that the attitude towards innovative cars are strongly influenced by affective aspects (such as comfort and pleasant) and to a (much) smaller extent by environmental considerations. The results of the focus groups confirm these findings. According to the participants the price of the car is decisive whereby environmental concerns play no role. The design and image of the car are important. In addition, it appears that the familiarity with (and thus pears that the familiarity with (and thus the knowledge about) the innovative cars is still very limited (with the exception of the hybrid car). This point of view stresses the importance of the way in which innovative cars are positioned thereby affecting the image (social norms) people will have regarding these cars.

409

Use of Fuzzycones for Sun-Only Attitude Determination: THEMIS Becomes ARTEMIS  

Science.gov (United States)

In order for two THEMIS probes to successfully transition to ARTEMIS it will be necessary to determine attitudes with moderate accuracy using Sun sensor data only. To accomplish this requirement, an implementation of the Fuzzycones maximum likelihood algorithm was developed. The effect of different measurement uncertainty models on Fuzzycones attitude accuracy was investigated and a bin-transition technique was introduced to improve attitude accuracy using data with uniform error distributions. The algorithm was tested with THEMIS data and in simulations. The analysis results show that the attitude requirements can be met using Fuzzycones and data containing two bin-transitions.

Hashmall, Joseph A.; Felikson, Denis; Sedlak, Joseph E.

2009-01-01

410

A study of student attitudes toward physics and classroom environment based on gender and grade level among senior secondary education students in Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

The main purposes of the present study are to investigate the differences on student's attitudes toward physics and their perceptions regarding classroom climate during physics classes based on gender and grade level. In addition, the study also explores female students' opinions about physics, and examines to what extent this factor might influence their decision to choose or not to choose physics or physics-related fields for their career choices in the future. A group of approximately 864 male and female students, equally proportioned by gender, were assigned to take part in this study. Two standardized instruments, namely the Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) and the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA), have been employed to collect data. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to analyze the collected data resulting from the questionnaires as well as from the interviews. The study found, first, regardless of their gender and grade level differences, students expected a more positive classroom climate during learning physics. Also, it has been found that male students experience a more positive classroom environment than female students. Second, the study found that male students do show more positive attitudes toward physics than their female counterparts. Meanwhile, twelfth-grade students show a more positive attitude toward physics than eleventh-graders. Third, the study found that most female students do not like physics based on several reasons such as physics is a hard, monotonous and boring subject. Although eleventh-grade female students do not like physics, most of them intended to choose science as their major in the next grade. Surprisingly, a majority of twelfth-grade female students who are majoring in science have no intention to choose physics or physics-related subjects either for their prospective major at the university or for their career choices in the future.

Chaerul, Andrie

411

Don't give me attitude: Can perceptions of social norms, behavioral control and moral intensity help bridge the attitude-behavior gap in ethical consumer behavior?  

OpenAIRE

The last couple of decades have seen a significant increase in positive attitudes towards ethical products and services. However, this increase is has yet to lead to a marked growth in the sales of such products. This thesis looks at the consumer decision-making process in situations where a moral issue or dilemma is present, and examines possible reasons for the disconnect between consumers' attitudes and behavioral intentions. Drawing on Icek Ajzen's (1985) theory of planned behavior, t...

Gloukhovtsev, Alexei

2014-01-01

412

Models of complex attitude systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations, understanding them as embedded into a wider attitude system that consists of attitudes towards objects of different abstraction levels, ranging from personal value orientations over general socio-political attitudes to evaluations of specific characteristics of agricultural production systems. It is assumed that evaluative affect propagates through the system in such a way that the system becomes evaluatively consistent and operates as a schema for the generation of evaluative judgments. In the empirical part of the paper, the causal structure of an attitude system from which people derive their evaluations of pork production systems was modelled. The analysis was based on data from a cross-cultural survey involving 1931 participants from Belgium, Denmark, Germany and Poland. The survey questionnaire contained measures of personal value orientations and attitudes towards environment and nature, industrial food production, food and the environment, technological progress, animal welfare, local employment and the local economy. In addition, the survey included a conjoint task by which participants’ evaluations of the importance of production system attributes were measured. The data were analysed by means of causal search algorithms and structural equation models. The results suggest that evaluative judgments of the importance of production system attributes are generated in a schematic manner, driven by personal value orientations. The effect of personal value orientations was strong and largely unmediated by attitudes of an intermediate level of generality, suggesting that the dependent variables in the particular attitude system that was modelled here can be understood as value judgments in a literal sense.

