In the present study, the researchers examined factors related to depression, hopelessness, and suicidality in gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents, compared with demographically similar heterosexual adolescents. Sexual minority adolescents reported greater depression, hopelessness, and past and present suicidality than did heterosexual adolescents. However, when controlling for other psychosocial predictors of present distress, significant differences between the 2 samples disappeared. For past suicidality scores, the effects of sexual orientation were reduced, but still significant, when accounting for the other predictor variables. These results suggest that environmental factors associated with sexual orientation, which can be targeted and changed through prevention and intervention efforts, play a major role in predicting distress in this population. PMID:10596508
Safren, S A; Heimberg, R G
Sexual minority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…
Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura; Westheimer, Kim
The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale…
Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy
Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of…
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
This article describes current knowledge on sexual, mental, and behavioral health of sexual minority (SM) youth and identifies gaps that would benefit from future research. A translational sciences framework is used to conceptualize the article, discussing findings and gaps along the spectrum from basic research on prevalence and mechanisms, to intervention development and testing, to implementation. Relative to adults, there has been much less research on adolescents and very few studies that had longitudinal follow-up beyond 1 year. Due to historical changes in the social acceptance of the SM community, new cohorts are needed to represent contemporary life experiences and associated health consequences. Important theoretical developments have occurred in conceptualizing mechanisms that drive SM health disparities and mechanistic research is underway, including studies that identify individual and structural risk/protective factors. Research opportunities exist in the utilization of sibling-comparison designs, inclusion of parents, and studying romantic relationships. Methodological innovation is needed in sampling SM populations. There has been less intervention research and approaches should consider natural resiliencies, life-course frameworks, prevention science, multiple levels of influence, and the importance of implementation. Regulatory obstacles are created when ethics boards elect to require parental permission and ethics research is needed. There has been inconsistent inclusion of SM populations in the definition of "health disparity population," which impacts funding and training opportunities. There are incredible opportunities for scholars to make substantial and foundational contributions to help address the health of SM youth, and new funding opportunities to do so. PMID:25575125
Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p < .05) associated with marijuana use. Findings suggest that minority stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed. PMID:25493644
Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents report disparate rates of substance use, and often consume more cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and ecstasy than their heterosexual peers. It is therefore crucial to understand the risk factors for substance use among LGB adolescents, particularly those unique to their minority status. In an effort to organize the current knowledge of minority-related risk factors for substance use among LGB youth, this study presents results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published research literature. Results from 12 unique studies of LGB youth indicated that the strongest risk factors for substance use were victimization, lack of supportive environments, psychological stress, internalizing/externalizing problem behavior, negative disclosure reactions, and housing status. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for targeted intervention programs that address minority stress risk factors for substance use among LGB youth. PMID:23605479
Goldbach, Jeremy T; Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Bagwell, Meredith; Dunlap, Shannon
Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents were first examined. Males reported markedly different patterns of self-labeling and romantic experiences, relative to females, but few age differences emerged. Additionally, patterns of association between self-labeling and sexual or romantic experiences provided support for the multidimensional model of identity development and exploration. Finally, significant associations emerged between relationship experiences and relational competency, such that adolescents who described themselves as isolated from intimate interpersonal relationships reported less relational esteem and more relational depression than those who reported predominantly engaging in same-sex romantic relationships. In addition, alternative styles of engaging in interpersonal relationships (e.g., same-sex intimate friendships, heterosexual dating) also were also associated with increased relational competency. PMID:19197644
Glover, Jenna A; Galliher, Renee V; Lamere, Trenton G
The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…
Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.
This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)
Sharpe, Thomasina H.
Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N?=?188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M?=?17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23153027
Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle
Sexuality should be viewed as a continuum beginning from infancy throughtout life. The pediatrician, having been the observer and recorder of growth and development since the birth of a child can contribute to the teenager's development of a healthy sexual identity and body image. The pediatrician can take several approaches to the sexual history of adolescence: 1) preventive approach--teaching youngsters to examine his testes or her breasts; discussing furture risks of pregnancy or venereal disease; 2) physical developmental approach--discussing physical changes which may be accompanied by new feeling that are sexual in nature; and 3) social developmental approach--tactfully discussing dating patterns of teenagers to obtain information on adolescent sexual thoughts; concerns and behavior. Although pediatricians relate best to parents, the significant 'other' (the steady boyfriend) should also be involved in counseling. Compliance is unlikely if the sexual partner does not believe in birth control. As development of sexuality in the adolescents are related to physical developments development of intrafamilial and peer relations, and cognitive function and personality the pediatrician must be knowledgeable about these areas. Rape and homosexuality are also discussed. PMID:396773
Litt, I F; Cohen, M I
Recent discussions highlighted adolescents' sexual behaviour, but published studies concentrate on specific problems or subgroups of patients without addressing factors related to sexuality. To obtain a broad picture we studied two groups of adolescents attending genito-urinary medicine/sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in contrasting areas of Britain, inner London and Swansea. These were evaluated for referral pattern, sexual partner, contraception, obstetric history, sexually trans...
Whatley, J.; Thin, N.; Reynolds, B.; Blackwell, A.
Adolescent and young adult minority women account for approximately 20% of new cases of HIV in this age group each year in the United States. It is vital to understand factors that influence sexual risk behavior in this population in order to prevent secondary transmission of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in- depth interviews were conducted with 26 Black and Latina young women aged 16 to 24 years, infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission. The...
Devanter, Nancy; Duncan, Alexandra; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Burrell-piggott, Tiphani; Siegel, Karolynn
In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use. PMID:22269046
Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta
Different pathological states occurring during adolescence, such as anorexia, bulimia and suicidal attempts are seen as possible manifestations of psychological defence mechanisms against the anxiety-provoking bodily changes of puberty and the necessary psychological transformations inherent to adolescence and sexual maturation. The changes of object of desire and some sexual risk behaviours are illustrated by clinical vignettes. Music is suggested to play a role in the mobilisation of emotions, bodily sensations and in the construction of an imaginary world and thus to be a factor--a part from biological and psycho-social ones--influencing the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Some communication techniques are suggested enabling access to adolescents on sexual matters - a domain of increasing public health importance. PMID:16615726
Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence. PMID:24407932
This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.
Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo
This article provides an overview of the medical and mental health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth population. Information is reviewed regarding both primary medical care and the special health risks that these youth face. Providers are introduced to the concept that societal and internalized homophobia lead directly to certain health disparities, including substance use, school and family rejection, depression, and increased sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This article familiarizes the primary care practitioner with the health care needs of the LGBT population and the research behind the various recommendations for caring for these youth. PMID:25124211
Steever, John; Francis, Jenny; Gordon, Lonna P; Lee, Janet
This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents’ sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent’s reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study uses longitudinal data from 697 adolescents who were not sexually active at the first interview as well as separate interviews with parents. In mo...
Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.
In this study, I used ethnographic methods to examine suicidality and nonsuicidal self-harm among gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender persons in Japan. Participants (N = 84) indicated that suicidality and self-harm are serious problems among sexual minorities and tend to be driven by (a) a homophobic/transphobic environment and the negative consequences of sexual minorities either disclosing their true selves or remaining hidden and silent within such an environment; (b) various antecedents to poor mental health; and (c) factors not directly related to being a sexual minority, particularly unemployment and debt in the context of a protracted national economic decline in Japan prior to the study period of 2003--2004. Participants also perceived a potentially higher risk for suicidality and self-harm among sexual minority adolescents and persons in their early 20s; those who work in the entertainment, bar, or sex industries; and survivors of violence perpetrated by intimate partners or family members. PMID:18689528
DiStefano, Anthony S
Prominent theoreticians in adolescent sexuality have called for research that is contextual, health-focused, gender balanced, and from the perspective of the adolescent, noting that scales developed by Buzwell and Rosenthal (1996) are promising. Cross-cultural validation of the measures in the U.S. should include Chicano adolescents, as they are the fastest growing ethnic group. Contextual issues for this population include the role of culture, the role of the family, country of origin, and a...
Bourdeau, Elisabeth Y.
It is estimated that up to 10% of the U.S. population is lesbian or gay. Being a member of a sexual minority group places youth at risk. Along with the challenges all adolescents deal with, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth must cope with prejudice, discrimination, and violence in schools or in their families. While mentoring programs…
The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…
Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. Results About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Conclusion Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.
Masatu Melkiory C
Developing an independent sexual identity is one of the psychosocial tasks of adolescence. The only recent change in adolescent sexual activity is an increased percentage of teenage girls having intercourse. Coitus carries the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. It is also an area of conflict with parents. There are healthy and unhealthy approaches to these problems. Family physicians must demystify adolescent sexuality. They must give the adolescent non-judgmental, confident...
Pavilanis, Alan V.
This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on sexual matters. Proposals needing implementation include family life education for parents and their children, sex education and counseling within the school systems, treatment centers for sexually transmitted diseases and pre/post natal care, and youth counseling centers. PMID:12316430
Kang, B S
Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. PMID:24495493
Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J
Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexual minority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and sel...
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D Augelli, Anthony R.
The increase of sexual activity among the adolescents has become a danger to their reproductive health. The goal of this study was to explore sexual behaviour of young people, to establish risks that endanger their reproductive health, and to find out the ways to reduce the consequences of adolescent sexuality. The study was conducted in the Mother and Child Health Care Institute of Serbia over a 2-year period. The sexual and reproductive behaviour, attitudes toward sexuality and contraception, as well as the prevalence rates of unintended pregnancy and Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections were analyzed in 300 sexually active adolescent females, aged 19 years. The first sexual intercourse was in 16.9 years, in average. Less than one-third of the total number (31.3%) of these persons had contraceptive protection at the first intercourse; condom was most frequently used (28.3%). Motives for the initiation of sexual activity were: love (45.7%), curiosity (35.7%), physical attraction and passion (8.3%), peer pressure (5.0%), on the boyfriend's insistence (4.7%), need for love (0.3%) and without answer (0.3%). Two-thirds of adolescent females (63.7%) reported more than one partner, 21.7% more than three and 10.2% more than five sexual partners. Almost half of girls (40.7%) experienced sexual intercourse in casual acquaintance, and 10.3% with a 10 or more years older partner. Use of contraceptive methods during each sexual encounter was inconsistent and sporadic. More than half of adolescent females (54.3%) relied on traditional forms of contraception, like withdrawal of the phallus. Condom was the method of contraceptive choice in one-third (34.3%) of girls, "birth-control pill" in 10.7% and spermicides in 0.7% of subjects. With a new sexual partner condom was used regularly by 55.6% of adolescents; and the remaining percentage of girls used condom irregularly (24.7%), or never (19.7%). The time interval between the initiation of sexual activity and the first gynaecological examination was more than 6 months in 56.7% of cases, and from one to three years in 31.0% of tested adolescent females. The reasons for the first gynaecological visit were as follows: fear of getting pregnant (22.0%), suspicion of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (22.0%) and symptoms indicating a pelvic inflammatory disease (18.3%). Only one-third of girls (37.7%) had their first gynaecological examination as a regular control examination or to get some contraceptive advice. During the adolescence unwanted pregnancy was noted in 16.0% of examined girls. One legal abortion had 14.4% of girls, two 1.3% and three 0.3% of adolescent females. Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection was found in 30.3% of girls. In the girls' opinion the improved knowledge about sexuality, reproduction and contraception is the best way of popularizing contraception among youth. This could be done by introduction of sexual education in school programmes (51.0%) or through mass media (33.3%). A successful health care service for young people should include: a gynaecologist who will have enough time and patience for an adolescent patient (91.3%); a female gynaecologist (36.7%); and a kind other health care workers (21.3%). In order to increase the number of adolescents who will use a condom, the following measures are necessary: a better quality of condoms (54.0%), installation of condom machines (15.6%), mass media education programmes on the significance of the condom role in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (10.0%), attractive design of condoms (7.0%), free condoms (6.7%), and universal accessibility of condoms (1.0%). The reproductive health of adolescent girls in Belgrade has been endangered by: their sexual behaviour, poor acceptance of healthy life styles, lack of responsibility in sexual relationships and high prevalence rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Improvement of adolescent reproductive health could be achieved by: educational programmes for adolescents about sexuality, reproduction and contraceptio
Sedlecki, K; Markovic, A; Rajic, G
Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…
Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.
The issues facing sexual minority youth are reviewed. A group-counseling model tested at a public high school is presented. Counseling issues include homophobia, loneliness, isolation, identity issues, alienation from family, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse. The structure and process for support-group operation is presented; sensitive issues…
Muller, Lynne E.; Hartman, Joyce
This booklet discusses issues facing sexual minority students. An introduction presents the National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP's) position statement on gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Section 1 highlights: "Violence, Homophobia, and Prejudice" (e.g., anti-gay harassment in schools documented, violence prevention, and a guide for…
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
Sexual assault is an enormous social and public health problem. Most victims are young women. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of this crime in adolescents. The study involved 213 patients separated in two subgroups: adolescents and non adolescents. In adolescents, much of this violence is perpetrated by an acquaintance or relative. Th frequency of sexually transmitted diseases was 20% and rape-related pregnancy was identified in 10% of victims. All victims of sexual assault must be encouraged for both medical and psychological evaluation. PMID:10544542
Martínez-Ayala, H; Villanueva, L A; Torres, C; García-Lara, E
Context: Adolescence is a very exciting phase of life fraught with many challenges like sexuality. Understanding them is important in helping the adolescents grow up healthily. Aims: To ascertain the attitudes and knowledge about sexuality among school-going adolescents. Settings and Design: Students in two urban schools of an Indian city from class IX to XII were administered a self-reporting questionnaire on matters related to sexuality. Materials and Methods: Requisite ethical clearances were taken as also the consent of the parents and students before administration of the questionnaire. The authors clarified doubts to adolescents. Statistical analysis: Statistical package for social sciences. Results: The incidence of having sexual contact was 30.08% for boys and 17.18% for girls. 6.31% boys and 1.31% girls reported having had experienced sexual intercourse. Friends constituted the main sexual partners for both boys and girls. Sexual abuse had been reported by both girls and boys. These and other findings are discussed in the article. Conclusions: Adolescent school students are involved in sexual activity, but lack adequate knowledge in this regard. Students, teachers, and parents need to understand various aspects of sexuality to be able to help adolescents’ healthy sexual development. PMID:22969181
Ramadugu, Shashikumar; Ryali, VSSR; Srivastava, K.; Bhat, P. S.; Prakash, J.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East and Southeast Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly heterosexual adolescents were more likely to use alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs. Particularly, sexual minority girls were at increased risk fo...
Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
This study investigated the quality and quantity of sexual communication between teens and parents in relation to the teens' sexual intentions. Perceptions about communication were examined of parents and adolescents of both genders separately. Both same- and cross-gender effects of parental communication on adolescent sexual intentions were explored. Approximately 290 families (target teen and parent) were measured in pre- and posttests. Parents perceived higher quality communication wit...
Bowen, Julie A.
The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmitted…
Quincy, Michael L.
Examined factors related to health practices of urban minority adolescents. Participant surveys highlighted positive correlations between social support and positive health practices and hope and positive health practices. There was no significant relationship between self-esteem and positive health practices. Implications for school nursing…
Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, MaryAnn; Whalen, Colleen
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specifi...
Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.
Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K-12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which…
Bishop, Holly N.; Caraway, Chadwick; Stader, David L.
This investigation tested a large adolescent sample (n = 14,439) for significant group differences on psychosocial concerns on the basis of intersecting identities of sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning/less certain, heterosexual), race (Whites, racial minorities), and gender (boys, girls). A significant 2-way interaction…
Poteat, V. Paul; Aragon, Steven R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian W.
Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…
Santelli, John S.; And Others
Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…
Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa
Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)
Romeo, Felicia F.
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…
Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.
This study examined the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associated risk factors in a sample of sexual minority men and women in Jamaica, a country that is widely known for its high societal rejection of homosexuality. Poor relationships with family, negative or abusive experiences related to one’s sexual orientation, and greater openness about one’s sexual orientation were independent risk factors for Axis I disorders. Prevention of mental disorders in sexual minorities in Jamaica shou...
White, Yohann R. G.; Barnaby, Loraine; Swaby, Antoneal; Sandfort, Theo
The education and research project “I Build my Sexuality and my Life Plan” in its first phase sought to identify particular behaviors of adolescents about sexuality. The methodological and qualitative design, of exploratory nature, includes descriptive as well as interpretative aspects to recognize the characteristics of a particular context. For doing this, structured interviews with mixed items were applied in the classroom. This instrument assessed the incidence of T.V in sexual educat...
Héctor Alexander Afanador Castañeda
Sixty-one noninstitutionalized and 61 institutionalized educable mentally retarded adolescents were psychometrically assessed on three measures: sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and self-concept. (Author)
Hall, Judy E.; Morris, Helen L.
adolescent sexual activity and subsequent pregnancy are ii an increasing dilemma facing American society . There appears to be an increase in the incidence of casual sexual activity among adolescents that leads to over 50% of students between grades 9 and 12 having been involved in sexual intercourse. This study examines changes in adolescent sexual attitudes, behaviors, and values in a select population over a 2-year time span. A survey of 548 families with adolescents was used to determine ...
Adolescents’ friendships with other-sex peers serve important developmental functions, but they may also facilitate engagement in problem behavior. This study examines the unique contributions of other-sex friendships and friends’ behavior to alcohol use, smoking, and initiation of sexual intercourse among late adolescent girls and boys. A total of 320 adolescents (53% girls; 33% racial/ethnic minorities) provided sociometric nominations of friendships annually in grades 10–12. Friendsh...
Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity. PMID:24175889
Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie
INTRODUCTION: unsafe sexual behaviour among adolescents has drawn attention from all spheres of life because it makes them susceptible to different sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies sometimes leading to abortion and a host of other health related problems. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the sexual and reproductive health, particularly sexual activity and contraceptive use among adolescents in Kintampo, Ghana, to contribute to the limited data on adolescent sexual and reproductive hea...
Boamah, E. A.
Sexual health becomes a new health priority in early adolescence. The sexual health of young people is a matter of intense public concern. The adverse consequences of unsafe sexual behaviour-such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV infection-affect adolescents as well as adults. "Risk taking" behaviours are common when adolescents start being sexually intimate and are often linked with other health risk behaviours, such as substance misuse.
Tripp, J.; Viner, R.
The reproductive and sexual health of adolescents is an important health concern and a focus of global attention. In Sri Lanka, a lack of understanding about adolescent reproductive and sexual health needs is a matter of national concern. A survey was undertaken to examine the sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka. A random sample of schools was selected from one district. Data were collected by a self-completion questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 90%. 2020 pupils (26% boys, 74% girls) aged 16-19 years (mean?=?16.9) participated, the majority Sinhalese (97%). Most reported a good parent-child relationship (88%). A minority (34%) discussed sexual issues with parents. Health professionals were the preferred source of sexual information (32%) rather than parents (12.5%) or friends (5.6%). Less than 1% demonstrated satisfactory sexual and reproductive knowledge levels. 1.7% were sexually active (30 boys vs 5 girls), the majority with same age partners. 57% used contraception at first intercourse. There is an imperative to address the lack of sexual and reproductive knowledge. A minority of school going adolescents become sexually active. These individuals are potentially vulnerable and services need to be developed to meet their needs. PMID:25637417
Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Piercy, Hilary; Salway, Sarah; Samarage, Sarath
The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality-or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category-and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women. PMID:25257258
Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena
This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately pre- and post-visit, and at 1 and 3 months, adolescents reported sexual risk behaviors and perceptions about EHC communication on questionnaires an...
Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.
This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…
Full Text Available The education and research project “I Build my Sexuality and my Life Plan” in its first phase sought to identify particular behaviors of adolescents about sexuality. The methodological and qualitative design, of exploratory nature, includes descriptive as well as interpretative aspects to recognize the characteristics of a particular context. For doing this, structured interviews with mixed items were applied in the classroom. This instrument assessed the incidence of T.V in sexual education, the student behaviors and conceptions when starting an interpersonal relationship (dating, and the actions of parents and adults about sexuality in the presence of adolescents. In applying the instrument, informed consents criteria were taken into account. Besides, it was created an atmosphere of comfort to respect the rights of adolescents and provide security to the respondent. This study was conducted with students between 15 and 17 years old, who belong to low or middle socioeconomic status. The results allowed to identify parents tended to omit or avoid speech acts about sexuality with their sons or daughters because this type of content is still seen as a taboo. Besides, when parents talk about this topic with their children, this behavior reflects a gender training (women are in charge of talking to their daughters, and men, to their sons. Moreover, meanwhile boys respond to a natural and spontaneous vision, girls respond to a traditional and moralized perspective.
Héctor Alexander Afanador Castañeda
Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of ...
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were…
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…
Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.
Criminal and socially harmful actions are severe actions against inviolability of sexual integrity, and due to the fact that these are mostly criminal offences, are prosecuted throughout the world. The turning point in the history of sexual abuse was the work of Alice Miller, who established the conclusion that the inability of adults to take care of their children and to address their emotional needs often result in sexual abuse. Until the implementation of the uniform penal law of the Repub...
The present study examined patterns of sexual assault and its psychological correlates among gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women (GLB). A community sample of 342 GLB individuals completed questionnaires assessing victimization history and psychological functioning. Nearly 63% of participants reported some form of sexual assault, and nearly 40% reported sexual revictimization, defined as contact or penetrative sexual assault reported in both childhood and adulthood. Gay men and bisexual men and women were more likely to report sexual revictimization than lesbians. Sexual victimization was associated with greater psychological distress, with sexually revictimized individuals reporting the highest levels of psychological symptomatology. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future directions are offered. PMID:16281251
Heidt, Jennifer M; Marx, Brian P; Gold, Sari D
This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…
Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually…
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This influence of gender, race, age and personal belief on adolescent’s sexual knowledge was examined. The respondents for the study were 860 school–going adolescents aged 13 to 18 from urbanization city in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by using self-administered questionnaire. A cultural sensitive sexual knowledge scale was developed and employed to measure respondent’s sexual knowledge. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple statistical tests were conducted to examine the rela...
Siti Nor Y; Wong Fui-Ping; Rozumah B; Mariani M; Rumaya J; Mansor, A. T.
BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years) is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probabil...
Shrestha Niranjan; Prasad Paneru Damaru; Jnawali Kalpana
Using a web-based survey of adolescents 14–16 years of age, a hierarchical index of heterosexual behavior was developed with excellent psychometric properties. The easiest sexual behavior to perform was “deep kissing” and the most difficult was “receiving anal sex” for females and “giving anal sex” for males. The index was validated with data that show increased sexual activity with being older and of minority status, with social traits such as physical development, having a rom...
Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
Previous research suggests that sexual minority youth have poorer health-related outcomes than their heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in mental health and substance use increase, decrease, or remain the same during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Data are from Waves…
Needham, Belinda L.
Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…
Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.
In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris
We investigated whether motivation for same-sex sexual contact was related to mid-cycle peaks in estrogen levels (typically associated with ovulation) among women with consistent versus inconsistent patterns of same-sex sexuality. Twenty women (M age = 30 years), all of whom have been providing data on their sexual behavior and identities since 1995, completed daily diaries assessing sexual motivation and provided 10 days of salivary estrogen samples. During the 3 consecutive days on which estrogen levels peaked, women who had consistently identified as lesbian since 1995 (n = 5) showed increased motivation for sexual contact with women. This change in same-sex motivation was significantly smaller among women who consistently identified as bisexual (n = 7) and women who had given up their lesbian or bisexual identities at some point since 1995 (n = 8). Women who ascribed a role for "choice" in their same-sex sexuality also showed smaller increases in same-sex motivation. The findings suggest that women with consistent versus inconsistent patterns of same-sex sexuality might be experiencing different types of same-sex desires influenced by different factors. PMID:20464467
Diamond, Lisa M; Wallen, Kim
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M = 15.5 years). A multiethnic sample (n = 354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level…
Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M = 15.5 yrs). A multiethnic sample (n = 354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level (Low Generic Copers). The second comprised adolescents who emphasized active/approach strategies (e.g., planning; Active Copers). The third comprised a...
Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.
Early sexual activity of adolescents is associated with increased risk of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and higher maternal/perinatal morbidity and mortality. HIV and adolescent pregnancy are among the most serious public health problems in Jamaica. The objective of this study was to identify the potential predictors of adolescent sexual activity in Jamaica. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 788 students 13-19 years of age in Jamaica. A questionnaire containing items on socio-demographic characteristics such as age and gender, and scales on adolescent values about sexual activity, self-efficacy for abstinence, parental love, and depression were administered to adolescents at secondary schools in the parish of Hanover. Reliability analysis of the scales, descriptive statistics, and logistic regression to determine predictors of sexual activity were conducted. Approximately 62% of adolescents who responded reported previous sexual intercourse and 38% reported never having had sex. The mean age for sexual debut was 13.6 years. Logistic regression revealed delay values (values towards delaying sexual activity) as protective (OR=0.16, CI=0.09-0.26) against involvement in sexual activity. Risk factors for sexual activity included being older (OR=1.9, CI=1.50-2.50), being male (OR=2.26, CI=1.39-3.68) and having grown-up values (OR=1.49, CI=1.05-2.12). Contrary to expectations, having higher self-efficacy skills was predictive (OR=1.47, CI=1.05-2.05) of adolescent sexual involvement. Analyses by gender revealed that delay and grownup values predicted male sexual activity, while self-efficacy, paternal love and delay values predicted female behavior. These findings show the importance of age, gender, self-efficacy, delay and grown-up values in predicting sexual activity in adolescents and indicate the need for gender-specific interventions for Jamaican adolescents. PMID:15266994
Stallworth, JoAna; Roofe, Michele; Clark, Leslie F; Ehiri, John E; Mukherjee, Snigdha; Person, Sharina; Jolly, Pauline E
This qualitative study sought to confirm and expand on previous research on sexual orientation microaggressions--subtle discrimination in the form of verbal, behavioral, and environmental slights and indignities as defined by Sue (2010). The study had two primary research questions: Does the data from the sample validate Sue's (2010) typology of sexual orientation microaggressions? Beyond Sue's (2010) typology, are other themes/types of sexual orientation microaggressions present in the data? Using a focus group methodology, data was collected from a sample of self-identified non-heterosexual college students (N=12). Data analysis confirmed five previously identified themes from Sue's (2010) typology (Endorsement of Heteronormative Culture, Sinfulness, Homophobia, Heterosexist Language/Terminology, and Oversexualization) and demonstrated two new themes (Undersexualization and Microaggressions as Humor). The implications of sexual orientation microaggressions, along with limitations and future research directions, are discussed. PMID:23808348
Platt, Lisa F; Lenzen, Alexandra L
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine characterisctics of precoital sexual behaviors and types of sexual contact in adolescent. A representative sample of 4,456 Spanish high school students participated. These participants were selected by means of a stratified random sampling procedure. They completed a questionnaire about their sexual behaviour. It is a cross-sectional survey study. Differences according to age and gender in characteristics of sexualbehaviour before the onset of sexual intercourse were found. Comparedto females, males started non penetrative sexual experiences earlier, had a higher number of sexual partners and a higher percentage of males reported having had casual sexual partner. This study not only adds to knowledge about sexual behaviour before the initiation of sexual intercourse among adolescents, it also highlights the importance of developing sexual prevention strategies for young adolescents.
This study investigated the relationship between parent-teen sexual communication, discussion of condoms, and condom use among adolescents in mental health treatment. Adolescents with a history of sexual intercourse and their parents completed questionnaires assessing adolescent sexual risk behavior, sexual communication, and discussion of sexual topics. Greater condom use by adolescents was associated with parent-adolescent condom discussion but was not associated with openness in sexual com...
Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Lescano, Celia M.; Kell, Harrison; Spalding, Kirsten; Diclemente, Ralph; Donenberg, Geri
Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. PMID:22455340
Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G
We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149
Thurston, Idia B; Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M; Otwombe, Kennedy N; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E
The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process…
Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay
This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…
Sabia, Joseph J.
This study examined the effects of minority stress on the physical health of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs). Participants (N = 396) completed baseline and one year follow-up interviews. Exposure to stress and health outcomes were assessed with two methods: a subjective self-appraisal method and a method whereby two independent judges externally rated event narratives using standardized criteria. The odds of experiencing a physical health problem at follow-up were significantly higher among LGBs who experienced an externally rated prejudice event during the follow-up period compared to those who did not. This association persisted after adjusting for experiences of general stressful life events that were not related to prejudice. Self-appraised minority stress exposures were not associated with poorer physical health at 1-year follow-up. Prejudice-related stressful life events have a unique deleterious impact on health that persists above and beyond the effect of stressful life events unrelated to prejudice. PMID:23864353
Frost, David M; Lehavot, Keren; Meyer, Ilan H
Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…
Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.
This preliminary study examined the nature of worry content of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals and the relationship between worry related to sexual orientation and mental health. A community sample of 54 individuals identifying as sexual minorities was recruited from two cities in the Great Plains to complete a packet of questionnaires, including a modified Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ; Tallis, Eysenck, & Mathews, 1992) with additional items constructed to assess worry over discrimination related to sexual orientation, and participate in a worry induction and verbalization task. The content of self-reported worries was consistent with those reported in prior investigations of worry content, and worry related to sexual orientation was not found to be elevated compared to other topics. However, degree of worry related to sexual orientation was significantly associated with increased negative affect, depressive symptoms, and internalized homophobia and decreased quality of life and positive affect. Implications of these findings, limitations, and future research issues are discussed. PMID:21041061
Weiss, Brandon J; Hope, Debra A
Full Text Available This influence of gender, race, age and personal belief on adolescent’s sexual knowledge was examined. The respondents for the study were 860 school–going adolescents aged 13 to 18 from urbanization city in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by using self-administered questionnaire. A cultural sensitive sexual knowledge scale was developed and employed to measure respondent’s sexual knowledge. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple statistical tests were conducted to examine the relationships between gender, race, age and personal belief with adolescents’ sexual knowledge. Findings of the present study showed that: 1 No significant mean difference in sexual knowledge between boys and girls. 2 There was a statistically significant difference in the mean of sexual knowledge among the three races (F (2,766 =14.84, p?.001. 3 Respondents with higher score in sexual knowledge tend to be older (r=.21, p?.05, have lower score on extent of living a life according to the religious belief (r=-.07, p?.05, have lower self-perceived importance of religion in life (r=-.11, p?.01, have higher self-perceived sexual openness (r=-.31, p?.01 and have more positive attitude toward sex related sources (r=.35, p?.01. Findings of this study will help to further improve the understanding of adolescents’ sexual knowledge and to give inputs to programs on adolescent development specifically in sexuality and reproduction health.
Siti Nor Y
The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N=887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic regressions indicated that adolescents reporting greater parental disapproval and limits on viewing at Wave 1 were less likely to initiate oral sex betw...
Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha
The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
Using the 1995 new cohort of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, this paper examines the association between perceptions of child support and adolescent males' sexual activity. The results indicate that adolescent males who expect the chance of being required to pay child support is high if one becomes a non-resident father or who has a…
Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui
Theorists, clinicians, and researchers have suggested that shame is a central concern in the lives of sexual minority individuals. Cognitive theorists believe that shame occurs when a person fails to achieve his or her standards, which are often based on social, cultural, and spiritual values. Although it is asserted that stigma causes shame among…
Johnson, Veronica R. F.; Yarhouse, Mark A.
Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…
Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.
The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…
I will discuss some of the challenges experienced by sexual minorities in physics, from both a personal and broader perspective. I will also comment on the opportunities for the field to become more inclusive, supportive, and scientifically stronger by addressing these challenges.
Several decades of research tell us that sexual minority youth are among those most at risk for the negative outcomes of frequent concern in the lives of young people: academic failure, emotional distress, compromised relationships, risk behavior, and suicidality. We know much less about resilience, the characteristics and factors that explain or…
Russell, Stephen T.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
Seng, Magnus J.
As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…
Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.
This study investigated three dimensions of sexual orientation-identity, attraction, and behavior-in a national survey of late adolescents. Prevalence rates and the diversity of dimensions of sexual orientation when combined were studied. A representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based self-report survey about sexuality, Internet use, and health. Four measures of sexual orientation were included-one for sexual identity, two for attraction (emotional or sexual attraction, romantic attraction), and one for sexual behavior. Prevalence rates of sexual minority orientation varied between 4.3% for sexual behavior (males 2.9%, females 5.6%) and 29.4% for emotional or sexual attraction (males 17.7%, females 39.5%). Different measures of sexual orientation were significantly associated with one another. Bisexual or homosexual orientation was reported by 1.5% of the participants in all four measures and by 17.6% in at least one measure. Researchers need to carefully choose, depending on the research questions under investigation, which dimensions of sexual orientation and which measures they wish to include in their survey. Recommendations based on findings from the study are given. PMID:23136981
Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran
Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and reproductive risks within the Serbian speaking territory. An alarming statistic is that 5% of the female adolescents in this sample reported that they had been raped, or forced to participate in non-consensual sex within an ongoing relationship with a regular partner. There is a need for systemic changes within the field of sexual education and protection from sexually risky behavior among young adults.
Marital breakup has been associated with numerous behavioral problems in children, such as sexual risk behaviors. This research is the first to examine sexual behaviors of Spanish adolescents related to whether their parents were married or divorced. Participants were 342 boys and girls aged between 14 and 18 years. The sample provided confidential information about their sexual behavior and birth control methods. Significant differences were only found in percentages of adolescents who had engaged in mutual masturbation, intercourse, or oral sex, and who had practiced these sexual relations in the last six months, in both cases, they were higher when the parents had broken their marital relationship. Regarding adolescents of divorced parents, engaging in intercourse is more likely in older teenagers who live with a stepparent. Moreover, older adolescents who were younger when parents divorced and who live in a reconstituted family, have more sexual partners. These and other findings are discussed. PMID:22420347
Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P; Johnson, Blair T; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Carratalá, Elena
Sexuality education for adolescents is one of the most controversial topics in the field of child health. In the past decade, policymakers in India have also struggled with the issue and there has been greater public discourse. However, policymaking and public discussions on adolescent sexuality education are frequently fueled by religious, social, and cultural values, while receiving scant scientific attention. To meet the needs of an expanding young population in India, scientific evidence for best practices must be kept at the core of policymaking in the context of sexuality education for adolescents. PMID:25374847
Khubchandani, Jagdish; Clark, Jeffrey; Kumar, Raman
Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…
Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven
Sexual pressure can have detrimental effects to individuals both physically and emotionally; however, research in this area is lacking regarding the experiences by lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning (LGBQ) women. This online study qualitatively examined sexual pressure experienced and explained by LGBQ women (n = 50) using grounded theory methodology. Participants responded to open-ended questions by providing perspectives from both those who were on the receiving end of the sexual pressure (recipients) and from those who pressured their partners (initiators). Results indicated that there were eight overarching themes, 43 higher order categories, and 241 line-by-line codes. The eight overarching themes included: Reasons to Not Want Sex, Reasons for Pressuring, Reasons for Giving In, Actions of Initiators, Expectations, Communication, Negative Outcomes, and Positive Reactions. Negative Outcomes was the most common theme endorsed. Several higher order categories indicated the unique experiences of sexual minority women, namely trying to be "normal" (e.g., engaging in sexual acts as a result of internalized homophobia), experiencing more pressure from men, and self-consciousness (specifically related to lack of knowledge about sex with women). Implications for the current study include the importance of addressing sexual pressure with sexual minority women and creating interventions, such as assertiveness training and communication skills, that could assist both recipients and initiators with engaging in mutually satisfactory sexual practices. PMID:24872189
Budge, Stephanie L; Keller, Bethany L; Sherry, Alissa R
This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…
Moon, Sang Huy
The purpose of this study was to provide data addressing Diamond's (this issue) 4 problem areas in sexual orientation research by comparing gay, bisexual, and questioning male youth who report attempting suicide with those who do not. Secondary analyses were conducted with 2 datasets, 1 with a gay support group (n = 51) and the other with online youth (n = 681). Reported suicide attempts ranged from 39% among support-group youth, to 25% among Internet gay support group youth, to 9% among Internet non-support group youth. Sexual orientation, behavior, and identity did not predict suicidal attempt status, but suicide attempters experienced higher levels of both generic life stressors (low self-esteem, substance use, victimization) and gay-related stressors, particularly those directly related to visible (femininity) and behavioral (gay sex) aspects of their sexual identity. Support-group attendance was related to higher levels of suicidality and life stressors, as well as certain resiliency factors. Results suggest that there exists a minority of sexual-minority youth who are at risk but that it would be inappropriate to characterize the entire population as such. PMID:14710459
Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Ream, Geoffrey L
The aim of this study was to ascertain the differences, if any, between English, West Indian, Indian and Pakistani adolescents in Britain, in their attitudes towards personal, social and cultural materials, and whether such differences were a reflection of personality rather than cultural diversity. (Author/RK)
Investigates the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-esteem of ethnic-minority adolescents in the Netherlands. Explains that the participants perceived the following: (1) a higher level of discrimination directed at their groups; (2) their personal self-esteem as independent of the group; and (3) that group discrimination was…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0. Adolescent attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sexual behavior comprise the following three dimensions: (1) external incentives, (2) the developmental process, and (3) internal control. External incentives include the normalization of sexual behavior between peers, the desire to feel included in a group, parental influence, and media influence. The developmental process includes imagining the sexual experience and onset of sexual activity. Internal control includes the fear of pregnancy, the fear of parental rejection, and the fear of being judged. These findings can provide a reference for designing future sex education curricula and counseling programs for adolescents. PMID:24502972
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
The aim of this study was to examine characterisctics of precoital sexual behaviors and types of sexual contact in adolescent. A representative sample of 4,456 Spanish high school students participated. These participants were selected by means of a stratified random sampling procedure. They completed a questionnaire about their sexual behaviour. It is a cross-sectional survey study. Differences according to age and gender in characteristics of sexualbehaviour before the onset of sexual inter...
María-Paz Bermúdez; Gualberto Buela-Casal; Inmaculada Teva
Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M=15.5 years). A multiethnic sample (n=354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level (low generic copers). The second comprised adolescents who emphasized active/approach strategies (e.g., planning; active copers). The third comprised adolescents who emphasized avoidant/passive strategies (e.g., substance abuse; avoidant copers). Active copers experienced significantly less depression and more stress-related growth than low generic copers. Low generic copers not only experienced significantly less depression than avoidant copers but also significantly less stress-related growth than active copers. Discussion focuses on integrating the current typology with traditional coping taxonomies. PMID:17904631
Aldridge, Arianna A; Roesch, Scott C
Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse are at particular risk for HIV because of difficulties with affect regulation and dysfunctional thinking that are thought to be sequelae of the abuse. These difficulties can lead to impulsivity and failure to assertively set limits in sexual situations. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has frequently been…
Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Puster, Kristie L.; Miller, Paul M.
This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of women…
Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann
Background and Aim: Becoming to an adult who is sexually healthy is one of the key developmental activities for adolescents. sexual health is included of sexual development and reproductive health and also the ability to create and maintain good interpersonal relationships, are valued for their body, Respectful engagement with both sexes in correct method and expressed a desire, love and intimacy based on personal and stable social values. Materials and Methods: In this study, using key words...
Bahrami, N.; Simbar, M.; Soleimani, M. A.
Sexual minority group members are at a higher risk for mental health difficulties than are heterosexual individuals. The results of this study showed that college student sexual minorities were common in counseling centers and that they were more likely than heterosexual students to seek counseling. The results also showed that sexual orientation…
McAleavey, Andrew A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.
Over the last quarter century the incest model, with its image of helpless victims exploited and traumatized by powerful perpetrators, has come to dominate perceptions of virtually all forms of adult-minor sex. Thus, even willing sexual relations between gay or bisexual adolescent boys and adult men, which differ from father-daughter incest in many important ways, are generally seen by the lay public and professionals as traumatizing and psychologically injurious. This study assessed this common perception by examining a nonclinical, mostly college sample of gay and bisexual men. Of the 129 men in the study, 26 were identified as having had age-discrepant sexual relations (ADSRs) as adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age with adult males. Men with ADSR experiences were as well adjusted as controls in terms of self-esteem and having achieved a positive sexual identity. Reactions to the ADSRs were predominantly positive, and most ADSRs were willingly engaged in. Younger adolescents were just as willing and reacted at least as positively as older adolescents. Data on sexual identity development indicated that ADSRs played no role in creating same-sex sexual interests, contrary to the "seduction" hypothesis. Findings were inconsistent with the incest model. The incest model has come to act as a procrustean bed, narrowly dictating how adult-minor sexual relations quite different from incest are perceived. PMID:11446197
Adolescents are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), particularly African American adolescents. The association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behavior has been well established. However, only a small number of studies have examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology among African American female adolescents, specifically over time. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a predictor of risky sexual behavior, sexual communication, a...
Seth, Puja; Patel, Shilpa N.; Sales, Jessica M.; Diclemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve S.
Rural and urban sexual minority mothers' parenting experiences related to sexual orientation were compared. Participants were 414 mothers in same-sex relationships with at least one child under the age of 18 years living in their home who was planned with their current partner. Rural mothers were more likely to be biological parents and not adoptive parents. Rural mothers reported higher rates of discrimination from strangers and people in service or helping professions. Although outness for rural and urban mothers did not differ, for children, classmates' parents and neighbors were less likely to know the family's status in rural areas. Rural and urban mothers did not differ on internalized homophobia, social support, or stigma consciousness. Clinical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:21491313
Puckett, Julia A; Horne, Sharon G; Levitt, Heidi M; Reeves, Teresa
The present study modeled the direct relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent peer-to-peer sexual victimization (APSV) and the mediated effect via variables representing the number of sexual partners, sexual risk behavior, and signaling sexual boundaries. A cross-sectional study on the effect of CSA on APSV was conducted, utilizing a multiple mediator model. Mediated and direct effects in the model were estimated employing Mplus using bootstrapped percentile based confidence intervals to test for significance of mediated effects. The study employed 327 Danish female adolescents with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = 0.5). The estimates from the mediational model indicated full mediation of the effect of CSA on APSV via number of sexual partners and sexual risk behavior. The current study suggests that the link between CSA and APSV was mediated by sexual behaviors specifically pertaining to situations of social peer interaction, rather than directly on prior experiences of sexual victimization. The present study identifies a modifiable target area for intervention to reduce adolescent sexual revictimization.
Bramsen, Rikke H; Lasgaard, Mathias
Background: Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parent–adolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs: This was a c...
Yadeta Dessie; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku
Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of ...
Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.
The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…
Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol
This study examined the gender differences in outcomes related to school performance, suicidal involvement, disordered eating behaviors, sexual risk taking, substance use, and delinquent behaviors of male (n = 370) and female teenagers (n = 2,681) who self-reported a history of sexual abuse. It was found that female adolescents, by and large, engaged in internalizing behaviors and males in externalizing behaviors. Male adolescents were found to be at higher risk than females in poor school performance, delinquent activities, and sexual risk taking. Female adolescents, on the other hand, showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior as well as disordered eating. Females showed more frequent use of alcohol. However, male adolescents exhibited more extreme use of alcohol and more frequent and extreme use of marijuana. Among index female adolescents, protective factors against adverse correlates included a higher emotional attachment to family, being religious or spiritual, presence of both parents at home, and a perception of overall health. Factors that augmented adverse correlates for them included a stressful school environment due to perceived high levels of substance use in and around school, worry of sexual abuse, maternal alcohol consumption, and physical abuse. For male adolescents, maternal education and parental concern appeared to be protective factors. PMID:8985612
Chandy, J M; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understanding…
Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.
The Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS) shows promise as a self-report measure of strategies for coping with racial discrimination. To assess the psychometric properties of the measure for use with sexual minorities (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, or GLB persons), a nonprobability sample of 371 GLB adults completed the instrument along with several standardized, self-report measures. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the five-factor structure of the original scale with the exclusion of five items. Adequate internal consistency reliability was found. Internalization, drug and alcohol use, and detachment subscales were correlated positively with measures of psychological distress and negatively with a measure of life satisfaction, providing evidence of construct validity. The education/advocacy and resistance subscales were largely unrelated to concurrently administered validation measures, consistent with prior findings. Coping strategy use varied as a function of primary sources of social support. The CDS appears to be a psychometrically sound measure of several discrimination coping strategies for use with sexual minorities. PMID:24325286
Ngamake, Sakkaphat T; Walch, Susan E; Raveepatarakul, Jirapattara
Full Text Available WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, exposure to commercial sex workers (CSWs, previous infection with STDs and role of alcohol. Their diagnosis was based on history, clinical findings and laboratory confirmation. Adolescents and youths accounted for 30% of the total number of patients attending the STD clinic during this period. The male to female ratio was 1:0.95. Ninety-six percent (290 were single while 4% (13 were married. Seventy-two percent (217 were students. Age at onset of sexual activity was 10-20 years in 80%, 85% practiced risky sexual behaviour, patronising casual partners was frequent especially after alcohol use, 10% had been exposed to CSWs, condom use was poor, number of sexual partners varied between 1 and 5 and previous infections were not professionally treated. Adolescents and young people are sexually active and practice risky sexual behavioural patterns. Adolescents and youths account for a high percentage of patients patronising the STD clinic. Sexual education and youth friendly reproductive health services are urgently needed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS/STDs.
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador
Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolesce...
Sara De Meyer; Lina Jaruseviciene; Apolinaras Zaborskis; Peter Decat; Bernardo Vega; Kathya Cordova; Marleen Temmerman; Olivier Degomme; Kristien Michielsen
This article aimed to determine sexual behaviors among female and male adolescents in northern Italy. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire evaluating sexual attitudes was distributed in middle and high schools in northern Italy. Adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were asked to participate at the survey. The study group included 664 participants. Overall, 164 (25%) adolescents had had at least one sexual intercourse. Among adolescents who have had sexual intercourse, 90 (55%) use condoms, 25 (15%) use hormonal contraception, and 49 (30%) do not use any contraception method. A total of 559 adolescents (84%) participated in school-based sexual education programs. This group had better knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and contraception methods in comparison with adolescents who have never participated in such educational programs (p School-based sexual education programs improve knowledge of sexual transmitted diseases and contraception methods. However, this knowledge does not correlate to high-risk sexual behaviors reduction. PMID:25189401
Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Monti, Zelia; Apolloni, Chiara; Nardelli, Federica; Di Naro, Edoardo; Ghezzi, Fabio
Full Text Available Problem statement: Delinquent adolescents with substance abuse disorders frequently engage in behaviors that elevate their risk of contracting HIV. Although effective risk reduction interventions are urgently needed, there is uncertainty about the nature of interventions required to produce change. Approach:This study evaluated whether Modified version of Becoming A Responsible Teen (M-BART produced greater reductions in drug use and sexual risk behaviors than an Anger Management (AM condition among a mixed gender, culturally diverse sample of adolescents in court-ordered substance dependence treatment. Results: No significant differences were found between M-BART (n = 70 and AM (n = 59 groups in degree of change between intake and outcome in HIV sex risk or drug use behaviors. However, across groups, meaningful reductions were found in total number of sex partners and in proportions of total unprotected sex acts, unprotected vaginal sex, unprotected oral giving sex acts and unprotected oral receiving sex acts from baseline to follow-up (all p?s Conclusion: Factors that accounted for meaningful changes across groups and no change between intervention outcomes were discussed. While the M-BART intervention impacted the adolescents directly by teaching skills about how to reduce risky sex, the AM intervention and also impacted higher order factor, impulsivity, linked to risky sex and drug use. Implications for HIV prevention among minority adolescents were discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract: The present article is part of a bigger research about the Perceptions on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents in a region of the Federal District. Because to a qualitative approach, based in the phenomenology research. Object is to analyze adolescents living this sexuality in situations of vulnerability in an environment of extreme inequality. The content analysis was used for treatment of, which had been collected in three meeting from projective techniques. Fourteen adolescents of the feminine sex with ages between 10 and 19 participated. The experience in an environment with social risk highlighted the vulnerability in the adolescents lives, mainly, when it involves aspects related to the sexuality and the conditions of health of the community. The results of the research brought up signaled the importance for the access to the information, incentive to the education, improvement of the conditions of health and the creation of a net of support, not only institutional but also communitarian. Keywords: Health of the Adolescent, Sexuality, Vulnerability
Rejane Antonello Griboski
Full Text Available Abstract: The present article is part of a bigger research about the Perceptions on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents in a region of the Federal District. Because to a qualitative approach, based in the phenomenology research. Object is to analyze adolescents living this sexuality in situations of vulnerability in an environment of extreme inequality. The content analysis was used for treatment of, which had been collected in three meeting from projective techniques. Fourteen adolescents of the feminine sex with ages between 10 and 19 participated. The experience in an environment with social risk highlighted the vulnerability in the adolescents lives, mainly, when it involves aspects related to the sexuality and the conditions of health of the community. The results of the research brought up signaled the importance for the access to the information, incentive to the education, improvement of the conditions of health and the creation of a net of support, not only institutional but also communitarian.Keywords: Health of the Adolescent, Sexuality, Vulnerability
Rejane Antonello Griboski
OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that their heterosexual peers, but spoke less about religion. CONCLUSIONS Not only should this issue be studied in more detail, but preventative actions aimed at adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior should be widened. PMID:24789636
de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
Our aim in this study was to evaluate executive function and its relationship to delinquency and sexual crime in adolescents incarcerated for sexual crimes. Based on self-report data, 196 male adolescent sexual offenders from a Midwest state reported high rates of executive dysfunction. Although such deficits did not relate to the number of victims of sexual abuse, severity, or degree of force used in commission of the sexual crimes, poor executive function was significantly predictive of both general delinquency and felony theft. In both measures of delinquent conduct, behavioral regulation dysfunction was predictive of the frequency of commission of the crimes, whereas metacognition was not. Research and treatment implications are offered. PMID:25428928
Burton, David; Demuynck, Sophia; Yoder, Jamie R
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Guided by structural family systems theory, this study explored the relationship between parentification and adolescent daughters' sexual risk engagement and substance use. We also explored how adolescent reports of parental monitoring moderated the relationship between parentification and adolescent risk. Data were from a cross-sectional, cross-generational study of 176 mother-daughter dyads from low-income, inner-city, ethnic minority families. In this sample, which included a subset of mothers with HIV, parental physical symptoms were associated with slightly higher levels of parentification. Parentification was associated with adolescent daughters' intention to have sex (but not substance use) in a direction opposite to prediction. Higher parentification was associated with lower intention to have sex. Parental monitoring did not moderate relationships between parentification and adolescent risk. These findings highlight that despite the negative influence hypothesized in structural family systems theory, parentification was not associated with risk engagement of high-risk adolescent daughters in ethnic minority families with low income. PMID:24749937
Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S
Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed. PMID:20099942
Corliss, Heather L; Cochran, Susan D; Mays, Vickie M; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar algunas características de las conductas sexuales precoitales y el tipo de contacto sexual, en adolescentes españoles. Participó una muestra representativa de 4.456 estudiantes españoles de enseñanza secundaria obligatoria. Se administró un cuestionario sobre [...] conducta sexual. Es un estudio transversal descriptivo de poblaciones, mediante encuestas con muestras probabilísticas. Los adolescentes fueron seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio estratificado, en función del tipo de centro educativo y de la comunidad autónoma. En comparación con las mujeres, los varones comenzaron las experiencias sexuales sin penetración a una edad más temprana, tenían un mayor número de parejas y un mayor porcentaje de ellos manifestó tener parejas ocasionales. Este estudio no solo contribuye al conocimiento sobre la conducta sexual de los adolescentes antes del inicio de las relaciones sexuales con penetración, sino que en él se destaca la importancia de desarrollar estrategias de prevención sexual en los adolescentes. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of precoital sexual behaviors and types of sexual contact in adolescent. A representative sample of 4,456 Spanish high school students participated. These participants were selected by means of a stratified random sampling procedure. They complete [...] d a questionnaire about their sexual behaviour. It is a cross-sectional survey study. Differences according to age and gender in characteristics of sexual behaviour before the onset of sexual intercourse were found. Compared to females, males started non penetrative sexual experiences earlier, had a higher number of sexual partners and a higher percentage of males reported having had casual sexual partner. This study not only adds to knowledge about sexual behaviour before the initiation of sexual intercourse among adolescents, it also highlights the importance of developing sexual prevention strategies for young adolescents.
MARÍA-PAZ, BERMÚDEZ; GUALDERMO, BUELA-CASAL; INMACULADA, TEVA.
Extensive research documents the relevance of families and socioeconomic resources to health. This article extends that research to sexual minorities, using 12 years of the National Health Interview Survey (N = 460,459) to examine self-evaluations of health among male and female adults living in same-sex and different-sex relationships. Adjusting for socioeconomic status eliminates differences between same- and different-sex cohabitors so that they have similarly higher odds of poor health relative to married persons. Results by gender reveal that the cohabitation disadvantage for health is more pronounced for different-sex cohabiting women than for men, but little difference exists between same-sex cohabiting men and women. Finally, the presence of children in the home is more protective for women's than men's health, but those protections are specific to married women. In all, the results elucidate the importance of relationship type, gender, and the presence of children when evaluating health. PMID:23315360
Denney, Justin T; Gorman, Bridget K; Barrera, Cristina B
This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathered through online questionnaires completed by 78 adolescent offspring (39 girls and 39 boys). The adolescents were asked if they had ever been abused and, if so, to specify by whom and the type of abuse (verbal, emotional, physical, or sexual). They were also asked to specify their sexual identity on the Kinsey scale, between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual. Lifetime sexual behavior was assessed through questions about heterosexual and same-sex contact, age of first sexual experience, contraception use, and pregnancy. The results revealed that there were no reports of physical or sexual victimization by a parent or other caregiver. Regarding sexual orientation, 18.9% of the adolescent girls and 2.7% of the adolescent boys self-rated in the bisexual spectrum, and 0% of girls and 5.4% of boys self-rated as predominantly-to-exclusively homosexual. When compared with age- and gender-matched adolescents of the National Survey of Family Growth, the study offspring were significantly older at the time of their first heterosexual contact, and the daughters of lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to have had same-sex contact. These findings suggest that adolescents reared in lesbian families are less likely than their peers to be victimized by a parent or other caregiver, and that daughters of lesbian mothers are more likely to engage in same-sex behavior and to identify as bisexual. PMID:21057866
Gartrell, Nanette K; Bos, Henny M W; Goldberg, Naomi G
Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.
Using original French panel data, this paper investigates the relevance of the broken windows theory in case of an offence category featured by the absence of monetary benefits. Estimates from random and fixed effects models highlight the deterrent effect of sanctions for rapes and minor sexual offences. The enforcement activity of rapes is the most deterrent factor both for rapes and other sexual offences, compared with the rapes- and minor sexual offences-reducing impact of an increase in t...
Vaillant, Nicolas Ge?rard; Wolff, Franc?ois-charles
Adolescents privately recorded open-ended descriptions of problematic social situations related to sex. Issues mentioned included birth control, pregnancy, condom use/nonuse, violence, alcohol use, and rape. Few mentioned concerns about sexually transmitted diseases. Subjects who included alcohol as a problem were more likely to describe a variety…
Noell, John; And Others
Dating behaviors and sexual attitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…
Lau, May; Markham, Christine; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn; Chacko, Mariam R.
The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.
Davoren, Martin P
This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…
Somers, Cheryl L.
Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8 % female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual risk behavior. Cox regression and latent growth models were used to determine the effect of future expectations on age at first biological child, number of sexual partners, and inconsistent contraception use. The results indicate that classes of future expectations were uniquely associated with each outcome. The latent class reporting expectations of drinking and being arrested was consistently associated with the greatest risks of engaging in sexual risk behavior compared with the referent class, which reported expectations of attending school and little engagement in delinquent behaviors. The class reporting expectations of attending school and drinking was associated with having greater numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent contraception use but not with age at first biological child. The third class, defined by expectations of victimization, was not associated with any outcome in adjusted models, despite being associated with being younger at the birth of their first child in the unadjusted analysis. Gender moderated specific associations between latent classes and sexual risk outcomes. Future expectations, conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, may have a unique ability to explain sexual risk behaviors over time. Future strategies should target multiple expectations and use multiple levels of influence to improve individual future expectations prior to high school and throughout the adolescent period. PMID:24357042
Sipsma, Heather L; Ickovics, Jeannette R; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S
"The protection of the rights of sexual minorities in many countries in Africa is a controversial issue. It is not unusual to find newspaper reports on gross violations suffered by this minority group. Gays and lesbians are victims of violence, sometimes resulting in death. Sexual minorities in Africa are often confronted with government actions such as those of the Nigerian government that recently submitted to the parliament a bill to make provisions for the prohibition of relationships bet...
Huamusse, Luis Edgar Francisco
Emerging research has shown that those of sexual-minority (SM) status (i.e., those exhibiting same-sex sexuality) report lower levels of psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess whether this relation is largely in place by the onset of adolescence, as it is for other social statuses, or whether it continues to emerge over the adolescent years, a period when SM youth face numerous challenges. Moreover, the moderating influence of sexual orientation (identification), early (versus later) reports of same-sex attractions, and gender were also examined. Using data from Add Health, multiple-group latent growth curve analyses were conducted to examine growth patterns in depressive affect and self-esteem. Results suggested that psychological well-being disparities between SM and non-SM were generally in place by early adolescence. For many, the remainder of adolescence was a recovery period when disparities narrowed over time. Early and stable reporting of same-sex attractions was associated with a greater initial deficit in psychological well-being, especially among males, but it was also associated with more rapid recovery. Independent of the timing and stability of reported same-sex attractions over time, actual sexual orientation largely failed to moderate the relation between SM status and psychological well-being. Importantly, the sizable yet understudied subgroup that identified as heterosexual but reported same-sex attractions appeared to be at substantial risk. PMID:22505839
Jager, Justin; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.
Full Text Available This study investigates the magnitude and patterns of sexual coercion experienced by female adolescents in Southwest zone in Nigeria. The study population consists of all female adolescents aged 12-16 years. These adolescents are those who are either enrolled in the secondary school or those with limited education that was not in school at the period of this study. Samples of 475 girls were drawn from both the school and those not in schools. The sample was drawn from three different Yoruba speaking states in the south west Nigeria. The sampling techniques that were used were stratified and simple random sampling. The research instrument was a self constructed questionnaire title (SCAQ- Sexual Coercion of female Adolescents Questionnaire. The instrument has a reliability coefficient of 0.76 and was validated using, face content, validity procedure of testing validity. The data generated were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages for describing the data. The appropriate statistics such as t-test, Pearson product moment correlation and chi-square were used to make inferences about the data. The analysis of the data shows that girls have experienced sexual coercion such as verbal threats, unwanted touch, deceived into sex or forced sex. Other forms of sexual coercion such as verbal pressure, threats or unwanted holding of hands unwanted hugging or kissing as well as forced sexual activities have been experienced by girls. Based on the findings, it was recommended that skill training needs to be provided in and outside the school system. Teachers and counsellors should convey prevention messages so as to sensitize or discourage sexual coercion of female students in school.
Akanle Florence Foluso
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar y explorar aspectos relacionados con sexualidad y reproducción en un grupo de adolescentes de 15 a 19 años de politécnicos del municipio Cotorro (diciembre 2007. MÉTODOS: investigación observacional, descriptiva, prospectiva y transversal. Universo: 2153 efebos de los cuales se tomó al azar una muestra de 1292. Se estudiaron: edad, sexo, edad de iniciación en vida sexual, conocimientos sobre sexualidad y reproducción, infecciones de transmisión sexual y fuentes de información. RESULTADOS: edades entre 15 y 18 años, 61,9 %, varones 56,7 % y 70,9 % se habían iniciado en la vida sexual. "Responsabilidad de evitar embarazo" obtuvo el porcentaje más elevado de respuestas correctas (81,4 %, 79,3 % señaló el condón como anticonceptivo ideal. En "riesgos de infecciones de transmisión sexual", 61,9 % acertó. Los pares, fueron la primera fuente de información en 55,7 % y principal en 68,1 %. CONCLUSIONES: predominaron los menores de 18 años y el sexo masculino de los iniciados en la vida sexual. La primera y principal fuente de información fue el grupo de pares.OBJECTIVES: to characterize and explore aspects related to sexuality and reproduction in a group of adolescents aged 15-19 from the polytechnics of Cotorro municipality (December 2007. METHODS: an observational, descriptive, prospective and cross-sectional research was undertaken. The universe was composed of 2153 adolescents, of whom a sample of 1292 was taken at random. Age, sex, age at the beginning of sexual relations, knowledge about sexuality and reproduction, sexually tranasmited infections, and iniformation sources were studied. RESULTS: 61.9 % were between 15 and 18 years old, 56.7 % of them were males and 70.9 % had already initiated sexual relations. "The responsability for preventing pregnancy" obtained the highest percent of correct answers (81.4 %. 79.3 % referred to condom as the ideal contraceptive. As regards "risks for sexually transmitted infections" 61.9 % were right. The peer groups were the first source of information in 55.7 % and the main in 68.1 %. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed a predominance of adolescents under 18, of males and of those who had started their sexual life. The main source of information was the peer group.
Aliucha Díaz Curbelo
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: caracterizar y explorar aspectos relacionados con sexualidad y reproducción en un grupo de adolescentes de 15 a 19 años de politécnicos del municipio Cotorro (diciembre 2007). MÉTODOS: investigación observacional, descriptiva, prospectiva y transversal. Universo: 2153 efebos de los cuales [...] se tomó al azar una muestra de 1292. Se estudiaron: edad, sexo, edad de iniciación en vida sexual, conocimientos sobre sexualidad y reproducción, infecciones de transmisión sexual y fuentes de información. RESULTADOS: edades entre 15 y 18 años, 61,9 %, varones 56,7 % y 70,9 % se habían iniciado en la vida sexual. "Responsabilidad de evitar embarazo" obtuvo el porcentaje más elevado de respuestas correctas (81,4 %), 79,3 % señaló el condón como anticonceptivo ideal. En "riesgos de infecciones de transmisión sexual", 61,9 % acertó. Los pares, fueron la primera fuente de información en 55,7 % y principal en 68,1 %. CONCLUSIONES: predominaron los menores de 18 años y el sexo masculino de los iniciados en la vida sexual. La primera y principal fuente de información fue el grupo de pares. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: to characterize and explore aspects related to sexuality and reproduction in a group of adolescents aged 15-19 from the polytechnics of Cotorro municipality (December 2007). METHODS: an observational, descriptive, prospective and cross-sectional research was undertaken. The universe was [...] composed of 2153 adolescents, of whom a sample of 1292 was taken at random. Age, sex, age at the beginning of sexual relations, knowledge about sexuality and reproduction, sexually tranasmited infections, and iniformation sources were studied. RESULTS: 61.9 % were between 15 and 18 years old, 56.7 % of them were males and 70.9 % had already initiated sexual relations. "The responsability for preventing pregnancy" obtained the highest percent of correct answers (81.4 %). 79.3 % referred to condom as the ideal contraceptive. As regards "risks for sexually transmitted infections" 61.9 % were right. The peer groups were the first source of information in 55.7 % and the main in 68.1 %. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed a predominance of adolescents under 18, of males and of those who had started their sexual life. The main source of information was the peer group.
Aliucha, Díaz Curbelo; Miriam, Aliño Santiago; Alejandro, Velasco Boza; Antonio, Rodríguez Cárdenas; Vivian, Rodríguez Tahuile.
Adolescents who engage in unprotected intercourse are at risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although adolescents in rural areas participate in levels of sexual risk taking similar to that of nonrural youth, few data are available identifying factors that influence condom use among rural adolescents. The purpose of this…
Haley, Tammy; Puskar, Kathryn; Terhorst, Lauren; Terry, Martha Ann; Charron-Prochownik, Denise
The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…
Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.
Many studies have found elevated levels of suicide ideation and attempts among sexual minority (homosexual and bisexual) individuals as compared to heterosexual individuals. The suicide risk difference has mainly been explained by minority stress models (MSTM), but the application of established suicidological models and testing their interrelations with the MSTM has been lacking so far. Therefore, we have contrasted two established models explaining suicide risk, the Interpersonal Psychological Theory (IPT) (Joiner, 2005) and the Clinical Model (CM) (Mann et al., 1999), with the MSTM (Meyer, 2003) in a Bavarian online-sample of 255 adult sexual minority participants and 183 heterosexual participants. The results suggested that the CM and the IPT model can well explain suicide ideation among sexual minorities according to the factors depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and failed belongingness. The CM and the IPT were intertwined with the MSTM via internalized homophobia, social support, and early age of coming out. Early coming out was associated with an increased suicide attempt risk, perhaps through violent experiences that enhanced the capability for suicide; however, coming out likely changed to a protective factor for suicide ideation by enhanced social support and reduced internalized homophobia. These results give more insight into the development of suicide risk among sexual minority individuals and may be helpful to tailor minority-specific suicide prevention strategies. PMID:24573399
Plöderl, Martin; Sellmeier, Maximilian; Fartacek, Clemens; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Fartacek, Reinhold; Kralovec, Karl
Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…
Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.
Researches in otherpopulations report a strong association between sexual orientationand depressive symptoms, that is, bisexual, gay, lesbian and unsureabout sexual orientation adolescents refer more depressive symptomsthan heterosexual students. Objective: To determine the associationbetween the sexual orientation and depressive symptomsin adolescent students of a public school at the city of Cartagena, Colombia.Method: A cross-sectional study was designed. This surveyincluded students aged ...
Adalberto Campo-Arias; Mailín Arrieta-Puello; Kelly Fontalvo Durango; Lloyd Luna-Salcedo; Jeidis Bánquez Mendoza; Zuleima Cogollo Milanés; Carmen Elena Díaz Montes
Interviews with 96 children and 73 adolescents following sexual abuse found significant age and sex differences. Adolescents reported a higher level of depressive symptoms, negative reactions by others, and lower levels of self-esteem, social support, and sexual anxiety. Girls reported higher levels of intrusive thoughts, hyperarousal, sexual…
Feiring, Candice; Lewis, Michael; Taska, Lynn
An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim…
Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk
The "sexual trajectory" is an age-graded set of various new sexual experiences, defined by three key dimensions: sequence, duration, and timing. A comprehensive description of sexual trajectories creates the possibility to investigate potential risks of certain trajectory types. The present study attempted to answer three questions: (1) Is it possible to identify a typology in (the early stages of) sexual trajectories? (2) Is sexual trajectory type related to demographic characteristics, such as sex, ethnic background, and educational level? (3) What are the associations between sexual trajectory type and recent sexual risk behavior? A representative Dutch sample of 1,263 males and 1,353 females (M = 20.46 years; range, 12-25) who had engaged in sexual intercourse completed a questionnaire about sexual (health) behavior. About three quarters of participants followed a progressive sexual trajectory from less intimate (e.g., kissing) to more intimate behavior (e.g., sexual intercourse). Immigrant groups and less educated youth were more likely to follow a nonlinear trajectory. A progressive trajectory was associated with a higher likelihood of consistent contraceptive use with the most recent partner and, for girls, with a lower likelihood of having unprotected anal intercourse with the last partner. It was hypothesized that the nonlinear trajectory could be ascribed to a lack of opportunities or skills to plan and steer early sexual experiences and that these limitations were fairly stable over time. Sexual education should aim at providing adolescents with sufficient (self) knowledge and skills to construct their sexual trajectories according to their own wishes or needs. PMID:18165892
de Graaf, Hanneke; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Meijer, Suzanne; Woertman, Liesbeth; Meeus, Wim
Adolescent pregnancy places girls at increased risk for poor health and educational outcomes that limit livelihood options, economic independence, and empowerment in adulthood. In Tanzania, adolescent pregnancy remains a significant concern, with over half of all first births occurring before women reach the age of 20. A participatory research and action project (Vitu Newala) conducted formative research in a rural district on the dynamics of sexual risk and agency among 82 girls aged 12-17. Four major risk factors undermined girls' ability to protect their own health and well-being: poverty that pushed them into having sex to meet basic needs, sexual expectations on the part of older men and boys their age, rape and coercive sex (including sexual abuse from an early age), and unintended pregnancy. Transactional sex with older men was one of the few available sources of income that allowed adolescent girls to meet their basic needs, making this a common choice for many girls, even though it increased the risk of unintended (early) pregnancy. Yet parents and adult community members blamed the girls alone for putting themselves at risk. These findings were used to inform a pilot project aimed to engage and empower adolescent girls and boys as agents of change to influence powerful gender norms that perpetuate girls' risk. PMID:23684192
McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Douglas, Zayid; Rwehumbiza, Annagrace; Hamisi, Aziza; Mabala, Richard
Latinos are the largest and fastest growing minority youth group in the United States. Currently, Latino adolescents experience higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to any other racial or ethnic group and have disproportionately high levels of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Latino teens are also affected by a number of social problems such as school dropout, poverty, depression and limited access to healthcare, which contributes to disparities in reproductive health outcomes for ...
Guilamo-ramos, Vincent; Goldberg, Vincent; Lee, Jane; Mccarthy, Katherine; Leavitt, Sarah
The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating violence among a sample of sexual minority youth. Focus groups were conducted as part of a larger study that surveyed 109 sexual minority youth between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Participants identified four main themes contributing to dating violence among same-sex couples: homophobia (societal and internalized); negotiating socially prescribed gender roles; assumed female connection; and other relationship issues. Such information is essential for determining the need for and content of dating violence services, including education, safety planning, and referrals for mental and physical health services for sexual minority youth. PMID:22831848
Gillum, Tameka L; DiFulvio, Gloria
The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual minority students in supportive school environments experienced fewer depressive symptoms and lower rates of suicide ideation, plans and attempts ("suicidality") than sexual minority students in less supportive school environments. In 2007, a nationally representative sample (N = 9,056) of students from 96 high schools in New Zealand used Internet tablets to complete a health and well-being survey that included questions on sexual attractions, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Students reported their experience of supportive environments at school and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) bullying, and these items were aggregated to the school level. Teachers (n = 2,901) from participating schools completed questionnaires on aspects of school climate, which included how supportive their schools were toward sexual minority students. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on depressive symptoms and suicidality controlling for background characteristics of students. Sexual minority students were more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality than their opposite-sex attracted peers (p school environments for GLBT students were associated with fewer depressive symptoms among male sexual minority students (p = .006) but not for female sexual minority students (p = .09). Likewise in schools where students reported a more supportive school environment, male sexual minority students reported fewer depressive symptoms (p = .006) and less suicidality (p schools where students reported less favorable school climates. These results suggest that schools play an important role in providing safe and supportive environments for male sexual minority students. PMID:25469988
Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs F G; Stuart, Jaimee; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Rossen, Fiona V; Utter, Jennifer
Given increased sexual risk-taking among youth with mental health problems, this study sought to understand the developmental trajectory of sexual self-esteem (SSE) among this vulnerable population and how it is impacted by sexual experiences. Participants were 185 adolescents who attended therapeutic/alternative schools in southern New England.…
Swenson, Rebecca R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Barker, David; Zeanah, Paula D.; Brown, Larry K.
Background: Sexual behavior in adolescents is related to sexuallytransmissible diseases and not planned pregnancies. Sexual intercourse prevalence is unknown among student adolescents fromSanta Marta, Colombia. Objective: To determine the prevalenceand related factors with sexual relationships in adolescent studentsbetween 13 to 17 year-old of three private high schools at SantaMarta. Method: A transversal study was done with the applicationof a self-administrated survey that inquired into se...
Adalberto Campo-Arias; Guillermo Augusto Ceballos Ospino
Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000
van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge
In the current study the relations between coping and psychological/physical health in a sample of minority adolescents was investigated. Participants (n = 182) were all low-income, first-generation college-bound students from historically underrepresented groups. For Mexican-Americans, positive reinterpretation, focusing and venting emotions, instrumental social support, active coping, religious, restraint, emotional support, acceptance and planning forms of coping were all associated with positive psychological and physical health; for African-Americans, coping methods were not significantly associated with psychological or physical health; for Asian-Americans, positive reinterpretation, active coping, religious coping, restraint, acceptance and planning forms of coping were associated with only psychological health. Cultural-specific (rather than gender-specific) socialization is identified as a potential explanation of these results. PMID:14670202
Vaughn, Allison A; Roesch, Scott C
Examined relationship between suicidal behavior and homosexuality in adolescence in an unselected, matched sample. Found no evidence that suicide is a common characteristic of gay youth, or that when suicide does occur among gay teenagers, that it is a direct consequence of stigmatization or lack of support. (JBJ)
Shaffer, David; And Others
Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii disclosure of sexuality; (iv use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH and the Terrence Higgins Trust (THT CHAPS partnerships. Staff who agreed to take part were asked to complete a questionnaire online. The online survey was completed by 1241 ethnic minority MSM, 416 men born in South and Central America or Central and Eastern Europe, and 13,717 white British MSM; 67 ethnic minority MSM took part in the online qualitative interview. In addition 364 people working in sexual health clinics and 124 health promotion workers from around Britain completed an online questionnaire. Discussion The findings from this study will improve our understanding of the sexual health and needs of ethnic minority MSM in Britain.
This thesis examines the recent legal, political and social changes for sexual and gender minorities in Nepal. The empirical data were produced during field work in Nepal in 2010. In a short period of time the sexual and gender minorities have experienced a significant improvement in rights as well as increased inclusion in political processes. However, this study shows that they still experience social challenges such as discrimination and harassment. Although positive social changes like in...
Isaksen, Eirin Winsnes
The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men’s alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18–30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward s...
Parrott, Dominic J.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Vincent, Wilson; Bakeman, Roger
This issue of Exchange magazine mainly focuses on programmes that strengthen the livelihoods of children affected or infected by HIV. This article is on a project in Namibia that works with peer educators and adolescent-friendly clinics in providing sexual and reproductive health information and services to rural youth.
Mwangi, M.; Mbeki, C.; Clewett, J.
There is evidence that risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among adolescent females are higher for those with older male sexual partners. Yet, little empirical research has been conducted with male adolescents who engage in sexual activity with older men. In this article, we summarize in a number of ways the range of sexual activity reported by an ethnically diverse sample of 200 gay and bisexual male youth (15–22 years old) in Chicago and Miami. A general pattern of progressi...
Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.; Ferna?ndez, M. Isabel; Jamil, Omar B.
The link between adolescent sexual activity and psychological well-being is a controversial issue in developmental psychology. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between three aspects of teenage sexuality (genital sexual experience, age of sexual onset, and number of sex partners) and positive well-being (hedonic, eudaimonic,…
Vrangalova, Zhana; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador
Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide.
Sara De Meyer
Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze publications involving communication between parents and children about issues related to sexuality in the databases MEDLINE, BDENF E LILACS of the Virtual Health Library - VHL from 2004 to 2009. Methods: systematic literature review study, held in VHL, in May 2009, from descriptors: communication, adolescent and sexuality. For the analysis of information, there was the organization of content as thematic categories present in the publications. Results: the 20 references were analyzed, and 12 in the database MEDLINE, five in LILACS and three in BDENF. The results show the family as a reference in the communication and identify the mother, as the main mediator of the dialogue with the children. In studies, it emphasizes the need for educational strategies that strengthen parents, as young people who enjoy communication in the family, tend to experience sexual health in a more healthy and pleasant. Conclusion: place new strategies/experiences in the sexual and reproductive behavior from family relationships promote the understanding of health and quality of life. The nurse must strengthen the social support network of adolescents and actions for health promotion in this field.
Fabiane do Amaral Gubert, Neiva Francenely Cunha Vieira, Patrícia Neyva da Costa Pinheiro, Eliany Nazaré de Oliveira, Izabelle Mont’Alverne Napoleão Albuquerque
Full Text Available The present article focused on the perception of sexual exploitation as a job, using a single case study design. The aim of the study was to investigate the case of a 14 year-old girl, involved in commercial sexual exploitation, who considered this situation as her labor activity. A content analysis showed protective and risk factors as categories, especially related to her labor activities. The girl perceived the sexual exploitation activity as a job that provided autonomy, subsistence, and survival. The study revealed that the negative effects of working during adolescence may bring consequences to health and development. Youth work may be defined as a risk factor, especially when the labour conditions are not adequate and protected.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe youth sexual and reproductive decision making styles, as well as cognitions associated to them. Testimonies were obtained through in depth interviews carried out with a sample of 72 adolescents from Bogotá and Cali, 48 women and 24 men. The authors analyze the way cognitions - knowledge, social norms, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectancies, goals and meanings- constructed in the socio-cultural context, guide youth decision making towards establishing romantic relationships, having sexual intercourse, using contraceptive methods, getting married, getting pregnant or having an abortion. The findings of the study led to recommendations for the design of sexual education programs that include the different socialization agents
Vargas Trujillo, Elvia
The interaction between unwanted sexual experiences during childhood and an adolescents psychological well-being, use of substances and involvement in high-risk sexual behaviour was explored in this study. Unwanted childhood sexual experiences, such as sexual abuse, are major societal concerns and have been widely researched. However, much of the research was done using individuals presenting for help with the effects of this trauma. This excludes those individuals who experienced s...
Hayhurst, Lynne K.
The study examines the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Greek-Cypriot adolescents regarding sexuality, sexual and reproductive health ?n Cyprus and is based ?? the concepts of culture, gender and sexuality under the general scope of health promotion and health education. The study reviews international and local literature ?n the theory and practice of these ideas and their influence ?? health, focusing ?n sexuality. Since culture and society are thought to influence health and sexu...
This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathered through online questionnaires completed by 78 adolescent offspring (39 girls and 39 boys). The adolescents were asked if they had ever been abused and, if so, to specify by whom and the type of a...
Gartrell, N. K.; Bos, H. M. W.; Goldberg, N. G.
Full Text Available This study aims at comparing two groups of truck drivers, clients and non-clients of children and adolescents' commercial sexual exploitation (ESCA. Interviews were conducted with 239 truck drivers in different areas of Brazil. The data were analyzed statistically by inferential and descriptive analyses. The comparison between the groups showed that those who said they were clients of ESCA (n = 85 use to have a higher loading time than the ones in the other group (n = 154. Moreover, the clients use to utilize more prostitutes' services and have less knowledge of children's rights. However, the profiles of both groups were very similar, according to demographic and professional data. This study highlighted the circumstantial feature of the relationship between the truck drivers and the children and adolescents' commercial sexual exploitation.
Full Text Available Background: Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parent–adolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on adolescents aged 13–18 who had sexual initiations. Adolescents who failed to use any contraceptive method and/or condom during last sexual intercourse and who experienced multiple sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the study were taken as ‘at risk’. In view of these, the adolescents risk count ranged from zero to three – greater number indicates higher count of risky sexual practices. Poisson regression model was used to examine the associations and p<0.05 indicated a statistical significance. Results: It was found out that 301 of 633 (47.55%; 95% CI=43.62%, 51.45% adolescents experienced one or more risky sexual practices. High parental monitoring compared to low decreases the Incidence Rate of engaging in risky sexual practices by 28% (adjusted incidence rate ratio, or IRR=0.72; 95% CI=0.520, 0.986. Those who had a satisfactory level of SRH communications with their parents compared to poor communicators experianced less incidence rate of risky sexual practices which was marginal (adjusted IRR=0.82; 95% CI=0.637, 1.051. Conclusions: A significant proportion of the adolescents engaged in one or more risky sexual practices. Importantly, high parental monitoring decreases the likelihood of these risky practices. Therefore, parents need to be encouraged to keep an eye on their young children.
This study aims at comparing two groups of truck drivers, clients and non-clients of children and adolescents' commercial sexual exploitation (ESCA). Interviews were conducted with 239 truck drivers in different areas of Brazil. The data were analyzed statistically by inferential and descriptive analyses. The comparison between the groups showed that those who said they were clients of ESCA (n = 85) use to have a higher loading time than the ones in the other group (n = 154). Moreover, the cl...
Elder Cerqueira-Santos; Morais, Normanda A.; Moura, Andrei?na S.; Silvia Helena Koller
Young women in Jamaica face significant risk for HIV and other STIs. A clearer understanding of the factors associated with sexual experience and unprotected intercourse is needed. Data were collected from 330 adolescent females aged 13 to 17 recruited through community based organizations in Kingston, Jamaica, from 2009-2011. Nearly one-third of sexually experienced participants reported not using a condom the last time they had sex. Characteristics associated with sexual experience included older age, marijuana use, and less comfort talking to mother about sexual topics. Characteristics associated with condom use included perceived importance of religion, positive attitudes toward condoms, and not-having multiple sexual partners. Sexually experienced Jamaican female adolescents were engaging in behaviors that made them vulnerable to HIV and other STIs. Interventions with young adolescent girls and their mothers are recommended to postpone sexual debut and promote safer sexual behaviors in those who do engage in sex. PMID:23377730
Kang, Sung-Yeon; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Waldron, Norman
The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth. PMID:25233526
Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L
Objectified body consciousness (OBC)--the tendency to view one's body as an object for others to look at and evaluate--is theorized to emerge during sexual maturation as adolescents, particularly adolescent girls, experience sexual objectification. Although OBC generally is discussed in developmental terms, research so far has examined primarily…
Lindberg, Sara M.; Grabe, Shelly; Hyde, Janet Shibley
Although a history of forced sexual intercourse affects a relatively small number of U.S. adolescents, it is a persistent and alarming public health problem. This study examined the robustness of the risk profile of adolescents who report a history of forced sexual intercourse using the most current and representative data from the national 2005…
Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yan, Fang
The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…
Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin
Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent…
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru
Adolescents are the focus of many interventions that aim to prevent HIV transmission. In order for these interventions to be effective, it is essential to understand adolescents' sexual behaviour. Using data collected in Yaoundé, Cameroon, in 1997, the study analysed risk exposure and HIV prevalence among 426 men and 510 women aged 15-24. Although risky behaviours seem to be more prevalent among young men, their HIV prevalence remains under 1%. In contrast, HIV prevalence is high among young women (7.5%), even those who report having had few sexual partners. Mixing patterns among sexual partners, and especially the age difference between men and women, do not seem to be sufficient to explain the large male-female discrepancy in HIV prevalence that is evident in these data. The results are therefore probably due to a greater susceptibility to infection of young women than men. This study highlights the necessity of reinforcing prevention campaigns among youth and fighting the obstacles that continue to impede the use of condoms in this population. PMID:15446354
Lydiè, N; Robinson, N J; Ferry, B; Akam, E; De Loenzien, M; Zekeng, L; Abega, S
Adolescents and young adults are the fastest-growing age group of people living with HIV infection in the United States. Yet many adolescents and young adults with high-risk behaviors for HIV are unaware of their HIV status and have never had an HIV test. The purpose of our work was to understand minority adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV testing. We conducted focus group sessions with 41 minority adolescents to assess their perceptions about HIV testing. We triangulated the findings from our focus group data with data from a 125-question survey. Analysis of focus group data demonstrated that Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Barriers, and Cues to Action influenced adolescents' decisions to get tested for HIV. Findings support the need to design interventions that address adolescents' perceived barriers to HIV testing and increase access to and knowledge about HIV testing. PMID:25283353
Schnall, Rebecca; Rojas, Marlene; Travers, Jasmine
Parent-adolescent communication about sexual health is one strategy to encourage healthy adolescent sexual behaviour. However, this literature has largely overlooked immigrant families. Hmong youth, identified as facing extreme challenges to parent-adolescent communication, are considered. Content analysis was used to examine parent-adolescent communication about sexual health for forty-four pregnant or parenting Hmong adolescent girls. The minority of adolescents recalled an actual conversat...
Meschke, Laurie L.; Dettmer, Kim
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Na Espanha os jovens debutam sexualmente antes que em outros países; porém pouco se sabe com respeito à relação entre idade de debute sexual e o comportamento sexual nesta população. Analisam-se as práticas sexuais e o uso do preservativo segundo a idade de debute sexual em adolescentes espanhóis se [...] xualmente experimentados (N = 351); a idade média foi 15.9 anos (DT = .75, faixa: 14-18). Estabeleceram-se três grupos a partir da idade de debute sexual informada: debute sexual precoce (anterior aos 15 anos), média (15 anos) e tardio (posterior aos 15 anos). O grupo com debute sexual precoce praticou em maior medida masturbação mútua, coito vaginal e sexo oral, com um número de parceiros sexuais superior ao resto. O uso do preservativo na primeira relação sexual, a porcentagem de uso e o uso consistente do preservativo foi inferior no grupo de debute sexual precoce com respeito aos outros dois. O debute sexual anterior aos 15 anos foi associado com maior risco de contrair infecções sexuais por déficit no uso do preservativo e maior exposição sexual. Os descobrimentos deste estudo sugerem que a idade de debute sexual tem implicações na saúde sexual dos jovens. Abstract in spanish En España los jóvenes debutan sexualmente antes que en otros países; sin embargo, poco se sabe de la relación entre la edad de debut sexual y el comportamiento sexual en esta población. Se analizan las prácticas sexuales y el uso del preservativo según la edad de debut sexual en adolescentes español [...] es sexualmente experimentados (N = 351); la edad media fue 15.9 años (DT = .75, rango: 14-18). Se establecieron tres grupos a partir de la edad de debut sexual informada: debut sexual temprano (anterior a los 15 años), promedio (15 años) y tardío (posterior a los 15 años). El grupo con debut sexual temprano practicó en mayor medida masturbación mutua, coito vaginal y sexo oral, con un número de parejas sexuales superior al resto. El uso del preservativo en la primera relación sexual, el porcentaje de uso y el uso consistente del preservativo fue inferior en el grupo debut sexual temprano respecto a los otros dos. El debut sexual anterior a los 15 años se asoció con mayor riesgo de contraer infecciones sexuales por déficit en el uso del preservativo y mayor exposición sexual. Los hallazgos de este estudio sugieren que la edad de debut sexual tiene implicaciones en la salud sexual de los jóvenes. Abstract in english In Spain young people have their first sexual intercourse at an earlier age than in other countries; however, little is known about the relationship between age of sexual debut and sexual behavior in this population. Sexual practices and methods of protection are analyzed depending on the age of sex [...] ual debut among Spanish adolescents who are sexually experienced (N = 351). The mean age was 15.9 years (SD = .75, range: 14-18). Three groups were formed according to the age of sexual debut reported: early sexual debut (earlier than 15 years), average (15 years) and late (later than 15 years). The early sexual debut group reported further mutual masturbation, vaginal intercourse and oral sex with a higher number of sexual partners than the rest. Condom use at first intercourse, percentage of use and consistent condom use was significantly lower in the early sexual debut group compared to the others. Sexual debut before 15 years old was associated with increased risk of sexual infections, deficit in condom use and increased sexual exposure. The findings of this study suggest that the age of sexual debut has implications for the sexual health in young people.
JOSÉ P., ESPADA; ALEXANDRA, MORALES; MIREIA, ORGILÉS.
This study examined the impact of various traumas across the life span on screening positive for current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among heterosexual and sexual minority women veterans. Women veterans were recruited over the Internet (N = 706, 37% lesbian or bisexual) to participate in an anonymous, online survey. We assessed childhood trauma; adult sexual assault and adult physical victimization before, during, and after the military; combat exposure; perceived sexist discrimination during military service; sexual minority military stressors; past-year sexist events; and whether participants screened positive for PTSD or depression. Binary logistic regressions were used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PTSD and depression, stratified by sexual orientation and controlling for demographic characteristics. Lesbian and bisexual women reported higher rates of trauma across the life span, although in some instances (e.g., sexual assault during and after military service, combat exposure), they did not differ from their heterosexual counterparts. Childhood trauma and traumas that occurred during military service added the most variance to both PTSD and depression models. Sexual assault during military service appeared to be especially harmful with respect to screening positive for PTSD for both sexual orientation groups. Results revealed a number of other predictors of mental health status for women veterans, some of which differed by sexual orientation. Findings indicate a significant burden of interpersonal trauma for both heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual women veterans and provide information on the distinct association of various traumas with current PTSD and depression by sexual orientation. PMID:25019543
Lehavot, Keren; Simpson, Tracy L
Background: Among ethnic minority group adolescents, experiences with discrimination and prejudice in school settings are thought to lead to a defensive detachment of the self from the school domain. That is, these adolescents may disengage their self-feelings from their academic performances causing the academic self to become a less important…
Verkuyten, M.; Thijs, J.
This study examined the association between multiple minority statuses and reports of suicidal thoughts, depression, and self-esteem among adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine mental health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups for same-sex-attracted youths and female youths. Hispanic/Latino, African American, and White female adolescents reported more suicidal thoughts, higher depression, and lower self-esteem compared with male adol...
Consolacion, Theodora B.; Russell, Stephen T.; Sue, Stanley
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los efectos de las epilepsias y de los fármacos antiepilépticos en el desarrollo sexual de los adolescentes han sido poco estudiados. Las epilepsias per se pueden alterar los ritmos de secreción de las hormonas del eje hipotálamo-hipofisiario y contribuir a que se altere la evolución puberal. Los fá [...] rmacos antiepilépticos pueden afectar la talla en ambos sexos y producir cambios en el tamaño testicular y en la longitud del pene. En las mujeres adolescentes existen los riesgos del síndrome de ovario poliquístico y de la epilepsia catamenial. En los hombres se pueden afectar la fertilidad y el desempeño sexual. Es necesario hacer más estudios sobre este asunto, que incluyan los efectos de los nuevos medicamentos anticonvulsivantes. Abstract in english The effects of epilepsies and of antiepileptic drugs on the sexual development of adolescents have been poorly studied. Epilepsy may by itself alter the rhythms of secretion of the hypothalamichypophyseal axis, thus contributing to alter pubertal evolution. Antiepileptic drugs may affect height in b [...] oth women and men, and produce changes in testicular size and penile length. Adolescent epileptic women are at risk to develop polycystic ovary syndrome and catamenial epilepsy. Fertility and sexual performance may be affected in men. Further studies on this subject are required including those focused on the new antiepileptic drugs.
Jaime, Carrizosa Moog.
Examined lack of differences in general self-esteem between adolescents of ethnic minorities and Dutch adolescents, focusing on reflected appraisal process. Found significant relationship between general self-esteem and perceived evaluation of family members (and no such relationship with nonfamily members) for ethnic minority adolescents;…
The purpose of this study was to estimate the 6-month incidence rates of sexual assault, physical dating violence (DV), and unwanted pursuit (e.g., stalking) victimization among sexual-minority (i.e., individuals with any same-sex sexual experiences) college students with comparison data from non-sexual-minority (i.e., individuals with only heterosexual sexual experiences) college students. Participants (N = 6,030) were primarily Caucasian (92.7%) and non-sexual-minority (82.3%). Compared with non-sexual-minority students (N-SMS; n = 4,961), sexual-minority students (SMS; n = 1,069) reported significantly higher 6-month incidence rates of physical DV (SMS: 30.3%; N-SMS: 18.5%), sexual assault (SMS: 24.3%; N-SMS: 11.0%), and unwanted pursuit (SMS: 53.1%; N-SMS: 36.0%) victimization. We also explored the moderating role of gender and found that female SMS reported significantly higher rates of physical DV than female N-SMS, whereas male SMS and male N-SMS reported similar rates of physical DV. Gender did not moderate the relationship between sexual-minority status and victimization experiences for either unwanted pursuit or sexual victimization. These findings underscore the alarmingly high rates of interpersonal victimization among SMS and the critical need for research to better understand the explanatory factors that place SMS at increased risk for interpersonal victimization. PMID:24923891
Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M; Barry, Johanna E; Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cohn, Ellen S; Walsh, Wendy A; Ward, Sally K
The impact of maternal HIV and family variables on sexual behaviors of early and middle adolescents was investigated. Data were collected from 118 pairs of HIV-positive mothers and their uninfected early/middle adolescents across four time-points. Descriptive analyses show the prevalence of sexual behaviors in this sample was significantly lower than rates in a comparable sample of adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Multivariate longitudinal analysis ...
Murphy, Debra A.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Marelich, William D.; Schuster, Mark A.
Objective?Maltreated female adolescents are at risk for engaging in sexual behaviors consistent with HIV infection and teen pregnancy. The current study applied a model positing the key role of psychological dysregulation in the development of adolescent females’ sexual behavior.?Methods?The sample consisted of adolescent females aged 14–17 years who had experienced substantiated childhood maltreatment (n?=?275) and a demographically matched, non-maltreated comparison group (n?...
Noll, Jennie G.; Haralson, Katherine J.; Butler, Erica M.; Shenk, Chad E.
The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis. PMID:24069761
This article explores the mismatch that exists between what unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh experience, want and need in regard to their sexuality and what they receive from their society, which negatively impacts on their understanding of sexuality and their well-being. The findings provide a picture of Bangladeshi adolescents' (12-18 years) sexual feelings, experiences, behaviours, anxieties and concerns - in particular in relation to desire, pleasure, sexual power, masturbation, virginity, romantic love and dating, and arranged marriage - and how socio-sexual norms and taboos influence these. Curiosity of boys and girls about sex was driven by a need and desire to know and understand, but also because it was exciting to read about and talk about sex. Young people are not just passive recipients of adult norms and messages around sexuality, but agents who actively construe meanings and navigate between what is expected from them and what they want, need and feel themselves. Adolescents have a need for information and support - long before they ever have sex. We call for a positive, rights-based approach to sexuality education for adolescents and a focus beyond health outcomes alone to support adolescents and young people to make sense of the multiplicity of messages they encounter and reduce unnecessary feelings of guilt and anxiety. PMID:23684189
van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Nahar, Papreen
This study investigated the association between sex stereotypes and the sexual behaviour of Nigerian school-going adolescents. It also ascertained the effects of age and sex on adolescents' beliefs about sex stereotypes. The study sample consisted of 658 (male = 287, female = 371) adolescents from nine randomly selected secondary schools in three…
Popoola, Bayode Isaiah
Maternal influences on adolescents' sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American-Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and…
Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara
Early sexual partnerships place young women in sub-Saharan Africa at high risk for HIV. Few studies have examined both individual- and partnership-level characteristics of sexual relationships among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional survey of sexual history and partnerships was conducted among 761 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years in Nairobi, Kenya. Rapid HIV testing was conducted and correlates of HIV infection were determined using multivariate logistic regression. The HIV prevalence wa...
Rositch, Af; Cherutich, P.; Brentlinger, P.; Kiarie, Jnm; Nduati, R.; Farquhar, C.
Adolescent sexual risk-taking is common and often occurs under the influence of alcohol. Although alcohol use emerges in early adolescence, there is little empirical research examining whether growth in alcohol use during this developmental period predicts later risky sexual behavior. Such information could provide a critical opportunity for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unwanted teenage pregnancies. The current study examined alcohol use as a developmental mediator of...
Hipwell, Alison; Stepp, Stephanie; Chung, Tammy; Durand, Vanessa; Keenan, Kate
Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is used to illustrate several connected theses regarding the relation of the couple to its surrounding social group: these include a couple's oedipal rebellion, the unconscious longing for and hatred of the idealized couple by the large group, the denial of aggression within the couple and its projection onto the group, the impotence of rationality and the conventionalization of sexuality in the large group, and the pervading dynamics of aggression in group formation. Pertinent psychoanalytic theories are briefly summarized, and this combined analysis is applied to the psychoanalyst's attitude regarding adolescent patients' love life. PMID:7360827
Kernberg, O F
School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…
McCarty-Caplan, David Milo
This qualitative study explored the experiences of five gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents' perspectives on their schools' acceptance of their sexual orientation, and perceptions of these schools' approach to suicide risk intervention. Focus groups were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Themes that…
Rutter, Philip A.; Leech, Nancy L.
Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…
Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.
A questionnaire was filled in anonymously aiming at studying the motivation, conditions for defloration and sexual activity of a total of 96 girls aged 15-18 from 4 schools in the town of Varna. It was established that 50% of them had had a sexual intercourse, in 77.1% the defloration occurred at the age of 16 or 17. 82.3% report "love" as their main motive, 12.5% report to have done it "out of curiosity" and only in 7.2% it happened "by chance". 36.4% were prepared psychologically for the act of defloration. In 42% the coitus occurred at parties, 43.7% in the evenings or at night, 13.5% prefer the summer and 11.4% the spring season. About one third of the interviewed continued their sexual relation with their first partner who in 41.7% happened to be their steady boyfriend. The frequency of the sexual relation was reported to be once a week by 9.4% every day by 5.2% and 30.2% could not determine it. Contraceptives were reported to be used by 34.4%, 27.1% use condoms and 22.9% interrupt coitus. Recommendations for healthy sex during adolescence are based on the results obtained as well as literary data. PMID:10204270
Vasileva, P; Iustiniianova, B
Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…
Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To estimate factors associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13–17 years from eight public high schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 2007. The level of significance was 5.0% obtained from logistic regression, considering the association between condom use and socio-demographic, sexual and reproductive variables. Results The prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 94.9%. Factors associated with condom use at last sexual relationship were: non-Catholic religion (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.52; 0.88 and affective-sexual partnership before the interview (OR=5.15, 95%CI: 1.79; 14.80. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse of adolescents.
This paper reports on the extent to which adolescents report actively seeking sexual content in media, identifies from which media they report seeking, estimates the association between seeking sexual information and romantic and sexual behavior, and shows that active seeking of sexual content in media sources is explained by an intention to seek such content using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, a reasoned action approach. The data are a national sample of 810 adolescents aged 13-18 years. Results show that fifty percent of adolescents reported actively seeking sexual content in their media choices, which included movies, television, music, internet pornography sites, and magazines. Males sought sex content more than females and gender differences were greatest for seeking from internet pornography sites, movies, and television. Path analysis demonstrate that seeking sexual content is well predicted by intentions to seek and intentions are primarily driven by perceived normative pressure to seek sexual content. PMID:20672214
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin
The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skills…
Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.
This study examines the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Greek-Cypriot adolescents regarding sexuality, sexual and reproductive health in Cyprus. This is the first study in Cyprus that focuses on these issues. During the study, a survey was administered to a random sample of third grade students (N = 697, Mean age = 14 +/- 1 years, 48% males). Descriptive and comparative statistics were primarily used for the data analysis. The results indicated that young Greek-Cypriots have limited knowledge on sexual health issues and that there are gender differences regarding role expectations of sexuality. Thus, in the promotion of healthy sexuality and sexual behaviours among youth, practitioners should include gender and cultural perspectives. Qualitative research is needed to explore in depth how young Greek-Cypriots feel about sexuality and sexual and reproductive health. PMID:19066235
Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L
Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236
Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C
Background: This study examines the relationship between sexual behavior, alcohol use, and indicators of psychosocial distress (mental health) of adolescents in 6 sub-Saharan African countries using the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). Methods: The sample consisted of 22,949 adolescents from Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda,…
Page, Randy M.; Hall, Cougar P.
Parental divorce has been linked to some risky sexual behaviour in previous studies. Here we examine whether the sexual behaviour of adolescents is related more to the perceived quality of the interparental relationship or to the parents' divorce in a sample from Spain, the country that has experienced the greatest recent increase in marital break-ups in the European Union. Participants were 801 adolescents aged between 14 and 17, who completed questionnaires anonymously. Adolescents who perceive high conflict in their parents' marriages have more sexual activity and engage in more risk practices in some sexual behaviours compared to adolescents with divorced parents and low interparental conflict. When adolescents perceive low conflict, those with divorced parents are more sexually active than adolescents with married parents, but they do not engage in more risk practices. The perceived quality of the parental relationship has a greater negative impact on adolescents than does the type of family structure. The study highlights the need to address the parents' marital relationship in the implementation of prevention programmes of sexual risk behaviours in Spanish adolescents. PMID:24788095
Orgilés, Mireia; Carratalá, Elena; Espada, José P
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência da exposição à violência sexual entre adolescentes estudantes de escolas estaduais. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 52 escolas estaduais de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, com ensino fundamental completo, por meio de um processo de amostragem aleatória, estratificada de acordo com o tamanho das escolas. Foi selecionada, em cada escola, uma turma de oitava série por sorteio aleatório e foram incluídos todos os adolescentes presentes nas salas de aula que consentiram em participar do estudo. Foi utilizado o instrumento Triagem da Exposição de Crianças à Violência na Comunidade para identificar jovens que foram vítimas, testemunhas ou que conheciam vítimas de atos de violência sexual. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 1.193 adolescentes, representando 10,3% dos alunos matriculados na oitava série da rede estadual da cidade. Vinte e sete (2,3% adolescentes relataram ter sido vítimas de violência sexual, 54 (4,5% ter sido testemunhas de algum tipo de violência sexual e 332 (27,9% relataram conhecer alguém que tenha sido vítima de violência sexual. CONCLUSÕES: A exposição à violência sexual pelas três formas de contato relatadas mostrou-se freqüente entre os adolescentes estudados. São necessários estudos que abordem a violência sexual como um fenômeno social amplo, com múltiplos fatores associados, amparando estratégias comunitárias de prevenção e de tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence o sexual violence among adolescents of public schools. METHODS: Fifty-two public elementary schools of Porto Alegre, Brazil, were selected through random sampling stratified by school size. An 8th grade class was selected in each school through simple random sampling and all adolescents attending the classes who agreed to participate were included in the study. The Screening Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence was used to identify adolescents who were victims, witnesses or knew someone who had been a victim of sexual violence. RESULTS: There were 1,193 adolescents included in the study, representing 10.3% of all students enrolled on 8th grade classes in the city's public schools. Twenty-seven adolescents (2.3% reported being victims of sexual violence, 54 (4.5% reported witnessing some episode of sexual violence and 332 (27.9% reported knowing someone who was a victim of sexual violence. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to sexual violence in any of the three forms of contact was a common event among the studied adolescents. Studies focusing sexual violence as a broad social phenomenon with multiples associated factors are necessary to support preventive and treatment strategies at the community level.
Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk
As the age at marriage continues to rise in East and Southeast Asia, the fertility behavior of unmarried teenagers is receiving more attention from population policymakers. In addition to fertility reduction through family planning, Asian societies today consider population planning strategies in relation to national needs and social goals, including such matters as the population's growth rate, age structure, educational quality and skills. The number of single youth in Asia is growing much more rapidly than the total youth population. By the year 2010, for example, India is projected to have nearly 70 million single teenagers, aged 15-19, 188% more than in 1980. In many developing countries today, such as the Philippines and Korea, the rising age at marriage has combined with rapid urbanization, improved status for women, and more educational opportunity to alter both the behavioral norms of young people and the traditional means of social control over youth. Studies of contemporary adolescent sexuality have been conducted in 4 Asian countries. In the Philippines an overt independent youth homosexual culture was found to exist in urban and to some extent rural areas. In Thailand research revealed little conservative resistance to family planning or to contraceptives for young unmarried people. Surveys in Taiwan indicate that behavior related to dating and choice of spouse has become more liberal, and a survey in Hong Kong revealed a higher level of premarital sex and use of prostitutes among Chinese men than expected. Population policy perspectives that need to be considered in these changing times include: 1) issues of access to family planning services by unmarried people below the legal age of maturity; 2) the development of social institutions, such as exist in Thailand and the Philippines, to guide adolescents' behavior; 3) more extensive study of adolescent sexuality; 4) establishment of the scope of family policy. PMID:12315866
Estilos de vida na adolescência: comportamento sexual dos adolescentes portugueses Estilos de vida en la adolescencia: comportamiento sexual de los adolescentes portugueses Life styles in adolescence: sexual behavior of Portuguese adolescents
Full Text Available Estudos recentes têm demonstrado que actualmente os adolescentes iniciam a vida sexual cada vez mais cedo, sem contudo possuírem uma educação sexual consistente. Os objectivos deste estudo foram analisar o comportamento sexual de adolescentes do ensino secundário e identificar os hábitos de vigilância de saúde sexual em adolescentes, do ensino secundário, sexualmente activos. Realizou-se um estudo exploratório em que participaram 680 adolescentes, com idades entre 15 e 19 anos. Os resultados evidenciam que a maioria dos inquiridos ainda não iniciou a actividade sexual; são os rapazes os que mais reportam já ter tido relações sexuais; o preservativo não é um método utilizado por todos os adolescentes nas suas relações sexuais; a maioria dos adolescentes não faz vigilância de saúde sexual. É importante que os adolescentes sexualmente activos recebam cuidados de saúde e aconselhamento. As instituições de saúde e os seus profissionais necessitam de ser pró-activos tentando captar os adolescentes.Estudios recientes han demostrados que actualmente los adolescentes inician su vida sexual cada vez más temprano, sin tener una educación sexual consistente. Este estudio objetivó analizar el comportamiento sexual de adolescentes de enseñanza secundaria e identificar los hábitos de seguridad de salud sexual en estudiantes adolescentes sexualmente activos. Se realizó un estudio exploratorio con 680 adolescentes de edad entre 15 y 19 años. Los resultados demostraron que la mayoría de los participantes no había iniciado aún actividad sexual. Los de sexo masculino son quienes más reportan haber tenido relaciones sexuales; el preservativo no es un método utilizado por todos los adolescentes en sus relaciones; la mayoría de los adolescentes no vigila su salud sexual. Es importante que los adolescentes sexualmente activos reciban atención de salud y consejos. Las instituciones de salud y sus profesionales necesitan ser proactivos intentando captar a los adolescentes.Recent studies have shown that adolescents have initiated their sex lives earlier and earlier, without, however, receiving consistent sex education. The objectives of this study were to analyze the sexual behavior of adolescent high school students and identify the habits of sexual health in sexually active adolescent high school students. An exploratory study was conducted with 680 adolescents, whose age ranged between 15 and 19 years. Results showed that most participants had not initiated their sex life; boys are those who most report having had sexual relations; not all the interviewed adolescents used condoms during sex; most adolescents do not practice sexual health surveillance. It is important for sexually active adolescents to receive health care and counseling. Health institutions and their workers must be proactive in trying to approach adolescents.
Maria Margarida da Silva Reis dos Santos Ferreira
Full Text Available AIM: This is done as a descriptive study with the purpose of evaluating the communication of female students with their mothers related to sexual issues, who are being educated in high schools in the municipal border of Sivas. METHODS: The universe includes 7202 female students who receive education in high schools in the municipal border of Sivas, sample covers 1045 students from this universe. Data was collected by using ?Personal Information Form? and ?The Evaluating Form of Communication of Adolescent Girls with Their Mothers Related to Sexual Issues? which is improved by researchers. Data is exhibited as frequency distribution and it is evaluated by using chi-square test. RESULTS: According to research findings, it was found that the communication between adolescent girls and their mothers about the subjects related to sexuality is not at the desired level. Mothers come third among the information resources from which the adolescent girls take information about subjects related to sexuality. The initial subjects that adolescent girls talk to their mothers are firstly menstruation (78.4 %, choosing a spouse (71.9 %, physical changes in puberty (68.0 %, flirtation (63.3 % and engagement (60.2%. Additionally the initial subjects that adolescent girls do not talk to their mothers are; the structure and function of male organ (94.0 %, sexual relation (87.6 %, risky sexual behaviors (83.0 %, sexuality before marriage (78.6 %, ways of contraception (74.3 %, sexually transmitted infections (74.2 %. Mostly, adolescent girls indicate that the information about menstruation they take from their mothers is enough. CONCLUSION: According to findings obtained from researches, mothers have an important part among the sources that adolescent girls take information about the subjects related to sexuality, however, it is concluded that the communication between adolescent girls and their mothers about the subjects related to sexuality is not at the desired level. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 27-36
Objective: This study aimed to determine rates at which racial minority (i.e., non-White) and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian and bisexual-identified) women in the United States receive medical help to become pregnant. Income and insurance coverage discrepancies were hypothesized to mediate differences in receipt of medical help as a function of race and sexual orientation. Method: Two studies compared rates at which adult women ages 21-44 reported receiving medical help to become pregnant as a function of race and sexual orientation, using data from 2 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth (the 2002 wave in Study 1, and the 2006-2010 wave in Study 2). Mediation analyses controlling for age and education level evaluated whether race and sexual orientation were positively associated with receipt of medical pregnancy help, as mediated by insurance coverage and income. Results: Heterosexual White women reported receiving medical fertility assistance at nearly double the rates of women who identified as non-White, sexual minority, or both. Differences in rates of help received by White and non-White groups were only partially mediated by insurance coverage and income in both studies. Insurance and income discrepancies accounted for all differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women's receipt of pregnancy help in Study 1; insurance coverage alone explained differences in Study 2. Conclusions: Researchers often indicate that economic differences are responsible for health disparities between minority and majority groups, but this may not be the case for all women pursuing medical fertility assistance. Possible origins of these disparities are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25110846
Blanchfield, Bernadette V; Patterson, Charlotte J
Stigma operates at multiple levels, including intrapersonal appraisals (e.g., self-stigma), interpersonal events (e.g., hate crimes), and structural conditions (e.g., community norms, institutional policies). Although prior research has indicated that intrapersonal and interpersonal forms of stigma negatively affect the health of the stigmatized, few studies have addressed the health consequences of exposure to structural forms of stigma. To address this gap, we investigated whether structural stigma-operationalized as living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice-increases risk of premature mortality for sexual minorities. We constructed a measure capturing the average level of anti-gay prejudice at the community level, using data from the General Social Survey, which was then prospectively linked to all-cause mortality data via the National Death Index. Sexual minorities living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice experienced a higher hazard of mortality than those living in low-prejudice communities (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 3.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.50, 6.13), controlling for individual and community-level covariates. This result translates into a shorter life expectancy of approximately 12 years (95% C.I.: 4-20 years) for sexual minorities living in high-prejudice communities. Analysis of specific causes of death revealed that suicide, homicide/violence, and cardiovascular diseases were substantially elevated among sexual minorities in high-prejudice communities. Strikingly, there was an 18-year difference in average age of completed suicide between sexual minorities in the high-prejudice (age 37.5) and low-prejudice (age 55.7) communities. These results highlight the importance of examining structural forms of stigma and prejudice as social determinants of health and longevity among minority populations. PMID:23830012
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Bellatorre, Anna; Lee, Yeonjin; Finch, Brian K; Muennig, Peter; Fiscella, Kevin
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders and determined associated factors of sexual risk behavior among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods Socio-demographic information was obtained from the adolescents using socio-demographic questionnaire. Clinical interview, physical examination and laboratory investigations were employed to establish co-morbid disorders in these adolescents during the outpatient follow up visits over a one year period. Results A total of forty six (46 adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up over a one year period. Twenty two (47.8% of the adolescents had co-morbid disorders with cannabis use disorders, alcohol use disorders, conduct disorder with or without other psychoactive substance use accounting for 23.9%, 8.7%, 13.0% respectively and HIV infection, though a chance finding accounting for 2.2%. Twenty one (45.7% of the adolescents had positive history of sexual risk behavior, which was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid disorders (p = 0.003, level of religion activities in the adolescents (p = 0.000, and marital status of the parents (p = 0.021. Conclusion When planning interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, special attention may need to be focused on group of adolescents with co-morbid disorders and propensity towards impulsivity and sexual risk behavior. This may help in improving long term outcome in this group of adolescents.
Bakare Muideen O
International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed. PMID:24972149
Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura
Suicide is a public health problem disproportionately associated with some demographic characteristics (e.g., sexual orientation, veteran status). Analyses of the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data revealed that more lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) veterans reported suicidal ideation compared with heterosexual veterans. Decreased social and emotional support contributed to explaining the association between sexual minority status and suicidal ideation. More research is needed about suicide risk among sexual minority veterans; they might be a population for outreach and intervention by the Veterans Health Administration. PMID:22390600
Blosnich, John R; Bossarte, Robert M; Silenzio, Vincent M B
Objectives. We examined whether sexual minority students living in states and cities with more protective school climates were at lower risk of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts. Methods. Data on sexual orientation and past-year suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts were from the pooled 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Surveys from 8 states and cities. We derived data on school climates that protected sexual minority students (e.g., percentage of schools with safe spaces and Gay–Straight Alliances) from the 2010 School Health Profile Survey, compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students living in states and cities with more protective school climates reported fewer past-year suicidal thoughts than those living in states and cities with less protective climates (lesbians and gays: odds ratio [OR]?=?0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.47, 0.99; bisexuals: OR?=?0.81; 95% CI?=?0.66, 0.99). Results were robust to adjustment for potential state-level confounders. Sexual orientation disparities in suicidal thoughts were nearly eliminated in states and cities with the most protective school climates. Conclusions. School climates that protect sexual minority students may reduce their risk of suicidal thoughts. PMID:24328634
Birkett, Michelle; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Meyer, Ilan H.
Recent findings on the impact of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on the school experiences of sexual minority youth have demonstrated that numerous positive outcomes are associated with attending schools that have such student organizations. Some research attributes the positive impact to shifts in campus climate resulting from recognition and…
Walls, N. Eugene; Kane, Sarah B.; Wisneski, Hope
Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2,564 grade 10 students and their parents in the Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention that should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs. PMID:25490732
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja
Many older adolescents display sexual references on their social networking site profiles; this study investigated whether these references were associated with self-reported sexual intention, sexual experience or risky sexual behavior. We identified public Facebook profiles of undergraduate freshmen within one large US university Facebook network. Profile owners who displayed sexual references (Displayers) and did not display references (Non-Displayers) were invited to complete surveys. Surveys measured sexual intention using the Postponing Sexual Involvement (PSI) scale, and sexual experiences. A higher PSI score is inversely related to intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Of the 118 profiles that met inclusion criteria, 85 profile owners completed surveys. Profile owners were mostly female (56.5%) and Caucasian (67.1%). Mean PSI score for Displayers was 6.5+/?1.6, mean PSI score for Non-Displayers was 10.2+/?0.6 (p=0.02). There were no differences between Displayers and Non-Displayers regarding lifetime prevalence of sexual behavior, number of sexual partners or frequency of condom use. Display of sexual references on college freshmen’s Facebook profiles was positively associated with reporting intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Facebook profiles may present an innovative cultural venue to identify adolescents who are considering sexual activity and may benefit from targeted educational messages. PMID:22239559
Moreno, Megan A.; Brockman, Libby; Wasserheit, Judith; Christakis, Dimitri A.
The aims of this study are first to compare the incidence of force on the first occasion of sexual intercourse reported by participants with disabilities to that of students without disabilities; second to determine whether there are significant differences in mental health, substance abuse, and school performance as reported by participants…
Brunnberg, Elinor; Bostrom, Margareta Linden; Berglund, Mats
Full Text Available Adolescence is defined as the period of transition from childhood to adulthood in terms of physical, sexual, cognitive and psychosocial development. Adolescence period can be investigated in three phases which are early adolescence, middle adolescence and late adolescence. Physical and mental maturity is reached in late adolescence and the sexual behavior of the child changes from individual to socially shared relationships. There are some researches which show the increase of sexual abuse in adolescence. In these researches, importance of forensic and medical evaluation is emphasized in situations where sexual abuse of a psychosocially immature child by an adult exists. During forensic and medical evaluation, protecting every kind of material which can be used as medical evidence, and structuring the inspection as soon as possible is very important in order to not only preserve the rights of the attacked person, but also to identify the attacker. In forensic and medical evaluation, preparation of judicial report by doctors, who were assigned as medical referees, collaborating with doctors from different specialty areas in medicine is very important. During the evaluation of physical and mental symptoms in the sexually abused adolescent forensic and psychiatric examination is also needed. To be able to reintegrate child to the society, carrying out the medicalevaluation by an experienced team composed of forensic science experts, psychiatrists, psychologists, pedagogues, and social service experts is very important. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 35-8
Violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes: características relativas à vitimização nas relações familiares Sexual abuse of children and adolescents: characteristics of sexual victimization in family relations
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar as características relativas às vitimizações sexuais intrafamiliares cometidas contra grupos etários categorizados segundo o critério de idade estabelecido pelo Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente,atendidos no Centro de Referência da Criança e do Adolescente e nos Conselhos Tutelares de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, no período de 1995 a 2000. Identificou-se 234 agressões cometidas por 217 agressores contra 210 famílias e 226 vítimas. Foram vitimizadas 131 crianças (48,7% e 95 adolescentes (41,2% com predomínio do sexo feminino. Crianças com idade entre dez anos e um mês e 12 anos incompletos foram as mais atingidas (19,5% e nos adolescentes, entre 12 e 14 anos completos (17,3%. A maioria das vítimas reside com famílias que possuem três (19,9% ou quatro filhos (17,7%, sendo os primogênitos os mais agredidos (33,6%. Agressores únicos vitimizaram em sua maioria apenas uma vítima (86,7%. Pais (34,2% e padrastos (30,3% foram os que mais agrediram, com os primeiros vitimizando mais crianças (19,7% e os segundos, adolescentes (17,1%.This study analyzes the characteristics of sexual abuse committed within the family against age groups classified according to the Brazilian Statute for Children and Adolescents (the prevailing legislation on matters pertaining to minors and treated at the Reference Center for Children and Adolescents and the Guardianship Councils in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2000. Some 234 abuses were identified, committed by 217 aggressors, against 210 families and a total of 226 victims. A total of 131 children (48.7% and 95 adolescents (41.2%, predominantly females, were victimized. Children ranging from 10 to 12 years were the most frequently abused (19.5%, as well as adolescents from 12 to 14 years old (17.3%. The majority of the victims live in families with 3 (19.9% or 4 children (177%, and the firstborn are the most frequently abused (33.6%. The majority of aggressors who acted alone victimized only one individual (86.7%. Fathers (34.2% and stepfathers (30.3% were the most frequent aggressors, with the former victimizing more children (19.7% and the latter adolescents (17.1%.
Márcia Aparecida Ribeiro
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…
Background: Surveying sexual behavior in the general population serves to identify critical points, monitor the effects, and interpret changes in the spread of sexually transmitted infection. Aim: The aim of this qualitative study was to identify points of particular importance to adolescents’ sexual behavior in order to initiate and design a behavior surveillance programme in Denmark. Methods: We conducted four semi-structured focus group interviews with a total of 19 sexually experienced adolescents aged 18 to 23. Boys and girls were interviewed separately. Each group contained pupils from one Danish Folk High School, but with different social and educational backgrounds. The interview guide was developed from literature reviews and hypotheses based on years of experience with sexually transmitted infections. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative description. Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one’s personal boundaries, thus resulting in promiscuous sexual behavior and Increased sexual experience is associated with lack of condom use. Conclusion: Danish adolescents identified four key elements that could lead to unsafe sex. These results differed slightly from our expectations and will be included in a sexual behavior questionnaire to describe important elements influencing the sexual behavior of Adolescents.
JØrgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges. PMID:23586943
Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo
The idea of a sexual double standard emphasizes that men have more sexual freedom, while women are subject to social sanctions for the same behaviors. The current research uses a sample of adolescent women to examine the social consequences of reporting a greater number of sex partners. We explore the broader social costs and low self-worth associated with a high number of sex partners, and also focus on characteristics of the adolescents’ close friends. The analyses of quantitative data (n...
Lyons, Heidi; Giordano, Peggy; Manning, Wendy; Longmore, Monica
Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart, the present study tested the hypothesis that weak working memory ability predicts early sexual initiation and explored whether this relationship is mediated b...
Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam
Abstract Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of fut...
Smerecnik Chris; Schaalma Herman; Gerjo Kok; Meijer Suzanne; Poelman Jos
OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to t...
Halpe?rin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffe?, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astie?, F.
Full Text Available O artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa sobre adolescentes autores de atos de agressão sexual, examinados no âmbito de perícias judiciárias. Esses sujeitos tinham sido crianças instáveis, agitadas ou, ainda, hiperativas. Procura-se, então, explicar de que maneira a hiperatividade infantil, dificuldade de tratar mentalmente as excitações pulsionais, constitui fator de risco de agressão sexual na adolescência. A noção de narcisismo fálico permite esclarecer os impasses identificatórios e a dificuldade de compor com a mutualidade dos desejos.This paper presents the results of a research about adolescents having perpetrated sexual assault, met in the precinct of judiciary expertise. These subjects had been instable children, agitated or yet hyperactive. The author tries then to explain how infantile hyperactivity, the difficulty to mentally deal with drive excitations, can be a risk factor of sexual assault in adolescence. The notion of phallic narcissism allows illuminating the identificatory deadlocks and the trouble to reconcile with the mutuality of desires.
Jean Yves Chagnon
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the crucial role of sexuality education in addressing adolescents’ reproductive health needs within the backdrops of immense challenges in Nigerian environment. Young people have been well documented as a special need group in the area of reproductive health. Adolescent sexuality and reproductive health are important contemporary concerns especially for reproductive health problems such as early marriage, unintended/unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality and sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. A large number of adolescents in Nigeria decide to be more sexually active without access to preventive measure, such as condoms or family planning devices and thus face undesired consequences, including unwanted pregnancies, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs, including the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS and the social consequences of both. In fact, adolescents have a higher prevalence of most reproductive health problems because of lack of information and poor access to service. However, one of the 2004 Nigerian National Population Policy objectives is increasing the integration of adolescents and young people into development efforts and effectively addressing their reproductive health and related needs. The study, which relies mainly on secondary data, examines the crucial role and benefits of sexuality education against the backdrops of the challenges including reaching the youths with sexuality and reproductive information and service, or motivating them to change behavior in the light of new information and awareness, more institutional support and creating the social and economic climate, which will make the desired changes possible and sustainable. The author contends that it is a violation of ones fundamental human rights and freedom guaranteed by numerous international, regional and national policies as well as legal instruments when attempts are made to control rather than educate people to freely express their sexuality positively and in good health. Thus, there is need for all stakeholders to acknowledge the reality of adolescent sexuality and teach them how to be healthy sexual beings without endangering themselves and others.
Full Text Available Recently, the importance of cervical cancer one of the women’s most important health problems has increased. One of the important causes of cervical cancer is the HPV (Human Papilloma Virus. Cervical cancer has high level of severity and it is difficult to diagnose because it is difficult detect its symptoms in earlier period. Therefore, in order to reduce the negative effects of cervical cancer and to take appropriate measures, its’ risk factors should be known. This study is designed to review studies to determine risk factors of cervical cancer. In reviewed studies, the clear and exact factors are given; however, common risk factors that were stated in the studies are listed as adolescent sexuality in the period (age at first intercourse at a young age or pregnancy in young, multiple sexual partner, smoking and oral contraceptive. As it is believed by the researchers that some precautions could be taken, informing of the community in this regard is of great importance.
Ayse Sonay Kurt
The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions. PMID:25037580
Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars
In this article Jan Steutel's paper "Towards a sexual ethics for adolescence" is discussed. It is argued that his dichotomous conception of "child" versus "adult" unnecessarily limits his conception of "adolescence", with unfortunate consequences for the answers to his research questions. Steutel's treatment of "competences" is discussed, in…
This study explores perceptions about intimate relationships including perspectives of pressure and sexual coercion as experienced by unmarried Filipino adolescent males and females aged 15 to 19 years. The study design included an initial qualitative phase containing focus group discussions with adults and adolescents and key informant interviews…
Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…
Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…
Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[subscript baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart,…
Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam
Limited data from low-income countries are available on the continuum of coercive experiences, the contexts in which they occur, and how adolescent women perceive and respond to coercion. This article presents results from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with pregnant and never pregnant sexually active female adolescents, aged 15…
Wagman, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Waszak Geary, Cindy; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ron; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J.
This study examined the trajectories of sexual risk behaviors among adolescents from ages 15 to 23 and factors associated with those trajectories. The sample was 5,419 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using group-based trajectory modeling, five distinctive trajectory groups were identified. The High group had a high…
Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases? Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel. Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STD’s. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted.
Full Text Available Background: Understanding ecological factors that influence risky sexual behavior of adolescents is vital in designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions in specific contexts. Interventions undertaken without understanding the critical factors may not produce the desired results. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with adolescent risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among randomly selected school adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data were collected by an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Risky sexual behavior was assessed by asking question about sexual activity, consistent condom use and faithfulness to a single partner. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors related to sexual behavior using the ecological framework. Result: Overall 377(10.6% of the 723 sexually active students were involved in risky sexual practices. Risky sexual behavior was significantly and very strongly associated with perception of peers' involvement in sexual intercourse [AOR = 11.68 (95% CI: 8.76 - 15.58]. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that peer pressure is the most important factor associated with risky sexual behavior among school adolescents in Addis Ababa. Interventions aimed at reducing sexual behavior among school adolescents should target adolescents as a group rather than individually.
The grayest areas of defining child sexual abuse appear to involve the age and sex of the individuals involved, resulting in a potential for different attributions regarding child sexual abuse across individuals. As a result, this study examines the responses of 262 male and female college student participants after viewing a series of…
Sherrill, Andrew; Renk, Kimberly; Sims, Valerie K.; Culp, Anne
Adolescents who abuse substances are more likely to engage in health-risking sexual behavior (HRSB) and are at particularly high risk for HIV/AIDS. Thus, substance abuse treatment presents a prime opportunity to target HIV-risk behaviors. The present study evaluated a one-session HIV-risk intervention embedded in a controlled clinical trial for drug-abusing adolescents. The trial was conducted in New Mexico and Oregon with Hispanic and Anglo adolescents. Youths were randomly assigned to indiv...
Hops, Hyman; Ozechowski, Timothy J.; Waldron, Holly B.; Davis, Betsy; Turner, Charles W.; Brody, Janet L.; Barrera, Manuel
Teenage pregnancy is one of the many public health problems facing the community in Bophuthatswana and neighbouring areas: Health professionals have attempted to address the problem yet little has been done to determine the role of the adolescent male in the prevention of this community problem. This study addresses the male adolescent’s sexual behaviour, his attitude towards contraception, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy. The study revealed that most of the respondents commenced...
There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…
Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa
Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…
Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.
Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so.…
Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick
Most adolescents engage in indiscriminate sexual experimentations. This practice exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS) are among the deadly diseases that exist globally. Twice as many girls, compared to boys…
Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.
This paper examines parent-child discussions of sexual behavior. It finds consistency in the timing and content of such discussions; however, many parents and children do not discuss key topics, such as birth control, before adolescents become sexually active. [This fact sheet is based on Megan K. Beckett, Marc N. Elliott, Steven Martino, David E.…
It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted…
Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.
Objectives: To examine how sources of sexual information are associated with adolescents' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about having sexual intercourse using the integrative model of behavior change. Methods: Survey data from a quota sample of 459 youth. Results: The most frequently reported sources were friends, teachers, mothers,…
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
As states are moving toward comprehensive sexual health education, educators require engaging and effective curricula. This pre-post study (N = 64) examined the feasibility of a comprehensive, media literacy education program for influencing adolescents' sexual health and media literacy outcomes. After the program, participants were more…
Scull, Tracy Marie; Malik, Christina V.; Kupersmidt, Janis Beth
A longitudinal study using a random sample of adolescents, aged 13-16 years, was conducted in western New York to determine if athletic participation was associated with a reduced rate of sexual behavior and pregnancy. 699 families were interviewed and surveyed, and bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships among athletic participation, demographic and control variables, and measures of sexual behavior and pregnancy rates. Findings showed that high rates of pregnancy involvement for both sexes were associated with low income and high sexual activity. Higher levels of family cohesion reduced rates of sexual activity for both sexes. Girls' athletic participation was directly proportional to reduced frequency of sexual behavior and, indirectly, to pregnancy risk. However, lower rates of sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement among adolescent male athletes were not discovered. Female adolescents who participated in sports were less likely than their nonathletic peers to engage in sexual activity and/or report a pregnancy. Among male adolescents, athletic participation was unrelated to sexual behavior and pregnancy involvement. PMID:10475497
Sabo, D F; Miller, K E; Farrell, M P; Melnick, M J; Barnes, G M
Educational level is strongly associated with age of first intercourse and risk of unintended pregnancies. This study examined these associations in a large representative sample of Dutch adolescents and also included associations of educational level with other sexual health aspects. Adolescents aged 12 to 25 (3,926 boys and 3,915 girls) completed an online questionnaire that included measures of romantic and sexual experience; the evaluation of their sexual debut; the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancy; and sexual attitudes, satisfaction, self-efficacy, knowledge, victimization, and functioning. The results showed that adolescents on a vocational track or who completed fewer years of education were more at risk of several adverse sexual health outcomes than adolescents on an academic track. They had their first sexual experiences at an earlier age; evaluated these experiences less favorably; had less sexual health knowledge and fewer refusal skills; and had a higher risk of unintended pregnancy, STIs, and victimization. Possible explanations for these consistent differences are discussed. Sex education and services should pay specific and targeted attention to less educated young people and tailor their efforts specifically to the needs, characteristics, and realities of this group. PMID:25260077
De Graaf, Hanneke; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Meijer, Suzanne
This study addressed how two normative developmental factors, attachment and identity, are associated with adolescents' sexual attitudes and sexual risk-taking behavior. The sample consisted of 2029 adolescents (mean age = 16.2 years) living in the Southeast United States. Path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Higher levels of attachment anxiety predicted more dating identity exploration and less healthy sexual attitudes. Higher levels of attachment avoidance predicted less dating identity exploration and indirectly predicted less healthy sexual attitudes through dating identity exploration. Females with dating or sexual experience showed the weakest associations between the attachment dimensions and dating identity exploration. More dating identity exploration predicted healthier sexual attitudes; this association was strongest for non-virgins. Finally, higher levels of attachment avoidance were associated with higher cumulative sexual risk scores, but only among non-virgin males. Results are interpreted in light of theory and research on attachment, identity exploration, and adolescent sexual relationships. PMID:25598388
McElwain, Alyssa D; Kerpelman, Jennifer L; Pittman, Joe F
This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs. PMID:25551899
Cotter, P; Corcoran, P; McCarthy, J; O'Suilleabháin, F; Carli, V; Hoven, C; Wasserman, C; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D; Keeley, H
Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents' sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens' engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed. PMID:24187395
Gottfried, Jeffrey A; Vaala, Sarah E; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy
Communication about sexual health between parents and adolescents has been shown to have a protective influence on behaviours that reduce the risk of HIV transmission. This study explored experiences of HIV and sexual health (HSH) communication between parents and/or caregivers and adolescents in an urban HIV-endemic community in Southern Africa. Adolescents (aged 14-19 years) were recruited from the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Centre and the Kliptown community between June and August 2009. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions (n=10 adolescents) and semi-structured interviews (n=31 adolescents). In total, 41 adolescents (56% female, 44% male, mean age=17.2) participated in the study. Adolescent participants identified emotional, physical and sociocultural barriers to initiating HSH communication with parents and caregivers including fear of verbal warnings, threats and physical assault. Adolescents also expressed a desire for mentorship around HSH communication beyond abstinence and peer-based information. Public health interventions need to support adolescents' access to bi-directional HSH information from adult mentors that address the lived realities of adolescents beyond expectations of abstinence. PMID:24809230
Soon, Christine N; Kaida, Angela; Nkala, Busi; Dietrich, Janan; Cescon, Angela; Gray, Glenda; Miller, Cari L
The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate pornography consumption and its relation to sexual experiences, lifestyles, health and perceptions of sexuality and pornography. One qualitative study (focus group discussions) and one prospective longitudinal quantitative study (baseline and follow-up questionnaires) are included. The core category emerging from the focus group discussions, among personnel working with adolescents, was “Conflicting messages about sexuality”. The participa...
A neighborhood's normative climate is linked to, but conceptually distinct from, its structural characteristics such as poverty and racial/ethnic composition. Given the deleterious consequences of early sexual activity for adolescent health and well-being, it is important to assess normative influences on youth behaviors such as sexual debut, number of sex partners, and involvement in casual sexual experiences. The current study moves beyond prior research by constructing a measure of normati...
Warner, Tara D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
Reports on part of a larger study said to ascertain the differences between English, West Indian, Indian, and Pakistani adolescents in Britain with respect to their attitudes to a series of factors, and whether differences are reflections of personality or cultural diversity. [Available from Carfax Publishing Company, Haddon House,…
This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…
Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, control...
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja
Adolescent women are at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus (STDs/HIV) because of physiologic susceptibility and risky sexual behavior. The latter may be related to the “personal factors” of self-efficacy, sexual knowledge, self-esteem, and ability to communicate/negotiate. In the current study, near-peers attempted to have an impact on these factors by using the female condom as a negotiating tool for safer sex in a group of 100 urban adolescent women ...
Raphan, Gwen; Cohen, Sarah; Boyer, Ann M.
Clusters of pre-sexual and sexual behaviors were identified in an urban US sample of 546 mid-adolescent girls. No distinct group of girls engaging in sexually risky behavior was revealed. Sexually active girls were older, lived with a single parent, and reported more substance use and depression, but similar levels of conduct problems, impulsivity…
Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf
Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.
Chirinos Jesús L.
In this longitudinal study, we tested whether adolescent maltreatment and out-of-home placement as a response to maltreatment altered developmental patterns of sexual risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system. Participants included adolescents aged 13 to 17 (M = 15.5, SD = 1.49) at baseline (n = 714), followed over 18 months. Computer-assisted interviews were used to collect self-reported sexual practices and experiences of physical and psychological abuse at both time points. Latent transition analyses were used to identify three patterns of sexual risk behaviors: abstainers, safe sex with multiple partners, and unsafe sex with multiple partners. Most adolescents transitioned to safer sexual behavior patterns over time. Adolescents exhibiting the riskiest sexual practices at baseline were most likely to report subsequent abuse and less likely to be placed into out-of-home care. Findings provide a more nuanced understanding of sexual risk among child welfare-involved adolescents and inform practices to promote positive transitions within the system. PMID:25155702
Fowler, Patrick J; Motley, Darnell; Zhang, Jinjin; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Landsverk, John
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate on relationship among family environment, pornography and sexual behavior of adolescents. Pornography may start from early youth along with starting of sexual behavior. Therefore it is important that the role of family factors in pornography be studied.Materials and methods: The sample includes 362 students who were chosen by Proportional Cluster method from the first grade of High School (14 and 15 years old. The research instruments were Schaefer’s Family Environment Scales (FES, a researcher made Sexual Behaviors Scale (SBS, and Pornography Scale (PS.Results: The results indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between sexual Behaviors Scale (SBS and pornography and there is a positive significant relationship between levels of coldness in family relationship and adolescents’ Freedom. Also the result of stepwise regression shows, in the first step, level of sexual behavior is the strongest variable that predicts .42 of variance of adolescent's pornography. In the second step, Coldness in family relationship determines .05 of variances of pornography of adolescents. Gender differentiates shows that boys' pornography is more than for girls.Conclusion: Therefore coldness in family relationship is related with pornography and sexual behavior of adolescents.
Mahbobe Ghavidel Heidari
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents is increasing worldwide. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in young women, and undetected disease is highly associated with long-term complications in women. Our goal was [...] to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sexually active population of female adolescents from Salvador, Brazil, and to describe their socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. 100 sexually active adolescents (10-19 years) were included in this study, between 2008 and 2010. Endocervical samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Inhouse polymerase chain reaction of cervical specimens was used for Chlamydia trachomatis detection. The overall prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 31% (95% CI 22-40). There were no statistically significant differences in the age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, and frequency of condom use between Chlamydia infected and uninfected adolescents. The prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection among adolescents from Salvador was the highest in Brazil up to the present date. These results demonstrate an urgent need for continued and comprehensive prevention strategies along with proper screening for Chlamydia in high-risk populations in order to decrease the rates of infection.
Márcia Sacramento Cunha, Machado; Bruno Fernando Borges da Costa e, Silva; Igor Logetto Caetité, Gomes; Iuri Usêda, Santana; Maria Fernanda Rios, Grassi.
Full Text Available The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents is increasing worldwide. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in young women, and undetected disease is highly associated with long-term complications in women. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sexually active population of female adolescents from Salvador, Brazil, and to describe their socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. 100 sexually active adolescents (10-19 years were included in this study, between 2008 and 2010. Endocervical samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Inhouse polymerase chain reaction of cervical specimens was used for Chlamydia trachomatis detection. The overall prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 31% (95% CI 22-40. There were no statistically significant differences in the age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, and frequency of condom use between Chlamydia infected and uninfected adolescents. The prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection among adolescents from Salvador was the highest in Brazil up to the present date. These results demonstrate an urgent need for continued and comprehensive prevention strategies along with proper screening for Chlamydia in high-risk populations in order to decrease the rates of infection.
Márcia Sacramento Cunha Machado
Full Text Available We proposed that first year medical students who voluntarily participated in the Healthy Sexuality adolescent program would perform better than their peers on an adolescent counseling station at the year-end OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination. In addition we compared medical students? communication skills at the time of the program as assessed by self, peers and participating adolescents. Methods: Nineteen first year medical students voluntarily participated in the ongoing Healthy Sexuality program. Adolescent participants, medical student peer participants and medical students assessed communication components on a 7-point Likert scale at the end of the program. At the year-end OSCE, all first year medical students at the University of Western Ontario were assessed at an adolescent counseling station by a standardized patient (SP and a physician examiner. Statistical analysis examined differences between the two groups. Results: Students who participated in the Healthy Sexuality program did not perform better than their colleagues on the year-end OSCE. A statistically significant correlation between physician examiner and SP evaluations was found (r = 0.62. Adolescent participants communication skills assessments in the Healthy Sexuality Program demonstrated no significant correlation with medical student assessments (self or peer. Conclusions:Voluntary intervention with adolescents did not result in improved communication skills at the structured year-end examination. Further investigation will be directed towards delineating differences between SP and physician examiner assessments.
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that boys with ASD reacted more tolerant towards homosexuality compared to the control group. Results reveal that sexuality is a normative part of adolescent development in high-functioning boys with ASD. Hence, attention should be given to this topic in education and mental health care. PMID:25212415
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early sexual debut among adolescents is associated with considerable negative heath and development outcomes. An understanding of the determinants or predictors of the timing of sexual debut is important for effective intervention, but very few studies to date have addressed this issue in the Nigerian context. The aim of the present study is to examine predictors of adolescent sexual initiation among a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Nigeria. Methods Interviewer-collected data of 2,070 never-married adolescents aged 15–19 years were analysed to determine association between age of sexual debut and demographic, psychosocial and community factors. Using Cox proportional hazards regression multivariate analysis was carried out with two different models – one with and the other without psychosocial factors. Hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated separately for males and females. Results A fifth of respondents (18% males; 22% females were sexually experienced. In the South 24.3% males and 28.7% females had initiated sex compared to 12.1% of males and 13.1% females in the North (p Conclusion Given the increased risk for a number of sexually transmitted health problems, understanding the factors that are associated with premarital sexual debut will assist programmes in developing more effective risk prevention interventions.
Blum Robert W
Full Text Available Researches in otherpopulations report a strong association between sexual orientationand depressive symptoms, that is, bisexual, gay, lesbian and unsureabout sexual orientation adolescents refer more depressive symptomsthan heterosexual students. Objective: To determine the associationbetween the sexual orientation and depressive symptomsin adolescent students of a public school at the city of Cartagena, Colombia.Method: A cross-sectional study was designed. This surveyincluded students aged 13-17 year-olds. These students completedin the classroom a questionnaire about health behaviors and theZung´s self-rating depression. Logistic regression was computed forcontrolling confounding variables. Results: A total of 432 students,219 boys and 213 girls, completed successfully the survey. The meanage was 14,6 (SD=1,3, and the mean scholarship was 8,4 (1,5. Atotal of 21,1% of girls and 19,2% of boys considered themselvesbisexuals, gays, lesbians or insure about sexual orientation. Depressivesymptoms were related to sexual orientation exclusivally amonggirls (OR=1,10, 95%CI 1,01-1,18, after controlling confounding factors.Conclusions: Among these adolescent students, depressivesymptoms were associated with the sexual orientation only amonggirls. It is likely that this association could be explained better by the gender than the sexual orientation. Futher investigations are needed in Colombian adolescents students.
Discursos de jovens adolescentes portugueses sobre sexualidade e amor: implicações para a educação sexual / Discourses of portuguese adolescents about sexuality and love: implications for sexual education
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os esforços para diminuir os comportamentos sexuais de risco de adolescentes e jovens têm conduzido a resultados que ficam aquém das expectativas. Algumas causas para este fracasso parecem dever-se ao seu desconhecimento sobre os mitos e crenças associados à sexualidade. Tentando ultrapassar algumas [...] das limitações de estudos anteriores, o objectivo deste trabalhar foi auscultar directamente jovens adolescentes,1 procurando entender, de uma forma mais espontânea e profunda, as percepções e crenças associadas às relações amorosas e sexuais. Para isso, recolheram-se os seus discursos ao longo de um programa de educação sexual e usou-se a Análise Foucaudiana do Discurso como método de análise dos resultados. Estes apontam para a presença do duplo padrão sexual, embora pareça desenhar-se uma tendência para um padrão sexual singular e para a pouca importância atribuída aos comportamentos de prevenção. Conclui-se com a referência a algumas pistas para a educação sexual. Abstract in english The efforts to lower adolescents sexual risk behaviors have led to results that did not come up to the expectations. Lack of knowledge on myths and beliefs on sexuality may be the main cause of this failure. Trying to overcome some of the limitations of previous studies, this work aimed to directly [...] hear adolescents trying to understand, in a more spontaneous and deeply way, the perceptions and beliefs associated with love and sexual relations. To do so, the discourses of adolescents during a sexual education program were collected and analyzed through Foucauldian Discourse Analysis. Results point out the recognition of sexual double standard, although there seem to exist a tendency to consider a single sex standard and disregard the importance of prevention behaviors. We conclude with some clues about sexual education.
Luísa, Saavedra; Conceição, Nogueira; Sara, Magalhães.
Discursos de jovens adolescentes portugueses sobre sexualidade e amor: implicações para a educação sexual Discourses of portuguese adolescents about sexuality and love: implications for sexual education
Full Text Available Os esforços para diminuir os comportamentos sexuais de risco de adolescentes e jovens têm conduzido a resultados que ficam aquém das expectativas. Algumas causas para este fracasso parecem dever-se ao seu desconhecimento sobre os mitos e crenças associados à sexualidade. Tentando ultrapassar algumas das limitações de estudos anteriores, o objectivo deste trabalhar foi auscultar directamente jovens adolescentes,1 procurando entender, de uma forma mais espontânea e profunda, as percepções e crenças associadas às relações amorosas e sexuais. Para isso, recolheram-se os seus discursos ao longo de um programa de educação sexual e usou-se a Análise Foucaudiana do Discurso como método de análise dos resultados. Estes apontam para a presença do duplo padrão sexual, embora pareça desenhar-se uma tendência para um padrão sexual singular e para a pouca importância atribuída aos comportamentos de prevenção. Conclui-se com a referência a algumas pistas para a educação sexual.The efforts to lower adolescents sexual risk behaviors have led to results that did not come up to the expectations. Lack of knowledge on myths and beliefs on sexuality may be the main cause of this failure. Trying to overcome some of the limitations of previous studies, this work aimed to directly hear adolescents trying to understand, in a more spontaneous and deeply way, the perceptions and beliefs associated with love and sexual relations. To do so, the discourses of adolescents during a sexual education program were collected and analyzed through Foucauldian Discourse Analysis. Results point out the recognition of sexual double standard, although there seem to exist a tendency to consider a single sex standard and disregard the importance of prevention behaviors. We conclude with some clues about sexual education.
Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.
In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846
Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan
Studies have shown that adolescents in Nigeria have poor knowledge of reproductive health issues and that there was a need to provide them with correct broad-based information on reproductive health as part of a nationally-approved school curriculum. However, the non-application of the curriculum on sexuality education in many secondary schools in Nigeria has been blamed on a negative attitude of teachers. This study was undertaken to determine the attitude of secondary school teachers in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, to adolescent sexuality education and to determine whether this depends on their socio-demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study of the attitude of teachers to adolescent sexuality education was done. A total of 249 teachers were studied. Their mean age was 38.7 years +/- 8.08 SD. Two hundred and ten teachers (84%) were females. Two hundred and twenty-four teachers (90%) were married and 168 (67.5%) were of Roman Catholic faith. The awareness of reproductive health activities was high. There was a high proportion of respondents who approved of sexuality education for adolescents (77.5%) and an equally high proportion who believed that it was important (89%). One hundred and ninety-eight (79%) of the respondents were willing to teach sexuality education. The attitude to sexuality education was independent of religion, sex or marital status (p>0.05). It was concluded that secondary school teachers in Enugu urban were willing to offer sexuality education to adolescents under their care irrespective of their religion, sex or marital status. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers in Enugu be given the necessary special training in the teaching of sexuality education now and that sexuality education be officially incorporated into the school curriculum in Enugu, preferably as part of moral studies. PMID:16999198
Iyoke, C A; Onah, H E; Onwasigwe, C N
Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage or who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that, although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group's stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth's resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387
Gattis, Maurice N; Woodford, Michael R; Han, Yoonsun
The success of any type of sexual education programme depends on the knowledge and preparedness for practice by adolescents. A recent study has found that an ‘abstinence-only’ sexual education programme is effective in reducing sexual activity among adolescents. Knowledge of abstinence-only sexual education and preparedness for practice as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health among Nigerian secondary school adolescents was studied. An analytic descriptive survey design was use...
Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.; Inyang, Obonganyie P.
Given the sexually transmitted nature of human papillomavirus (HPV), some worry the HPV vaccine will create a false sense of security and promote adolescent sexual activity. Media coverage of vaccines can influence social norms, parental attitudes, and vaccine acceptance; in this paper we examine U.S. news media messages related to sexuality and HPV vaccination. Drawing on a structured analysis of 447 articles published during 2005-2009, we qualitatively analyzed a purposive sample of 49 articles discussing adolescent health behaviors related to HPV vaccination. Commonly, articles discussed vaccination in the context of abstinence-only versus comprehensive sexual health education; cited research findings to support vaccination or sex education; argued against connecting vaccination to promiscuous behavior; but included fear-inducing messages. Media messages concerning health behaviors related to HPV vaccination tended to support government and parental involvement in sex education, and dismiss concerns linking vaccination to sexual activity, while also presenting the vaccine as lifesaving. PMID:24439619
Casciotti, Dana M; Smith, Katherine C; Tsui, Amy; Klassen, Ann C
Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power to those that suggest positive and significant peer-to-peer influence in sexual behavior fail to demonstrate a significant relationship on sexual attraction between friends or siblings. These results suggest that peer influence has little or no effect on the tendency toward heterosexual or homosexual attraction in teens, and that sexual orientation is not transmitted via social networks. PMID:23842784
Brakefield, Tiffany A; Mednick, Sara C; Wilson, Helen W; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H
Full Text Available Background: Previous reports show that Chilean teenagers have an inadequate knowledge about sexuality and reproduction. Aim: To compare the knowlege about sexuality among adolescents coming from private and public schools, with and without sexual education programs. Material and methods: A structured anonymous inquiry, containing multiple choice and open questions, was applied to a sample of 229 adolescents attending seventh and eigth grade of junior school, in private and public schools of Temuco, Chile. Results: Eleven percent of adolescents had already their first sexual intercourse at a mean age of 12.2 ± 2.4 years old. Of these, 96% came from public schools. An overall analysis of tests, disclosed a 53% of correct answers to the inquiry. Adolescents coming from private schools had a better performance than those coming from public schools. Sexual attitudes were not influenced by sexual education programs. Conclusions: Adolescents coming from private schools have a better sexual knowledge level and more conservative attitudes towards sexuality. Overall knowledge is inadequate albeit overvalued. These teenagers are high risk group for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases and require efficient sexual education programs. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 574-83.
Lilian Fernández F
Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs…
Williams, Kelly A.; Chapman, Mimi V.
Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…
Fisher, Colleen M.
Everyday interactions with same-racial/ethnic others may confer positive benefits for adolescents, but the meaning of these interactions are likely influenced by individual differences and larger structural contexts. This study examined the situation-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and anxiety symptoms among a diverse sample of 306 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (Mage = 14 years; 66% female), based on (1) individual differences in ethnic identity centrality and (2) developmental histories of transitions in diversity between elementary, middle, and high school. The results indicated that at the level of the situation, when adolescents interacted with more same-ethnic others, they reported fewer anxiety symptoms. Further, for adolescents who had experienced a transition in school diversity, the positive benefits of contact with same-ethnic others was only conferred for those who felt that their ethnicity was very important to them. The importance of examining individual differences within larger developmental histories to understand the everyday experiences of ethnic minority adolescents are discussed. PMID:24951944
Douglass, Sara; Yip, Tiffany; Shelton, J Nicole
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to examine attachment style as a predictor of risky sexual behavior in a younger, more vulnerable sample than previously investigated in the literature: High school aged adolescents. The hypothesized associations among the variables were partially supported. Contrary to our predictions, there was no significant association between avoidance and risky sexual behavior. However, higher anxiety was positively associated with risky sexual behavior. Finally, the prediction that the highest levels of risky sexual behavior would be found for those individuals with higher levels of anxiety and higher levels of avoidance (i.e., insecure attachment style was supported.
Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…
Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William
This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…
Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert
The authors used a questionnaire (N = 587) among ethnic-minority and majority group adolescents in The Netherlands to examine the idea that under certain conditions minority group members tend to psychologically disengage their self-evaluation from educational performance. The results showed that only among ethnic minorities, perceived discrimination in school was related to psychological disengagement. Furthermore, among both groups of participants, perceived diagnosticity of performance feedback was negatively related to disengagement. However, among the ethnic minority group this effect was found for only those participants with relatively high educational performance. The results showed that negative experiences in school can lead to psychological disengagement from the academic domain and that disengagement is not restricted to African American students. PMID:12856815
Verkuyten, Maykel; Brug, Peary
Full Text Available Despite their increasing numbers, few of the sexuality education and pregnancy prevention programs in developing countries have been evaluated. This study, conducted in 1995-1997, assesses the impact of a school-based sexuality education program, the Grade 7 Project, on 945 Jamaican seventh graders (aged 11-14 and their initiation of sexual activity and use of contraception at first intercourse, as well as the knowledge and attitudes that influence their behaviors. Using a quasi-experimental design, the study measured the effects of the Grade 7 Project when the nine-month intervention was completed (short term and one year after that (long term. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the project had no effect on initiation of sexual activity, but it had a positive short-term impact on use of contraception at first intercourse (P = .08; adolescents in the intervention group were more than twice as likely to use contraception. The project also had a positive short-term influence on several aspects of the adolescents' knowledge of and attitudes about sexuality and pregnancy. The modest impact of the Grade 7 Project is encouraging, as school-based sexuality education programs of limited duration rarely have a long-term impact. Moreover, competing socioeconomic and cultural forces in Jamaica encourage early sexuality and parenthood among adolescents. The use of more participatory teaching methods and smaller class sizes might strengthen the Grade 7 Project and enhance its impact.
Juvenile justice involved youth are at great risk for negative outcomes of risky sexual behavior including HIV/AIDS. Given the strong connection between alcohol use and risky sex in this population, it is important to consider alcohol use in interventions designed to decrease risky sexual behavior. This paper provides support for an integrative translational model that incorporates psychosocial, neurobiological, and genetic factors to better predict alcohol-related sexual risk behavior. Specifically, we present the design, methods, and baseline data from a complex randomized control trial, Project SHARP (Sexual Health and Adolescent Risk Prevention) in order to illustrate how this broad array of factors can best predict alcohol-related sexual risk behavior. Participants were justice-involved adolescents (n=284) who completed an fMRI and self-report assessments prior to randomization to either a sexual risk plus alcohol risk reduction group intervention or to an information-only contact control group intervention. Structural equation modeling was utilized and findings supported the hypothesized relationships in the translational model. Preliminary data suggest that interventions among justice-involved adolescents targeting alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be more effective if a biopsychosocial approach is considered. PMID:25126447
Magnan, Renee E; Callahan, Tiffany J; Ladd, Benjamin O; Claus, Eric D; Hutchison, Kent E; Bryan, Angela D
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mulheres com epilepsia apresentam com maior freqüência alterações relacionadas à sexualidade. O conhecimento adquirido com as adultas tem sido usado para as adolescentes, pressupondo-se que elas também sofram influência semelhante. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relacionados à sexualidade nas adolescentes com epilepsia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 35 pacientes do sexo feminino, com epilepsia, com idades entre 10 a 20 anos. Os critérios de exclusão foram: pacientes que ainda não apresentaram a menarca, com doença crônica associada, ou deficiência mental moderada a grave. As informações sobre a função sexual das adolescentes foram avaliadas através de um questionário padrão. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença entre a idade da primeira relação sexual, atividade sexual, libido e orgasmo entre as adolescentes com epilepsia e o grupo controle. Observaram-se índices de gravidez superiores entre as adolescentes com epilepsia. CONCLUSÃO: Adolescentes com epilepsia têm vida sexualmente ativa, não apresentando as mesmas disfunções que a mulher adulta. Nesta série, nós observamos freqüência elevada de gestação, sugerindo a falta de aconselhamento adequado. Os aspectos relacionados à sexualidade requerem atenção especial por parte dos profissionais de saúde que atendem adolescentes com epilepsia.OBJECTIVES: Women with epilepsy have higher rates of sexual dysfunction. However, knowledge acquired with adult populations has been extrapolated to teenagers, by surmising that these patients are submitted to similar factors. This study aims to evaluate aspects related to sexuality in female adolescents with epilepsy. METHODS: We studied 35 female adolescents, with epilepsy, ages from 10 to 20 years. The criteria of exclusion were: patients that had not yet presented a first period, patients with previous endocrine or clinical chronic disorders, and patients with moderate to severe mental deficiency. Information on sexual behavior of adolescents with epilepsy was evaluated by use of a standard questionnaire. RESULTS: No differences were observed between age at first sexual intercourse, sexual activity, libido and orgasm of adolescents with epilepsy when compared to controls. Higher rates of pregnancy occurred in adolescents with epilepsy when compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with epilepsy have an active sexual life, without the dysfunctions presented by adults. In this series, we observed high rates of pregnancy suggesting lack of proper counseling. Therefore, aspects related to sexuality require special attention by health professionals when attending to adolescents with epilepsy.
Sílvia de Vincentiis
This article analyzes the impact of the decrete 28704, issued in 2006, on the Peruvian society. This Law states that all sexual relations between the age of 14 and an age younger than 18, whether consented or not, shall be considered rape, thus criminalizing adolescent sexuality and making preventive reproductive health services illegal. This decision was made disregarding the legal frameworks which recognize and protect sexual and reproductive rights, the needs of adolescents regarding sexuality, as well as its impact on public health issues. In 2012, this Law was declared unconstitutional. The enforcement of this sentence shall enable the implementation and improvement of public sexual education policies and the access to quality health care. An effort to create more effective laws to protect adolescents from sexual violence must be made. PMID:24100829
This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent S...
Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; Diclemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Brown, Larry K.; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita
The goals of this study were to examine latent growth in a composite index of sexual risk taking (defined in terms of number of sexual partners and condom nonuse) on five occasions between ages 14-15 and 22-23 years, and to identify associations between latent growth parameters and covariates. As part of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (CNLSY-79), 740 adolescents provided data at two-year intervals between 1994 and 2004. Latent growth models revealed quadratic growth in youths' sexual risk taking. High initial levels of risk were attributable to early adolescent family structure, the expectation of teenage parenthood, early autonomy from parents, young age at dating initiation, and delinquency. Linear and quadratic growth terms were explained by early adolescent family structure, perceived academic competence, substance use, and delinquency. These associations persisted when time-varying covariates of other contraceptive use and relationship status were modeled. PMID:24256549
Moilanen, Kristin L
While the author considers adolescence to be a positive and creative period of developing sexuality and self-awakening, he is nonetheless troubled by a trend toward increasing premarital sexual activity, with a correspondingly elevated teen pregnancy rate in Japan. The social climate encourages adolescent pregnancy, posing medical, gynecological, and social problems. Teenage abortions have increased from 12, 123 to 29, 675 over the period 1975-1989; the proportion of teen abortions rising from 1.8% to 6.35% of all abortions. Those youths opting to bear children to term often only make for irresponsible parents. This increased preponderance of adolescence sexual activity may be attributed to a host of factors including a trend toward delayed marriage and increased years of schooling, increased acceptance and prevalence of single parent and dual income families, a burgeoning Japanese sex industry widely conveyed through mass media, wide dissemination of contraceptive methods and effective medical treatment of most sexually transmitted diseases, and inadequate, inappropriate sex education. Family and school environments, the nature of growing older, and the difference between male and female adolescent psychological development are also cited as accelerators of sex behavior. Adults are urged to foster happy family and school environments for youth, encourage extracurricular activities, and regard masturbation as positive release of sexual morality, but support the adoption and continuation of birth limiting methods such as oral contraceptives at the expense of the condom. Demographic data and survey findings on adolescent attitudes toward sex and actual adolescent sexual practice are included to support the author's argument. PMID:12284679
Relationships influence sexual risk and maternal-child health. Few studies have assessed relationship dissolution and its association with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among adolescent parents. Our study aimed to describe relationship dissolution among 295 parenting and non-parenting adolescents over an 18-month period and how it related to STD incidence. Results showed that nonparenting adolescents in a relationship with someone other than their baby’s father were more likely to hav...
Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Milan, Stephanie; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Surveyed young adolescents receiving general health examinations regarding oral sex occurrence. Overall, 18 percent reported having oral sex, and of that 18 percent, 25 percent reported no vaginal sex. Few adolescents used barrier protection during oral sex. Most adolescents thought that penile-anal sex could transmit HIV, but only 68 percent…
Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Howard, Donna E.
The present study explored perceived sexual norms and behaviors related to sexual risk and pregnancy involvement among adolescent males (ages 13 to 20) participating in programs for perpetrators of dating violence. The purpose of this study was to generate hypotheses regarding the contexts and mechanisms underlying the intersection of adolescent dating violence, sexual risk and pregnancy. Six focus groups were conducted (N = 34 participants). A number of major themes emerged: 1) male norm of ...
Silverman, Jay G.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Rothman, Emily F.; Hathaway, Jeanne E.; Raj, Anita; Miller, Elizabeth
Scientific research has made major contributions to adolescent health by providing insights into factors that influence it and by defining ways to improve it. However, US adolescent sexual and reproductive health policies—particularly sexuality health education policies and programs—have not benefited from the full scope of scientific understanding. From 1998 to 2009, federal funding for sexuality education focused almost exclusively on ineffective and scientifically inaccurate abstinence...
Schalet, Amy T.; Santelli, John S.; Russell, Stephen T.; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Miller, Sarah A.; Pickering, Sarah S.; Goldberg, Shoshana K.; Hoenig, Jennifer M.
Adolescence is a time of emotional, physical and psychological development and contributes substantially to the well being of the individual in adulthood. Consequently, understanding their social and reproductive behaviour is of tremendous policy importance. This study was designed to investigate HIV knowledge and safety sexual practices among adolescent girls in Benin-city, Edo State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 100 randomly selected ...
Digban, K. A.; Aigbogun, V.; Agofure, O.
Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV) among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants wit...
Lang, Delia; Sales, Jessica; Salazar, Laura; Hardin, James; Diclemente, Ralph; Wingood, Gina
Although adolescent dating has been associated with mental health problems, little is known about the association between dating and eating disorders. This study addressed the hypothesis that previous sexual experience and the quality of adolescents’ romantic relationships play a role in the association between dating and symptoms of eating disorders and depression. Participants included 75 girls, aged 12-19 (25 with an eating disorder, 25 with a depressive disorder, and 25 healthy controls...
Hamel, Andrea Elizabeth
In Kenya as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, programs to address the sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents aged 10-19 years who are living with HIV are lacking. Moreover, there are no systematic studies that identify these needs in order to inform programming for this subset of the population. This report is based on findings from a study that assessed the sexual and reproductive health needs of HIV-positive adolescent boys and girls aged 15-19 years in Kenya in order to identif...
Obare, F.; Kwaak, A.; Adieri, B.; Owuor, D.; Okoth, S.; Musyoki, S.; Muga, E.; Birungi, H.
This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728
Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P
Membership in a valued group can provide an individual with a variety of benefits. As a result, people should be motivated to avoid being misidentified as a member of an outgroup, particularly a stigmatized outgroup. We argue that when group membership is not readily identifiable, concern over potentially being mistaken for a member of the outgroup (i.e., social contagion concerns) can be potent and can lead to avoidance of the outgroup. The current work shows that after controlling for negative attitudes toward homosexuality, social contagion concerns independently predict anxiety and avoidance in response to imagined, anticipated, and actual contact with a lesbian or gay individual. Results from these studies suggest that concern over misclassification of sexual orientation is an important and unique predictor of responses to contact with lesbian and gay people. Implications for intergroup contact and responses to other stigmatized groups are discussed. PMID:23978067
Buck, David M; Plant, E Ashby; Ratcliff, Jennifer; Zielaskowski, Kate; Boerner, Patrick
Sexual assault (defined as sexual relations with another person obtained through physical force, threat, or intimidation) of children includes genital fondling, photographing, or viewing for sexual gratification; exposure of the child to pornographic material or to adult sexual activity; and attempted or successful penetration of any of the child's orifices. The purpose of this investigation was to review the medical literature published since 1988 that reported on the prevalence of particular sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in populations of sexually assaulted adults and adolescents and sexually abused children, as well as the prevalence of sexual abuse among children who present with an STD. These data will be helpful for managing cases of sexual assault involving children, adolescents, or adults; estimating the risk of abuse among children with specific STDs; and identifying research priorities in this area. PMID:10028112
Beck-Sagué, C M; Solomon, F
The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the associations between three types of peer norms-descriptive norms (peer sexual behaviors), injunctive norms (peer sexual attitudes), and peer pressure to have sex-and two adolescent sexual behavior outcomes (sexual activity and sexual risk behavior). Adolescent sexual activity was more strongly associated with descriptive norms (ESrfixed = .40) than with injunctive norms (ESrfixed = .22) or peer pressure (ESrfixed = .10). Compared with the sexual activity outcome, the effect size for descriptive norms (peer sexual risk behavior) for sexual risk behavior was smaller (ESrfixed = .11). Age, gender, peer type, and socio-cultural context significantly moderated these associations. Additional analyses of longitudinal studies suggested that selection effects were stronger than socialization effects. These findings offer empirical support for the conceptual distinction between three types of peer norms and hold important implications for theory, research, and intervention strategies. PMID:25217363
van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Sandfort, Theo; Dekovi?, Maja
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective: To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and six in Cuenca (Ecuador as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results: The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD, equality dimension (ED and behavioural dimension (BD. ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions: This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour. This could have important implications for future research on gender and the sexual experiences of adolescents.
This article describes a group based intervention for adolescents designed to improve motivation to change sexually abusive behaviour. The intervention is based upon the Prochaska and DiClemente (1983, 1986) stages of change model and Morrison’s (1998) seven steps in contemplating change model. We have combined these two models to produce “11 Steps of Motivation and Action in Changing Sexually Abusive Behaviour”. These 11 steps form the foundation of this intervention. We...
O Reilly, Gary; Morrison, Tony; Sheerin, Declan; Carr, Alan
Objective: To investigate on relationship among family environment, pornography and sexual behavior of adolescents. Pornography may start from early youth along with starting of sexual behavior. Therefore it is important that the role of family factors in pornography be studied.Materials and methods: The sample includes 362 students who were chosen by Proportional Cluster method from the first grade of High School (14 and 15 years old). The research instruments were Schaefer’s Family Enviro...
Mahbobe Ghavidel Heidari; Yahya Kazemi; Zahra Nikmanesh
In a demographic sense, adolescents are a population group which is yet to take part in birth giving. Therefore, their sexual behavior and especially sexual activity at early ages which is not only unfavorable from the aspect of the individual, meaning risk for psycho-physical health, but from the aspect of society as well, as regards population fertility, deserves special attention. This paper shows the results of in-depth research carried out in Belgrade from September 2001 to October 2002 ...
OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional study of gender specific relationships between self-reported child sexual abuse and suicidality in a community sample of adolescents. METHOD: Students aged 14 years on average (N = 2,485) from 27 schools in South Australia completed a questionnaire including items on sexual abuse and suicidality, and measures of depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessme...
Martin, G.; Bergen, Ha; Richardson, As; Roeger, L.; Allison, S.
The present study examined how two commonly identified ideal sexual partner themes, having social status and being a nice guy, were related to multiple sex partners, sexual frequency, condom use and STDs among adolescent girls. The current study also explored how lower rates of potential partners influenced these relationships. The sample included 270 African American young women (aged 13-17 at enrollment) who were part of a larger, longitudinal project located in a mid-sized city in the Midw...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Mulheres com epilepsia apresentam com maior freqüência alterações relacionadas à sexualidade. O conhecimento adquirido com as adultas tem sido usado para as adolescentes, pressupondo-se que elas também sofram influência semelhante. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relacionad [...] os à sexualidade nas adolescentes com epilepsia. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 35 pacientes do sexo feminino, com epilepsia, com idades entre 10 a 20 anos. Os critérios de exclusão foram: pacientes que ainda não apresentaram a menarca, com doença crônica associada, ou deficiência mental moderada a grave. As informações sobre a função sexual das adolescentes foram avaliadas através de um questionário padrão. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença entre a idade da primeira relação sexual, atividade sexual, libido e orgasmo entre as adolescentes com epilepsia e o grupo controle. Observaram-se índices de gravidez superiores entre as adolescentes com epilepsia. CONCLUSÃO: Adolescentes com epilepsia têm vida sexualmente ativa, não apresentando as mesmas disfunções que a mulher adulta. Nesta série, nós observamos freqüência elevada de gestação, sugerindo a falta de aconselhamento adequado. Os aspectos relacionados à sexualidade requerem atenção especial por parte dos profissionais de saúde que atendem adolescentes com epilepsia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Women with epilepsy have higher rates of sexual dysfunction. However, knowledge acquired with adult populations has been extrapolated to teenagers, by surmising that these patients are submitted to similar factors. This study aims to evaluate aspects related to sexuality in female adoles [...] cents with epilepsy. METHODS: We studied 35 female adolescents, with epilepsy, ages from 10 to 20 years. The criteria of exclusion were: patients that had not yet presented a first period, patients with previous endocrine or clinical chronic disorders, and patients with moderate to severe mental deficiency. Information on sexual behavior of adolescents with epilepsy was evaluated by use of a standard questionnaire. RESULTS: No differences were observed between age at first sexual intercourse, sexual activity, libido and orgasm of adolescents with epilepsy when compared to controls. Higher rates of pregnancy occurred in adolescents with epilepsy when compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with epilepsy have an active sexual life, without the dysfunctions presented by adults. In this series, we observed high rates of pregnancy suggesting lack of proper counseling. Therefore, aspects related to sexuality require special attention by health professionals when attending to adolescents with epilepsy.
Sílvia de, Vincentiis; Marília Vieira, Febrônio; Clóvis Artur Almeida da, Silva; Maria Ignez, Saito; Albertina Duarte, Takiuti; Kette Dualibi Ramos, Valente.
In a survey exploring the reliability and validity of a screening tool, we explored the substance abuse and mental health issues among 371 elders; 74 were sexual minorities. Analyses by age group indicated that elders 55-64 years had significantly more problems with substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts compared to those 65 and older. Bisexuals reported significantly greater problems with depression, anxiety, and suicidality than either heterosexual or lesbian or gay elders. Mental health and substance abuse treatment utilization was low among all elders with problems. Implications for assessment, access to care, and group-specific services delivery are discussed. PMID:22587357
Jessup, Martha A; Dibble, Suzanne L
This study examined the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents' worry regarding outcomes of risky sexual behavior (i.e. sexually transmitted infections, including HIV [STI/HIV], and unintended pregnancy). The 10-item worry about sexual outcomes (WASO) scale, resulting in two subscales STI/HIV worry and pregnancy worry, was…
Sales, Jessica M.; Spitalnick, Josh; Milhausen, Robin R.; Wingood, Gina M.; Diclemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.
Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e. victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity [LGBT]) and suicidality. A nonprobability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age from 19-70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038
Mereish, Ethan H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bradford, Judith B
Factores familiares asociados al inicio sexual temprano en adolescentes consultantes en un centro de salud sexual y reproductiva en Santiago de Chile / Factors associated with early sexual activity among Chilean adolescents
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Nowadays, adolescent population begins sexual activity earlier, a behavior with negativepsychological ana social consequences. Aim: To determine the association between family factors and early sexual activity in adolescents oflow and middle socioeconomic level. Material and Methods: A s [...] ample of 3,210 adolescents, who confidentially requested care in a sexual and reproductive health university center, between 2000 and 2007, was analyzed. Adolescents who started sexual activity before 15years ofage, and those who started sexual activity after 15years ofage, were compared. Data was collectedfrom structured interviews conducted at the adolescente firstvisit. Logistic regression was used to identify family factors associated with early sexual initiatingin both, men and women. Results: Family factors associated with early sexual activity startwere not being raised by both parents, apoor parent-child relationship, a poor family communication, mothers with a history of adolescent motherhood, mothers employed outside the home and family dysfunction. Among women, the variables associated with a higher risk of early sexual debut were not married parents and history of adolescent fatherhood record among parents. Among men, these variables were permissions without restriction during the week and punishment when family rules were broken. Conclusions: Family factors must be considered in the design ofstrategies to prevent early sexual activity.
Electra, González A; Temístocles, Molina G; Adela, Montero V; Vania, Martínez N.
AIM: This paper reports an investigation to establish whether metabolic control is different in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities with type 1 diabetes compared with young Danish patients, and to learn about factors affecting their opportunities to achieve good metabolic control. BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities in Denmark is increasing. Having a different ethnic background has frequently been described as a risk factor for poor metabolic control, but whether the risk is represented by the ethnicity and immigration itself or in combination with other factors is unclear. METHODS: The study included data (gender, age, diabetes duration HbA(1c), number of incidents of severe hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis) from a national register including 919 Danish and 58 children and adolescents from ethnic minorities, questionnaires to all 20 Danish paediatric diabetes centres and questionnaires to 38 families of other ethnic backgrounds completed by professional interpreters. The study was conducted in 2001-2002. RESULTS: HbA(1c) was significantly higher in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities (mean 9.05 +/- 1.4%) compared with Danish patients (mean 8.62 +/- 1.3%; P = 0.018). There was no significant difference in HbA(1c) among the different ethnic groups, nor in the prevalence of severe hypoglycaemia or ketoacidosis. Patients from different ethnic minorities were unevenly distributed throughout the country, and generally the centres provided limited specialized knowledge and support. The questionnaires completed by the parents revealed limited schooling, lack of professional education and a major need for interpreters; these characteristics were especially prevalent among the mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Young patients from ethnic minorities have significantly poorer metabolic control compared with Danish patients, and patients with an immigrant background are seen as a vulnerable group with different needs and probably fewer chances of achieving good control. Special education for health care professionals as well as projects to improve methods, quality and knowledge should be encouraged in order to provide tailored support to members of individual ethnic groups. We recommend that the use of professional interpreters should become the gold standard in health care provision to all immigrant families.
Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe
Full Text Available O abuso sexual contra crianças e adolescentes é atualmente um problema de saúde pública. A complexidade do fenômeno requer a capacitação dos profissionais que atuam na avaliação e intervenção clínica das vítimas. O presente artigo tem como objetivo fornecer subsídios teóricos e práticos sobre a entrevista clínica com crianças e adolescentes vítimas de abuso sexual, visando à obtenção do relato sobre a experiência abusiva. Aspectos como as possíveis conseqüências do abuso sexual, o setting da entrevista, a postura dos entrevistadores e as características da revelação pela criança estão apresentadas, bem como um roteiro de entrevista.The sexual abuse against children and adolescents is an actual public health concern. The complexity of phenomenon requires special training of professionals who work in the clinic evaluation of victims and intervention. This study aims to provide theoretical and practical information about the clinic interview with victims of child sexual abuse, aiming at the attainment of the abusive experience report. An interview protocol is presented and the aspects discussed include: sexual abuse potential outcomes, the interview setting, the professional attitude, and children's disclosure.
Luísa Fernanda Habigzang
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa sobre adolescentes autores de atos de agressão sexual, examinados no âmbito de perícias judiciárias. Esses sujeitos tinham sido crianças instáveis, agitadas ou, ainda, hiperativas. Procura-se, então, explicar de que maneira a hiperatividade infantil, [...] dificuldade de tratar mentalmente as excitações pulsionais, constitui fator de risco de agressão sexual na adolescência. A noção de narcisismo fálico permite esclarecer os impasses identificatórios e a dificuldade de compor com a mutualidade dos desejos. Abstract in english This paper presents the results of a research about adolescents having perpetrated sexual assault, met in the precinct of judiciary expertise. These subjects had been instable children, agitated or yet hyperactive. The author tries then to explain how infantile hyperactivity, the difficulty to menta [...] lly deal with drive excitations, can be a risk factor of sexual assault in adolescence. The notion of phallic narcissism allows illuminating the identificatory deadlocks and the trouble to reconcile with the mutuality of desires.
Jean Yves, Chagnon.
Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the extent to which the European Union (EU manifests the ability to act as, and possesses the potential to develop into, a norm-setting bureaucracy in its external relations when it comes to the protection and promotion of sexual minority rights. In order to examine this, an overview of the theoretical notion of Normative Power Europe, as developed by Ian Manners, is offered. This is followed by an evaluation of the EU’s international identity regarding LGBT rights. Ultimately it is concluded that the ability of the EU to shape international norms and values concerning this policy issue is severely undercut by a set of internal, institutional and conceptual inconsistencies. Only by overcoming this confliction and inconsonance can the EU develop into a full-fledged, credible and effective normative power in the case of sexual minority rights. It is concluded that the recently launched LGBT toolkit could constitute an important step in this direction.
Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area. PMID:25344999
Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar las variables sociodemográficas y psicosociales que median en el debut sexual de los adolescentes en España. Participaron 2.153 adolescentes residentes en España, entre 14 y 19 años de edad, y de distinto origen cultural. De ellos, el 67.7% eran autócton [...] os españoles y el 32.3% inmigrantes latinoamericanos. El 19.2% de los participantes no había tenido contacto sexual, el 47.3% lo había tenido sin penetración y el 33.5% restante manifestó haber tenido relaciones sexuales con penetración. Se llevó a cabo una regresión logística multinomial para comparar a los adolescentes de los tres grupos, a través de la cual se concluye que las relaciones sexuales sin penetración pueden ser predichas por las actitudes positivas hacia el preservativo y que las relaciones sexuales con penetración pueden serlo por la adaptación personal, la adaptación escolar y las actitudes positivas hacia el preservativo. Posteriormente, a través de un análisis de regresión logística binaria, se obtuvo que los adolescentes latinoamericanos, las mujeres, los que están más adaptados en el ámbito personal y los que presentan menos autoeficacia en el uso del preservativo tienen más probabilidades de tener relaciones sexuales con penetración. En la discusión se resalta la importancia de la edad de inicio en las relaciones sexuales como factor clave para la emisión de conductas sexuales de riesgo. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to analyze variables that are related to sexual debut in adolescents in Spain. Participants were 2.153 adolescents who lived in Spain. Ages ranged from 14 to 19 years old. Of them, 67.7% were native Spanish and 32.3% were Latin American immigrants. 19.2% of adolescents had [...] never had any sexual contact; 47.3% had had sexual activities without penetration and 33.5% reported sexual intercourse experience. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to compare these three groups of adolescents. According to that analysis, positive attitudes towards condom use predicted sexual activities without penetration. Likewise, personal and scholar adaptation and positive attitudes towards condom use predicted sexual intercourse experience. Subsequently, a binomial logistic regression analysis was performed. This analysis showed that Latin American adolescents, females, those adolescents who were more adapted in the personal area as well as those who had less self-efficacy towards condom use, had a higher likelihood of having had sexual intercourse experience. In the discussion section, relevance of age at first sexual intercourse as a key factor for sexual risk behaviour engagement is highlighted.
Ángel, Castro; Ma Paz, Bermúdez; Gualberto, Buela-Casal; Juan, Madrid.
Adolescent sexual acting out behaviors frequently occur in the context of comorbid issues, such as depression, trauma, behavioral disorders, and developmental deficits, thus rendering any single treatment modality less effective. Augmenting traditional treatment with an existential-humanistic (E-H) perspective enables counselors to more…
Parrish, Mark S.; Stanard, Rebecca P.; Cobia, Debra C.
Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…
Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.
This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' (N less than or equal to 264) judgments about the acceptability of same-sex peers who varied in terms of their sexual orientation (straight, gay or lesbian) and their conformity to gender conventions or norms in regard to appearance and mannerisms or activity. Overall, the results of…
Horn, Staccy S.
This study examines the extent and type of sexually harassing behavior or intimidations unmarried adolescent girls experienced on their way to school, college or social visits and type of perpetrators in victims' view in rural Bangladesh using data of the 2004 National Nutrition Programme baseline survey. The survey collected self-reported data on…
Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan K.; Ahmed, Tahmeed
This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent-adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HIV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6-…
Villarruel, Antonia M.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L.; Zhou, Yan
Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…
Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…
Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este estudio transversal descriptivo es analizar la relación entre la orientación sexual informada y el riesgo sexual durante la adolescencia, examinando factores cognitivos, actitudinales y comportamentales. Participaron 815 adolescentes españoles (15-18 años) de ambos sexos, de los [...] que 5% se autodefinió como no heterosexual (n = 40). Se evaluó comportamiento sexual, conocimientos y actitud hacia el VIH, norma percibida y búsqueda de sensaciones sexuales. Se realizaron grupos equitativos para los análisis estadísticos. Los adolescentes no heterosexuales emplean el preservativo más consistentemente y presentan una actitud más favorable hacia este método de protección cuando existen obstáculos respecto a los heterosexuales. La orientación sexual predijo el uso preservativo en el 90% de las relaciones sexuales. Los resultados sugieren que la preferencia sexual tiene un efecto significativo en la asunción del riesgo sexual. Abstract in english This descriptive cross-sectional study aims to analyze the relationship between self-reported sexual orientation and sexual behavior during adolescence, cognitive, attitudinal and behavioral factors were examined. Eight hundred and fifteen adolescents (15-18 years) of both sexes participated, of whi [...] ch 5% defined themselves as non-heterosexual. Sexual behavior, knowledge and attitudes towards HIV, perceived norms and sexual sensation seeking were assessed. Non-heterosexual adolescents use condoms more consistently and their attitudes towards this method of protection when obstacles exist to its use were more favorable compared to heterosexuals. Sexual orientation predicted to use condoms in 90% of sex. Results suggest that sexual preference have an effect on sexual risk taking.
Alexandra, Morales; José P., Espada; Mireia, Orgilés.
Full Text Available Sexual-minority male immigrants re-locating from the Middle East to the United States and Canada have particular experiences upon entry and integration into their new societies. The needs of learning and identity are highlighted through a multiple case approach involving three men. Interviews were conducted with the three participants, which were analyzed by the authors using qualitative case analysis. The data highlights the unmet expectations for life as a new immigrant, as well as the complexities of becoming involved in sexual-minority settings. Their learning experiences may be explained using a theoretical framework of transformative learning. These findings suggest that sexual-minority immigrants have complex needs, such as identifying with appropriate communities and deconstructing false representations of “gay rights” and citizenship in popular culture. Educational and social programs could address these needs when considering what might be important for immigrant adult learners.
Matthew A. Eichler
The purpose of this descriptive study was to: (a) compare the demographics of maltreated youth initially labeled as sexually abused by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) to maltreated youth classified as sexually abused using current and past case records, (b) identify differences in sexual abuse experiences and types of perpetrators between boys and girls, and (c) provide a detailed description of the sexual abuse experiences for boys and girls. Participants were youth ages 9-12 years old with a recent maltreatment allegation. The Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) was used to code child welfare records of 303 maltreated youth of whom 60 experienced sexual abuse. Perpetrators were classified by gender into four categories (biological parent, parental figure, relative, and unrelated) and type of abuse was classified into three categories (penetrative, contact without penetration, and non-contact). Using Chi-Square tests, perpetrator categories and sexual abuse types were compared by child gender for significant differences. Only 23 (38.3%) of the 60 sexually abused youth were labeled as sexually abused in the most recent DCFS report when they entered the study. About three-quarters of the sexually abused youth experienced non-penetrative physical contact, 40% experienced penetration, and 15% experienced sexual abuse without physical contact. Most youth (91.7%) were victimized by a male, and 21.7% were abused by a female. Youth experienced a large range of sexual abuse experiences, the details of which may be important for exploration of consequences of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:24095179
Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U; Smith, Caitlin; Schreyer, Justine K; Trickett, Penelope K
The present article focused on the perception of sexual exploitation as a job, using a single case study design. The aim of the study was to investigate the case of a 14 year-old girl, involved in commercial sexual exploitation, who considered this situation as her labor activity. A content analysis showed protective and risk factors as categories, especially related to her labor activities. The girl perceived the sexual exploitation activity as a job that provided autonomy, subsistence, and ...
Luciana Dutra-Thomé; Elder Cerqueira-Santos; Silvia Helena Koller
Full Text Available using survival analysis, we analyzed data from 363 both female and male 15 to 19 year-old adolescents enrolled in a family health unit in the east area of são paulo city. they filled a self-administered structured questionnaire at home in may 2007. results showed an statistical difference in the age of sexual initiation between women and men (15,2 and 14,3 years of age, respectively. sexual life onset showed to be an event that does not occur in a linear way during adolescence, but a gradual phenomenon that takes place from a specific age. multiple cox regression showed that variables associated to the age at sexual initiation among women were working as well as relating a non-rigid mother concerning to dating. variable associated to the age at sexual initiation among men was agreeing to the sentence “man can have sex no matter what because can’t become pregnant”. It was concluded that cultural, relational and demographical aspects can influence sexual initiation among adolescents.
Ana Luiza Vilela Borges
The idea of a sexual double standard emphasizes that men have more sexual freedom, whereas women are subject to social sanctions for the same behaviors. This research uses a sample of adolescent women to examine the social consequences of reporting a greater number of sex partners. The research explores whether there are broader social costs and feelings of low self-worth associated with a high number of sex partners, and also focuses on characteristics of the adolescents' close friends. The analyses of quantitative data (n = 600) provide support for the emphasis on the adolescents' immediate network of friends: Friends' attitudes and behaviors were significant predictors of respondents' own sexual experiences, while those reporting a higher number of sex partners did not report a lack of popularity, desire for more friends, or lower self-esteem. In-depth relationship history narratives collected from a subset of respondents (n = 46) provide additional context. Women often recognized the existence of a double standard on a societal or school level, but support or acceptance provided by the more immediate network of similarly situated friends serves as a buffer against such negative attributions. The findings suggest that programs targeting sexual behaviors should focus on how peer norms influence girls' sexual choices. PMID:20818574
Lyons, Heidi; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A
Individuals who belong to a marginalized group and who perceive discrimination based on that group membership suffer from a variety of poor health outcomes. Many people belong to more than one marginalized group, and much less is known about the influence of multiple forms of discrimination on health outcomes. Drawing on literature describing the influence of multiple stressors, three models of combined forms of discrimination are discussed: additive, prominence, and exacerbation. The current study examined the influence of multiple forms of discrimination in a sample of African American lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) adolescents ages 14–19. Each of the three models of combined stressors were tested to determine which best describes how racist and antigay discrimination combine to predict depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and substance use. Participants were included in this analysis if they identified their ethnicity as either African American (n = 156) or African American mixed (n = 120). Mean age was 17.45 years (SD = 1.36). Results revealed both forms of mistreatment were associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among African American LGB adolescents. Racism was more strongly associated with substance use. Future intervention efforts should be targeted toward reducing discrimination and improving the social context of multiple minority adolescents, and future research with multiple minority individuals should be attuned to the multiple forms of discrimination experienced by these individuals within their environments. PMID:23731232
Thoma, Brian C.; Huebner, David M.
Individuals who belong to a marginalized group and who perceive discrimination based on that group membership suffer from a variety of poor health outcomes. Many people belong to more than one marginalized group, and much less is known about the influence of multiple forms of discrimination on health outcomes. Drawing on literature describing the influence of multiple stressors, three models of combined forms of discrimination are discussed: additive, prominence, and exacerbation. The current study examined the influence of multiple forms of discrimination in a sample of African American lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) adolescents ages 14-19. Each of the three models of combined stressors were tested to determine which best describes how racist and antigay discrimination combine to predict depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and substance use. Participants were included in this analysis if they identified their ethnicity as either African American (n = 156) or African American mixed (n = 120). Mean age was 17.45 years (SD = 1.36). Results revealed both forms of mistreatment were associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among African American LGB adolescents. Racism was more strongly associated with substance use. Future intervention efforts should be targeted toward reducing discrimination and improving the social context of multiple minority adolescents, and future research with multiple minority individuals should be attuned to the multiple forms of discrimination experienced by these individuals within their environments. PMID:23731232
Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M
In-depth interviews with nine professionals in adolescent health were used to identify perceived barriers, facilitators, and innovative strategies to reach, engage, and serve adolescent males for sexual and reproductive health care. Barriers included stigma, embarrassment, and lack of social norms around sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing for men. Facilitators included crisis situations and partner support. Clinic-based approaches to reach and engage young men included developing authentic staff-youth engagement and ensuring that access to services is easy and appealing. To be innovative, providers should become part of the real-world context of adolescent males. Technology (e.g., text messaging) and social media can be utilized to target and eliminate barriers to health care among young men. PMID:25354398
Garcia, Carolyn M; Ptak, Stephanie J; Stelzer, E Brooke; Harwood, Eileen M; Brady, Sonya S
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El propósito de este trabajo estuvo orientado a que la información obtenida incentivara la implementación de nuevos programas de educación en sexualidad para esta población, especialmente diseñados para la prevención del embarazo en la adolescencia. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal para determinar las principales fuentes de información sobre educación sexual que tienen los adolescentes estudiantes de enfermería del nivel básico de la escuela hospital "Dr. Salvador Allende", en La Habana. RESULTADOS: Las principales vías por las cuales los adolescentes consideraron que recibían información sobre educación sexual para prevenir el embarazo fueron, en primer lugar, los medios de comunicación masiva, que correspondió al 92 % (604 de los encuestados. En segundo lugar los amigos, con el 70 % (456 y en tercer lugar los profesores (63,2 %. Los encuestados prefirieron recibir educación sexual preferentemente de la familia (93,75 %; en segundo lugar de los amigos (69,82 % y en tercer lugar en la escuela (49,85. El 44 % escogió a la comunidad de los clubes y, por último, la literatura impresa, la cual alcanzó el 37,% en la preferencia. Solo el 12 % de los encuestados se comunicaba con los padres frecuentemente sobre los temas de sexualidad, el 57 % lo hacía con poca frecuencia y el 30% nunca lo hacía. DISCUSIÓN: Se profundiza en la información desagregada por sexo. Las fuentes de información que preferirían los adolescentes no se corresponden con las más accesibles para ellos. A pesar de considerar a la familia como fuente de preferencia, han recibido poca información de los padres. Los exponentes de atención primaria de salud no son percibidos como fuente de información. CONCLUSIONES: Debe reforzarse el rol educativo y afectivo entre padres y adolescentes, lo que posibilitará una mejor comunicación entre ellos.OBJECTIVE: The aim of present paper was aimed to motivate the implementation of new sexuality programs in this type of population especially those designed to prevent the pregnancy in adolescence according to information obtained. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted to determine the main sources of information on the sexual education of adolescents studying nursing at basic level in the school of the «Salvador Allende» Hospital in La Habana. RESULTS: The main ways by which the adolescents received information on sexual education to prevent pregnancy were in the first place by the massive media, corresponding to the 92 % (604 of the person polled. In the second place through friends with the 70 % (456 and the third place by the professors (63.2 %. The person polled preferred to receive sexual education of the family (93.75%; in the second place of friends (69. 82 % and in the third place in the school (49.85 %. The 44 % chose the club'community and lastly the printed literature, which achieved the 37 % in the preference. Only the 12 % of person polled had a frequent communication with the parents on the sexuality subjects, the 57 % had not much communication and the 30 % never done it. DISCUSSION: It is deepen in the information disintegrated by sex. The information sources of preferred by adolescent is not in correspondence with the more accessible for them. Despite the adolescents considered that family is the source of preference, they had not received much information of parents. The prime examples of primary health care are not considered as information source. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to emphasize the educational and affective role among between parents and adolescents to facilitate a better communication between them.
Olga Gloria Barbón Pérez
Following a sexual assault, victims are usually advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault forensic exam kit (SAK). Once completed, the SAK is to be transported by law enforcement to the crime lab for analysis. However, many kits are never transported to the crime lab, thereby preventing forensic evidence obtained in the kit to be used during the prosecutorial process. The current study examined rates of SAK submission for 393 adolescent sexual assault cases in two Midwestern communities and explored what factors predicted law enforcement officers' submission of SAKs to the crime lab for analysis. Findings reveal that more than 40% of the adolescent cases did not have their SAK submitted, and several factors, including the age and race of the victim, the number of perpetrators in the assault, and the number of assaultive acts, predicted SAK submission. Implications for SAK community protocols are discussed. PMID:24097906
Shaw, Jessica; Campbell, Rebecca
This study explored the relationship between sexual attraction status (same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex) and suicidal behavior in a diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,533 youth). Adolescents with attractions to both sexes reported greater suicide proneness, recent and lifetime suicidal ideation, and past suicide attempts than those with exclusively opposite-sex attractions; individuals reporting same-sex attractions generally demonstrated moderate elevations on these variables. As hypothesized, both hopelessness and depression mediated the relationship between sexual attraction status and suicide proneness. Social support moderated the mediating effect of depression but not hopelessness in the sexual attraction status-suicide proneness link. Targeting the distress that can be associated with experiencing same-sex or both-sex attractions may enhance suicide prevention efforts, particularly in U.S. youth with reduced social support. PMID:21213175
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A; Malone, Patrick S
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia, la naturaleza y las consecuencias de los abusos sexuales sufridos durante la infancia o la adolescencia. Métodos: 2.159 estudiantes de la Universidad de Granada respondieron voluntariamente y de forma anónima a un cuestionario sobre abuso sexual. Establecido el grupo de víctimas, se formó otro de comparación con estudiantes sin antecedentes de abusos. En una segunda sesión se evaluó la salud mental de ambos grupos. Resultados: 269 (12,5% estudiantes manifestaron haber sufrido abusos sexuales antes de los 18 años de edad. El 62,8% de los abusos consistió en tocamientos y la edad media de inicio fue a los 8,8 años. Los perpetradores, mayoritariamente varones y un 44% menores de edad, solían cometer los abusos en el hogar de la víctima o en el suyo, aprovechándose de las visitas o de su estrecha vinculación. Alrededor del 50% se sirvió del engaño o del juego. En cuanto a la salud mental de las víctimas, las universitarias con antecedentes de abusos sexuales tenían menor autoestima y asertividad, y puntuaciones más altas en actitud vital negativa, depresión y ansiedad, que las del grupo de comparación. Las víctimas varones, sin embargo, sólo diferían de los universitarios sin antecedentes de abusos en su mayor nivel de ansiedad. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores y sus consecuencias, así como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las víctimas; unos resultados relevantes para la planificación de programas de detección y prevención de los abusos.Objective: To analyze the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence. Methods: A total of 2,159 college students from the University of Granada anonymously completed a questionnaire on sexual abuse. A group of sexual abuse survivors was established and a comparison group without a history of abuse was selected. In a second session, the socio-affective adjustment of both groups was assessed. Results Sexual abuse before the age of 18 was reported by 269 (12.5% students. In 62.8%, the abuse consisted of the perpetrator touching the victim and/or the victim touching the perpetrator. The average age at which the sexual abuse started was 8.8 years old. The vast majority of perpetrators were males and 44% were under-age minors. The perpetrators usually committed the sexual abuse in the victim's home or in their own homes, taking advantage of visits and/or close relationships. Almost half the perpetrators made use of deception or games. Female college students with a history of sexual abuse had lower self-esteem, were less assertive, had a more negative attitude toward life, and higher depression and anxiety scores than women in the comparison group. Male survivors, however, differed from non-survivors only in having higher anxiety levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the severity of the problem of sexual abuse of minors and its consequences, the circumstances in which this abuse occurs, and the profiles of perpetrators and victims. These results are relevant for the planning of abuse detection and prevention programs.
Mª Rosario Cortés Arboleda
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia, la naturaleza y las consecuencias de los abusos sexuales sufridos durante la infancia o la adolescencia. Métodos: 2.159 estudiantes de la Universidad de Granada respondieron voluntariamente y de forma anónima a un cuestionario sobre abuso sexual. Establecido el g [...] rupo de víctimas, se formó otro de comparación con estudiantes sin antecedentes de abusos. En una segunda sesión se evaluó la salud mental de ambos grupos. Resultados: 269 (12,5%) estudiantes manifestaron haber sufrido abusos sexuales antes de los 18 años de edad. El 62,8% de los abusos consistió en tocamientos y la edad media de inicio fue a los 8,8 años. Los perpetradores, mayoritariamente varones y un 44% menores de edad, solían cometer los abusos en el hogar de la víctima o en el suyo, aprovechándose de las visitas o de su estrecha vinculación. Alrededor del 50% se sirvió del engaño o del juego. En cuanto a la salud mental de las víctimas, las universitarias con antecedentes de abusos sexuales tenían menor autoestima y asertividad, y puntuaciones más altas en actitud vital negativa, depresión y ansiedad, que las del grupo de comparación. Las víctimas varones, sin embargo, sólo diferían de los universitarios sin antecedentes de abusos en su mayor nivel de ansiedad. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores y sus consecuencias, así como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las víctimas; unos resultados relevantes para la planificación de programas de detección y prevención de los abusos. Abstract in english Objective: To analyze the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence. Methods: A total of 2,159 college students from the University of Granada anonymously completed a questionnaire on sexual abuse. A group of sexual abuse survivors was established and a comp [...] arison group without a history of abuse was selected. In a second session, the socio-affective adjustment of both groups was assessed. Results Sexual abuse before the age of 18 was reported by 269 (12.5%) students. In 62.8%, the abuse consisted of the perpetrator touching the victim and/or the victim touching the perpetrator. The average age at which the sexual abuse started was 8.8 years old. The vast majority of perpetrators were males and 44% were under-age minors. The perpetrators usually committed the sexual abuse in the victim's home or in their own homes, taking advantage of visits and/or close relationships. Almost half the perpetrators made use of deception or games. Female college students with a history of sexual abuse had lower self-esteem, were less assertive, had a more negative attitude toward life, and higher depression and anxiety scores than women in the comparison group. Male survivors, however, differed from non-survivors only in having higher anxiety levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the severity of the problem of sexual abuse of minors and its consequences, the circumstances in which this abuse occurs, and the profiles of perpetrators and victims. These results are relevant for the planning of abuse detection and prevention programs.
Mª Rosario, Cortés Arboleda; José, Cantón Duarte; David, Cantón-Cortés.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia, la naturaleza y las consecuencias de los abusos sexuales sufridos durante la infancia o la adolescencia. Métodos: 2.159 estudiantes de la Universidad de Granada respondieron voluntariamente y de forma anónima a un cuestionario sobre abuso sexual. Establecido el g [...] rupo de víctimas, se formó otro de comparación con estudiantes sin antecedentes de abusos. En una segunda sesión se evaluó la salud mental de ambos grupos. Resultados: 269 (12,5%) estudiantes manifestaron haber sufrido abusos sexuales antes de los 18 años de edad. El 62,8% de los abusos consistió en tocamientos y la edad media de inicio fue a los 8,8 años. Los perpetradores, mayoritariamente varones y un 44% menores de edad, solían cometer los abusos en el hogar de la víctima o en el suyo, aprovechándose de las visitas o de su estrecha vinculación. Alrededor del 50% se sirvió del engaño o del juego. En cuanto a la salud mental de las víctimas, las universitarias con antecedentes de abusos sexuales tenían menor autoestima y asertividad, y puntuaciones más altas en actitud vital negativa, depresión y ansiedad, que las del grupo de comparación. Las víctimas varones, sin embargo, sólo diferían de los universitarios sin antecedentes de abusos en su mayor nivel de ansiedad. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores y sus consecuencias, así como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las víctimas; unos resultados relevantes para la planificación de programas de detección y prevención de los abusos. Abstract in english Objective: To analyze the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence. Methods: A total of 2,159 college students from the University of Granada anonymously completed a questionnaire on sexual abuse. A group of sexual abuse survivors was established and a comp [...] arison group without a history of abuse was selected. In a second session, the socio-affective adjustment of both groups was assessed. Results Sexual abuse before the age of 18 was reported by 269 (12.5%) students. In 62.8%, the abuse consisted of the perpetrator touching the victim and/or the victim touching the perpetrator. The average age at which the sexual abuse started was 8.8 years old. The vast majority of perpetrators were males and 44% were under-age minors. The perpetrators usually committed the sexual abuse in the victim's home or in their own homes, taking advantage of visits and/or close relationships. Almost half the perpetrators made use of deception or games. Female college students with a history of sexual abuse had lower self-esteem, were less assertive, had a more negative attitude toward life, and higher depression and anxiety scores than women in the comparison group. Male survivors, however, differed from non-survivors only in having higher anxiety levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the severity of the problem of sexual abuse of minors and its consequences, the circumstances in which this abuse occurs, and the profiles of perpetrators and victims. These results are relevant for the planning of abuse detection and prevention programs.
Mª Rosario, Cortés Arboleda; José, Cantón Duarte; David, Cantón-Cortés.
Full Text Available Buscou-se descrever a trajetória afetivo-amorosa e razões para o início ou adiamento da vida sexual de adolescentes do sexo masculino, por meio de entrevistas com 184 homens de 15 a 19 anos de idade, residentes no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, em 2002. O início da vida sexual ocorreu, entre outros, por conta da atração física, da curiosidade e do desejo de perder a virgindade, sugerindo um caráter mais próximo do papel social masculino. Por outro lado, a maior parte dos adolescentes virgens justificou sua opção por questões de ordem romântica, como não ter encontrado a pessoa certa ou porque gostaria de casar-se virgem. Os resultados revelaram um duplo padrão social em que há a valorização do sentimento de amor e entrega à pessoa amada simultaneamente à premência física e instintiva para o sexo. Padrões tradicionais de masculinidade, como a dissociação entre sexo e amor, parecem estar sendo transpostos no tocante à iniciação sexual, revelando diversidade nos modos de viver a sexualidade na adolescência que, por sua vez, estão relacionados à saúde sexual e reprodutiva dos homens e suas parcerias.This article describes male adolescents' affective history and reasons for initiating or postponing sexual activity, using interviews with 184 males ages 15 to 19 and residing in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2002. Factors for sexual debut included physical attraction, curiosity, and the desire to lose their virginity, suggesting a profile similar to the male social role. Most of the virgin adolescent males justified their choice based on issues of a romantic order, such as not having found the right person or because they preferred to remain virgin until marrying. The results showed a dual social pattern, valuing the feeling of love and deliverance to the loved one, simultaneously with the pressing physical and instinctive desire for sex. Traditional patterns of masculinity, like the dissociation between sex and love, appear to be transposed to sexual debut, revealing a diversity in the ways of experiencing sexuality during adolescence, related in turn to the sexual and reproductive health of men and their partners.
Ana Luiza Vilela Borges
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e LILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005, aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência dom?stica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual.OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, using abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005, in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Revisar os aspectos peculiares que envolvem o abuso sexual na infância e na adolescência, oferecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e conduta corretos, salientando suas conseqüências a curto e longo prazo. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão da literatura nacional e internacional através do MEDLINE e L [...] ILACS, utilizando como palavras-chave "abuso" e "violência sexual" (1988 a 2005), aliada à experiência clínica dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O abuso sexual tem um impacto muito grande na saúde física e mental da criança e do adolescente, deixando marcas em seu desenvolvimento, com danos que podem persistir por toda vida. Sua detecção precoce possibilita o tratamento e acompanhamento adequados, com a minimização das seqüelas. O envolvimento familiar deve ser levado em conta. Todas as distorções de relacionamento necessitam ser avaliadas e tratadas, para que se interrompa sua continuidade, que se dará no abuso intergeracional e na possibilidade de revitimização. A identificação da violência doméstica e dos sinais de alerta físicos e psicológicos para o abuso sexual fazem parte da avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: Todo pediatra precisa estar apto a decodificar os sinais e sintomas que a criança e o adolescente vítimas de abuso sexual trazem consigo. Necessita ser proficiente na escuta, no exame clínico e no tratamento. Deve estar capacitado para o manejo psicológico da situação de violência e ter conhecimento da legislação e meios de proteção legais e sociais existentes em sua comunidade, sempre necessários na assistência às vitimas de abuso sexual. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review single aspects, which involve sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, giving subsidies for accurate diagnosis and management, emphasizing the short and long-term consequences. SOURCES OF DATA: National and international literature review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, u [...] sing abuse and sexual violence as keywords (1988 to 2005), in addition to the authors' theoretical and practical experiences. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Sexual abuse has a great impact on child and adolescent physical and mental health, affecting development and causing lifelong damage. Its early detection allows for adequate treatment and follow-up, with minimum consequences. Family involvement must be taken into consideration, and any kind of improper relationship should be evaluated and treated, so that it can be discouraged and eliminated; otherwise, intergenerational abuse will result and probably recur. The identification of domestic violence and of physical and psychological warning signs concerning sexual abuse is part of the general evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatricians should be able to identify the signs and symptoms sexually abused children and adolescents carry with them. They have to listen carefully to the patients, perform the necessary clinical examination and establish the proper treatment. They should also be able to deal with psychological aspects and have enough knowledge about the laws and about legal and social protection measures, which are always very useful in assisting victims of sexual violence.
Luci, Pfeiffer; Edila Pizzato, Salvagni.
Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.
Recently there has been concern about the apparent explosion of sexual activity among unmarried teenagers. Social policy planners have usually recommended sex education, often offered through the schools, as a means for reducing teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and abortion. Unfortunately there is continuing evidence that…
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Strong child support enforcement requires fathers to take financial responsibility for their children and may also encourage more responsible sexual behavior. Using the 1997-2001 waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,272), this article examines the association between child support enforcement and the sexual activity of…
Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A partir de las narraciones que se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas en profundidad con 48 mujeres adolescentes y 24 hombres en Bogotá y Cali, se identificaron las cogniciones -conocimientos, normas, creencias, actitudes, valoraciones, expectativas, metas y significados construidas en el contexto s [...] ociocultural, que guían las decisiones de los y las jóvenes acerca de establecer relaciones románticas, tener relaciones sexuales, usar métodos de planificación familiar, unirse o casarse, embarazarse o abortar. Además, se establecieron los estilos de toma de decisiones de las adolescentes y sus parejas. Los resultados permitieron derivar recomendaciones para el desarrollo de programas de educación sexual que incluyan a los distintos agentes de socialización. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to describe youth sexual and reproductive decision making styles, as well as cognitions associated to them. Testimonies were obtained through in depth interviews carried out with a sample of 72 adolescents from Bogotá and Cali , 48 women and 24 men. The authors analyze the [...] way cognitions - knowledge, social norms, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectancies, goals and meanings- constructed in the socio-cultural context, guide youth decision making towards establishing romantic relationships, having sexual intercourse, using contraceptive methods, getting married, getting pregnant or having an abortion. The findings of the study led to recommendations for the design of sexual education programs that include the different socialization agents.
ELVIA, VARGAS TRUJILLO; JUANITA, HENAO; CONSTANZA, GONZÁLEZ.
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O aumento das IST's, da gravidez não planeada e de outros tantos riscos ligados à actividade sexual fazem com que os jovens sejam considerados um grupo de intervenção prioritário em termos de saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Para se promover atitudes e comportamentos sexuais saudáveis é essen [...] cial a concretização de uma educação sexual que tenha como objectivo desenvolver atitudes e competências nos jovens, permitindo que estes se sintam informados e seguros nas suas escolhas. Material e métodos: Este estudo (HBSC/OMS) avaliou o papel que 3331 adolescentes portugueses (1579 rapazes e 1752 raparigas), com uma média de idades de 15 anos, atribuem à educação sexual, os seus conhecimentos e atitudes face ao VIH/SIDA. Usou-se um questionário de auto-relato que foi aplicado às turmas em sala de aula. Resultados: Analisados os resultados do estudo, verificou-se que quer os factores de risco quer os de protecção em relação aos comportamentos sexuais de risco dos adolescentes são inúmeros. Conclusões: Sendo assim, é crucial que a educação sexual abranja intervenções do tipo preventivo de carácter universal, abrangendo toda a população escolar e respectivos contextos de vida: escola, família e grupo de pares, mas também intervenções mais específicas, em pequenos subgrupos identificados como prioritários. Abstract in english Introduction: Because the incidence of STI, unplanned pregnancy and several other sexual risk behaviours are increasing among youngsters, it is accepted that they are given high priority in intervention in what sexual and reproductive health is concerned. In order to promote healthy sexual attitudes [...] and behaviours, it is crucial to implement a program of sexual education that aims at developing attitudes and skills in young people, hence enabling them to make well-informed decisions and feel confident about the choices they make. Material and methods: This HBSC/WHO research evaluated the role of sexual education for Portuguese adolescents and their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Structured self-reported questionnaires were responded within a classroom context by 3331 participants (1579 boys and 1752 girls), with an average age of 15 years. Results: The results show that there are inumerous risk and protection factors related to sex behavior. Conclusions: This suggests that sexual education should focus on preventive interventions, not only universal, including all teenagers and considering all the contexts in which they interact (the school professionals, family and peers), but also selective strategies delivered to targeted subgroups, once they are identified.
Lúcia, Ramiro; Marta, Reis; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz; Celeste, Simões.
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el comportamiento sexual y las pautas reproductivas de los adolescentes son muy sensibles a las influencias de factores sociales y guardan relación con la propia percepción del bienestar psicológico. La adolescencia es considerada la etapa, donde ocurren cambios que resultan muchas vec [...] es determinantes en la vida futura. Objetivo: determinar los conocimientos y comportamientos sobre salud sexual y reproductiva en adolescentes. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de corte transversal en tres escuelas secundarias básicas urbanas del municipio de Bayamo, provincia Granma, durante el curso escolar 2011-2012. Los datos se procesaron a través del paquete estadístico EPIDAT versión 3.1, se seleccionó una muestra probabilística de los adolescentes objeto de estudio mediante la aplicación de un muestreo aleatorio estratificado y se utilizó como variable de estratificación el grado escolar y una fijación proporcional al tamaño de los estratos. Para determinar la significación de la asociación entre variables cualitativas o cuantitativas se utilizó la prueba chi cuadrado con una confiabilidad de 95 %. Resultados: predominó en los adolescentes estudiados del sexo femenino en el grupo de edad de 13 a 14 años con el 65,4 %. Se observó que el 94,7 % mencionó las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) más frecuentes, así como, los métodos anticonceptivos más utilizados en cuanto a la prevención de las ITS y del embarazo en esta edad. Conclusiones: los conocimientos de los adolescentes son adecuados y se corresponden con los comportamientos, de alguna manera, tiene gran importancia la labor de los padres en el desarrollo de la salud sexual y reproductiva de sus hijos Abstract in english Introduction: the adolescents´ sexual behavior and reproductive terms are very sensitive to the influences of social facts and have relation with the own perception of psychological well-being. The adolescence is considered a very complex stage of frequently changes which determine the future life O [...] bjective: to establish the knowledge and behaviors on sexual health, in adolescence. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in three urban junior level schools of Bayamo municipality during 2011-2012 school year. The data were processed though the statistical package EPIDAT version 3.1. A sample of adolescents, object of the study, was selected by applying a stratified randomized sampling. The school grade was used is a variable stratification. To stablish the meaning of association between variables quantitative or qualitative descriptively, chi square test was used with 95 % of confidence. Results: the age group between 13-14 years (65.4 %, females) predominated. The main results, showed 94.7 % of them represented the most frequent and recurrent IST as well as the contraceptives used to prevent the illnesses mentioned before and pregnancy in this age. Conclusions: the adolescents´ knowledge is adequate and corresponds with their behaviors. The role played by the family in the adolescents´ sexual education is widely shown and it may be stated that a considerable group of them obtained information about this subject from their parents or other close relatives
Aida Esther, Montalvo Millán.
To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national program to combat this plight. PMID:19499745
Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G
This article examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a national sample of Internet-recruited U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 1,575), and associations between reporting of IPV, minority stress, and sexual risk-taking. Five outcomes are examined: experiences of physical and sexual violence, perpetration of physical and sexual violence, and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) at last sexual encounter. MSM who reported experiencing more homophobic discrimination and internalized homophobia were more likely to report experiences of IPV. The results point to the need for prevention messages to address the external and internal stressors that influence both violence and sexual risk among MSM. PMID:24383859
Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob
Full Text Available Abstract Background More adolescents in Ethiopia are in school today than ever, but few studies have assessed the sexual behaviour of these learners. Thus, this study tried to assess pre-marital sexual debut and factors associated with it among in-school adolescents in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a facilitator guided selfadministered questionnaire. Respondents were students attending regular school classes in fourteen high schools. The proportion of adolescents involved in pre-marital sexual debut and the mean age at sexual debut was computed. Factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut were assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression. Results About one in four, 686 (24.8% never married in-school adolescent respondents reported pre-marital sexual debut of these 28.8% were males and 14.7% were females (p? Conclusion A significant proportion of in-school adolescents were engaged in sexual relationship. Thus, public health interventions should consider the broader determinants of premarital sexual debut, including the ecological factors in which the behavior occurs.
Full Text Available Introducción: Las infecciones de transmisión sexual en general y de manera especial el VIH/SIDA en los adolescentes y jóvenes constituyen un serio problema de salud. Objetivo: modificar nivel de conocimiento sobre las infecciones de transmisión sexual. Método: se realizó una intervención educativa en adolescentes de un área escolar del policlínico Hermanos Cruz, durante el período junio a noviembre de 2008. Del universo constituido por 452 adolescentes dispensarizados, se tomó una muestra de 100 adolescentes por el método aleatorio simple a través de un sorteo. Se incluyeron edades comprendidas entre 11 y 19 años; se emplearon en el estudio las variables: el sexo, la edad, la escolaridad, la vía de adquisición de la información sobre ITS, conocimiento referido sobre ITS y el nivel de conocimiento comprobado. El procesamiento de la información incluyó cálculo de medidas descriptivas para las variables cualitativas como las frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: predominó el sexo femenino (54% y el grupo de edad correspondiente a la adolescencia tardía (57%; la mayoría de los adolescentes cursaba o había concluido la enseñanza secundaria (39%; se constató que antes de aplicar la intervención educativa la mayoría de los adolescentes referían no tener conocimientos sobre ITS y sus formas de prevención (79%; la calidad del conocimiento comprobado sobre ITS en cuanto a síntomas y vías de adquisición antes de la intervención educativa no fue adecuada en el (60% de adolescentes. Conclusiones: después de aplicada la misma, se produjo un cambio significativo de los adolescentes con conocimiento comprobado adecuado sobre las ITS (90%.Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI in general; especially HIV/AIDS in adolescents and young population constitute a serious health problem. Objective: to modify the level of knowledge about Sexually Transmitted Infections. Method: an educative intervention was conducted with adolescents in a school area at "Hermanos Cruz" Outpatient Clinic during June to November 2008. The target group was comprised of 452 adolescents, and a sample of 100 adolescents was taken at random through a simple raffle. Including ages from 11 to 19 and the variables of sex, age, educational level and ways of obtaining information about STI, knowledge about STI and the confirmed knowledge they had about the topic. The process of information included the calculation of descriptive measures for the qualitative variables as for absolute and relative frequencies. Results: female sex prevailed (54% and the group of ages belonging to the late adolescence (57%; the majority of the adolescents were enrolled or had concluded the secondary studies (39%; it was verified that before applying the educative intervention the majority of the adolescents referred not to have knowledge about STI and the ways of prevention (79%; the quality of knowledge (verified about STI regarding symptoms and ways of infection before the educative intervention was not correct in 60% of the adolescents. Conclusions: after the application of the strategy a significant change of attitude and knowledge acquisition of the adolescents about STI was observed.
Hugo Fernández Borbón
Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ?16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities. PMID:21688988
Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C
Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present themselves uninformed regarding prevention of STD'S, HIV/AIDS and pregnancy, do not talk to parents/family members about their questions about sex and sexuality; value feelings when it comes to staying or dating someone, but denote prejudice and taboos regarding the subject addressed in the study. Conclusion: it is recommended the development of educational activities with teenagers in schools, including health professionals, teachers and family to allow for a sharing of ideas and ways of teaching and learning about sex and sexuality.
Adriana Dall’Asta Pereira
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the sociodemographic variables, intelligence levels, psychiatric disorders, and suicide risks of sexually abused children and adolescents who were referred for forensic examination to our child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic.Method: Forensic reports of 157 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years who had been referred to our child psychiatry outpatient clinic between July 2011 - June 2012 were examined retrospectively.Results: Of 157 sexually abused cases, 83.4 % were girls and 16.6 % were boys. The psychiatric diagnosis rate at the time of admission to hospital was 87.9%. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD (36.9 % was the most common psychiatric diagnosis among the victims. 22 patients (14 % had attempted suicide after the sexual abuse. Forced vaginal-anal or oral penetration, depressive disorder, and PTSD significantly increased the risk of suicide attempts. (in order OR: 3.24, 4.05, 6.78, p= 0.045, 0.03, 0.004 respectively.Conclusion: Most of the sexual abused children had psychiatric disorders. The most common disorder was PTSD. Thus, the risks of suicide must be handled and interventions should be planned on this basis.
Sebla GÖKÇE ?MREN
Full Text Available Introdution: People with intellectual disability are similar to normal people with regards to their sexual needs. The aim of the present research was to compare sexual problems in mentally retarded and normal adolescents girls aged between 12– 15 years in Tehran. Methods: This analaytical and cross- sectional research included 90 cases of EMR and 90 cases of normal girls who were chosen by the cluster random sampling method. The statistical tests included Independent t-test, Chi-square,Spearman and Pearson coefficient tests. Results: The result of the present research indicated that the sexual problems in the EMR Girls was more than normal girls and there was no correlation between the sexual problems and variable demography. Conclusion: EMR girls with low IQ and adjustment behavior disorder have more problems as compared to normal girls and these can lead to additional problems for themselves and their family.
This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmi...
Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.
This exploratory study uses survey methodology to generate data on grandparent–grandchild sexuality communications and attitudes and feelings about these processes. The sample includes 40 African American grandparent–grandchild dyads for a total of 80 participants recruited from five churches. One open-ended question asks the participants about their willingness to use churches as venues in HIV prevention. Grandparents have more positive attitudes and feelings about sexuality communicatio...
Cornelius, Judith Bacchus; Legrand, Sara; Jemmott, Loretta
Feminist scholars and activists writing about breast cancer care among women have highlighted the sexist and heterosexist assumptions often embedded in the medical management of breast cancer, and of mastectomy in particular. Despite these contributions, and some speculation that sexual minority women may be less interested in breast…
Rubin, Lisa R.; Tanenbaum, Molly
The authors work in the intersection of theorizing, experience, and research in this article as they explore a critical social model that they created to guide an informal, arts-informed, community education project for sexual-minority youth and young adults. As they consider the influence of arts-informed education and Freirean pedagogy of…
Grace, Andre P.; Wells, Kristopher
This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…
Using a sample of 284 sexual minority youth and young adults, this paper examines the relationships between mental health variables, the absence or presence of a gay-straight alliance, and membership status in a gay-straight alliance. The results suggest that the presence of a gay-straight alliance in a school or college, rather than actual…
Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah
A study of 4,976 high-school students in Israel, representative of this age group for the entire country except for 13 percent who attend religious schools, revealed that about one-third of the boys aged 14-15 and almost one-half of those in the 16-17 age category have had sexual intercourse. The respective figures for girls are 6 percent and 16 percent. Age at onset of sexual activity was found to be higher and the level of knowledge about the same as in reports from the Western world. Students of Oriental origin, as well as those considering themselves religious or traditional tended to be less active sexually, more conservative in their attitudes, and less knowledgeable. In contrast, students of both sexes residing in kibbutzim were found to be more active sexually and more knowledgeable. A double standard for girls was accepted, especially among the female respondents, except in the kibbutzim. A subgroup of girls highly sexually active, in contrast to their own attitudes, has been identified, and possible reasons for this discordance discussed. As sexual activity among teenagers is becoming more prevalent, comprehensive and early sex education school programs should be encouraged. PMID:717616
Lancet, M; Modan, B; Kavenaki, S; Antonovski, H; Shoham, I
Biological and sexual maturation is one of the most important variables for the interpretation of the results of performance and health studies analyzing upper (ULS) and lower limb strength (LLS), with performance varying according to maturation stage. Since menarche is a marker of maturation, the aim of this study was to compare ULS and LLS between adoles-cents who already had their first menarche and those who did not. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 128 adolescents aged 11 to 14 y...
Diego Augusto Santos Silva,; Antonio Cesar Cabral de Oliveira
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo teve como foco a exploração sexual percebida como trabalho, com delineamento de estudo de caso único. O objetivo foi investigar o caso de uma menina de 14 anos, em situação de exploração sexual comercial, que informava em uma entrevista semi-estruturada, ser esta a sua atividade la [...] boral. Foram levantadas categorias relacionadas aos fatores de risco e de proteção na vida da jovem, especialmente relacionados ao trabalho. Constatou-se que a jovem percebia a atividade como um trabalho que lhe proporcionava autonomia, subsistência e sobrevivência. No entanto, os efeitos negativos da exploração sexual e de sua percepção desta como atividade laboral eram evidentes sobre sua saúde e seu desenvolvimento. O trabalho juvenil pode ser considerado um fator de risco, como no presente estudo de caso, principalmente quando as condições laborais não se dão de forma adequada e protegida. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english The present article focused on the perception of sexual exploitation as a job, using a single case study design. The aim of the study was to investigate the case of a 14 year-old girl, involved in commercial sexual exploitation, who considered this situation as her labor activity. A content analysis [...] showed protective and risk factors as categories, especially related to her labor activities. The girl perceived the sexual exploitation activity as a job that provided autonomy, subsistence, and survival. The study revealed that the negative effects of working during adolescence may bring consequences to health and development. Youth work may be defined as a risk factor, especially when the labour conditions are not adequate and protected.
LUCIANA, DUTRA-THOMÉ; ELDER, CERQUEIRA SANTOS; SILVIA HELENA, KOLLER.
This study explored perceptions about sexual behaviors and attitudes of adolescents living in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, from the perspective of parents, counselors and adolescents. A qualitative methodology was applied. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) were held; three with parents of adolescents, two with counselors who work with adolescents, two with female adolescents aged 16-18 years and two with male adolescents aged 16-18 years. In total, 80 participants were recruited from...
Dietrich, Janan; Khunwane, Mamakiri; Laher, Fatima; Bruyn, Guy; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Gray, Glenda
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim youth. Apart from some expected outcomes regarding, for example, taboos on sexuality, sex outside marriage, abortion, homosexuality and conservative gender roles, our analyses showed that in cases of disputes 1 discussions were polarized, 2 opponents used the same Qur'anic passages to support their views, and 3 the authority of an Imam was questioned when his interpretation of Qur'anic passages was not in line with the views of participants. Conclusions Our findings show that current approaches to sex education among Muslim youth are likely to be unsuccessful given the rigidity of sexual norms in Muslim society. In addition, we also identified new barriers to sex education among Muslim youth (e.g. lack of respect for an Imam who opposes a youth's views on sexuality.
The present study investigated how maternal HIV and mediating family processes are associated with adolescent distress, substance use, and risky sexual behavior. Mother-adolescent (ages 12-21) dyads (N = 264) were recruited from neighborhoods where the HIV-affected families resided (161 had mothers with HIV). Mediating family processes were youth…
Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A.; Bursch, Brenda; Rice, Eric; Green, Sara; Penniman, Typhanye; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
This study examined the relationship between substance use, mental health problems, and HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of foster care adolescents. Data were collected through structured baseline interviews with 320 adolescents (ages 15 to 18 years) who resided in foster care placements and participated in a larger evaluation study of an…
Thompson, Ronald G., Jr.; Auslander, Wendy F.
Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…
Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi
The literature has shown that adolescents are exposed to socio-cultural activities that put them at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To develop effective intervention strategies and programs, it is imperative to understand how the cultural proverbs and myths create sexual norms and shape the worldview of adolescents. The findings indicate that some cultural proverbs and myths negatively influence adolescents hence expose them to risky sexual behaviors. PMID:24802218
Malinga-Musamba, Tumani; Ntshwarang, Poloko N
This longitudinal study examined sexual intercourse within adolescent romantic relationships as a couple-level moderator of the association between adolescent individual characteristics and depressive symptoms. Two hundred nine middle- and older-adolescent dating couples (aged 14-17 and 17-21, respectively) reported on their own self-silencing, depressive symptoms, and sexual behaviors. At Time 1, frequency of sexual intercourse significantly moderated the relationship between self-silencing ...
Little, Katherine C.; Welsh, Deborah P.; Darling, Nancy; Holmes, Rachel M.
Young adolescents in communities with high rates of early sexual initiation are at risk of multiple negative health outcomes. Although sex education programs for this age group are often controversial, surveys document that many mothers and fathers would appreciate guidance about how to discuss sexuality with their children. This paper presents an…
O'Donnell, Lydia; Wilson-Simmons, Renee; Dash, Kim; Jeanbaptiste, Varzi; Myint-U, Athi; Moss, Jesse; Stueve, Ann
This study used the Health Belief Model to examine parents' involvement in at-home sexuality education activities for ninth graders. Parents completed surveys after teaching the program. Results indicated the model was limited in helping understand parent-adolescent communication about sexuality, though it provided a conceptual framework for…
Brock, Gay C.; Beazley, Richard P.
Theories of health behavior posit that change is accomplished by modifying factors deemed as mediators. A set of mediators from several theoretical models used in sexual risk reduction programs was assessed among a sample of 522 African American female adolescents. The goal was to determine whether self-esteem was associated with sexually…
Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Lescano, Celia M.; Brown, Larry K.; Harrington, Kathy; Davies, Susan
Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…
Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.
Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Fatima Mamman-Daura2, Godpower Omoregie1, Jennifer Anyanti11Society for Family Health, Abuja; 2Pathfinder International/Nigeria, Kaduna Field Office, Kaduna, NigeriaBackground: Annually, over 1 million births in Nigeria are to teenage mothers. Many of these pregnancies are unwanted and these mothers are also exposed to the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Sexual abstinence is a critical preventative health strategy. Several quantitative studies in Nigeria have identified the correlates and determinants of early sex, yet few have explored in depth the underlying reasons for early sex. This paper explores both the key factors that motivate some unmarried young people to engage in early sex and reasons why some delay.Methods: This qualitative study was based on data from 30 focus group discussions held with unmarried 14- to 19-year-olds in four geographically and culturally dispersed Nigerian states. Focus groups were stratified by sexual experience to capture variations among different subgroups.Results: Several reasons for early premarital sex were identified. The “push” factors included situations where parents exposed young female adolescents to street trading. “Pull” factors, particularly for males, included the pervasive viewing of locally produced movies, peer pressure and, for females, transactional sex (where adolescent girls exchange sex for gifts, cash, or other favors. Also noted were overtly coercive factors, including rape. There were also myths and misconceptions that “justified” early sexual initiation. Reasons cited for delay included religious injunction against premarital sex; disease prevention (especially HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; fear of pregnancy, and linked to this, the fear of dropping out of school; and, for females, the fear of bringing shame to the family, which could lead to their inability to get a "good" husband in the future.Conclusion: The differences observed between sexually active and abstinent adolescents were that the latter were more confident, had greater determination, and, most important, deployed refusal skills to delay first sex. Health promoters need to focus attention on educating adolescents in the skills needed to delay sexual debut.Keywords: abstinence, sexual initiation, adolescents, qualitative, focus group discussions, Nigeria
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar el comportamiento sexual actual y el uso de condón en la primera relación sexual de adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad, la variación en distintos contextos y la influencia de factores sobre el uso del condón en esa primera relación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utiliza la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000, y se consideran adolescentes a jovenes de 12 a 19 años de edad, de ambos sexos (n=16 285. Se presenta en primer lugar un análisis descriptivo básico y luego una regresión logística multivariada para determinar la influencia de cuatro tipos de factores (demográficos, socioeconómicos, culturales y cognitivos sobre el uso de condón en el debut sexual. RESULTADOS: Se reporta mayor actividad sexual y un mayor uso de condón entre los hombres y en áreas urbanas. El perfil del adolescente que usó condón en la primera relación es ser adolescente que inicia la vida sexual a una mayor edad, de residencia urbana, que no habla lengua indígena, altamente escolarizado, o de sexo masculino. CONCLUSIONES: Deben diseñarse nuevas políticas de prevención de infecciones de transmisión sexual para cerrar la brecha entre conocimiento y práctica, y dirigidas a los adolescentes que inician su vida sexual más temprano, a los que hablan lengua indígena, a los que viven en áreas rurales, a los menos escolarizados y a las mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current sexual behavior and condom use during the first sexual intercourse among adolescents, as well as variations and factors influencing condom use at first sexual intercourse. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data source for this study was Mexico's National Health Survey 2000. Study subjects were male and female adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n=16,258. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression, to assess the association of four types of factors (demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and cognitive with condom use during the first sexual intercourse. RESULTS: Males and residents of urban areas reported greater sexual activity and condom use. Typically, adolescents who used condoms during the first sexual intercourse were male, older, resided in urban areas, non-speakers of an indigenous language, and with higher schooling. CONCLUSIONS: New policies should be framed to prevent sexually transmitted infections to span the gap between knowledge and practice, targeting adolescents starting sexual activity earlier, those who speak an indigenous language, living in rural areas, with less schooling, and females.
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Investigar el comportamiento sexual actual y el uso de condón en la primera relación sexual de adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad, la variación en distintos contextos y la influencia de factores sobre el uso del condón en esa primera relación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utiliza la Encuesta N [...] acional de Salud 2000, y se consideran adolescentes a jovenes de 12 a 19 años de edad, de ambos sexos (n=16 285). Se presenta en primer lugar un análisis descriptivo básico y luego una regresión logística multivariada para determinar la influencia de cuatro tipos de factores (demográficos, socioeconómicos, culturales y cognitivos) sobre el uso de condón en el debut sexual. RESULTADOS: Se reporta mayor actividad sexual y un mayor uso de condón entre los hombres y en áreas urbanas. El perfil del adolescente que usó condón en la primera relación es ser adolescente que inicia la vida sexual a una mayor edad, de residencia urbana, que no habla lengua indígena, altamente escolarizado, o de sexo masculino. CONCLUSIONES: Deben diseñarse nuevas políticas de prevención de infecciones de transmisión sexual para cerrar la brecha entre conocimiento y práctica, y dirigidas a los adolescentes que inician su vida sexual más temprano, a los que hablan lengua indígena, a los que viven en áreas rurales, a los menos escolarizados y a las mujeres. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current sexual behavior and condom use during the first sexual intercourse among adolescents, as well as variations and factors influencing condom use at first sexual intercourse. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data source for this study was Mexico's National Health Survey 2 [...] 000. Study subjects were male and female adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n=16,258). Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression, to assess the association of four types of factors (demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and cognitive) with condom use during the first sexual intercourse. RESULTS: Males and residents of urban areas reported greater sexual activity and condom use. Typically, adolescents who used condoms during the first sexual intercourse were male, older, resided in urban areas, non-speakers of an indigenous language, and with higher schooling. CONCLUSIONS: New policies should be framed to prevent sexually transmitted infections to span the gap between knowledge and practice, targeting adolescents starting sexual activity earlier, those who speak an indigenous language, living in rural areas, with less schooling, and females.
Cecilia, Gayet; Fátima, Juárez; Laura A., Pedrosa; Carlos, Magis.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Investigar el comportamiento sexual actual y el uso de condón en la primera relación sexual de adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad, la variación en distintos contextos y la influencia de factores sobre el uso del condón en esa primera relación. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utiliza la Encuesta N [...] acional de Salud 2000, y se consideran adolescentes a jovenes de 12 a 19 años de edad, de ambos sexos (n=16 285). Se presenta en primer lugar un análisis descriptivo básico y luego una regresión logística multivariada para determinar la influencia de cuatro tipos de factores (demográficos, socioeconómicos, culturales y cognitivos) sobre el uso de condón en el debut sexual. RESULTADOS: Se reporta mayor actividad sexual y un mayor uso de condón entre los hombres y en áreas urbanas. El perfil del adolescente que usó condón en la primera relación es ser adolescente que inicia la vida sexual a una mayor edad, de residencia urbana, que no habla lengua indígena, altamente escolarizado, o de sexo masculino. CONCLUSIONES: Deben diseñarse nuevas políticas de prevención de infecciones de transmisión sexual para cerrar la brecha entre conocimiento y práctica, y dirigidas a los adolescentes que inician su vida sexual más temprano, a los que hablan lengua indígena, a los que viven en áreas rurales, a los menos escolarizados y a las mujeres. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current sexual behavior and condom use during the first sexual intercourse among adolescents, as well as variations and factors influencing condom use at first sexual intercourse. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data source for this study was Mexico's National Health Survey 2 [...] 000. Study subjects were male and female adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (n=16,258). Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression, to assess the association of four types of factors (demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, and cognitive) with condom use during the first sexual intercourse. RESULTS: Males and residents of urban areas reported greater sexual activity and condom use. Typically, adolescents who used condoms during the first sexual intercourse were male, older, resided in urban areas, non-speakers of an indigenous language, and with higher schooling. CONCLUSIONS: New policies should be framed to prevent sexually transmitted infections to span the gap between knowledge and practice, targeting adolescents starting sexual activity earlier, those who speak an indigenous language, living in rural areas, with less schooling, and females.
Cecilia, Gayet; Fátima, Juárez; Laura A., Pedrosa; Carlos, Magis.
In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of imp...
Charmaraman, Linda; Mckamey, Corinne
This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent–adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HTV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6– and 12–month follow–ups. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) analysis indicates parents in the HIV risk reduction intervention reported si...
Villarruel, Antonia M.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L.; Zhou, Yan
Adverse outcomes of teenage sexual activity are common in the United Kingdom. The authors used a computer-assisted interview to ask young adolescents aged 11 to 12 years (N = 6,856) and 12 to 13 years (N = 6,801) who were part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children about romantic and intimate behaviors. A total of 24% of 11- to…
Waylen, Andrea E.; Ness, Andrew; McGovern, Phil; Wolke, Dieter; Low, Nicola
Abstract Background HIV is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Like many other African nations with high HIV burden, heterosexual intercourse is the commonest mode of HIV spread. The estimation of prevalence and factors associated with sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents has potential to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of sex-related diseases in Zambia. Methods We carried out secondary analysis of the ...
Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Kazembe Lawrence N; Muula Adamson S.; Siziya Seter
For most adolescents in the United States, the use of social media is an integral part of daily life. While the advent of the Internet has enhanced information dispersal and communication worldwide, it has also had a negative impact on the sexual and social wellness of many of its adolescent users. The objective of this review is to describe the role of social media in the evolution of social norms, to illustrate how online activity can negatively impact adolescent self-esteem and contribute to high-risk adolescent behaviors, to elucidate how this activity can result in real-world consequences with life-long results, and to provide guidance regarding social media use for those who care for adolescents. Although research is now aimed at use of social media for positive health and wellness interventions, much work needs to be done to determine the utility of these programs. Adolescent healthcare providers are important contributors to this new field of study and must resolve to stay informed and to engage this up-and-coming generation on the benefits and risks of social media use. PMID:25555296
Cookingham, Lisa M; Ryan, Ginny L
Full Text Available The objective of this article was to identify the possible constructs of one or more apparatus of sexuality and of alliance in adolescents living in poverty in Brazil. The research methodology was a qualitative assessment using an ethnographic approach. The principal data collection technique, in addition to ethnographic observation and documentary analysis, was face-to-face in-depth interviews. Fourteen adolescents living in the same Belém neighbourhood were observed and interviewed, as well as their parents. The data analysis revealed an apparatus of sexuality as an apparatus of safe sex whereas an apparatus of alliance, according to Foucault, was described after analysis and confirmation of the data as an alliance of powerfulness. These results is bringing new light on the question of the social construct of sexuality among adolescents living in poverty, put into better position the use of Foucault’s concepts, considered till now only as philosophical abstractions, and not as empirical results.
CINTIA MAURA JORGE SOARES
The present study examines barriers to disclosing sexual victimization and perceived social support after disclosure from the perspective of children and adolescents. Forty-two children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years participated in semistructured interviews about their history of sexual victimization, the delay of disclosure, barriers to disclosure, informal and formal recipients of disclosure, as well as abuse-specific social support as perceived by the recipients. The participants disclosed their victimization with a delay of approximately 17 months, ranging from immediate reporting to 10 years of nondisclosure. The most frequent reasons to withhold the information were feelings of shame and threats by the perpetrator. A majority felt that people believed and supported them after disclosing, but a considerable proportion of study participants reported a lack of perceived protection against recurring victimization. The results underline the importance of educating children and adolescents about sexual victimization and of encouraging the immediate reporting of critical incidents. Possibilities to address the barriers identified in this study are discussed. PMID:25381281
Münzer, Annika; Fegert, Jörg M; Ganser, Helene G; Loos, Sabine; Witt, Andreas; Goldbeck, Lutz
Full Text Available Adolescents face different dilemmas, which may happen tobe not timely solved, pose major risks to health. Objective:To characterize the basic needs and expectations of maleadolescents in Bucaramanga, Colombia, from its perception with respect to services for sexual and reproductive health(SRH. Methodology: qualitative ethnographic study, using astrategy of discussion groups. We used informal discussions,interviews and focal point. Was selected by a conveniencesample of male adolescents in Bucaramanga, 2-6 strata, frompublic and private institutions, and school, between 13 and 18years, with a total of 52 participants and 7 focus groups.Results: Despite the cultural and socioeconomic differences,young people are consistent in their perceptions, needs andexpectations about sexuality and SRH services. The finalanalysis showed four categories: service experiences SSR, SSR ideal services, pornography and sexuality. Conclusions:It is apparent invisibility of the SSR and the perception ofunfavorable, from the experience of those who know her.Nevertheless, adolescents need to consider this type of service.This research leads to reflection on the ignorance of youngboys from their being, their feelings and their wish to be.
Elvinia Pinilla G
The effects of a group therapy program for teenage girls reporting child sexual abuse were evaluated by means of a pretest/post-test design with a control group. The psycho-educational intervention consisted of an average of 20 weekly two-hour meetings. Results of the repeated analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant improvement in…
Tourigny, Marc; Hebert, Martine; Daigneault, Isabelle; Simoneau, Ann Claude
We present the case of a boy who first experienced typical primary headache associated with sexual activity, orgasmic type, at age 12. Neurological examination and brain imaging were normal. A family history of migraine existed. The case shows the broad age spectrum of this primary headache disorder. PMID:19656219
Evers, Stefan; Peikert, Andreas; Frese, Achim
The present study explored perceived sexual norms and behaviors related to sexual risk and pregnancy involvement among adolescent males (ages 13 to 20) participating in programs for perpetrators of dating violence. The purpose of this study was to generate hypotheses regarding the contexts and mechanisms underlying the intersection of adolescent dating violence, sexual risk and pregnancy. Six focus groups were conducted (N = 34 participants). A number of major themes emerged: 1) male norm of multiple partnering, 2) perceived gain of male social status from claims of sexual activity, 3) perception that rape is uncommon combined with belief that girls claiming to be raped are liars, 4) perception that men rationalize rapes to avoid responsibility, 5) condom non-use in the context of rape and sex involving substance use, 6) beliefs that girls lie and manipulate boys in order to become pregnant and trap them into relationships, and 7) male avoidance of responsibility and negative responses to pregnancy. The combination of peer-supported norms of male multiple partnering and adversarial sexual beliefs appear to support increased male sexual risk, lack of accountability for sexual risk, and rationalization of rape and negative responses to pregnancy. Further research focused on the context of male sexual risk and abusive relationship behaviors is needed to inform intervention with young men to promote sexual health and prevent rape, dating violence, and adolescent pregnancy. PMID:16845498
Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Reed, Elizabeth; Rothman, Emily F; Hathaway, Jeanne E; Raj, Anita; Miller, Elizabeth
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Trata-se de estudo transversal conduzido com 222 adolescentes mulheres, entre 15 e 19 anos de idade, moradoras da área de uma unidade de saúde da família na zona leste da cidade de São Paulo, cujo objetivo foi descrever as motivações para iniciar ou não a vida sexual e os fatores associados a tal ev [...] ento. As adolescentes que já haviam iniciado a vida sexual eram mais velhas, não coabitavam com os pais, estavam ausentes do sistema educacional, habitavam domicílios ocupados e namoravam em maior proporção do que as sem experiência sexual. Observou-se também que, na opinião das entrevistadas, a iniciação sexual, independente do matrimônio, pareceu ser aceita, mas foi largamente relatado o desejo da existência de vínculo afetivo-amoroso com o parceiro da primeira prática sexual, reforçando que o tradicional papel atribuído à sexualidade feminina, pelas relações de gênero, ainda forma a base do comportamento sexual dessas garotas. Abstract in spanish Se trata de un estudio transversal conducido con 222 adolescentes mujeres, entre 15 e 19 años de edad, moradoras del área de una unidad de salud de la familia en la zona leste de la ciudad de São Paulo, cuyo objetivo fue describir las motivaciones para iniciar o no la vida sexual y los factores asoc [...] iados a tal evento. Las adolescentes que ya habían iniciado la vida sexual eran mayores, no cohabitaban con los padres, estaban ausentes del sistema educacional, habitaban domicilios ocupados y enamoraban en mayor proporción de lo que las sin experiencia sexual. Se observó también que, en la opinión de las entrevistadas, la iniciación sexual, independiente del matrimonio, pareció ser acepta, pero fue largamente relatado el deseo de la existencia del vínculo afectivo-amoroso con la pareja de la primera práctica sexual, reforzando que el tradicional papel atribuido a la sexualidad femenina, por las relaciones de genero, aún forma la base del comportamiento sexual de esas chicas. Abstract in english This is a cross-sectional study con-ducted with 222 15 to 19 year-old female adolescents who lived in the area of a family health unit in the East part of the city of São Paulo. The aim was to describe their motivation for starting sexual life or remaining virgin, as well as the associated factors t [...] o the onset of sexual life. The girls that had already initiated their sexual life were older, did not cohabitate with both parents, were out of school, lived in illegally-occupied houses and were dating in a higher proportion than the virgin ones. It was also observed a decrease in the value of virginity, but the first intercourse independently of marriage seemed to be acceptable only when there was a romantic relationship with the partner, showing that traditional gender relations continue to be the basis for those girls' sexual behavior.
Ana Luiza Vilela, Borges.
Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo transversal conduzido com 222 adolescentes mulheres, entre 15 e 19 anos de idade, moradoras da área de uma unidade de saúde da família na zona leste da cidade de São Paulo, cujo objetivo foi descrever as motivações para iniciar ou não a vida sexual e os fatores associados a tal evento. As adolescentes que já haviam iniciado a vida sexual eram mais velhas, não coabitavam com os pais, estavam ausentes do sistema educacional, habitavam domicílios ocupados e namoravam em maior proporção do que as sem experiência sexual. Observou-se também que, na opinião das entrevistadas, a iniciação sexual, independente do matrimônio, pareceu ser aceita, mas foi largamente relatado o desejo da existência de vínculo afetivo-amoroso com o parceiro da primeira prática sexual, reforçando que o tradicional papel atribuído à sexualidade feminina, pelas relações de gênero, ainda forma a base do comportamento sexual dessas garotas.Se trata de un estudio transversal conducido con 222 adolescentes mujeres, entre 15 e 19 años de edad, moradoras del área de una unidad de salud de la familia en la zona leste de la ciudad de São Paulo, cuyo objetivo fue describir las motivaciones para iniciar o no la vida sexual y los factores asociados a tal evento. Las adolescentes que ya habían iniciado la vida sexual eran mayores, no cohabitaban con los padres, estaban ausentes del sistema educacional, habitaban domicilios ocupados y enamoraban en mayor proporción de lo que las sin experiencia sexual. Se observó también que, en la opinión de las entrevistadas, la iniciación sexual, independiente del matrimonio, pareció ser acepta, pero fue largamente relatado el deseo de la existencia del vínculo afectivo-amoroso con la pareja de la primera práctica sexual, reforzando que el tradicional papel atribuido a la sexualidad femenina, por las relaciones de genero, aún forma la base del comportamiento sexual de esas chicas.This is a cross-sectional study con-ducted with 222 15 to 19 year-old female adolescents who lived in the area of a family health unit in the East part of the city of São Paulo. The aim was to describe their motivation for starting sexual life or remaining virgin, as well as the associated factors to the onset of sexual life. The girls that had already initiated their sexual life were older, did not cohabitate with both parents, were out of school, lived in illegally-occupied houses and were dating in a higher proportion than the virgin ones. It was also observed a decrease in the value of virginity, but the first intercourse independently of marriage seemed to be acceptable only when there was a romantic relationship with the partner, showing that traditional gender relations continue to be the basis for those girls' sexual behavior.
Ana Luiza Vilela Borges