SØrensen, Bjarne Taulo

2011-01-01

413

Autonomous spacecraft attitude control using magnetic torquing only  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic torquing of spacecraft has been an important mechanism for attitude control since the earliest satellites were launched. Typically a magnetic control system has been used for precession/nutation damping for gravity-gradient stabilized satellites, momentum dumping for systems equipped with reaction wheels, or momentum-axis pointing for spinning and momentum-biased spacecraft. Although within the small satellite community there has always been interest in expensive, light-weight, and low-power attitude control systems, completely magnetic control systems have not been used for autonomous three-axis stabilized spacecraft due to the large computational requirements involved. As increasingly more powerful microprocessors have become available, this has become less of an impediment. These facts have motivated consideration of the all-magnetic attitude control system presented here. The problem of controlling spacecraft attitude using only magnetic torquing is cast into the form of the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), resulting in a linear feedback control law. Since the geomagnetic field along a satellite trajectory is not constant, the system equations are time varying. As a result, the optimal feedback gains are time-varying. Orbit geometry is exploited to treat feedback gains as a function of position rather than time, making feasible the onboard solution of the optimal control problem. In simulations performed to date, the control laws have shown themselves to be fairly robust and a good candidate for an onboard attitude control system.

Musser, Keith L.; Ebert, Ward L.

1989-01-01

414

Attitudes toward medication and the clinical variables in schizophrenia: Structural equation models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Alessandro Rossi1, Roberta Pacifico1, Paolo Stratta2,1Department of Experimental Medicine at University of L’Aquila, Institute of Clinical Research ‘Villa Serena’ Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Città S. Angelo, Italy; 2Department of Mental Health, ASL 4, L’Aquila, ItalyObjective: Our study uses data from a large clinical trial to further dissect the contributors attitude toward antipsychotic medication measured with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI in schizophrenia.Method: A total of 227 consecutive outpatients (140 males, 87 females with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder according to DSM-IV criteria were evaluated. Structural equation models (SEM were used to examine the relationship between attitudes toward medication as measured with the DAI and clinical variables assessed by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF.Results: Among four models, the data better fit a model in which attitudes toward medication (DAI-30 was predicted by PANSS Positive and Insight measures, and GAF (goodnessof-fit = 0.99.Conclusion: The data best fit a model where the most complex interaction of insight measures and positive symptoms does predict attitudes toward medication.Keywords: attitude toward medication, drug attitude inventory, structural equation models

Alessandro Rossi

2009-08-01

415

Organizational factors and the attitude toward health promotion in German ICT-companies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study takes a first step toward examining the relationship between organizational characteristics and the perceived attitude toward health promotion in companies from the perspective of chief executive officers (CEOs). Data for the cross-sectional study were collected through telephone interviews with one CEO from randomly selected companies within the German information and communication technology (ICT) sector. Multivariate logistic regression analysis (LRA) was performed, and further LRA was conducted after stratifying on company size. LRA of data from a total of n = 522 interviews found significant associations between the attitude toward health promotion and the company's market position, its number of hierarchical levels, the percentage of permanent positions and the percentage of employees with an academic education. After stratification on company size, the association between the attitude toward health promotion and both market position and the percentage of employees with an academic education was still present in small companies. There were no significant relationships between the attitude toward health promotion and the structural characteristics of medium-sized and large companies. The preliminary results of the study indicate that a perceived attitude toward health promotion in companies can be explained, to a certain degree, by the intraorganizational characteristics analyzed. Our key findings highlight that efforts toward establishing a positive attitude toward health promotion should focus on small companies with a lower market position and a greater number of employees with a lower education level. PMID:21873300

Jung, Julia; Nitzsche, Anika; Ansmann, Lena; Ernstmann, Nicole; Ommen, Oliver; Stieler-Lorenz, Brigitte; Wasem, Jürgen; Pfaff, Holger

2012-09-01

416

Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.

Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

2005-12-01

417

Faculty Attitudes towards Computer Assisted Instruction at the University of Gaziantep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at revealing faculty attitudes towards computer assistedinstruction at University of Gaziantep, Turkey in a multifaceted way. Additionally, ittries to determine underlying factors that shape these attitudes. After a pilot study, thequestionnaire was applied to a sample population of 145 faculty that were chosenrandomly. The results revealed that faculty attitudes towards computer assistedinsruction are positive. Age, sex, teaching experience, level of proficiency in Englishand computer usage skills have no or little effects over these attitudes.According to theresults of the study, faculty who have prior knowledge on computers expose ratherpositive attitudes towards computers in education.Another important outcome of thestudy is the existence of a gender gap in terms of computer assisted instruction.Althoughthere seems to be no difference between male and female faculty concerning theirbackground education regarding computers, male faculty feel confident about thematter, whereas female faculty feel uncomfortable about using computers in theirlessons.

Filiz Yalç?n TILFARLIO?LU

2006-04-01

418

Primary School Students’ Attitudes Towards Physical Education and Sports in Central Slovak Region  

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Full Text Available Results of the survey are presented in this report. The survey was aimed at determining 9th year students’ attitudes towards physical education (PE and sports at selected primary schools in Central Slovak region. The research group consisted of 1110 respondents from 13 primary schools located in cities and 12 primary schools located in villages. As many as 57,39 % of respondents adopted indifferent attitude. Author found out that indifferent attitudes towards PE and sports prevailed with boys and girls. Both boys and girls adopted almost the same attitudes towards PE and sports. Village primary school students adopted more positive attitude towards PE and sports than students from city primary schools.

Pavol Bartík

2012-10-01

419

Attitudes Towards (Psychotherapy) Groups: Results of a Survey in a Representative Sample.  

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Abstract Based upon observations indicating decreasing attractiveness of groups within and outside the clinical field, the present study aimed to determine attitudes toward, and expectations of, groups in a representative sample of 2512 German citizens. The survey also included questions specifically related to group psychotherapy and its acceptance. In addition, psychological characteristics of respondents (measures of narcissism, psychological impairment, and emotion regulation) and socio-demographic variables were assessed to examine their potential association with group-related attitudes. In total, the survey revealed a relatively positive picture of attitudes and expectations toward groups in general and psychotherapy groups in particular. Those with more open attitudes towards groups were comparatively less distressed, anxious, and depressed; they favored emotional reappraisal instead of suppression as the dominant strategy to regulate their emotions. Contrary to prediction, narcissism did not influence attitudes towards groups. The results are related to current discussions of the attractiveness of groups and to implications for the practice of group psychotherapy. PMID:24963534

Strauss, Bernhard; Spangenberg, Lena; Brähler, Elmar; Bormann, Bianca

2014-06-25

420

The effect of a role model project upon the attitudes of ninth-grade science students  

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This article will describe an in-school intervention project that used female role models to change the attitudes of 964 Iowa girls and boys in 57 ninth-grade science classes toward science, math, and technical curricula and careers. The differences between the students' mean pretest and posttest scores on each of six factors found to be associated with students' attitudes toward science and math and technical careers were analyzed to determine which of five experimental groups responded most positively to the intervention. Higher difference scores indicated that the attitudes of girls and boys who participated in the intervention improved more than the attitudes of girls and boys in the control groups, suggesting that the use of female role models in the science classroom is an effective way to change students' attitudes toward science, math, and related careers.

Evans, Mary Ann; Whigham, Myrna; Wang, Morgan C.

421

Investigation of Attitudes of 8th Grade Students towards Information Technologies  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine to attitudes of primary school students towards to information technologies. In this study, the attitude scale was used which the writer developed for information technologies. The attitude scale consists of four sub-dimensions such as indifferences, dependency, anxiety and interest. 966 students studying in the second term of 2011-2012 educational year in the central district border of Malatya province constitute the sample of this research. At the end of the research, students attitude toward information technologies scale of indifference and anxiety sub-dimension scores to be relatively moderate, besides dependency and interest sub-dimension is intermediate scores indicate that students have positive attitudes towards information technology.

Dilek Aydo?an

2013-10-01

422

Integrated positioning for coal mining machinery in enclosed underground mine based on SINS/WSN.  

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To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN