Goldbach, J.T.; Gibbs, J.J.
Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with p...
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L.
Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 1418 years of age were in...
This article describes current knowledge on sexual, mental, and behavioral health of sexual minority (SM) youth and identifies gaps that would benefit from future research. A translational sciences framework is used to conceptualize the article, discussing findings and gaps along the spectrum from basic research on prevalence and mechanisms, to intervention development and testing, to implementation. Relative to adults, there has been much less research on adolescents and very few studies tha...
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testingâ¦
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples ofâ¦
In this project I investigate the nature and future opportunities of sexual education for male ethnic minorities. Through qualitative interviews and participant observation I will gain information about the current state of sexual education for ethnic minorities providing me with the opportunity to provide suggestions for improvement. One can conclude that general sexual education programs need to be improved, that parents of ethnic minorities need to be involved and that educators must visit...
Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Philips, Gregory L; Bull, Sheana S; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Mustanski, Brian
Five activities were implemented between November 2012 and June 2014 to develop an mHealth HIV prevention program for adolescent gay, bisexual, and queer men (AGBM): (1) focus groups to gather acceptability of the program components; (2) ongoing development of content; (3) Content Advisory Teams to confirm the tone, flow, and understandability of program content; (4) an internal team test to alpha test software functionality; and (5) a beta test to test the protocol and intervention messages. Findings suggest that AGBM preferred positive and friendly content that at the same time, did not try to sound like a peer. They deemed the number of daily text messages (i.e., 8-15 per day) to be acceptable. The Text Buddy component was well received but youth needed concrete direction about appropriate discussion topics. AGBM determined the self-safety assessment also was acceptable. Its feasible implementation in the beta test suggests that AGBM can actively self-determine their potential danger when participating in sexual health programs. Partnering with the target population in intervention development is critical to ensure that a salient final product and feasible protocol are created. PMID:26238038
Hopkins, J. Roy
Surveys conducted between the 1930's and 1970's on the sexual behavior of adolescents indicate the following: (1) older adolescents are more sexually experienced now than in earlier generations; (2) there has been a greater increase in incidence of premarital sex for females than males; and (3) there is a trend toward earlier sexual experience forâ¦
Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn
This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexualâ¦
Pendragon, Diane K
This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment. PMID:20077261
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Sheree M. Schrager; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L.; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M.
This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. T...
Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo
This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.
Harris, Allyssa L
Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention. PMID:27067937
It is estimated that up to 10% of the U.S. population is lesbian or gay. Being a member of a sexual minority group places youth at risk. Along with the challenges all adolescents deal with, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth must cope with prejudice, discrimination, and violence in schools or in their families. While mentoring programsâ¦
Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte
The present study set out to investigate predictors of first time adolescent peer-on-peer sexual victimization (APSV) among 238 female Grade 9 students from 30 schools in Denmark. A prospective research design was utilized to examine the relationship among five potential predictors as measured at...
Jabson, Jennifer M; Kamen, Charles S
Satisfaction with care is important to cancer survivors' health outcomes. Satisfaction with care is not equal for all cancer survivors, and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) cancer survivors may experience poor satisfaction with care. Data were drawn from the 2010 LIVESTRONG national survey. The final sample included 207 sexual minority cancer survivors and 4,899 heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care was compared by sexual orientation, and a Poisson regression model was computed to test the associations between sexual orientation and satisfaction with care, controlling for other relevant variables. Sexual minority cancer survivors had lower satisfaction with care than did heterosexual cancer survivors (B = -0.12, SE = 0.04, Wald Ï(2) = 9.25, phealth disparities reported among sexual minority cancer survivors. PMID:26577277
Holloway, Ian W; Traube, Dorian E; Schrager, Sheree M; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M
This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958
Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison
This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students
Bostwick, Wendy B; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda; Russell, Stephen; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian
Objectives. We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Methods. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6...
Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L
Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual variations in sex, gender, sexual roles, and sexual orientation. Most adolescents want to discuss sexual-related issues with their health care providers and will welcome direct questions about sexual behaviors and possible risks when posed in a confidential and nonmoralistic manner. Discussion of the physical, emotional, familial, and social changes related to adolescence will encourage healthy sexual development. PMID:10693186
Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J
Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. PMID:24495493
Eyre, S L; Read, N W; Millstein, S G
153 sexually active 11th and 12th graders attending two inner-city high schools in San Francisco participated in a study of strategies adolescents use to secure sexual intercourse with a partner. The study sample comprised 20 male and 16 female African-Americans, 21 male and 22 female Caucasians, 17 male and 18 female Chinese-Americans, and 19 male and 20 female Mexican-Americans aged 14-19 years (mean age, 16.96 years). Non-English-speaking and special education students were excluded from study. Relative to females, males reported using a higher degree of pressure, rape, lying, and getting a partner drunk or high to encourage sexual involvement. Both sexes reported suggesting interest in developing commitment and a relationship with the intended sex partner to achieve the goal of intercourse. Females mentioned more strategies than males which signaled sexual availability. Relative to adults, the study participants reported fewer strategies and were less focused upon appearance enhancement and the intricacies of dating. PMID:9098732
Varjas, Kris; Dew, Brian; Marshall, Megan; Graybill, Emily; Singh, Anneliese; Meyers, Joel; Birckbichler, Lamar
Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, questioning and inter-sex (GLBTQI) youth, and those perceived to be GLBTQI, face extensive verbal and physical bullying in schools. Although increasing attention has been made at examining the safety concerns of sexual minority (GLBTQI) youth, there remain important gaps in the literature as well as significantâ¦
Sexual minority youth (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning) function in a society that condones homophobia. Results of a research study conducted by J. Sears (1991) indicated that teachers often expressed that they should be more proactive, supportive, and committed to the welfare of all their students, but the realities of
Placed in the current political context of growing liberalization within China, this essay describes the Shanghai Hotline for Sexual Minorities. Funded by agencies outside the government, these services target LGBTs toward self-acceptance and AIDS/STD education while seeking to reduce social prejudice.
Ljubojevi?, Suzana; Lipozen?i?, Jasna
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health problem of major significance in most of the world. Adolescents make up about 20% of the world population, of whom 85% live in developing countries. They are at a greater risk of STIs because they frequently have unprotected intercourse, biologically may be more susceptible to infection, often are engaged in multiple monogamous relationships of limited duration, and face multiple obstacles in accessing confidential health care services. Young people who begin to have sexual intercourse in early or middle adolescence are more likely to develop an STI than those who postpone intercourse until later adolescence or adulthood. The most common STIs among adolescents are chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, and trichomoniasis. Unfortunately, lately the incidence of HIV/AIDS and syphilis among adolescents is growing. Comprehensive sex education programs in schools can increase STI knowledge and prevent risky sexual behaviors. Health care providers can promote STI prevention methods, including counseling about safe sex. PMID:21251451
Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Joel W. Grube; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.
Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to eng...
This research examines perceptions of gender and sexual minorities in a community in rural Thailand and considers to what degree society's perceptions of gender and sexual minorities are influential in their self-identification and the potential impact this has on the social space available to gender and sexual minorities. To do so, this thesis triangulates the experiences related by adult gender and sexual minorities with the understandings and perceptions of students and teachers. This thes...
Masatu Melkiory C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. Results About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Conclusion Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.
Kang, B S
This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on sexual matters. Proposals needing implementation include family life education for parents and their children, sex education and counseling within the school systems, treatment centers for sexually transmitted diseases and pre/post natal care, and youth counseling centers. PMID:12316430
Pavilanis, Alan V.
Developing an independent sexual identity is one of the psychosocial tasks of adolescence. The only recent change in adolescent sexual activity is an increased percentage of teenage girls having intercourse. Coitus carries the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. It is also an area of conflict with parents. There are healthy and unhealthy approaches to these problems. Family physicians must demystify adolescent sexuality. They must give the adolescent non-judgmental, confident...
Chilman, Catherine S.
All aspects of adolescent sexuality may be viewed as primarily sexual. The primary fact about adolescence is that the young person becomes capable of reproduction. Biological changes interact with psychological ones; the cognitive, motivational, social and emotional aspects are all directed toward becoming a sexual human being. In adolescence,â¦
Adolescent sexual activity is increasing globally. Abstinence and a delay in the start of sexual intercourse may be the most effective methods in preventing the consequences of teenage sexual activity. However, these goals are seldom met. With the change in social norms, peer pressure and media influences; teenagers are engaging in premarital sex earlier. Family life education in countries like Sweden and Finland reduces teenage pregnancy and abortion. It is unrealistic to expect sexually active adolescents to stop their sexual activity. An effective contraceptive method will provide an alternative to prevent teenage pregnancy. Issues on compliance of contraceptive use, especially at the very outset of sexual activity should be addressed. Most of the problems associated with teenage pregnancy are now thought to be related to the social circumstances of the mother, the poor nutritional status before pregnancy and poor attendance at antenatal clinics. Risk-taking behaviour in this age group will also make them more prone to contracting sexually transmitted diseases. High risk groups should be screened and treated early. Contraceptive methods with protection against sexually transmitted diseases should be advised. PMID:8579322
Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specifi...
Bishop, Holly N.; Caraway, Chadwick; Stader, David L.
Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K-12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which
Rodman, H; Griffith, S B
During adolescence, dependent children grow into independent and autonomous adults, and it is necessary to make difficult policy judgements about children's rights. Questions that arise include: shoudl minors have the right to work, to marry, to make legal contracts, and to obtain medical care without parental consent; or should parental consent be required by the state in order to protect minors and to preserve parental authority. This discussion focuses upon the area of family planning, a topic of special interest to policymakers because they now face many questions about minor's contraceptive and abortion rights in Congress, in state legislatures, and in the courts. comprehensive response to policy questions about family planning rights for minors would require information about adolescent development, maturity, and autonomy; about teenagers' sexual and contraceptive attitudes and behavior; about the nature of parent-child communication regarding sexual and contraceptive questions; and about politics and values. Many from the legal system want help in answering questions about minors' rights. As little research has been conducted, policymakers can obtain only limited guidance from social scientists. As the policy issue is fundamentally tied to developmental issues, the better the knowledge about the development of cognitive competence, social competence, and autonomy, the easier it will be to make the difficult legal and policy judgements about minor's rights. Regarding minors' access to contraceptives, the situation is somewhat cloudy. There is only 1 state statute that requires parental consent for access to contraceptive medical services, passed in Utah in 1981, and pertaining to services provided with public funds. Yet, common law requires parental consent for any medical treatment (with exceptions for emancipated or mature minors) and "physicians often hesitate to serve young people without first obtaining parental consent because they fear civil liability." The situation is even more cloudy in the case of abortion. The Supreme Court's present position seems to grant emancipated and mature minors access to abortion without a requirement for parental consent or notification, but states may place some requirements for parental involvement upon other minors, as long as these minors have an alternative route to abortion. A thorough search of the literature on adolescent development reveals that the policy questions loom larger than the alternatives. 2 policy alternatives are: to single out a reasonable age below which minors require either parental consent or some form of adult involvement; or treat family planning and fertility control as basic rights which cannot be abridged because of age. PMID:12266643
Li, Gu; Pollitt, Amanda M; Russell, Stephen T
Sexual minority individuals are at an elevated risk for depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet less is known about how depression status varies across sexual minority subgroups (i.e., mostly heterosexuals, bisexuals, and lesbians and gay men). Moreover, studies on the role of young adult gender nonconformity in the relation between sexual orientation and depression are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. The current study examined the disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals during young adulthood in concurrent depression near the beginning of young adulthood and prospective depression 6Â years later, paying attention to the diversity within sexual minority subgroups and the role of gender nonconformity. Drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (NÂ =Â 9421), we found that after accounting for demographics, sampling weight, and sampling design, self-identified mostly heterosexual and bisexual young adults, but not lesbians and gay men, reported significantly higher concurrent depression compared to heterosexuals; moreover, only mostly heterosexual young adults were more depressed than heterosexuals 6Â years later. Furthermore, while young adult gender nonconforming behavior was associated with more concurrent depression regardless of sexual orientation, its negative impact on mental health decreased over time. Surprisingly, previous gender nonconformity predicted decreased prospective depression among lesbians and gay men whereas, among heterosexual individuals, increased gender nonconformity was not associated with prospective depression. Together, the results suggested the importance of investigating diversity and the influence of young adult gender nonconformity in future research on the mental health of sexual minorities. PMID:25868403
Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment thatâ¦
Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.
Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that
White, Yohann R. G.; Barnaby, Loraine; Swaby, Antoneal; Sandfort, Theo
This study examined the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associated risk factors in a sample of sexual minority men and women in Jamaica, a country that is widely known for its high societal rejection of homosexuality. Poor relationships with family, negative or abusive experiences related to oneâs sexual orientation, and greater openness about oneâs sexual orientation were independent risk factors for Axis I disorders. Prevention of mental disorders in sexual minorities in Jamaica should f...
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
Impact of parent alcohol misuse on the sexual behavior of female adolescents was studied with 1,134 teenagers of alcohol-misusing parents. Index adolescents were more likely to report sexual intercourse and greater frequency of intercourse. Gender of the drinking parent was related to a number of factors related to sexuality. (SLD)
Neufeld, Jacob A; Klingbeil, Fred; Bryen, Diane Nelson; Silverman, Brett; Thomas, Anila
Regardless of what our beliefs about sex and disability may be, as health care providers we can promote the health and well being of our patients with disabilities in several ways. First and perhaps foremost, physical and programmatic barriers to accessing general health care including routine gynecologic care must be dramatically reduced. The promise of Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act must be aggressively extended to our health care system to ensure equal access to routine health care for all. Second, knowledge of community resources that can support the healthy development and exercise of responsible and satisfying sexuality is critical. For example, health care providers should know about adaptive and assistive technologies as well as the use of personal care assistants to support the healthy although sometimes nontypical expression of one's sexuality. Centers for Independent Living are community resources that are often underutilized by the medical profession. These centers--run by and for people with disabilities--are likely resources and allies for providing education, role models, and peer mentoring around relationships, intimacy, sexuality, sexual expression, and parenting with a disability. Finally, sex education is a must and should include the following: Basic facts of life, reproduction, and sexual intercourse; Human growth and development Human reproduction and anatomy Self-pleasuring/masturbation and the use of sexual aids Intimacy and privacy Pregnancy and child birth Contraception and abortion Family life and parenthood Sexual response and consensual sex Sexual orientation Sexual abuse HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The question should not be whether sex education is provided to persons with disabilities, but rather how it is most effectively provided. Health sex education must include the development of effective communication skills, decision-making skills, assertiveness, and the ability to say "no." It must also include ways to create satisfying relationships. For more information about sex education as it relates to people with disabilities, the following abbreviated resource list may be helpful: http://www.sexualhealth.com http://www.lookingglass.com Ludwig S, Hingsburger, D. Being sexual: an illustrated series on sexuality and relationships. SIECCAN, 850 Coxwell, Aven., East York, Ontario, M4C 5R1 Tel: 416-466-5304; Fax: 416-778-0785. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS), 130 West 42nd Street, Suite 350, New York, NY 10036. Tel: 212-819-9770. National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities (NICHCY), P.O. Box 1492, Washington, DC 20013; Tel/TTY: 800-695-0285; Fax: 202-884-8641; Internet: www.nichcy.org Non-Latex Supplies (Ask your pharmacist if not available) Trojan-Supra: http://www.trojancondoms.com Durex-Avanti: http://www.durex.com Female Health Company-FC Female Condom http://www.femalehealth.com Pasante--EzOn http://www.postalcondoms.co.uk (available in Canada and U.K.). PMID:12465564
Poteat, V. Paul; Aragon, Steven R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian W.
This investigation tested a large adolescent sample (n = 14,439) for significant group differences on psychosocial concerns on the basis of intersecting identities of sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning/less certain, heterosexual), race (Whites, racial minorities), and gender (boys, girls). A significant 2-way interactionâ¦
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert
Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (M[subscript age]Â =Â 15Â years,â¦
Zulkifli, S N; Low, W Y; Yusof, K
This paper examines data on the sexual activities of 1,200 Malaysian adolescents aged 15-21 years based on a probability household sampled survey carried out in Kuala Lumpur in 1986. Sexual behaviours like premarital sexual intercourse, contraceptive usage and masturbation were presented. Of the 1,181 unmarried respondents, 9% (105) reported having had sexual intercourse; males were significantly more experienced compared to females. Older age groups were also found to be more sexually active than the younger ones. Among those who had experience dating (n = 521), 20% (105) have experienced sexual intercourse, 44% (228) have kissed and necked, and 35% (183) have experienced petting, while 24% (130) have had no physical intimacies. Poor use of contraception was also revealed. The most commonly used were condoms, oral contraceptives and withdrawal. With regard to masturbation, males begin this practice relatively earlier than females. Almost half of those who indulged in masturbation were worried by the act, especially the females. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:7752975
Masatu Melkiory C; Kazaura Method R
Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A question...
Conclusion: The current study offers preliminary evidence that sexual minority status is one variable among many that must be taken into account when assessing health behaviors post-cancer diagnosis. Future research should identify mechanisms leading from sexual minority status to increased rates of smoking and develop tailored smoking cessation interventions.
Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.
The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that the
Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.
The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that theâ¦
Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia; Spruijt, Rob; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
The goal of the present study was to investigate meanings of sexual intercourse in adolescence, and the relationships between meanings, gender, age, and sexual behaviors. Subjects were 201 Italian adolescents (107 boys and 94 girls), aged 14-19 (M=17.44, SD=1.65). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires on meanings of sex, sexualâ¦
Which moral principles should guide us in evaluating sexual contacts of adolescents? This paper tries to answer this question by taking two steps. First, the implications of a liberal sexual ethics for adolescence are spelled out, assessed and refuted. The core principle of the liberal ethical view, the principle of valid consent, takes competenceâ¦
Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.
BACKGROUND Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth. Using the IMB model, this study examines predictors of risky sexual behavior among underserved Hispanic and African-American youth. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 380 youths aged 1117 years recruited in Los Angeles, California, and utilized latent variable models to examine interrelationships and predictive relations among IMB model variables associated with risky sexual behavior. RESULTS Sixty percent of the participants aged 1517 and 1 out of 10 participants aged 1112 reported prior sexual intercourse. Of the sexually active, more than half reported having unprotected sex and 11% had sexual intercourse with 4 or more partners. Results of the structural equation model indicated that older age and attitudes against sexual activities had significant, direct impacts on risky sexual behaviors. Behavioral refusal skills, positioned as an intervening variable, also significantly predicted less risky sex. Knowledge, attitudes against sexual activities, and perceived peer pressure against sexual behavior predicted sexual refusal skills. Additionally, there were significant indirect effects on risky sexual behavior mediated through behavioral refusal skills. CONCLUSION A large number of disadvantaged minority urban youth are engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Intervention programs, particularly those targeting preadolescents, should focus on building long-lasting behavioral skills that emphasize the reduction of peer pressure and normative influences on risky sexual behaviors. Components of the IMB model clearly have a role in the design of efficacious interventions. PMID:20573141
Quincy, Michael L.
The purpose of this review paper, "Adolescent Sexual Education: Designing Curriculum That Works", is to present some basic curriculum necessities for developing an in-school sexual education program that results in decreasing the number of teenagers initiating sex, thus reducing the number of teen pregnancies and cases of sexually transmittedâ¦
Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.
Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement inâ¦
Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena
The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality--or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category--and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women. PMID:25257258
Burkhalter, Jack E; Hay, Jennifer L.; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; OSTROFF, JAMIE S.
Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction...
Santelli, John S.; And Others
Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,â¦
This study investigated the relationship between mother-adolescent sexual communication and adolescents' engagement of sexual behavior among a sample of 2,669 European American female adolescents, ages 13 to 18 years, and their mothers, from the first Wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Communication was assessed by the frequency that mothers discussed the negative consequences of intercourse with their daughters, one year prior to engagement of sexual risk. Additio...
Bigler, M O
This paper summarizes what is known about adolescent sexual behavior in the 1980s. One study found that 85% of American teens have had a boyfriend or girlfriend. Overall, 43% of teens have participated in vaginal play and 40% have experienced penile manipulation. A significant number of teenagers report having participated in oral sex. Many adolescents also report that they masturbate. Surveys of American adolescents have found that, on the whole, average age at 1st intercourse ranges from 16 to 16.9 years, but some teenagers begin to have intercourse shortly after puberty. The proportion of sexually-experienced teens increases with age. Many adolescents see their 1st experience sexual intercourse as a conscious, personal choice. At all ages, males are more likely to report having had intercourse than are females. Many adolescents who have had intercourse report regular contraceptive use. More than 1/3 (33%-39%) report contraceptive use every time they engage in intercourse. However, a large number of sexually experienced teenagers use contraception irregularly. Teenagers who have had intercourse express a preference for birth control pills over condoms as their primary means of contraception. Inconsistent contraceptive use among teens is reflected in the number of adolescent pregnancies in the US each year. In 1984, there were 233 adolescent pregnancies/1000 sexually active 15-19-year-old females. A large share of adolescent pregnancies end in abortion. 1 in 7 teens contracts a sexually transmitted disease each year. Many believe that teens are at high risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) because of poorly protected sexual experimentation and intravenous drug use. Healthy adult sexuality may depend a great deal on the earlier years of sexual development. PMID:12143748
Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao
Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages. PMID:23212259
Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J
Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than ...
Heitzman, Janusz; Lew-Starowicz, MichaÅ; Pacholski, Marek; Lew-Starowicz, Zbigniew
Introduction. Obtaining objective data on sexual offenders against minors is difficult. In order to enhance the possibilities to prevent such crimes it is essential to determine factors that condition this kind of sexual behavior. Aim: The aim of the study was to prepare a multidimensional analysis of a profile of sexual offenders against minors. Material and method. A detailed analysis of documentation from forensic sexological, psychiatric and psychological examinations and informatio...
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S
Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. PMID:25753931
Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or âhomosexualityâ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and âcoming outâ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or âsilencingâ cultures and discourses. PMID:22826897
Mulcahy, F M; Lacey, C J
Two hundred and ten adolescent girls in residential care with an age range of 12 to 16 years were screened for sexually transmitted infections. The incidences of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis were 13.7%, 16.2%, and 16.0% respectively. Pelvic inflammatory disease was identified in 16.4% of those with C trachomatis or gonococcal infection. The high morbidity from sexually transmitted disease in these adolescent girls reinforces the need f...
Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Di Pomponio, Ileana; Nigito, Concetta Simona
This study is the first contribution to the understanding of gender differences in best friendship patterns of adolescents sexual minorities. We explored friendship patterns, self-disclosure, and internalized sexual stigma in an Italian sample of lesbian (N = 202) and gay (N = 201) adolescents (aged 14-22 years). We found gender differences in
Szymanski, Dawn M.; Sung, Mi Ra
The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexual minority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the
Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.
Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)
Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Andrade, Mario; Wilks, Cindy; SimÃ¡n, Florence M; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H
Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons carry disproportionate burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections compared with other Guatemalan subgroups. However, little is known about the determinants of sexual health to inform health promotion and disease prevention interventions among these sexual minorities. We sought to explore sexual health and HIV risk among Guatemalan sexual minorities, using a community-based participatory research approach. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 87 participants total) and 10 individual in-depth interviews with gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we analyzed verbatim transcripts and identified 24 themes that we organized into five ecological factors influencing sexual health: intrapersonal (e.g. misconceptions about HIV transmission, low perceived susceptibility and lack of condoms use skills); interpersonal (e.g. family rejection and condom use as a barrier to intimacy); community (e.g. discrimination and stigma); institutional (e.g. limited access to health promotion resources); and public policy (e.g. perceived lack of provider confidentiality and anti-gay rhetoric). There is profound need for multiple-level interventions to ensure that Guatemalan sexual minorities have the knowledge and skills needed to reduce sexual risk. Interventions are warranted to increase social support among sexual minorities, reduce negative perspectives about sexual minorities, develop institutional resources to meet the needs of sexual minorities and reduce harmful anti-gay rhetoric. Understanding and intervening on the identified factors is especially important given that the health of Guatemalan sexual minorities has been to-date neglected. PMID:24688113
Ryu, Eunjung; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwon, Hyejin
Background: The proportion of adolescents experiencing unwanted pregnancy and abortion caused by the premature initiation of sexual intercourse is increasing at an alarming rate in Korea. This study aimed at developing a theoretical model for identifying individual and environmental risk factors affecting the initiation of sexual intercourse byâ¦
Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.
Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunitiesâ¦
Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.
This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in Laâ¦
Johnson, Jeffrey G.; COHEN, PATRICIA; KASEN, STEPHANIE
Data from a community-based prospective longitudinal study were used to investigate the association of minor depressive disorder during adolescence with adverse mental health outcomes during adulthood. Structured diagnostic interviews were administered to a community-based sample of 755 individuals during adolescence and adulthood. Results indicated that minor depressive disorder during adolescence was associated with elevated risk for subsequent psychiatric disorders during adulthood, ...
Brewster, Melanie E; Velez, Brandon L; Foster, Aasha; Esposito, Jessica; Robinson, Matthew A
In prior research with primarily heterosexual religious and spiritual individuals, positive and negative forms of religious coping have been posited to moderate the links between minority stressors and psychological outcomes (Kim, Kendall, & Webb, 2015; Szymanski & Obiri, 2011). With a sample of 143 sexual minority people, the present study extended these hypotheses by examining the moderating roles of positive and negative religious coping in the link of 2 sexual minority-specific minority stress variables (heterosexist discrimination, internalized heterosexism) with psychological distress and well-being. In partial support of our hypotheses, we found that positive religious coping moderated the relation of internalized heterosexism and psychological well-being such that greater positive religious coping weakened the deleterious impact of internalized heterosexism on psychological well-being. Negative religious coping did not moderate any links. As the first test of the moderating roles of religious coping styles in the sexual minority stress-psychological distress link, the present study yields important findings for research and practice with religious and spiritual sexual minority individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26460976
Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.
Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16â20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure. PMID:26327361
Emmerink, Peggy M J; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M
Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16-20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure. PMID:26327361
The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue. PMID:10482330
Diamond, Lisa M; Rosky, Clifford J
We review scientific research and legal authorities to argue that the immutability of sexual orientation should no longer be invoked as a foundation for the rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships (i.e., sexual minorities). On the basis of scientific research as well as U.S. legal rulings regarding lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) rights, we make three claims: First, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unscientific, given what we now know from longitudinal, population-based studies of naturally occurring changes in the same-sex attractions of some individuals over time. Second, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unnecessary, in light of U.S. legal decisions in which courts have used grounds other than immutability to protect the rights of sexual minorities. Third, arguments about the immutability of sexual orientation are unjust, because they imply that same-sex attractions are inferior to other-sex attractions, and because they privilege sexual minorities who experience their sexuality as fixed over those who experience their sexuality as fluid. We conclude that the legal rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships should not be framed as if they depend on a certain pattern of scientific findings regarding sexual orientation. PMID:26986464
Burke, Sara E; LaFrance, Marianne
Bisexual people are often implored to "pick a side," implying that bisexuality is both more controllable and less desirable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. Bisexual people's status as a social group perceived to fall between a traditionally advantaged group and a traditionally disadvantaged group may have the potential to clarify lay conceptions of sexual orientation. We examined participants' views of groups varying in sexual orientation by randomly assigning participants (including heterosexual men and women as well as gay men and lesbian women) from four samples to evaluate heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual targets (NÂ =Â 1379). Results provided strong evidence for the previously untested theoretical argument that bisexuality is perceived as less stable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. In addition, participants low in Personal Need for Structure rated female (but not male) bisexuality as relatively stable, suggesting that a preference for simple, binary thinking can partially explain a negative conception of an ostensibly "intermediate" identity. Bisexual targets were perceived as falling between heterosexual and homosexual targets in terms of gender nonconformity, and less decisive, less monogamous, and lacking in positive traits that were associated with homosexual targets. In sum, views of bisexual people were both more negative than and qualitatively different from views of gay men and lesbian women. We discuss the results as an illustration of the complex ways that perceivers' attitudes can differ depending on which target groups they are considering, suggesting that intergroup bias cannot be fully understood without attending to social categories viewed as intermediate. PMID:26597649
Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.
Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice wasâ¦
The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others toâ¦
Johnson, Veronica R. F.; Yarhouse, Mark A.
Theorists, clinicians, and researchers have suggested that shame is a central concern in the lives of sexual minority individuals. Cognitive theorists believe that shame occurs when a person fails to achieve his or her standards, which are often based on social, cultural, and spiritual values. Although it is asserted that stigma causes shame amongâ¦
Bishop, Holly N.; Casida, Heather
Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct resultâ¦
Hequembourg, Amy L; Brallier, Sara A
Despite growing evidence to suggest that gays, lesbians, and bisexuals experience a range of stressors and consequences related to their sexual minority status, no known studies to date have employed focus group discussion to explore and document their perceptions of sexual minority stress. In this exploratory study, we present focus group data on a range of sexual minority stressors as described by 43 gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women. We explore gender and sexual identity differences in the respondents' perceptions of heteronormativity, disclosure issues in different social settings, sources of support, and strategies for coping with stress. Respondents reported that women's same-sex relationships were eroticized and distorted to accommodate heterosexual male desire, while men were negatively depicted as sexually promiscuous and deviant. These differing stereotypes held important consequences for disclosure decisions and affected men's and women's social interactions with heterosexual men. Bisexual respondents reported unique strategies to cope with exclusion and isolation associated with misunderstandings about their sexual identities. Directions for future research on sexual minority stress are discussed. PMID:19319738
Priebe, Gisela; Backstrom, Martin; Ainsaar, Mare
Objective: The aim of this research was to study the discomfort experienced by adolescents when answering questions in a survey about sexuality and sexual abuse and to investigate factors that may determine possible experience of discomfort. The research focused particularly on vulnerable adolescents--sexually abused and sexually inexperienced.
Homma, Yuko; Wang, Naren; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Kishor, Nand
Purpose Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been shown to lead to increased odds of sexual behaviors that lead to sexually transmitted infections and early pregnancy involvement. Research, meta-analyses, and interventions, however, have focused primarily on girls and young women who have experienced abuse, yet some adolescent boys are also sexually abused. We performed a meta-analysis of the existing studies to assess the magnitudes of the link between a history of sexual abuse and each of three risky sexual behaviors among adolescent boys in North America. Methods The three outcomes were a) unprotected sexual intercourse, b) multiple sexual partners, and c) pregnancy involvement. Weighted mean effect sizes were computed from 10 independent samples, from nine studies published between 1990 and 2011. Results Sexually abused boys were significantly more likely than non-abused boys to report all three risky sexual behaviors. Weighted mean odds ratios were 1.91 for unprotected intercourse, 2.91 for multiple sexual partners, and 4.81 for pregnancy involvement. Conclusions Our results indicate that childhood and adolescent sexual abuse can substantially Influence sexual behavior in adolescence among male survivors. To improve sexual health for all adolescents, even young men, we should strengthen sexual abuse prevention initiatives, raise awareness about male sexual abuse survivorsâ existence and sexual health issues, improve sexual health promotion for abused young men, and screen all people, regardless of gender, for a history of sexual abuse. PMID:22727072
O'Hanlan, Katherine A
Homosexuality and transsexuality are still widely viewed by lay individuals as morally negative and deserving of legal proscription. Peer-reviewed data confirm that experiences of legal discrimination are associated with stress-related health problems, reduced utilization of health care, and financial and legal challenges for individuals and families, especially those with children. In the last 3 years, the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, and American Psychoanalytic Association have each reviewed the research on sexual orientation and identity, and each has confirmed that sexual orientation and gender identity do not correlate with mental illness or immorality. They have each endorsed laws that confer equality to sexual minorities, including nondiscrimination in employment, medical insurance coverage, adoption, and access to civil marriage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), by virtue of its history of advocacy for women's health, is in a position to promote policy and make similar recommendations, recognizing that sexual minority women's health and their family issues are an integral component of taking care of all women. The College should review the policies of America's premier mental health associations and consider including sexual orientation and gender identity in its own nondiscrimination policy, and ACOG should issue a policy statement in support of laws to provide safety from violence and discrimination, equal employment opportunities, equal health insurance coverage, and equal access to civil marriage. PMID:16507945
Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; OâSullivan, Lucia F.; ORR, DONALD P.
Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these traje...
Senn, Theresa E.; CAREY, MICHAEL P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite
Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of ...
Woodford, Michael R.; Kulick, Alex; Atteberry, Brittanie
Heterosexism on campus can create a chilly climate for sexual minority students. Research has documented the negative impacts of campus climate on sexual minority students' health; however, little research has examined the role of potential protective factors among this population. Drawing on data collected from self-identified sexual minority
StankoviÄ Miodrag; MiljkoviÄ Srbobran; GrbeÅ¡a Grozdanko; ViÅ¡njiÄ Aleksandar
Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 ...
Blashill, Aaron J; Tomassilli, Julia; Biello, Katie; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H
Body dissatisfaction is common among sexual minority (i.e., gay and bisexual) men; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychosexual health variables among this population. The data that do exist are exclusively cross-sectional, casting uncertainty regarding temporal associations. Thus, the aims of the current study were to assess the prospective relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological and sexual health outcomes. Participants were 131 gay and bisexual men who completed a battery of self-report measures across two time points (baseline and 3-month follow-up), including assessment of body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, and sexual health variables (sexual self-efficacy and sexual anxiety). Generalized linear modeling was employed to assess the prospective relationship between body dissatisfaction and outcomes variables, accounting for non-normal distributions. Body dissatisfaction significantly predicted elevated depressive symptoms (BÂ =Â .21, pÂ =Â .01), lower sexual self-efficacy (BÂ =Â -.22, pÂ =Â .04), and elevated sexual anxiety (BÂ =Â .05, pÂ =Â .03). Elevated body dissatisfaction is prospectively associated with negative psychological and sexual health outcomes. Given the high prevalence of body image concerns in sexual minority men, depression and/or HIV/STI prevention programs may benefit from routinely assessing for body dissatisfaction among this population, and addressing those who report concerns. PMID:26857379
HÃ©ctor Alexander Afanador CastaÃ±eda
Full Text Available The education and research project âI Build my Sexuality and my Life Planâ in its first phase sought to identify particular behaviors of adolescents about sexuality. The methodological and qualitative design, of exploratory nature, includes descriptive as well as interpretative aspects to recognize the characteristics of a particular context. For doing this, structured interviews with mixed items were applied in the classroom. This instrument assessed the incidence of T.V in sexual education, the student behaviors and conceptions when starting an interpersonal relationship (dating, and the actions of parents and adults about sexuality in the presence of adolescents. In applying the instrument, informed consents criteria were taken into account. Besides, it was created an atmosphere of comfort to respect the rights of adolescents and provide security to the respondent. This study was conducted with students between 15 and 17 years old, who belong to low or middle socioeconomic status. The results allowed to identify parents tended to omit or avoid speech acts about sexuality with their sons or daughters because this type of content is still seen as a taboo. Besides, when parents talk about this topic with their children, this behavior reflects a gender training (women are in charge of talking to their daughters, and men, to their sons. Moreover, meanwhile boys respond to a natural and spontaneous vision, girls respond to a traditional and moralized perspective.
Friedman, Carly K.; Morgan, Elizabeth M.
The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an
Full Text Available Introduction. Obtaining objective data on sexual offenders against minors is difficult. In order to enhance the possibilities to prevent such crimes it is essential to determine factors that condition this kind of sexual behavior. Aim: The aim of the study was to prepare a multidimensional analysis of a profile of sexual offenders against minors. Material and method. A detailed analysis of documentation from forensic sexological, psychiatric and psychological examinations and information from the records of the proceedings concerning 257 perpetrators was performed by the authors. Information analyzed included demographic data, psychosocial background, psychosexual development, recent sexual activity, physical and mental health issues and information concerning accused sexual crime. Results. The majority of the offenders had undisturbed family relations. However, subjects with sexual preference disorders perceived their parentsâ relationship as worse, reported more difficulties in educational process and in relation to teachers and peers. 5.4% of subjects experienced sexual abuse and 23.3% physical violence in their childhood. The majority reported no sexual dysfunction and had regular but rare sexual activity. 20.6% were diagnosed as having mental disorder and 36.8% were alcohol abusers. Almost 30% were under influence of alcohol or another substance during the crime. The majority had no sexual preference disorder. Definite pedophilia was found in 27% and traits of psychosexual immaturity in 23.1% of cases. There was no relationship between sexual preference disorders and psychiatric comorbidity, alcohol or substance abuse. The acts of sexual abuse comprised genital touching, vaginal or oral intercourse as well as exposing offenderâs or victimâs body. These acts were typically against one child, planned, being aware of victimâs age and using physical violence. Conclusions. The data from our research should be taken into account when planning therapeutic and preventive interventions.
Budge, Stephanie L; Keller, Bethany L; Sherry, Alissa R
Sexual pressure can have detrimental effects to individuals both physically and emotionally; however, research in this area is lacking regarding the experiences by lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning (LGBQ) women. This online study qualitatively examined sexual pressure experienced and explained by LGBQ women (n = 50) using grounded theory methodology. Participants responded to open-ended questions by providing perspectives from both those who were on the receiving end of the sexual pressure (recipients) and from those who pressured their partners (initiators). Results indicated that there were eight overarching themes, 43 higher order categories, and 241 line-by-line codes. The eight overarching themes included: Reasons to Not Want Sex, Reasons for Pressuring, Reasons for Giving In, Actions of Initiators, Expectations, Communication, Negative Outcomes, and Positive Reactions. Negative Outcomes was the most common theme endorsed. Several higher order categories indicated the unique experiences of sexual minority women, namely trying to be "normal" (e.g., engaging in sexual acts as a result of internalized homophobia), experiencing more pressure from men, and self-consciousness (specifically related to lack of knowledge about sex with women). Implications for the current study include the importance of addressing sexual pressure with sexual minority women and creating interventions, such as assertiveness training and communication skills, that could assist both recipients and initiators with engaging in mutually satisfactory sexual practices. PMID:24872189
Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn White; Keo-Meier, Colton L
This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender-nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bimodel methods (online and in person) to complete a one-time, Web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n = 452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n = 205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other nonbinary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, and 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions posttransition, and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people. PMID:26156113
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and were
Brook, David W.; Morojele, Neo K.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.
This study tested a developmental model of pathways to risky sexual behavior among South African adolescents. Participants comprised 633 adolescents, 12-17 years old, recruited from households in Durban, South Africa. Data were collected using in-person interviews. Topics included adolescents' sexual behaviors, household poverty levels, vulnerableâ¦
Gilson, Kathryn J.; Lancaster, Sandra
Objective: To examine childhood sexual abuse in Australian childbearing adolescents and the contribution of abuse variables (sexual and physical abuse) to antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety in adolescents. Methods: Seventy-nine adolescents proceeding with a pregnancy for the first time were surveyed about abuse experiences and wereâ¦
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually
Bramsen, Rikke H; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte
The present study modeled the direct relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent peer-to-peer sexual victimization (APSV) and the mediated effect via variables representing the number of sexual partners, sexual risk behavior, and signaling sexual boundaries. A cross-sectional study...
Needham, Belinda L.
Previous research suggests that sexual minority youth have poorer health-related outcomes than their heterosexual peers. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in mental health and substance use increase, decrease, or remain the same during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Data are from Wavesâ¦
de Looze, Margaretha; Constantine, Norman A; Jerman, Petra; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; ter Bogt, Tom
Sexual communication is a principal means of transmitting sexual values, beliefs, expectations, and knowledge from parents to children. Although this area has received considerable research attention, more studies with representative samples are needed to assure that findings are reflective of populations of interest. A nationally representative sample of parent-adolescent dyads (N = 2,965; mean adolescent age = 13.8 years) in the Netherlands was employed to examine the frequency of parent-adolescent sexual communication and its association with adolescent sexual behaviors (defined as sexual initiation, condom use, and contraceptive pill use). Nine communication topics in the areas of anatomy, relationships and rights, and protection and contraception were examined. In all, 75%of parents reported having discussed at least one topic multiple times with their adolescents. Romantic relationships were discussed most frequently. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that parent-adolescent sexual communication on protection and contraception was positively associated with adolescent sexual initiation and contraceptive pill use but not condom use. This may reflect that adolescents, when they become sexually active, are more likely to discuss sexuality with their parents. Findings are interpreted within the context of Dutch culture, which is generally accepting of adolescent sexuality and characterized by open sexual communication. PMID:24512029
Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Adolescentsâ friendships with other-sex peers serve important developmental functions, but they may also facilitate engagement in problem behavior. This study examines the unique contributions of other-sex friendships and friendsâ behavior to alcohol use, smoking, and initiation of sexual intercourse among late adolescent girls and boys. A total of 320 adolescents (53% girls; 33% racial/ethnic minorities) provided sociometric nominations of friendships annually in grades 10â12. Friendship net...
Sales, Jessica M; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A; Diclemente, Ralph J.
Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. Afr...
Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles
The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21796485
Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G
Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population. PMID:26763500
Doornwaard, Suzan M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/353722618; Megan A. Moreno; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/17399394X; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071628274
Purpose: Social networking sites (SNSs) form increasingly popular venues for adolescents to express their developing identity, including their sexual self. This study investigated how and to what extent early and middle adolescents display sexuality and romance on SNSs and the demographic and psychosexual factors associated with their displays. Methods: Dutch adolescents aged 11-18 years were recruited and Facebook friended. Participants' Facebook profiles were evaluated for sexual and romant...
Jacobs, Cecilia Dine; Wolf, Eve M.
Examines and critiques research that measures the effects of school sexuality education programs on adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior. Discusses common methodological problems and examines studies measuring program effectiveness. Research suggests participation in school sexuality education does not promote increased or earlier sexual
Goldenberg, Diane; Eva H Telzer; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Fuligni, Andrew; GalvÃ¡n, Adriana
The consequences of risky sexual behavior are of public concern. Adolescents contribute disproportionately to negative consequences of risky sexual behavior. However, no research has examined the neural correlates of impulse control and real-world engagement in risky sexual behavior in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine this question. Twenty sexually active adolescents performed an impulse control task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and ri...
Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen
AIM: This paper reports an investigation to establish whether metabolic control is different in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities with type 1 diabetes compared with young Danish patients, and to learn about factors affecting their opportunities to achieve good metabolic control....... BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities in Denmark is increasing. Having a different ethnic background has frequently been described as a risk factor for poor metabolic control, but whether the risk is represented by the ethnicity and immigration itself or in...... combination with other factors is unclear. METHODS: The study included data (gender, age, diabetes duration HbA(1c), number of incidents of severe hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis) from a national register including 919 Danish and 58 children and adolescents from ethnic minorities, questionnaires to all 20...
Bramsen, Rikke H; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte
adolescents with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = 0.5). The estimates from the mediational model indicated full mediation of the effect of CSA on APSV via number of sexual partners and sexual risk behavior. The current study suggests that the link between CSA and APSV was mediated by sexual behaviors......The present study modeled the direct relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent peer-to-peer sexual victimization (APSV) and the mediated effect via variables representing the number of sexual partners, sexual risk behavior, and signaling sexual boundaries. A cross-sectional study...... specifically pertaining to situations of social peer interaction, rather than directly on prior experiences of sexual victimization. The present study identifies a modifiable target area for intervention to reduce adolescent sexual revictimization....
Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem
The extent of culture maintenance by ethnic minority groups and their adaptation to majority group culture are two issues central to everyday thinking about multiculturalism. Using Social Identity Theory and a two-dimensional acculturation model as theoretical frameworks, the present study examines the attitudes of Dutch and Turkish adolescents in the Netherlands. Turkish adolescents were strongly in favor of culture maintenance, which was not seen to be contradictory to adaptation. In contra...
Yode, Miangotar; LeGrand, Thomas
This study explores the relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and four indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescents aged 14 to 19 years in Burkina Faso, Malawi and Uganda. Analyses are conducted using data from National Surveys of Adolescents, organized in 2004. Multivariate analyses are performed using dichotomous logistic regression and ordered polychotomic logistic regression. Analyses show that initiation of sexual activity before age 14 is more likely to be associated with having a casual sex partner. It is less likely to be associated with condom use at first sexual relation or with systematic condom use in the past 12 months. These associations vary depending on adolescents' country and gender. Delaying onset of sexuality could be a surer and safer way to protect health during adolescence. However, sexual and reproductive health programs that advocate abstinence only are likely to have few positive effects on young people. To better implement this strategy, sexual education for adolescents should be integrated. PMID:22916550
Burton, David L.; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S.
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexuallyâ¦
Hadley, Wendy; Larry K. Brown; Lescano, Celia M.; Kell, Harrison; Spalding, Kirsten; DiClemente2, Ralph; Donenberg, Geri
This study investigated the relationship between parent-teen sexual communication, discussion of condoms, and condom use among adolescents in mental health treatment. Adolescents with a history of sexual intercourse and their parents completed questionnaires assessing adolescent sexual risk behavior, sexual communication, and discussion of sexual topics. Greater condom use by adolescents was associated with parent-adolescent condom discussion but was not associated with openness in sexual com...
Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.
Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:
Martin-Storey, Alexa; August, Elana G
The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status (e.g., identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) has traditionally been identified as a concealable stigma, compared with race/ethnicity or physical disability status. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested. Heterosexual and sexual minority-identified college and university students (N = 251) completed questionnaires regarding their sexual minority identity, experiences of harassment due to gender nonconformity, harassment due to sexual minority status, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity. Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities. PMID:25621903
Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan
Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.â¦
Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Berres, Ashley K.; Sim, Leslie; Friedrich, William N.
The primary goal of this study was to determine if the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory-Self-Report conformed to the five-factor scale format that was initially used with a clinical sample that included adolescents referred for sexual abuse evaluations. Participants were 141 teenagers, ages 12-19 (M = 15.11, SD = 1.4), and their
Sabia, Joseph J.
This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent
Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy
The purpose of this study was to examine sexually active adolescents' perceptions of which factors they believe could have influenced postponement of their first and current sexual intercourse experiences, and to explore demographic differences by using a diverse sample. Design and methods were descriptive. Many adolescents reported that "nothing"â¦
Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay
The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the processâ¦
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceivedâ¦
Elfers, John; Carlton, Lidia; Gibson, Paul; Puffer, Maryjane; Smith, Sharla; Todd, Kay
The Adolescent Sexual Health Work Group commissioned the development of core competencies that define the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for all providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health. This article describes the background and rationale for this set of competencies, the history and use of competencies, and the process
Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention intervention, on parent-reported measures. Bahamian parent-youth dyads (N = 1,833) participating in the randomized control trial were assigned to receive one of four conditions. Parents were assessed longitudinally at baseline and 6 and 12 months later. Through 12 months follow-up, parents exposed to Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together showed higher knowledge of condom use skills, perceptions of improved condom use competence on the part of their youth, and perceived improved parent-child communication about sex-related information. Although youth were the targeted beneficiary, parents also benefited directly from the sexual risk reduction parenting program. Parents demonstrated improved perceptions and knowledge that would enable them to more effectively guide their child and also protect themselves from sexual risk. PMID:25636315
Kim, Hyun Sik
Numerous studies have demonstrated the negative influence of sexual debut during adolescence on mental health outcomes. This article contributes to this literature by investigating whether sexual debut has negative effects on mental health among South Korean adolescents and whether the timing of adolescent sexual debut matters. Drawing on longitudinal data from a nationally representative survey, we first predicted mental health outcomes at one year after high school graduation using first sexual intercourse that had occurred before the outcomes were measured. In a second statistical model, adolescent sexual debut was defined as first coitus that had occurred before high school graduation. Sexual debut was associated with an increase in problematic aggressive behaviors for both genders. In contrast, only girls experienced a rise in depressive symptoms after becoming sexually active. For girls, having sex before high school graduation was correlated with worse mental health outcomes to the extent that sexual debut even enhanced the risk of suicidal ideation. We concluded that the negative effects of sexual activity among South Korean adolescents are attributable mainly to the sexually conservative atmosphere and gendered sexuality in that country. PMID:26457545
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Duncan, Dustin; Johnson, Renee
The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel measure of environmental risk factors for bullying among sexual minority youths. Data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) assault hate crimes were obtained from police records, geocoded, and then linked to individual-level data on bullying and sexual orientation from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (N = 1,292; 108 sexual minorities). Results indicated that sexual minority youths who reported relational and electronic bullying were more likely to reside in neighborhoods with higher LGBT assault hate crime rates. There was no asso- ciation between LGBT assault hate crimes and bullying among heterosexual youths, pro- viding evidence for specificity to sexual minority youth. Moreover, no relationships were observed between sexual minority bullying and neighborhood-level violent and property crimes, indicating that the results were specific to LGBT assault hate crimes. PMID:26160063
Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Ybarra, Michele
Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13â18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gen...
Sipsma, Heather L.; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.; Lin, Haiqun; Kershaw, Trace S
Rates of STIs, HIV, and pregnancy remain high among adolescents in the US, and recent approaches to reducing sexual risk have shown limited success. Future expectations, or the extent to which one expects an event to actually occur, may influence sexual risk behavior. This prospective study uses longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (n = 3,205 adolescents; 49.8 % female) to examine the impact of previously derived latent classes of future expectations on sexual...
Kwok, Diana K; Wu, Joseph
Intolerant attitudes and sexual prejudice against sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning/queer-LGBQ) has been a long-standing global concern. In this article, Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities are examined with reference to the cultural context in Hong Kong, a place where the East has intermingled with the West for over a century. Chinese sexuality manifested in Hong Kong is a mix of Confucian ideology and Christian thought. Traditional Confucian values of xiao (filial piety) and conventional religious thoughts of Christianity together influence Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities. Though many governmental policies have been put in place and numerous laws have been enacted to protect the human rights of underprivileged and disadvantaged groups over the past few decades, sexual minorities are frequently being excluded from most of these protections. In Hong Kong, sexual prejudice exists not only among the general public, but also among educators and mental health professionals. Thus, Chinese sexual minorities experience sexual prejudice and minority stress in Hong Kong under unique cultural circumstances. This calls for inclusive policies and an embracing attitude towards sexual minorities so their mental health will not suffer. PMID:26569635
Ellen, Jonathan M.; Lane, Margo A; McCright, Jacque
Objectives To determine the proportion of sexually experiencedAfrican American adolescents who report having been screened for sexually transmitted diseases and to determine the proportion who report having been screened for these diseases among adolescents who have had a preventive primary health care visit in the past 2 years. Methods A telephone survey of a population-based sample of African American adolescents aged 12 to17 years residing in a low-income neighborhood in San Francisco with...
Harris, Allyssa L
Media play an important role in the lives of adolescents, providing them with opportunities for education and socialization. Media content is increasingly permeated with violence and sexual references that can be highly influential as adolescents continue the developmental process. Providing patient education is one of the cornerstones of nursing practice, and nurses are ideally suited to affect adolescent and parental education about the sexual and violent content of media. PMID:21284726
Full Text Available Sexual fetishism is defined by recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors involving the use of nonliving objects, such as female undergarments or non-sexual body parts. Although it is assumed that fetishism usually begins by adolescence, there is very limited data on the characteristics of sexual fetishism in children or adolescents. This paper aims to describe clinical pictures of two adolescent boys who developed sexual fetishism. They were 13 and 12 years-old of age and both have comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity and social anxiety disorders. We plan to discuss clinical picture, treatment intervention and impact of comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity and social anxiety disorders in the development of sexual fetishism in these subjects.
Goldenberg, Diane; Telzer, Eva H; Lieberman, Matthew D; Fuligni, Andrew; GalvÃ¡n, Adriana
The consequences of risky sexual behavior are of public concern. Adolescents contribute disproportionately to negative consequences of risky sexual behavior. However, no research has examined the neural correlates of impulse control and real-world engagement in risky sexual behavior in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine this question. Twenty sexually active adolescents performed an impulse control task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and risky sexual behaviors were assessed through self-report. Sexual riskiness ratings were negatively associated with activation in the prefrontal cortex during response inhibition. These results suggest that diminished engagement of impulse control circuitry may contribute to sexual riskiness in adolescents. PMID:23835204
Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.
As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASDâ¦
Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.
Describes investigation examining factors that distinguish between sexually active adolescents who are at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and those who are at lower risk for these outcomes. Suggests factors associated with sexual risk taking include low GPA, frequent alcohol consumption, and low levels of parentalâ¦
Young, Michael; Donnelly, Joseph; Denny, George
This study examined area-specific self-esteem scores by sexual behavior relative to adolescents' values concerning participation in sexual intercourse as an unmarried teenager. The sample consisted of 332 students in grades 7-12 from a Southern rural school district. Students were asked if they had ever had sexual intercourse (yes/no) and if they
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as
Conroy, Nicole E.
This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassmentâ¦
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; FrÃ¶jd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri
Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90953 boys and 91746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers. PMID:27131452
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationshipâ¦
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship
Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and reproductive risks within the Serbian speaking territory. An alarming statistic is that 5% of the female adolescents in this sample reported that they had been raped, or forced to participate in non-consensual sex within an ongoing relationship with a regular partner. There is a need for systemic changes within the field of sexual education and protection from sexually risky behavior among young adults.
Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Kral, Michael J.
This article examines major risk factors for suicide among sexual minority youth using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Although suicidal behavior among sexual minority youth is a major public concern in the United States, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since the majority of empirical research studies have addressed
Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Kral, Michael J.
This article examines major risk factors for suicide among sexual minority youth using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Although suicidal behavior among sexual minority youth is a major public concern in the United States, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since the majority of empirical research studies have addressedâ¦
Walls, Eugene N.; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wisneski, Hope
The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexual minority youths that community-based social workers may
Moradi, Bonnie; Mohr, Jonathan J.; Worthington, Roger L.; Fassinger, Ruth E.
This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is
Alderson, Kevin G.
Past research indicates sexual minority training provided to graduate students of counselling psychology is minimal and inadequate (Bahr, Brish, & Croteau, 2000; Morrison & L'Heureux, 2001; Murphy, 1991). Graduates feel unprepared to work competently with sexual-minority individuals, yet Canadian and American Associations require their members to
van Oosten, Johanna M F
Previous research has suggested that adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) may result in sexual uncertainty because the content of SEIM may conflict with what adolescents have learned about sex. However, research on which type of adolescent is most susceptible to the relation between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty is lacking. This study therefore investigated whether the relationship between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty depends on within-gender differences in sexual dispositions (i.e., impersonal sex orientation and hypergendered orientation). Using data from a representative two-wave panel survey among 1765 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17), I found that SEIM use predicted sexual uncertainty only among girls with a low hypergendered orientation and girls with a relatively high impersonal sex orientation. PMID:26373650
Macintyre, Anna K-J; Montero Vega, Adela R; Sagbakken, Mette
Although Chile is a traditionally conservative country, considerable legal advances in sexual and reproductive rights over the past decade have brought discourses on sexuality into mainstream political, social and media agendas. In light of these changes it is important to explore how adolescents conceptualize sexuality, which in turn influences their understanding of sexual rights. This study is based on four focus group discussions and 20 semi-structured interviews with adolescents, and seven interviews with key informants in Santiago, Chile. Findings indicate that adolescent conceptualizations of sexuality are diverse, often expressed as attitudes or observations of their social context, and primarily shaped by peers, parents and teachers. Attitudes towards individuals with non-heterosexual orientations ranged from support to rejection, and conceptualizations of sexual diversity were also influenced by media, medicalization and biological explanations. Gender differences in sexual expression were described through gendered language and behaviour, in particular observations of gender stereotypes, censored female sexuality and discourses highlighting female risk. Many adolescents described social change towards greater equality regarding gender and sexuality. To optimize this change and help bridge the gap between legal and social recognition of sexual rights, adolescents should be encouraged to reflect critically on issues of gender equality and sexual diversity in Chile. PMID:26719000
Selkie, Ellen M; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan
BACKGROUND: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. RESULTS: A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for "safe" resources. DISCUSSION: Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents' preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. TRANSLATION TO HEALTH EDUCATION PRACTICE: Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents' views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health. PMID:22229150
Frost, David M; Meyer, Ilan H; Schwartz, Sharon
This article reports a study of the function and composition of social support networks among diverse lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women (n = 396) in comparison to their heterosexual peers (n = 128). Data were collected using a structured social support network matrix in a community sample recruited in New York City. Our findings show that gay and bisexual men may rely on "chosen families" more than lesbian and bisexual women. Both heterosexuals and LGBs relied less on family and more on other people (e.g., friends, coworkers) for everyday social support (e.g., recreational and social activities, talking about problems). Providers of everyday social support were most often of the same sexual orientation and race/ethnicity as participants. In seeking major support (e.g., borrowing large sums of money), heterosexual men and women along with lesbian and bisexual women relied primarily on their families, but gay and bisexual men relied primarily on other LGB individuals. Racial/ethnic minority LGBs relied on LGB similar others at the same rate as did White LGBs but, notably, racial/ethnic minority LGBs reported receiving fewer dimensions of support. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752447
Ryan J. Watson
Full Text Available A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335 and Norway (N = 2423. Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar patterns of depression, suicidality, and substance use for sexual minorities in both the United States and Norway. The highest odds of substance use were among heterosexual-identified Norwegian youth who reported same-sex sexual activity, and the highest odds of suicidality were found for bisexual young adults in Norway. These findings have implications for how we consider culture and social policy as barriers and/or opportunities for sexual minorities.
Beentjes, J.W.J.; Konig, R.P.
This study investigates whether exposure to music videos predicts adolescents' sexual attitudes when controlled for relevant characteristics of individuals and their social environment. Sexual attitudes are related to their music video use (i.e. exposure to music videos, peer group talk about music videos, and perceived realism of these videos), personal factors and the sexual norms they perceive in their social environment (i.e. sexual norms of their parents and friends). A survey among Dutc...
Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Rodriguez, Israel; Mengele, Shruta Rawat; Herbenick, Debby; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Sanders, Stephanie; Dange, Alpana; Anand, Vivek
The experiences of sexual minority women (i.e., women who do not identify as 'heterosexual') in India have largely been absent in scientific literature. In partnership with India's oldest and largest sexual and gender minority-advocacy organisation, the Humsafar Trust, our study used community-based participatory research principles to explore the lived experiences and health concerns of sexual minority women in Mumbai. Study methodologies included interviews with key informants, a focus group comprised of six women, and an additional 12 in-person interviews with sexual minority women to identify important physical, mental, social and other health priorities from these women's perspectives. Thematic data are organised within the framework offered by the social ecological model, including individual, interpersonal, micro and macro levels. Findings from this study are important in providing the groundwork for future research and intervention involving sexual minority women in India, a dramatically underserved population. PMID:26873141
Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven
Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews theâ¦
Cornman, B J
The incidence of childhood sexual abuse has reached epidemic proportions. Many of the perpetrators are family members or a parent figure to the victim. Adolescent sexual abuse victims are identified as an underserved population. The Sexual Assault Center in Seattle, Washington, offers a treatment group for older adolescent females who have been sexually abused and who exhibit significantly disturbed behaviors as a result. Group composition, goals, and organization are discussed. Using the framework of the four traumagenic dynamics of child sexual abuse, as developed by Finkelhor and Browne (1985), the wide range of symptoms seen in these adolescents is described. Each dynamic-traumatic sexualization, betrayal, powerlessness, and stigmatization-is reviewed in terms of how it manifests in victims' responses to the abuse. Practical application of these dynamics in terms of group intervention strategies is reviewed. PMID:2793425
Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, J. Roy; Cogan, Jeanine C.
This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions ("heterosexism") and among individuals. The latter include "enacted sexual stigma" (overt
Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, J. Roy; Cogan, Jeanine C.
This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions ("heterosexism") and among individuals. The latter include "enacted sexual stigma" (overtâ¦
Kwok, Kan, Diana; ??
This phenomenological qualitative study is informed by integrated theories including a social constructionist perspective on human sexuality, sexual identity development models, heterosexism with theoretical support of minority stress model and feminist theory. The aim was to uncover the lived experiences of 20 male sexual minority students navigating heterosexism in secondary schools, within the socio-cultural context of Hong Kong Chinese society. Due to the invisibil...
Ryan J. Watson; Christopher W. Wheldon; Lars WichstrÃ¸m; Russell, Stephen T.
A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335) and Norway (N = 2423). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use) compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar pa...
Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A
Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56Â % female) adolescents (16-21Â years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27Â % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47Â % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The female adolescents who had avoided sexual activity were more likely to have experienced sexual coercion. The male adolescents who had avoided sexual activity were more religious and likely to have experienced sexual coercion. The male adolescents who had avoided romantic relationships were more sexually distressed and likely to have experienced sexual coercion. No associations were found for romantic avoidance among female adolescents. These results reflect considerable agency in the decision-making of adolescents in intimate contexts. They are discussed in terms of their challenge to current discourses about rampant adolescent sexuality as well as their implications for education and prevention interventions that incorporate personal choice and decision-making into their protocols. PMID:26932719
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0. Adolescent attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sexual behavior comprise the following three dimensions: (1) external incentives, (2) the developmental process, and (3) internal control. External incentives include the normalization of sexual behavior between peers, the desire to feel included in a group, parental influence, and media influence. The developmental process includes imagining the sexual experience and onset of sexual activity. Internal control includes the fear of pregnancy, the fear of parental rejection, and the fear of being judged. These findings can provide a reference for designing future sex education curricula and counseling programs for adolescents. PMID:24502972
Marshall, Alexandra; Yarber, William L.; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine M.; Gray, Mary L.; Estell, David B.
Background: Research has shown that bullying has serious health consequences, and sexual minority-oriented youth are disproportionately affected. Sexual minority-oriented youth include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or questioning (LGBTQ) individuals. This study examined the bullying experiences of sexual minority-oriented youth in aâ¦
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Fromme, Kim
The purpose of this study was to examine how sexual minority status (as assessed using both identity and behavior) was associated with trajectories of dating violence. University students from a large Southwestern university completed questions on their sexual minority identity, the gender of their sexual partners, and about experiences of dating violence for six consecutive semesters (NÂ =Â 1942). Latent growth curve modeling indicated that generally, trajectories of dating violence were stable across study participation. Sexual minority identity was associated with higher initial levels of dating violence at baseline, but also with greater decreases in dating violence across time. These differences were mediated by number of sexual partners. Having same and other-sex sexual partners was associated with higher levels of dating violence at baseline, and persisted in being associated with higher levels over time. No significant gender difference was observed regarding trajectories of dating violence. PMID:26994347
Kogan, Steven M.
The role of disclosing child sexual abuse on adolescent survivors' symptomology and the presence of additional unwanted sexual experiences was investigated in a subsample of 111 adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents who reported child sexual abuse. Results indicated that prompt disclosure of sexual abuse to an adult moderated the
Girish H Banwari
Full Text Available Traditionally, sexual abuse is under-reported and under-recognized when the victims are boys. A study carried out by the Government of India in 2007 suggests that every second child/adolescent in the country faces some form of sexual abuse and it is nearly equally prevalent in both sexes. The significance of the problem is undermined all the more when the abuse is perpetrated by a peer. Sexual activity between children and adolescents that occurs without consent or as a result of coercion is tantamount to abuse. A majority of the victims do not disclose the occurrence to anyone. This often neglected issue of adolescent male peer sexual abuse in a sexually conservative country like India is highlighted and discussed through this case, which came to light only after the victim developed a venereal disease.
Leclerc, Benoit; Felson, Marcus
Adolescent abuse of younger children has long been recognized, but empirical research on the circumstances of this phenomenon is rare. This article examines how adolescent offenders find and gain access to victims, work out time alone with them, and set up or exploit settings for sexual contact. Prior researchers learned that adult sex offenders use certain routine activities to perform these tasks. The current research inquires whether adolescent offenders are similar. We administered Kaufman's Modus Operandi Questionnaire to a sample of 116 Canadian adolescent males undergoing treatment for a sexual offense against a child. Adolescent offenders follow routines similar to adults but are better able to use games and activities as a prelude to sexual abuse. We discuss how routine legal activities set the stage for activities and should be considered when devising situational prevention strategies. PMID:25060598
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10â19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15â19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.
Riley, Tracey J; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Shapiro, Jenna B; Conley, Colleen S
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents experience unique stressors and elevated internalizing symptoms. This study examines differences in coping styles between SGM and heterosexual adolescents and the potential mediating roles of stress and coping styles. Analyses indicated that SGM (NÂ =Â 75) adolescents reported higher levels of internalizing symptoms (depression, anxiety, and distress), higher use of maladaptive coping styles (denial and blame), lesser use of adaptive coping styles (reframing and religion), and greater experiences of stress, compared to their heterosexual counterparts (NÂ =Â 1702). Bootstrapping analyses revealed the relationship between sexual identity and internalizing symptoms measured approximately 3 months later was not mediated by stress and coping, adjusting for gender, age, and baseline symptomatology. Findings suggest that earlier adolescent differences in internalizing symptoms presage increasing symptomatology across the transition to college, and other mediators during the college transition explain the continued increases in internalizing symptoms. PMID:27055249
Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M
Health disparities exist between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. These health disparities may be due to stressful social situations and environments that are created by discrimination. The current study recruited 277 sexual minorities to complete an online survey to examine the effects of discrimination on health. Discrimination from family and friends, compared to non-family and friends, was found to be more strongly associated with poorer health. This effect was partially statistically mediated by perceived stress reactivity. Findings from this study highlight the importance of distinguishing between different sources of discrimination when examining the effect of discrimination on health in sexual minority adults. PMID:26513583
O'Halloran, Maria; Carr, Alan; O'Reilly, Gary; Sheerin, Declan; Cherry, Joan; Turner, Rhonda; Beckett, Richard; Brown, Sarah
A study compared psychological characteristics of 27 Irish adolescents who had sexually abused other youngsters (SA group), 20 controls who had significant behavioral problems but no history of sexually offending (CC group), and 29 normal controls. The psychological adjustment of the SA group was less problematic than the CC group. (Contains
Bailey, Jennifer A.; McCloskey, Laura Ann
This study examined the link between childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use among girls, and evaluated depressive self-concept and behavioral under-control (BUC) as pathways to substance use for sexually abused girls. Participants (n = 150) were drawn from a longitudinal study of the impact of domestic violence on the lives of womenâ¦
Leach, Fiona; Sitaram, Shashikala
This article reports on a small exploratory study of adolescent girls' experiences of sexual harassment and abuse while attending secondary school in Karnataka State, South India. In South Asia, public discussion of sexual matters, especially relating to children, is largely taboo, and the study uncovers a hidden aspect of schooling, whichâ¦
Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others
A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, andâ¦
Full Text Available Problem statement: Delinquent adolescents with substance abuse disorders frequently engage in behaviors that elevate their risk of contracting HIV. Although effective risk reduction interventions are urgently needed, there is uncertainty about the nature of interventions required to produce change. Approach:This study evaluated whether Modified version of Becoming A Responsible Teen (M-BART produced greater reductions in drug use and sexual risk behaviors than an Anger Management (AM condition among a mixed gender, culturally diverse sample of adolescents in court-ordered substance dependence treatment. Results: No significant differences were found between M-BART (n = 70 and AM (n = 59 groups in degree of change between intake and outcome in HIV sex risk or drug use behaviors. However, across groups, meaningful reductions were found in total number of sex partners and in proportions of total unprotected sex acts, unprotected vaginal sex, unprotected oral giving sex acts and unprotected oral receiving sex acts from baseline to follow-up (all pÂs Conclusion: Factors that accounted for meaningful changes across groups and no change between intervention outcomes were discussed. While the M-BART intervention impacted the adolescents directly by teaching skills about how to reduce risky sex, the AM intervention and also impacted higher order factor, impulsivity, linked to risky sex and drug use. Implications for HIV prevention among minority adolescents were discussed.
Perkins, Barbara B.
This is an annotated bibliography on adolescent birth control and sexuality. Materials cited come from Index Medicus, Dissertation Abstracts, ERIC, Population Index, Psychological Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. The bibliography is divided into six sections by subject: (1) "Adolescent Contraception: Laws and Public Opinion;" (2) "Adolescentâ¦
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. Results The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30% of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5% of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06, lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99, being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35, lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89 to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. Conclusions The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative attitudes toward adolescent-friendly reproductive health service and re-enforcing the positive ones.
Duncan DT; Hatzenbuehler ML; Johnson RM
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals.METHODS: We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th-12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n=108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths' residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n=103).RESULTS: The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p=0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p>0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p>0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity.CONCLUSIONS: We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use.
Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs F G; Stuart, Jaimee; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Rossen, Fiona V; Utter, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual minority students in supportive school environments experienced fewer depressive symptoms and lower rates of suicide ideation, plans and attempts ("suicidality") than sexual minority students in less supportive school environments. In 2007, a nationally representative sample (NÂ =Â 9,056) of students from 96 high schools in New Zealand used Internet tablets to complete a health and well-being survey that included questions on sexual attractions, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Students reported their experience of supportive environments at school and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) bullying, and these items were aggregated to the school level. Teachers (nÂ =Â 2,901) from participating schools completed questionnaires on aspects of school climate, which included how supportive their schools were toward sexual minority students. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on depressive symptoms and suicidality controlling for background characteristics of students. Sexual minority students were more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality than their opposite-sex attracted peers (pÂ <Â .001). Teacher reports of more supportive school environments for GLBT students were associated with fewer depressive symptoms among male sexual minority students (pÂ =Â .006) but not for female sexual minority students (pÂ =Â .09). Likewise in schools where students reported a more supportive school environment, male sexual minority students reported fewer depressive symptoms (pÂ =Â .006) and less suicidality (pÂ <Â .001) than in schools where students reported less favorable school climates. These results suggest that schools play an important role in providing safe and supportive environments for male sexual minority students. PMID:25469988
Siti Nor Y; Wong Fui-Ping; Rozumah B; Mariani M; Rumaya J; Mansor, A.T
This influence of gender, race, age and personal belief on adolescentâs sexual knowledge was examined. The respondents for the study were 860 schoolâgoing adolescents aged 13 to 18 from urbanization city in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by using self-administered questionnaire. A cultural sensitive sexual knowledge scale was developed and employed to measure respondentâs sexual knowledge. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple statistical tests were conducted to examine the relationsh...
This study explores the way minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands evaluate their sexual experiences, how they frame these experiences in different sexual discourses and how they deal with conflicts between different sexual discourses, both at home and in Dutch society. During 46 narrative interviews, Dutch young people (aged 12-22 years) from different minority ethnic communities shared their sexual histories and their dreams for the future relating to love and sexuality. Different sexual discourses can be identified in the language they used to describe their ideas and their experiences. Young people grow up with a variety of discourses but actively re-shape them according to circumstances and need. In many cases, young people experience a conflict between the discourses of the home and those that are prevalent more generally in Dutch society. Young people's ways of negotiating these contradictory discourses comprise four main strategies: (1) conforming to parents' values, (2) breaking up with parents, (3) leading a double life and (4) integrating competing discourses. By bringing together different sexual discourses and acknowledging diverse strategies, sexual health policies can become more effective in promoting sexual health for minority ethnic youth. Findings from the study add fuel to debate on understanding (sexual) agency among young people, exhibiting the social 'embeddedness' of individual agency. PMID:24902033
Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii disclosure of sexuality; (iv use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH and the Terrence Higgins Trust (THT CHAPS partnerships. Staff who agreed to take part were asked to complete a questionnaire online. The online survey was completed by 1241 ethnic minority MSM, 416 men born in South and Central America or Central and Eastern Europe, and 13,717 white British MSM; 67 ethnic minority MSM took part in the online qualitative interview. In addition 364 people working in sexual health clinics and 124 health promotion workers from around Britain completed an online questionnaire. Discussion The findings from this study will improve our understanding of the sexual health and needs of ethnic minority MSM in Britain.
Igartua, Karine J
ObjectivesÂ In synthesizing a homosexual or bisexual identity, an individual may go through different stages before coming to a positive healthy identity. It is likely that there will be a period in which homosexual yearnings will be unwanted. Sometimes this distress leads the person to consult a health professional. Conversion therapy has been proven both ineffective and harmful and therefore has been ethically prohibited by all major psychiatric and psychological associations. The responsible clinician will attempt to assist the individual in his acceptance of his sexual minority. Occasionally individuals without homoeroticism consult because of distress related to sexual identity questioning which poses a different problem for clinicians especially if the situation goes unrecognized. The objective of this paper is to describe homosexual obsessive compulsive disorder (HOCD) and distinguish it clinically from the normal process of sexual minority identity formation in western culture.MethodsÂ A literature review yielded very few descriptions of homosexual OCD. A retrospective chart review of all patients seen in the last 3 years at the McGill University Sexual Identity Centre was conducted to identify all the cases of OCD. Six cases were found, 4 of which were of HOCD and are presented. Similarities between cases are highlighted.ResultsÂ All cases were young men with relatively little relationship and sexual experience. Most were rather shy and had some other obsessional history in the past though often at a sub-clinical threshold. Obsessional doubt about their orientation was very distressing and did not abate over time as would normally occur with a homoerotic individual. The four patients who had an obsession of being gay despite little or no homoerotism are presented in detail. They all presented mental compulsions, avoidance and physiological monitoring. Continuous internal debate trying to prove or disprove sexual orientation was a ubiquitous mental compulsion. They all spent a majority of time monitoring their physiological reactions to members of both sexes to check for arousal. They attempted homosexual activity and were disgusted by it, yet this did not end their questioning. They avoided relationships with the opposite sex, being either too anxious to initiate, or too conflicted to maintain them. The obsession with being gay seemed like a horrific thought symptomatic of homophobia, however the level of horror was out of proportion to the patient's overall level of homonegativity suggesting that the horror came mostly from feeling like their core identity was threatened.ConclusionÂ HOCD can present in ways similar to normal homosexual identity formation. A thorough exploration of eroticism towards both sexes as well as prior history of subclinical anxiety should help distinguish the two. Treatment of HOCD should combine education about sexuality and OCD as well as usual OCD treatments such as relaxation techniques, cognitive restructuring, mindfulness training and pharmacology. PMID:26966852
Gattis, Maurice N.; Woodford, Michael R.; Han, Yoonsun
Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. Midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depressi...
Elliott, Marc N.; Kanouse, David E; Burkhart, Q; Abel, Gary A.; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Beckett, Megan K.; Schuster, Mark A.; Roland, Martin
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND The health and healthcare of sexual minorities have recently been identified as priorities for health research and policy. OBJECTIVE To compare the health and healthcare experiences of sexual minorities with heterosexual people of the same gender, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. DESIGN Multivariate analyses of observational data from the 2009/2010 English General Practice Patient Survey. PARTICIPANTS The survey was mailed to 5.56 million random...
Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa
Work on structural stigma shows how public policy affects health outcomes for members of devalued groups, including sexual minorities. In the current research, structural stigma is proposed as a moderating variable that strengthens deleterious associations between perceived discrimination and social relationship functioning. Hypotheses were tested in two cross-sectional studies, including both online (N = 214; Study 1) and community (N = 94; Study 2) samples of sexual minority men and women r...
Isaksen, Eirin Winsnes
This thesis examines the recent legal, political and social changes for sexual and gender minorities in Nepal. The empirical data were produced during field work in Nepal in 2010. In a short period of time the sexual and gender minorities have experienced a significant improvement in rights as well as increased inclusion in political processes. However, this study shows that they still experience social challenges such as discrimination and harassment. Although positive social changes like in...
Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl GÃ¶ran
The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths' exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-mino...
Full Text Available We provide a definition of the concept of "cognitive distortions in the sexual sphere," reveal the relevance of the study of these distortions in the context of sexual offenses against minors. We briefly review the literature of research on the subject. We describe a research, the aim of which was to study a group of individuals who have committed sexual crimes against minors: how homogeneous is the sample in terms of the severity of the distortion. The group was divided into two subgroups: those who have been diagnosed with pedophilia, and those without pedophilia. The norm group also included persons who has never been prosecuted. To assess cognitive distortions in the sexual sphere we used SONAR method (The Sex Offender Need Assessment Rating. The obtained results confirm the importance of the factor of cognitive biases in the field of sexuality in the assessment of sexual crimes risk, as well as in the differential diagnosis of pedophilia.
Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol
The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor
Siti Nor Y
Full Text Available This influence of gender, race, age and personal belief on adolescentâs sexual knowledge was examined. The respondents for the study were 860 schoolâgoing adolescents aged 13 to 18 from urbanization city in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by using self-administered questionnaire. A cultural sensitive sexual knowledge scale was developed and employed to measure respondentâs sexual knowledge. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple statistical tests were conducted to examine the relationships between gender, race, age and personal belief with adolescentsâ sexual knowledge. Findings of the present study showed that: 1 No significant mean difference in sexual knowledge between boys and girls. 2 There was a statistically significant difference in the mean of sexual knowledge among the three races (F (2,766 =14.84, pâ¤.001. 3 Respondents with higher score in sexual knowledge tend to be older (r=.21, pâ¤.05, have lower score on extent of living a life according to the religious belief (r=-.07, pâ¤.05, have lower self-perceived importance of religion in life (r=-.11, pâ¤.01, have higher self-perceived sexual openness (r=-.31, pâ¤.01 and have more positive attitude toward sex related sources (r=.35, pâ¤.01. Findings of this study will help to further improve the understanding of adolescentsâ sexual knowledge and to give inputs to programs on adolescent development specifically in sexuality and reproduction health.
Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.
Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs thanâ¦
DÃ©vieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, MichÃ¨le; Frankel, Anne; Attonito, Jennifer; Saxena, Anshul; Rosenberg, Rhonda
This study examined the impact of individual, peer, family, school, and neighborhood level variables on sexual activity among 276 Haitian-American adolescents. Differences between those who were sexually active and those who were not were analyzed using Chi square and t tests. Significant factors at pÂ â¤Â 0.1 were entered into logistic regression for the full group and for girls-only. Half of males and 36.6Â % of females were sexually active. The multivariable model revealed that adolescents were more likely to be sexually active if they reported delinquent behaviors; had sexually active friends; and were living with only one parent, friends or relatives. For girls, living with both parents was protective against sexual activity, while substance use and emotional distress were risk factors. No language or acculturation measures were associated with sexual activity. Haitian-American adolescents may benefit from interventions that focus on gender-specific, contextual and cultural factors to prevent early sexual activity. PMID:25491443
Livingston, Nicholas A; Oost, Kathryn M; Heck, Nicholas C; Cochran, Bryan N
Research consistently demonstrates that sexual minority status is associated with increased risk of problematic substance use. Existing literature in this area has focused on group-specific minority stress factors (e.g., victimization and internalized heterosexism). However, no known research has tested the incremental validity of personality traits as predictors of substance use beyond identified group-specific risk factors. A sample of 704 sexual minority adults was recruited nationally from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning community organizations and social networking Web sites and asked to complete an online survey containing measures of personality, sexual minority stress, and substance use. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the incremental predictive validity of five-factor model personality traits over and above known sexual minority risk factors. Consistent with hypotheses, extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with drug and alcohol use after accounting for minority stress factors, and all factors except agreeableness were associated with substance use at the bivariate level of analysis. Future research should seek to better understand the role of normal personality structures and processes conferring risk for substance use among sexual minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25347022
Full Text Available WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, exposure to commercial sex workers (CSWs, previous infection with STDs and role of alcohol. Their diagnosis was based on history, clinical findings and laboratory confirmation. Adolescents and youths accounted for 30% of the total number of patients attending the STD clinic during this period. The male to female ratio was 1:0.95. Ninety-six percent (290 were single while 4% (13 were married. Seventy-two percent (217 were students. Age at onset of sexual activity was 10-20 years in 80%, 85% practiced risky sexual behaviour, patronising casual partners was frequent especially after alcohol use, 10% had been exposed to CSWs, condom use was poor, number of sexual partners varied between 1 and 5 and previous infections were not professionally treated. Adolescents and young people are sexually active and practice risky sexual behavioural patterns. Adolescents and youths account for a high percentage of patients patronising the STD clinic. Sexual education and youth friendly reproductive health services are urgently needed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS/STDs.
Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke
Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.
Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke
Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.â¦
HirÅ¡l-HeÄej, V.; Å tulhofer, A.
The paper analyzes socio-cultural and psychosocial factors affecting sexual activities and related risk-taking behaviors in Croatian high-school students. It attempts to determine the correlates of sexual activity, early sexual initiation, the number of sexual partners, and the use of contraceptives and condoms. Due to the gender-specific trajectories of sexual socialization and initiation, all the analyses were carried out separately for female and male students. The results p...
We provide a definition of the concept of "cognitive distortions in the sexual sphere," reveal the relevance of the study of these distortions in the context of sexual offenses against minors. We briefly review the literature of research on the subject. We describe a research, the aim of which was to study a group of individuals who have committed sexual crimes against minors: how homogeneous is the sample in terms of the severity of the distortion. The group was divided into two subgroups: t...
Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawareness of adolescentsâ sexual experience may influence communication and education about sex and sexuality in families. These findings have implications f...
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
Abstract Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawareness of adolescentsâ sexual experience may influence communication and education about sex and sexuality in families. These findings have impli...
Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Guptarak, Marisa; Wichajarn, Monjun; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Khampan, Ratchaneekorn; Grimes, Deanna E; Grimes, Richard M
Early initiation of sexual intercourse has been associated with negative consequences, such as higher rates of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. This study examined the attitudes and behavior of rural Thai adolescent students aged 16 to 20 years from northern Thailand regarding sexual intercourse. Differences between participants who previously had sexual intercourse and those who had not were explored. Those who had not previously had sexual intercourse were asked about the reasons why they had not had sex, their future plans for having sex and their dating experiences. More than 70% of participants stated they had not previously had sexual intercourse but one third of this group reported engaging in other sexual behavior. There were significant differences by gender, religion, ethnicity, and household income between those who had previously had sex and those who had not. Among those who had not previously had sexual intercourse, concern for their parents' feelings was the most common reason for delaying intercourse. About two-thirds of this group had plans not to have sexual intercourse until after marriage; nearly half of them reported currently having a boyfriend/girlfriend. Interventions aimed at delaying sexual intercourse should involve adolescents in their design and include their attitudes for delaying intercourse. Because of many gender differences seen in our study, interventions should be designed differently for males and females in rural northern Thailand. PMID:26466430
Tolman, Deborah L.; McClelland, Sara I.
This review details a key innovation across the field of adolescent sexuality research over the last decade--conceptualizing sexuality as a normative aspect of adolescent development. Anchored in a growing articulation of adolescent sexuality as having positive qualities and consequences, we provide an organizing framework for understandingâ¦
Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
Parent report and adolescent self-report data on lifetime sexual experience in adolescents with ASD were compared in 43 parent-adolescent dyads. Parents tended to underestimate the lifetime sexual experience of their sons, particularly solo sexual experiences such as masturbation and experience with orgasm. Parental underestimation and unawarenessâ¦
Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; McElwain, Alyssa D.; Pittman, Joe F.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca M.
The current study examined associations among parenting practices, adolescents' self-esteem and dating identity exploration, and adolescents' sexual behaviors. Participants were 680 African American and European American sexually experienced adolescents attending public high schools in the southeast. Results indicated that risky sexual behaviorâ¦
Keith W. Beard; Sandra S. Stroebel; Stephen L. OâKeefe; Karen V. Harper-Dorton; Karen Griffee; Debra H. Young; Sam Swindell; Kerri Steele; Thomas D. Linz; Karla Beth Moore; Megan Lawhon; Natalie M. Campbell
Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs) provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early ...
Zamboni, Brian D.; Silver, Rachel
Parental sex education might promote healthy sexual behavior among adolescents, but some parents assume that family communication about sex will lead to sexual activity. Family sex communication has been studied with a limited range of adolescent sexual behaviors but not sexual fantasy or desire. Two measures of family sex communication wereâ¦
Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk
An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslimâ¦
Biney, Adriana A. E.; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo
Background Adolescent sexual activity, especially among the urban poor, remains a challenge. Despite numerous interventions and programs to address the negative consequences arising from early and frequent sexual activity among youth in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, only slight progress has been made. A plausible explanation is that our understanding of what adolescents think about sex and about their own sexuality is poor. In that sense, examining how adolescents in urban poor communi...
Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Purpose: To examine if attitudes toward premarital sex, beliefs about peer influence, and family communication about sexual relationships differ by sexual experience status. Methods: Data were collected from a randomly selected ethnically diverse youth sample (N = 1,318) residing in two Midwestern cities. The primary method used in data analysisâ¦
Lehavot, Keren; Simpson, Tracy L
This study examined the impact of various traumas across the life span on screening positive for current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among heterosexual and sexual minority women veterans. Women veterans were recruited over the Internet (N = 706, 37% lesbian or bisexual) to participate in an anonymous, online survey. We assessed childhood trauma; adult sexual assault and adult physical victimization before, during, and after the military; combat exposure; perceived sexist discrimination during military service; sexual minority military stressors; past-year sexist events; and whether participants screened positive for PTSD or depression. Binary logistic regressions were used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PTSD and depression, stratified by sexual orientation and controlling for demographic characteristics. Lesbian and bisexual women reported higher rates of trauma across the life span, although in some instances (e.g., sexual assault during and after military service, combat exposure), they did not differ from their heterosexual counterparts. Childhood trauma and traumas that occurred during military service added the most variance to both PTSD and depression models. Sexual assault during military service appeared to be especially harmful with respect to screening positive for PTSD for both sexual orientation groups. Results revealed a number of other predictors of mental health status for women veterans, some of which differed by sexual orientation. Findings indicate a significant burden of interpersonal trauma for both heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual women veterans and provide information on the distinct association of various traumas with current PTSD and depression by sexual orientation. PMID:25019543
Espada, José P; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A; Carballo, José L
This paper aims to compare sexual behaviour and risk and protective factors between samples of adolescents who have sex under the influence of alcohol and those who do not, and to determine predictors factors for having had sex under the influence of alcohol. We analysed differences between these two groups in sexual practices, attitudes towards HIV, subjective norms and HIV knowledge. Drawing on survey data collected from 1216 Spanish adolescents aged 14-18 (M = 15.92; SD = .76), a subset of 297 sexually experienced participants was selected. Of these, 117 reported having had sex under the influence of alcohol in the past six months (51% girls). Adolescents who combined sex and alcohol engaged more in vaginal sex, oral sex and anal sex than those who did not. Having had sex under the influence of alcohol in the past six months was associated with negative attitudes towards condom use, when there are obstacles on using them, and less consistent condom use. There were no differences in knowledge about STIs/HIV between both groups. Adolescents who combined sex and alcohol showed further characteristics associated with sexual risk. Preventive measures must address the particular characteristics of this risk group. Further evidence is need about alcohol effects on sexual behaviour. PMID:23487280
Houck, Christopher D.; Hadley, Wendy; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Brown, Larry
While previous studies have identified relationships between school truancy and adolescent substance use risk, sexual risk remains unaddressed. Urban early adolescents (mean age 13.14 years) with mental health symptoms completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews regarding risk behaviors. Teens who reported a history of skipping school (n=25), compared to those who did not (n=113), indicated greater frequency of having ever engaged in oral, vaginal, and anal sex, as well as non-intercour...
Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention
Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV preventionâ¦
Huang, David Y. C.; Murphy, Debra A.; Hser, Yih-Ing
We used discrete-time survival mixture modeling to examine 5,305 adolescents from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth regarding the impact of parental monitoring during early adolescence (ages 14-16) on initiation of sexual intercourse and problem behavior engagement (ages 14-23). Four distinctive parental-monitoring groups wereâ¦
The market potential of sexual minorities has been traditionally overlooked by marketers. When the economic times are tough and the competition is only getting fiercer, can marketers afford to narrow down their target customer groups anymore? The aim of this thesis is to understand how B2C products marketers in Finland view and approach the sexual minorities as a target consumer group in their marketing. The findings will contribute to the existing theories of sexual minorities as a targe...
Kahn, Rachel E; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen
Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents' sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55 % male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153
Schlesinger, L B
A case of a 16-year-old male who committed a sexual matricide following years of mother-son incest is reported. After murdering his mother by strangulation, which itself was sexually arousing, the youngster engaged in both vaginal and anal necrophilia. The homicide occurred while the perpetrator was in a dissociative state and experiencing what has been referred to as a catathymic crisis: the sudden release of emotionally charged psychic conflict and tension, resulting in extreme violence within an interpersonal bond. Discussion of maternal image and maternal sexual conduct in relationship to the psychosexual development of adolescent males offers insight into the motivation in this extremely rare case. PMID:10432609
Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Lindley, Lisa L.
Positive perceptions of parent-child communication can influence behavioral outcomes such as sexual behavior and substance use among young people. Parent-child communication has been effective in modifying adverse health outcomes among heterosexual youth; however, limited research has examined the perceptions of parent-child communication amongâ¦
Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Lindley, Lisa L.
Positive perceptions of parent-child communication can influence behavioral outcomes such as sexual behavior and substance use among young people. Parent-child communication has been effective in modifying adverse health outcomes among heterosexual youth; however, limited research has examined the perceptions of parent-child communication among
Linda Suwarni; Djauhar Ismail; Yayi Suryo Prabandari; MG Adiyanti
Inadaquate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems, including early premarital sexual behavior. Previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely effect to adolescents premarital sexual behavior. Parental monitoring is the most important and effective factor to prevent early adolescents sexual activity. This paper examines the role of perceived parental monitoring in adolescentâs premarital sexual behavio...
Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Taylor, Darlene; Homma, Yuko; Ogilvie, Gina
Regular monitoring of trends in sexual health and sexual behaviours among adolescents provides strong evidence to guide intervention programs and health policies. Using the province-wide, school-based British Columbia (BC) Adolescent Health Surveys of 1992, 1998, and 2003, this study documented the trends in sexual health and risk behaviours among adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in BC, and explored the associations between sexual behaviours and key risk and protective factors. From 1992 to 2003...
Young, Brennan J.; Furman, Wyndol; Jones, Meredith C.
Investigators have identified a number of factors that increase the risk for experiencing sexual coercion, but as yet little is known about how sexual coercion in turn affects these risk factors. Using a sample of 110 adolescents, the current study examined the hypothesis that, after an incident of sexual coercion, adolescents would exhibit increases in several behaviors known to increase risk for victimization. As predicted, after experiencing sexual coercion, adolescents reported increased ...
MENA, MAITE P.; Dillon, Frank R.; Mason, Craig A.; SANTISTEBAN, DANIEL A.
Hispanic adolescents have been shown to have high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and substance abuse has been linked to risky sexual behaviors. The literature indicates that good parent-adolescent communication about sexual risk and safe sexual behaviors may help protect youth, yet little is known about this type of communication in Hispanic families. This article reports data on adolescent and parent factors associated with communication about moral and birth control ...
Madan Mohan Laddunuri
Introduction: A surge of sexual interest occurs around puberty and continues through adolescence. Heightened adolescent sexuality may be caused by a number of factors, including bodily changes, sexual hormones, social forces, and rehearsal for adult gender roles. The main objective of the present study is to understand the patterns and trends of adolescent studentsâ sexual behaviour in Tanzania.Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted and 550 secondary school students (1...
Robab Latifnejad Roudsari; Mojgan Javadnoori; Marzieh Hasanpour; Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi Hazavehei; Ali Taghipour
Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, author...
Davoren, Martin P
The burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) rests with young people, yet in Ireland there has been very little research into this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate and establish risk factors that predict STI occurrence among adolescents in Ireland.
Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcomeâ¦
Ciairano, Silvia; Bonino, Silvia; Kliewer, Wendy; Miceli, Renato; Jackson, Sandy
Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender, and adjustment were investigated in 2,273 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated with less alienation, more positive views of theâ¦
Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.
The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexualâ¦
Ethier, K; Kershaw, T; Niccolai, L; Lewis, J.; Ickovics, J
Objectives: Adolescent females are at significant risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and may not accurately incorporate indicators of risk into their perceptions of susceptibility. The objectives of the current analyses were to: (1) examine the relation between perceived susceptibility and indicators of risk; and (2) investigate the relation between perceived susceptibility and actual STI diagnosis.
This research investigates whether first sexual intercourse during adolescence is associated with increased risk of first marriage dissolution and tests whether the results are consistent with causal or selection explanations. Drawing on a sample of 3,793 ever-married women from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, this study estimatedâ¦
Mazloomian, Hoda; Moon, Bruce L.
This article describes the clinical practice of two male art therapists and their work with male adolescent sex offenders in a residential treatment facility. The authors share experiences of working with clients who, in addition to being offenders, were diagnosed with a mental illness and were themselves victims of sexual abuse. The function of
Hequembourg, Amy L; Dearing, Ronda L
This study examined the interrelations among shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, internalized heterosexism (IH), and problematic substance use among 389 gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women. Problematic alcohol and drug use were positively related to shame-proneness and negatively related to guilt-proneness. Bisexuals reported riskier substance use behaviors, lower levels of guilt-proneness, and higher levels of IH than gay men and lesbians. Furthermore, study findings indicated that shame and IH are related. Additional investigations of these associations would supplement current understandings of sexual minority stress and advance the development of substance-related intervention and prevention efforts targeting sexual minorities. PMID:23469820
Nwagu, Evelyn N
This study determined students' perception of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire. The population for the study comprised all students in government secondary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 600 students randomly selected from the population. Means, t-test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The result of the study revealed that there were significant differences at 0.05 level of significance in the mean perception of the students of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours when they were classified by gender and class. All the students irrespective of age agreed that alcohol and drug usage negatively influence sexual behaviour. The students perceived that students who do not take alcohol usually control their sexual desires while rape is common with students who are drug users. It was recommended among others that preventive health programmes meant to address adolescents' sexuality should be combined with appropriate drug education for maximum benefit. PMID:25661666
Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto, Patrícia Neyva da Costa Pinheiro
Full Text Available Objective: to describe the risk behaviors and vulnerability adopted by adolescents regarding STD/AIDS. Methodology: this is an ethnographic study, carried out at a public school of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. The population was composed of twenty male adolescents, from 12 to 18 years and that study in the fundamental and secondary education. The data collection happened through a semi-structured interview and simple observation. The content analysis followed Bardin's orientation. The survey was adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UFC, under protocol number 119/07 and after the informed consent of parents. Results: the data showed that among the risk conducts mentioned by the adolescents, the main one is sexual intercourse without preservative, and that there is fear and regret after the unprotected intercourse, and that the partner's age do influence in a negative way for protection. Conclusion: we considered necessary an approach on safe sex among teenagers, demanding the production of creative strategies that make sense in several socio-cultural contexts in which the adolescents are inserted. Descriptors: adolescent; sexual behavior; sexually transmitted diseases.
Keith W. Beard
Full Text Available Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early masturbation using human images, acting synergistically with critical period learning, and sexual imprinting. Early same-sex crushes were the most powerful predictor of ASOs, and they also increased the likelihood of engaging in early same-sex partnered and masturbation behaviors. Incestuous experiences with same-sex siblings affected the ASOs of the incest participants. And, lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants tended to have an earlier onset of puberty than heterosexual controls within sexes. However, statistical analyses showed that the incest and puberty effects were mathematically explained by the participantâs early sexual experiences with partners and other experiences such as masturbation using human images. Early same-sex crushes were predicted by nuclear family variables implying that same-sex crushes were more likely when the opposite-sex parent modeled an unsatisfactory heterosexual romantic partner.
Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; BolaÃ±os, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C
Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236
Myung H. Jin
Full Text Available Despite the increasing attention given to the construct of work engagement in the workplace, it remains under-researched in the academic literature. Using Kahnâs conceptual foundation of work engagement, this study examines whether high levels of work engagement lead to equally satisfying work experiences for members of the workforce regardless of their sexual orientation. Using the 2012 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS, authors find that while active engagement at work had positive influence on employee job satisfaction regardless of oneâs sexual orientation, high level of engagement at work among LGBT employees was less strongly associated with job satisfaction than it was for those non-LGBT employees. Implications are discussed.
Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.
Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,â¦
McCarty-Caplan, David Milo
School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school
McCarty-Caplan, David Milo
School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to schoolâ¦
Saywitz, Karen J.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Berliner, Lucy; Cohen, Judith A.
Reviews research demonstrating the variable effects of childhood sexual abuse, need for intervention, and effectiveness of available treatment. Proposes extending and modifying treatment from mainstream clinical child psychology to sexually abused children. Interventions range from psychoeducation and screening, to short-term, abuse-focusedâ¦
Aliucha Díaz Curbelo
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar y explorar aspectos relacionados con sexualidad y reproducción en un grupo de adolescentes de 15 a 19 años de politécnicos del municipio Cotorro (diciembre 2007. MÉTODOS: investigación observacional, descriptiva, prospectiva y transversal. Universo: 2153 efebos de los cuales se tomó al azar una muestra de 1292. Se estudiaron: edad, sexo, edad de iniciación en vida sexual, conocimientos sobre sexualidad y reproducción, infecciones de transmisión sexual y fuentes de información. RESULTADOS: edades entre 15 y 18 años, 61,9 %, varones 56,7 % y 70,9 % se habían iniciado en la vida sexual. "Responsabilidad de evitar embarazo" obtuvo el porcentaje más elevado de respuestas correctas (81,4 %, 79,3 % señaló el condón como anticonceptivo ideal. En "riesgos de infecciones de transmisión sexual", 61,9 % acertó. Los pares, fueron la primera fuente de información en 55,7 % y principal en 68,1 %. CONCLUSIONES: predominaron los menores de 18 años y el sexo masculino de los iniciados en la vida sexual. La primera y principal fuente de información fue el grupo de pares.OBJECTIVES: to characterize and explore aspects related to sexuality and reproduction in a group of adolescents aged 15-19 from the polytechnics of Cotorro municipality (December 2007. METHODS: an observational, descriptive, prospective and cross-sectional research was undertaken. The universe was composed of 2153 adolescents, of whom a sample of 1292 was taken at random. Age, sex, age at the beginning of sexual relations, knowledge about sexuality and reproduction, sexually tranasmited infections, and iniformation sources were studied. RESULTS: 61.9 % were between 15 and 18 years old, 56.7 % of them were males and 70.9 % had already initiated sexual relations. "The responsability for preventing pregnancy" obtained the highest percent of correct answers (81.4 %. 79.3 % referred to condom as the ideal contraceptive. As regards "risks for sexually transmitted infections" 61.9 % were right. The peer groups were the first source of information in 55.7 % and the main in 68.1 %. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed a predominance of adolescents under 18, of males and of those who had started their sexual life. The main source of information was the peer group.
Akanle Florence Foluso
Full Text Available This study investigates the magnitude and patterns of sexual coercion experienced by female adolescents in Southwest zone in Nigeria. The study population consists of all female adolescents aged 12-16 years. These adolescents are those who are either enrolled in the secondary school or those with limited education that was not in school at the period of this study. Samples of 475 girls were drawn from both the school and those not in schools. The sample was drawn from three different Yoruba speaking states in the south west Nigeria. The sampling techniques that were used were stratified and simple random sampling. The research instrument was a self constructed questionnaire title (SCAQ- Sexual Coercion of female Adolescents Questionnaire. The instrument has a reliability coefficient of 0.76 and was validated using, face content, validity procedure of testing validity. The data generated were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages for describing the data. The appropriate statistics such as t-test, Pearson product moment correlation and chi-square were used to make inferences about the data. The analysis of the data shows that girls have experienced sexual coercion such as verbal threats, unwanted touch, deceived into sex or forced sex. Other forms of sexual coercion such as verbal pressure, threats or unwanted holding of hands unwanted hugging or kissing as well as forced sexual activities have been experienced by girls. Based on the findings, it was recommended that skill training needs to be provided in and outside the school system. Teachers and counsellors should convey prevention messages so as to sensitize or discourage sexual coercion of female students in school.
Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul
Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at an increased risk for poorer mental and physical health outcomes than heterosexuals, and some of these health disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test 4 models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289
Igartua, Karine J; Montoro, Richard
ObjectiveÂ To propose a theoretical model and clinical approach to sexual minority patients who consult mental health professionalsMethodsÂ Clinicians at the McGill University Sexual Identity Center (MUSIC) who have been treating patients from various sexual minorities for more than 15 years present useful theoretical constructs of gender and sexuality as well as guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of patients consulting for discomfort or confusion surrounding their sexual orientation, their gender identity or both, based on both the current literature and their clinical experience.ResultsÂ The notions of non-binary construction of gender, of social determinism of gender roles and expression, and of gender creativity are presented. Sexual orientation is divided into four most commonly used dimensions (emotional attraction, physical attraction, behaviour and identity); the fluidity of these and their potential non-concordance are described. The fact that attraction to one gender is independent of attraction to another gender is highlighted. An attitude of openness to all forms of gender expression and sexual orientation constellations is encouraged to allow the patient free exploration of the several facets of their sexuality.Various domains to explore in evaluating sexual orientation and gender as well as therapeutic avenues are proposed. Areas to enquire about include: mental, physical and social experiences of gender, eroticism and sexual fantasies towards all genders, emotional attraction towards them, sexual and romantic experiences, comfort and certainty about one's identity and about disclosing it.Psychoeducation can be used to teach about sexual diversity and to assess the risks and benefits of coming out to self, family, friends, co-workers or strangers. Cognitive strategies can be undertaken to debunk homophobic and transphobic myths which may fuel poor self-esteem. Psychodynamic approaches can be used to heal the narcissistic wounds of homophobia that may lead one to be mistrustful of authority figures or to suppress sexual feelings when emotional attachment becomes important. Some of these dynamic patterns are rooted in past reactions to parental homophobia and the compromises sexual minorities made as children in order to preserve their relationships with their parents. For youth coming out in present times, family support is crucial to well-being and can be enhanced through family therapy. In mixed orientation couples, couple therapy can help both spouses adapt to the coming out of one of the partners and find a new partnership. Group therapy is useful for many of the above issues particularly as it provides a sense of community which is often lacking in minority groups, especially when individuals and their families do not share the same minority status.ConclusionÂ With the proposed framework and an attitude of openness to sexual diversity, clinicians should feel competent to treat sexual minority patients. PMID:26966846
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Bellatorre, Anna; Lee, Yeonjin; Finch, Brian K; Muennig, Peter; Fiscella, Kevin
Stigma operates at multiple levels, including intrapersonal appraisals (e.g., self-stigma), interpersonal events (e.g., hate crimes), and structural conditions (e.g., community norms, institutional policies). Although prior research has indicated that intrapersonal and interpersonal forms of stigma negatively affect the health of the stigmatized, few studies have addressed the health consequences of exposure to structural forms of stigma. To address this gap, we investigated whether structural stigma-operationalized as living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice-increases risk of premature mortality for sexual minorities. We constructed a measure capturing the average level of anti-gay prejudice at the community level, using data from the General Social Survey, which was then prospectively linked to all-cause mortality data via the National Death Index. Sexual minorities living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice experienced a higher hazard of mortality than those living in low-prejudice communities (Hazard Ratio [HR]Â =Â 3.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]Â =Â 1.50, 6.13), controlling for individual and community-level covariates. This result translates into a shorter life expectancy of approximately 12 years (95% C.I.: 4-20 years) for sexual minorities living in high-prejudice communities. Analysis of specific causes of death revealed that suicide, homicide/violence, and cardiovascular diseases were substantially elevated among sexual minorities in high-prejudice communities. Strikingly, there was an 18-year difference in average age of completed suicide between sexual minorities in the high-prejudice (age 37.5) and low-prejudice (age 55.7) communities. These results highlight the importance of examining structural forms of stigma and prejudice as social determinants of health and longevity among minority populations. PMID:23830012
Logie, C. H.; Alaggia, R.; Rwigema, M. J.
Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with healthâ¦
Metzler, Carol W.; And Others
Reports on the development and construct validation of two measures of high-risk sexual behavior for heterosexual adolescents. It was hypothesized that specific risky sexual behaviors would be interrelated, and that the cluster of high-risk sexual behaviors would be correlated with measures of other adolescent problem behaviors. Results provideâ¦
Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.
Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versusâ¦
SeÃ±a, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R
Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. PMID:26602623
Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair; Lindhorst, Taryn P.
Data from male participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health are used to examine childhood predictors of late adolescent and early adulthood sexually coercive behavior and adolescent mediators of these relationships. A path analysis shows that experiencing sexual abuse as a child has a direct effect on perpetratingâ¦
Mallie, Adana L.; Viljoen, Jodi L.; Mordell, Sarah; Spice, Andrew; Roesch, Ronald
Recent research indicates that adolescents who have sexually offended are more likely than other adolescents to have a history of sexual and physical abuse. However, it is unclear whether abuse predicts re-offending among these adolescents. To examine this relationship, a meta-analysis was conducted which included 29 effect sizes drawn from 11â¦
Haley, Tammy; Puskar, Kathryn; Terhorst, Lauren; Terry, Martha Ann; Charron-Prochownik, Denise
Adolescents who engage in unprotected intercourse are at risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although adolescents in rural areas participate in levels of sexual risk taking similar to that of nonrural youth, few data are available identifying factors that influence condom use among rural adolescents. The purpose of this
Miller, Brent C.; Moore, Kristin A.
Summarizes research from the 1980s on topics of adolescent sexual activity, contraception, abortion, marriage, adoption, and childrearing. Emphasizes research about antecedents of adolescent sexual and contraceptive behavior because they are key risk factors in adolescent pregnancy. Notes advances in data and methods and highlights research gaps.â¦
Elford, Jonathan; McKeown, Eamonn; Doerner, Rita; Nelson, Simon; Low, Nicola; Anderson, Jane
Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britai...
Wiseman, Marcie C.; Moradi, Bonnie
On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexual minority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexual minority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets ofâ¦
Craig, Shelley L.; Smith, Mark S.
Sexual minority youth are known to face increased risk of poor school performance; however, little research has focused on the educational experiences of multiethnic sexual minority youth (MSMY) in particular. Using venue-based sampling approaches, this study surveyed 255 MSMY at 15 urban high schools. The majority of participants identified asâ¦
Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine
Background: Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated theseâ¦
Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred
Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmedâ¦
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0.â¦
Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie
The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgenderedâ¦
Gottfried, Michael; Estrada, Fernando; Sublett, Cameron
Sexual minority students such as those identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, as well as those identifying with emerging self-labels (e.g., queer) face a host of risk factors in high school that can potentially compromise educational excellence, particularly in rigorous academic disciplines. The current study advances the area of diversity
Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi
Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,
Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell
This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is
Eliason, Michele J
Although there is substantial literature about sexual minority women's mental health and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD), only recently has attention been focused on chronic physical health disorders thought to stem from stress and exposure to ATOD use. The most extensively studied aspect of physical health has been weight, with the majority of studies reporting higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. In addition, many studies report higher levels of stressful experiences in both childhood and adulthood for sexual minority women. In this paper, the hypothesized relationship between stress, unhealthy behaviors, and five common chronic physical health disorders is explored via review of the literature. Only asthma appeared to be consistently more common in sexual minority women, and few or no differences in diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and most cancers were found. The limitations of these studies are reviewed, and the need for studies that directly address the relationships among stress, health-damaging practices, and chronic disorder is emphasized. However, if these findings hold up, and sexual minority women are not more prone to these disorders, the field may need better theoretical frameworks from which to explore potential differences in the manifestation of mental versus chronic physical health disparities. PMID:26789854
Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell
This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that isâ¦
Gottfried, Michael; Estrada, Fernando; Sublett, Cameron
Sexual minority students such as those identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, as well as those identifying with emerging self-labels (e.g., queer) face a host of risk factors in high school that can potentially compromise educational excellence, particularly in rigorous academic disciplines. The current study advances the area of diversityâ¦
Balsam, Kimberly F; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra
Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually nonexistent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a nonprobability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self- identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the Internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women's health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25 years. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782
McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Douglas, Zayid; Rwehumbiza, Annagrace; Hamisi, Aziza; Mabala, Richard
Adolescent pregnancy places girls at increased risk for poor health and educational outcomes that limit livelihood options, economic independence, and empowerment in adulthood. In Tanzania, adolescent pregnancy remains a significant concern, with over half of all first births occurring before women reach the age of 20. A participatory research and action project (Vitu Newala) conducted formative research in a rural district on the dynamics of sexual risk and agency among 82 girls aged 12-17. Four major risk factors undermined girls' ability to protect their own health and well-being: poverty that pushed them into having sex to meet basic needs, sexual expectations on the part of older men and boys their age, rape and coercive sex (including sexual abuse from an early age), and unintended pregnancy. Transactional sex with older men was one of the few available sources of income that allowed adolescent girls to meet their basic needs, making this a common choice for many girls, even though it increased the risk of unintended (early) pregnancy. Yet parents and adult community members blamed the girls alone for putting themselves at risk. These findings were used to inform a pilot project aimed to engage and empower adolescent girls and boys as agents of change to influence powerful gender norms that perpetuate girls' risk. PMID:23684192
DiStefano, Anthony S
Using qualitative interviews (n = 39) and participant observation (n = 54), this study documents perceptions and experiences of violence between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex intimate partners in Japan, thereby providing exploratory, formative data on a previously unexamined issue. Results indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) is experienced physically, sexually, and psychologically in all sexual minority groups. Participants perceived the violence to be: a) very similar to heterosexual IPV against women; b) more likely perpetrated and experienced by lesbians, bisexual women, and transgender persons compared to gay and bisexual men and intersex persons; c) the cause of several negative physical and mental health outcomes; and d) largely unrecognized in both sexual minority communities and broader Japanese society. PMID:19197646
Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras
AIM: We surveyed Lithuanian general practitioners' (GPs) views on the importance of confidentiality for adolescents and on their practices in informing parents about sexual and reproductive health consultations with this age group. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a 41-item questionnaire was...... sent to a random sample of 607 Lithuanian GPs. The purpose of this questionnaire was to gain knowledge about current practices of GPs in informing parents on the importance of confidentiality as well as in protecting the privacy of minors. GPs' knowledge of the current legal age limit of...... confidentiality protection in patient-provider settings was also assessed. RESULTS: Although 67.5% of the responding GPs (response rate 73.5%) stated that they inform the parents or guardians of adolescent patients about the importance of confidentiality, 82.9% of them only did so if the opportunity arose. When...
Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D
This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs. PMID:24148274
Fuertes MartÃn, Antonio; Orgaz Baz, M BegoÃ±a; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; MartÃnez Alvarez, JosÃ© Luis; FernÃ¡ndez Fuertes, AndrÃ©s; Carcedo GonzÃ¡lez, Rodrigo J
This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a before-and-after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors, This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation. PMID:22774430
Inyang, Mfrekemfon P; Inyang, Obonganyie P
The success of any type of sexual education programme depends on the knowledge and preparedness for practice by adolescents. A recent study has found that an 'abstinence-only' sexual education programme is effective in reducing sexual activity among adolescents. Knowledge of abstinence-only sexual education and preparedness for practice as an effective tool for promotion of sexual health among Nigerian secondary school adolescents was studied. An analytic descriptive survey design was used for the study. The research population comprised of all public secondary schools in three southern geopolitical zones of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 2020 senior secondary school (SS1-SS3) students as sample for the study. A partially self-designed and partially adapted questionnaire from an 'abstinence-only versus comprehensive sex education' debate, from debatepedia (http://wiki.idebate.org/), entitled 'Questionnaire on Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents' Perspective on Abstinence-Only Sexual Education (QNSSAPAOSE)' was used in eliciting information from respondents. Hypotheses were formulated and tested. Frequency counts, percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were used in analysing data. A greater proportion of secondary school adolescents in this study lacked knowledge of sexual education. About 80% of the respondents could not define sexual education. The general perspective on abstinence-only sexual education was negative, as revealed by the larger number of respondents who demonstrated unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Specifically, of those who responded in favour of abstinence-only sexual education, the youngest group of adolescents (11-13 years) and the male respondents were more likely to accept this type of education than the other groups. Poor knowledge of sexual education could be responsible for unwillingness to practice abstinence-only sexual education. Sexual education should, therefore, be introduced into the secondary school curriculum and taught by well-prepared teachers to enable an informed decision on practice. PMID:24627776
Ana Luiza Vilela Borges
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country. Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2 of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9, males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2, studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4, and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4, mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4 reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6, females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5 and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5. Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7, with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6, and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0 and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6 from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9 and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8, and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICAâs data analysis on sexuality and contraception shows heterogeneities in the prevalence of sexual initiation and use of contraceptive methods among Brazilian adolescents, depending on their age, where they live, and the type of school they study at. Younger adolescents and those living in the Northern region seem to be more vulnerable to the consequences of unprotected sexual intercourses.
Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; de Moraes, Ana JÃºlia Pantoja; Azevedo, George Dantas; dos Santos, Karine Ferreira; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country). Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill) has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2) of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9), males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2), studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4), and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4), mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4) reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6), females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5) and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5). Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7), with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6), and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0) and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6) from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9) and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8), and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICAâs data analysis on sexuality and contraception shows heterogeneities in the prevalence of sexual initiation and use of contraceptive methods among Brazilian adolescents, depending on their age, where they live, and the type of school they study at. Younger adolescents and those living in the Northern region seem to be more vulnerable to the consequences of unprotected sexual intercourses. PMID:26910547
Manuel Rodríguez González
Full Text Available Background: child sexual abuse is a reality that deeply lacerates families and individuals who suffer it.Objective: to characterize child victims of sexual abuse.Methods: a descriptive study was conducted in 2012 at the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital, involving 50 victims of sexual abuse less than 16 years of age who were assessed by the Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation Commission. Sex, age, origin, form and frequency of sexual abuse, relationship to perpetrator, place and time of occurrence, physical indicators found on genital examination and personal, family and community risk factors were analyzed.Results: the highest incidence of sexual abuse was found in girls (76%. The most common sexual offenses were lascivious abuse (48%, corruption of minors (22% and rape (16%. Abuses were continuous in 62% of cases. Ninety percent of these acts were committed by individuals related to the child, relatives, neighbors or acquaintances; 58% occurred in the house of the perpetrator or the victim and in the afternoon (44%. There were no physical indicators on the genital examination in 58% of the cases. There are no personal risk factors in most of the children (92%, predominant community and family risk factor was alcoholism (64 and 38 % respectively. Conclusions: child victims of sexual abuse have characteristics and risk factors at the family and community levels that help to identify vulnerable groups.
Blum Robert W; Fatusi Adesegun O
Abstract Background Early sexual debut among adolescents is associated with considerable negative heath and development outcomes. An understanding of the determinants or predictors of the timing of sexual debut is important for effective intervention, but very few studies to date have addressed this issue in the Nigerian context. The aim of the present study is to examine predictors of adolescent sexual initiation among a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Nigeria. Methods Int...
Mamabolo, Marumo Nyabane
In rendering child care protection services to adolescents in the Marshite area as a social worker in the Department of Social Development, the researcher recognised that an increased number of adolescents are sexually abused also by persons known to them. The sexual abuses are not reported because adolescents and caregivers lacked adequate knowledge of what is sexual abuse and services provided by social workers available for them. This became evident from the intervention programme statisti...
Nereo, Nancy E.; Farber, Barry A.; Hinton, Veronica J.
Compared the willingness of sexually abused late adolescent women (n=22) to self-disclose general and sexual information to strangers and intimate partners with that of similar women who had not been sexually abused. Results indicate that those who were sexually abused in childhood are less likely than nonabused counterparts to be highly
Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.
We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17Â years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and byâ¦
Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W; FernÃ¡ndez, M. Isabel; Jamil, Omar B.
There is evidence that risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among adolescent females are higher for those with older male sexual partners. Yet, little empirical research has been conducted with male adolescents who engage in sexual activity with older men. In this article, we summarize in a number of ways the range of sexual activity reported by an ethnically diverse sample of 200 gay and bisexual male youth (15â22 years old) in Chicago and Miami. A general pattern of progression...
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; FISHBEIN, MARTIN
This paper reports on the extent to which adolescents report actively seeking sexual content in media, identifies from which media they report seeking, estimates the association between seeking sexual information and romantic and sexual behavior, and shows that active seeking of sexual content in media sources is explained by an intention to seek such content using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, a reasoned action approach. The data are a national sample of 810 adolescents age...
van Teijlingen Edwin R; Penfold Suzanne C; Tucker Janet S
Abstract Background There is continuing concern about high pregnancy rates and increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections being detected in Scottish adolescents. Consistent evidence about factors associated with risky sexual behaviours, including early first sexual intercourse, may help to identify adolescents at risk and help improve interventions. This study aimed to provide detailed analysis of the evidence of the associations between individual factors and early sexual intercou...
Penfold, SC; van Teijlingen, ER; Tucker, JS
BACKGROUND: There is continuing concern about high pregnancy rates and increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections being detected in Scottish adolescents. Consistent evidence about factors associated with risky sexual behaviours, including early first sexual intercourse, may help to identify adolescents at risk and help improve interventions. This study aimed to provide detailed analysis of the evidence of the associations between individual factors and early sexual intercourse usin...
Graaf, Hanneke; Vanwesenbeeck, W.M.A.; Meijer, Suzanne
Educational level is strongly associated with age of first intercourse and risk of unintended pregnancies. This study examined these associations in a large representative sample of Dutch adolescents and also included associations of educational level with other sexual health aspects. Adolescents aged 12 to 25 (3,926 boys and 3,915 girls) completed an online questionnaire that included measures of romantic and sexual experience; the evaluation of their sexual debut; the risk of sexually trans...
Horner, Jennifer R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Romer, Daniel; Vanable, Peter A.; DiClemente, Ralph; Carey, Michael P.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Brown, Larry K.
This study examined adolescentsâ beliefs about the benefits and risks of withdrawal (coitus interruptus) with respect to both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the course of qualitative interviews with African-American youth aged 14â19 (n = 124) about sexuality and risk, 24 adolescents spontaneously introduced the subject of withdrawal as a sexual risk reduction strategy. Eighteen percent of the sexually experienced adolescents mentioned their own use of withdrawal as a...
Chambers, Kathryn B; Rew, Lynn
Adolescent women are at risk for unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, including human immune deficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency deficiency syndrome (AIDS), if they do not engage in safer sexual practices. Adolescent women are biologically, behaviorally, and socially more at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV than adolescent men. Although abstinence is the safest sexual health practice for adolescent women, once sexual activity begins, safer sexual practices involve condom and contraceptive use, and communicating with sexual partners to negotiate condom use. A number of implicit and explicit decisions are involved in these activities. A number of researchers have examined safer sexual decisions of adolescent women, some of whom have used theory models such as the Transtheoretical Model of Change. Although these findings have contributed to the knowledge base about safer sexual decision making, many questions remain unanswered about how adolescent women make safer sexual decisions. The Conflict Model of Decision Making is presented and discussed as a framework for enhanced understanding of safer sexual decision making by adolescent women. PMID:12936697
Forsyth, Sophie; Rogstad, Karen
Adolescence is a time of sexual risk-taking and experimentation but also vulnerability. Young people may present to general physicians with systemic symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as arthritis, hepatitis or rash, but may not necessarily volunteer information about sexual activity. It is important for physicians to ask directly about sexual risks and if appropriate test for STIs and pregnancy. Knowing how to take a sexual history and consent a patient for an HIV test are core medical skills that all physicians should be trained to competently perform. Safeguarding young people is the responsibility of all healthcare professionals who come into contact with them, and young victims of abuse may present with physical symptoms such as abdominal pain or deliberate self-harm. We must all be aware of indicators of both child sexual exploitation and HIV infection and not be afraid to ask potentially awkward questions. If we don't we may miss vital opportunities to prevent or minimise harm to young people. PMID:26430183
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Objective To examine the relation between âsexting,â (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examinedâparticularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed âsextingâ as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148
Castro, Ingrid E.; Sujak, Mark Conor
In the spaces of high school, sexual minority youth often find that their needs for inclusion are not met by their institutions and those employed within. Through interviews with sexual minority high school students and written questionnaires with high school teachers and other faculty, we find that sexual minority youth are faced with exclusion
Full Text Available The present article focused on the perception of sexual exploitation as a job, using a single case study design. The aim of the study was to investigate the case of a 14 year-old girl, involved in commercial sexual exploitation, who considered this situation as her labor activity. A content analysis showed protective and risk factors as categories, especially related to her labor activities. The girl perceived the sexual exploitation activity as a job that provided autonomy, subsistence, and survival. The study revealed that the negative effects of working during adolescence may bring consequences to health and development. Youth work may be defined as a risk factor, especially when the labour conditions are not adequate and protected.
Vargas Trujillo, Elvia
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe youth sexual and reproductive decision making styles, as well as cognitions associated to them. Testimonies were obtained through in depth interviews carried out with a sample of 72 adolescents from BogotÃ¡ and Cali, 48 women and 24 men. The authors analyze the way cognitions - knowledge, social norms, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectancies, goals and meanings- constructed in the socio-cultural context, guide youth decision making towards establishing romantic relationships, having sexual intercourse, using contraceptive methods, getting married, getting pregnant or having an abortion. The findings of the study led to recommendations for the design of sexual education programs that include the different socialization agents
van Bergen, D D; Smit, J H; van Balkom, A J L M; van Ameijden, E; Saharso, S
We investigated the prevalence and explored the vulnerability to suicidal ideation across several ethnic minority versus ethnic majority adolescents in the city of Utrecht in The Netherlands. Exploratory analyses were conducted on a dataset obtained from the Municipal Health Services in Utrecht. We examined whether ethnic minority adolescents are at risk for suicidal ideation because of a family background of migration, social-economic position and certain family factors, which influence psychological constellations. We found that levels of suicidal ideation among adolescents of Turkish background were significantly higher than in both majority and other minority adolescents, The Turkish adolescents at risk for suicidal ideation reported that they do not enjoy being at home with their families. Psychological factors, in particular lack of self-pride and the idea of not becoming successful in life, appeared to be important, as well as feelings of loneliness. Suicidal ideation was not found equally across all ethnic minority groups. A history of migration, ethnic minority status, or low socioeconomic status were not sufficient to explain the variation across ethnicities. Our results suggest that specific social-cultural factors, contextualized in the individual and located in the family environment, are relevant in explaining the disproportionate rates for Turkish adolescents in Utrecht. PMID:19069612
Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Johns, Tracy; Alexander, Kenneth A; Giuliano, Anna R
Yearly, 33,000 cancer diagnoses in the US are attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV), with cervical cancer the most common. HPV is transmitted through sexual contact; HPV types 16 and 18 cause the majority of ano-genital cancers in men and women. HPV causes â¼100% of cervical cancers, â¼90% of anal cancers, and â¼50% of vaginal, vulvar, and penile cancers. HPV is also involved in â¼70% of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs) in the US. The CDC recommends routine administration to all female (bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine) and male (quadrivalent vaccine) patients at 11-12 years of age; the series may be started as early as 9 years of age. Recent evidence suggests physicians do not universally recommend the vaccine to all adolescents. Additionally, parents may refuse the vaccine due to safety concerns as well as religious and moral beliefs related to onset of sexual debut. It has been suggested physicians should consider discussing HPV vaccine as a cancer prevention tool only, with less focus on the fact that transmission is caused by sexual activity. In this commentary we suggest physicians have a duty to warn parents and adolescents that OPCs may be transmitted through oral sex, which is often perceived as not constituting sexual activity. PMID:24834953
Bioethics plays an important role and has remarkable implications on all those who operate in the field of adolescentology at all levels. The forma mentis and the modus operandi that bioethics offers to each operator and educator will surely bring benefits towards the prevention of illness and the general well-being of adolescents, who will be tomorrow's adults. This paper, which analyses problems related to adolescence, such as corporeity, sexuality, health and education, underlines the need to consider them from a bioethical perspective. Furthermore, among the various bioethical approaches, the importance of the Aristotelian-Thomistic virtues is highlighted and should be preferred when dealing with the overall health, both physical and moral, of everyone and especially of every adolescent. PMID:15637414
Full Text Available Inadaquate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems, including early premarital sexual behavior. Previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely effect to adolescents premarital sexual behavior. Parental monitoring is the most important and effective factor to prevent early adolescents sexual activity. This paper examines the role of perceived parental monitoring in adolescentâs premarital sexual behavior (study on Adolescentâs Junior High School in Pontianak. A cross-sectional study and proportionated random sampling was conducted among 402 adolescents of junior high school at six subdistricts in Pontianak. SEM analyses was conducted using SMART-PLS. Result of path analysis revealed that parental knowledge (r = 0.389 and parental-adolescence relationship (r = 0.334 had a strong influence on parental monitoring. Then, parental monitoring had a significant indirect relationship with adolescent premarital sexual behavior through attitudes about premarital sexual (path coefficient = 0.063, and attitudes about premarital sexual and intention to sexual behaviour (path coefficient = 0.03. Parental monitoring can act as protective factor in early adolescent premarital sexual behavior. Therefore, risk reduction interventions with adolescents should include their parents to learn about monitoring skill and develop skill that will allow them to buffer negative influences.
Man-Yee Emmy Wong
Full Text Available Internal migration in China has introduced critical challenges to the education and health of migrant adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in sexual knowledge and attitudes among migrate and local adolescents. Survey research with a total of 616 adolescents in grades equivalent to US 10th and 11th grades including 113 migrants completed a selfadministered questionnaire. Misconceptions of adolescent physical development, sexual activity, marriage, birth control, sexually transmitted diseases and the probability of pregnancy were found in most of the migrant adolescents. Significantly lower attitudinal scores were found for the sub-scales of clarity of personal sexual values, understanding of emotional needs, social behavior, sexual responses; attitudes towards gender role, birth control, premarital intercourse, use of force in sexual activity, the importance of family and satisfaction with social relationship in migrant adolescents. Migrant adolescents have a low level of knowledge of sexual activities. The content of education programs should include engagement in sexual behavior to equip adolescents with unbiased and factual knowledge. The adolescents have a high demand for family support. School based sex education programs should involve the participation of parents to address these issues. Â
Regmi, Pramod R; van Teijlingen, Edwin
Despite progressive legislative developments and increased visibility of sexual and gender minority populations in the general population, mass media often report that this population face a wide range of discrimination and inequalities. LGBT (lesbian, gay, and bisexual, and transgender) populations have not been considered as priority research populations in Nepal. Research in other geographical settings has shown an increased risk of poor mental health, violence, and suicide and higher rates of smoking, as well as alcohol and drugs use among LGBT populations. They are also risk for lifestyle-related illness such as cancer, diabetes, and heart diseases. Currently, in Nepal, there is a lack of understanding of health and well-being, social exclusion, stigma, and discrimination as experienced by these populations. Good-quality public health research can help design and implement targeted interventions to the sexual and gender minority populations of Nepal. PMID:26543163
Leroux, Elisabeth J; Pullman, Lesleigh E; Motayne, Gregory; Seto, Michael C
More knowledge is needed about the etiology and treatment needs of adolescent sex offenders. The current study compared adolescents who had offended against children (defined as below the age of 12 and at least 5 years younger than the adolescent), adolescents who have offended against peers or adults, and adolescents who had victims in both age groups. Based on Seto and Lalumière's meta-analytic findings, participants were compared on theoretically derived factors, including childhood sexual abuse, atypical sexual interests, sexual experience, social competence, psychiatric history, and general delinquency factors (past criminal history, substance abuse history, and offense characteristics). The study sample consisted of 162 court-referred male adolescent sexual offenders aged 12 to 17 years. Of the six identified domains, groups significantly differed on five of them; the exceptions were variables reflecting social competence. The results further support the validity of distinguishing adolescent sex offenders by victim age. PMID:24906363
Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra
Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18â25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The s...
In a recent survey of sexual and gender minorities in Nepal over 60 percent of respondents reported experiencing at least one incident of abuse or discrimination, and over one-third reported discrimination or abuse in three or more public settings. The research methodology and study was implemented through the Williams Institute and the Blue Diamond Society (BDS). The survey utilized Nepalâs inclusion of a third gender category in its national census, the first such attempt in the wo...
Bauermeister, JosÃ© A.; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; VanHemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena
Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18â29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (M...
Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L
The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth. PMID:25233526
Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14â21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.
Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora
Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354
Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora
Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14â21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354
Sun, Christina J.; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D.
The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not.
Sun, Christina J.; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D.
The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not.â¦
The overall aim of this thesis was to inestigate Swedish adolescents' perceptions and behaviours regarding sexual risk taking. Specific objectives were to explore teenagers' perceptions of contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy, and abortion; teenage girls' experiences of decision making process and support connected to abortion; and male adolescents' perceptions of sexual risk taking and barriers to practicing safe sex. Another objective was to evaluate the effect of advance provision of em...
Logie, C. H.; Alaggia, R.; Rwigema, M. J.
Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health outcomes, individual, social and structural factors. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with LBQ women in Toronto, Canada. Multivariate logi...
Walters, Jessica Bleil; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.; Marshall, Stephanie N.; Crothers, Laura M.; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann
This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groups
Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Yensel, Jennifer
Counselors will regularly counsel children and adolescents with histories of sexual abuse and be challenged with providing supportive and empowering interventions that serve to move the client from victim to survivor status. Therapeutic stories are a creative counseling technique that can be used when counseling child and adolescent sexual abuse
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control groupâ¦
Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Yensel, Jennifer
Counselors will regularly counsel children and adolescents with histories of sexual abuse and be challenged with providing supportive and empowering interventions that serve to move the client from victim to survivor status. Therapeutic stories are a creative counseling technique that can be used when counseling child and adolescent sexual abuseâ¦
Trinh, Thang; Steckler, Allan; Ngo, Anh; Ratliff, Eric
This qualitative study examines parent-adolescent communication on sexual topics in Thai Binh province, Vietnam. Data were collected from 45 in-depth interviews and seven focus groups with parents and adolescents of high school age. Results indicate that parents were apprehensive when it comes to sexual communication. Parents warned their children
Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard
Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was to
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru
Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors prevent
Howard, Donna E.; Wang, Min Qi; Yan, Fang
Although a history of forced sexual intercourse affects a relatively small number of U.S. adolescents, it is a persistent and alarming public health problem. This study examined the robustness of the risk profile of adolescents who report a history of forced sexual intercourse using the most current and representative data from the national 2005â¦
Wilkinson, Jason D.
Sexual addiction is increasingly being discussed by professionals and the lay public, and these conversations have begun to focus on adolescents as a special treatment population. At the same time, limited literature is available on the subject and practitioners currently working with sexual addiction among adolescents (SA-A) report the need for
Grossman, Jennifer M.; Frye, Alice; Charmaraman, Linda; Erkut, Sumru
Background: Early sexual activity can undermine adolescents' future school success and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of a family homework component of a comprehensive sex education intervention in delaying sexual initiation for early adolescents and to explore what social and contextual factors preventâ¦
Lindberg, Sara M.; Grabe, Shelly; Hyde, Janet Shibley
Objectified body consciousness (OBC)--the tendency to view one's body as an object for others to look at and evaluate--is theorized to emerge during sexual maturation as adolescents, particularly adolescent girls, experience sexual objectification. Although OBC generally is discussed in developmental terms, research so far has examined primarilyâ¦
Walters, Jessica Bleil; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.; Marshall, Stephanie N.; Crothers, Laura M.; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann
This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groupsâ¦
Zapata, Lauren B.; Hillis, Susan D.; Marchbanks; Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.; Lowry, Richard
Background: Lifetime methamphetamine use among adolescents is estimated to be between 5% and 10%. Youth substance use in general is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviors, but the effect of methamphetamine use on recent risky sexual behaviors and adolescent pregnancy has received little attention. The purpose of this analysis was toâ¦
Scharko, Alexander M.
Objective: To review the existing literature on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced sexual dysfunction in adolescents. Method: A literature review of SSRI-induced adverse effects in adolescents focusing on sexual dysfunction was done. Nonsexual SSRI-induced adverse effects were compared in adult and pediatric populations.â¦
Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras
To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents.......To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents....
de Moraes, Silvia Piedade; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de Souza
The scope of this article is to describe the international documents of the UN and laws passed in Brazil from 1950 onwards focusing on sexual and reproductive rights during adolescence. It involved a descriptive study by consulting the official website of the UN organ entitled the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and sites of the President of the Republic, Ministry of Health and Education and the Virtual Health Library. The documents were organized from 1950 to 2010 with an emphasis on sexual and reproductive rights and adolescence. Ten conferences were found within the scope of the UN: six conferences on Population and Development, two on Human Rights, one on the Rights of the Child and another on the Millennium Development Goals. Thirty-two documents were found in the field of national legislation (four decrees, thirteen federal laws, three technical norms, two ordinances, three resolutions, a technical note and six programs). The role of the UN and Brazil in consolidating the broad concept of sexual and reproductive rights has made significant progress, however greater achievements in the area of reproductive rights still prevail. PMID:26221817
Price, Shelley A; Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian; Humphreys, Glyn W
Adolescent sexual abusers are a heterogeneous group of offenders that often receive generic assessment and treatment services that are modeled on research findings from adult sex offender samples. The emotional Stroop task has been used to measure deviant sexual interest in adult samples. The purpose of the present study was to test whether the emotional Stroop task could also be used to assess deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples. Three groups of adolescents (a) sexual abusers (n = 24); (b) offending controls (n = 21); and (c) nonoffending controls (n = 21) completed two emotional Stroop tasks related to deviant sexual interest and tests of executive function. Adolescent sexual abusers were significantly slower to color-name some word stimuli than both adolescent offending controls and adolescent nonoffending controls. However, the task was unable to differentiate between the groups on most of the Stroop word categories. Very little research has been conducted with adolescent offender samples and the emotional Stroop task. Reaction time (RT) and Stroop bias outcome data for adolescent samples appear to be more unsystematic and weaker than has been observed in previous adult data. Based on potential difficulties with reading and development, the emotional Stroop task may not be a task suitable for measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples. PMID:23907659
Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Monti, Zelia; Apolloni, Chiara; Nardelli, Federica; Di Naro, Edoardo; Ghezzi, Fabio
This article aimed to determine sexual behaviors among female and male adolescents in northern Italy. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire evaluating sexual attitudes was distributed in middle and high schools in northern Italy. Adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were asked to participate at the survey. The study group included 664 participants. Overall, 164 (25%) adolescents had had at least one sexual intercourse. Among adolescents who have had sexual intercourse, 90 (55%) use condoms, 25 (15%) use hormonal contraception, and 49 (30%) do not use any contraception method. A total of 559 adolescents (84%) participated in school-based sexual education programs. This group had better knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and contraception methods in comparison with adolescents who have never participated in such educational programs (p sexual behaviors was observed (p = 1.0). School-based sexual education programs improve knowledge of sexual transmitted diseases and contraception methods. However, this knowledge does not correlate to high-risk sexual behaviors reduction. PMID:25189401
van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Nahar, Papreen
This article explores the mismatch that exists between what unmarried adolescents in Bangladesh experience, want and need in regard to their sexuality and what they receive from their society, which negatively impacts on their understanding of sexuality and their well-being. The findings provide a picture of Bangladeshi adolescents' (12-18 years) sexual feelings, experiences, behaviours, anxieties and concerns - in particular in relation to desire, pleasure, sexual power, masturbation, virginity, romantic love and dating, and arranged marriage - and how socio-sexual norms and taboos influence these. Curiosity of boys and girls about sex was driven by a need and desire to know and understand, but also because it was exciting to read about and talk about sex. Young people are not just passive recipients of adult norms and messages around sexuality, but agents who actively construe meanings and navigate between what is expected from them and what they want, need and feel themselves. Adolescents have a need for information and support - long before they ever have sex. We call for a positive, rights-based approach to sexuality education for adolescents and a focus beyond health outcomes alone to support adolescents and young people to make sense of the multiplicity of messages they encounter and reduce unnecessary feelings of guilt and anxiety. PMID:23684189
Bianca Assunção Iuliano
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de anemia em adolescentes (hemoglobina0,05. Observou-se aparente aumento do nível médio de hemoglobina com o desenvolvimento do adolescente. Detectou-se anemia em 11,0% dos adolescentes, a maioria na fase púbere, classificada como ''prevalência leve'' segundo a World Health Organization. Não foi encontrada associação entre indicadores sociais e anemia. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo apontou baixa prevalência de anemia, mas acima do esperado entre púberes de escola particular e indica tendência de aumento dos níveis de hemoglobina com o desenvolvimento sexual dos adolescentes. Devem ser realizados novos estudos de prevalência de anemia para se determinar sua causa entre adolescentes de diferentes níveis socioeconômicos.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin level <12g/dL in adolescents, according to their sexual maturation stage. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with all adolescents enrolled in 5th - 8th grades in a private school in the city of São Paulo. Their hemoglobin level was measured (using Hemocue® and sexual development was self-evaluated (with the aid of pictures of the maturation stages proposed by Tanner. The social indicators evaluated were the per capita family income and maternal schooling. Student t test and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test were used for mean comparison and Chi-square-test for associations (p<0.05. RESULTS: We analyzed 118 students, of which 66.9% were females (aged 12.2±1.13 years and 33.1% were males (aged 12.0±1.18 years. The mean hemoglobin level was 13.2±1.08 g/dL for females and 13.3±1.21 g/dL for males, with no significant difference. An apparent increase in the mean hemoglobin level was verified along with sexual development of the adolescents. Anemia was detected in 11% of them, most in the pubertal stage, which is classified by the World Health Organization as ''mild prevalence''. No association was found between social indicators and anemia prevalence. CONCLUSION: This study showed low prevalence of anemia at rates higher than expected during puberty in a private school and indicates a trend for increased hemoglobin levels in connection with sexual development of adolescents. Further studies on anemia prevalence should be carried out to establish the factors associated with this disease, having adolescents from different socioeconomic levels as subjects.
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador
Sara De Meyer
Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescentsâ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14â18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescentsâ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescentsâ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide.
Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko
Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexu...
Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen
AIM: This paper reports an investigation to establish whether metabolic control is different in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities with type 1 diabetes compared with young Danish patients, and to learn about factors affecting their opportunities to achieve good metabolic control....... BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities in Denmark is increasing. Having a different ethnic background has frequently been described as a risk factor for poor metabolic control, but whether the risk is represented by the ethnicity and immigration itself or in...... combination with other factors is unclear. METHODS: The study included data (gender, age, diabetes duration HbA(1c), number of incidents of severe hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis) from a national register including 919 Danish and 58 children and adolescents from ethnic minorities, questionnaires to all 20...
Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.
Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data
Espinosa-HernÃ¡ndez, Graciela; Bissell-Havran, Joanna; Nunn, Anna
This study examined the role of religiousness and gender in age at first intercourse, and sexual expectations and values in Mexico, a macrocontext where the majority is Mexican and Catholic (83%). Participants were Catholic and nonreligious adolescents (54% girls) attending middle (71%) or high school. Findings indicated that Catholic adolescents engaged in sexual intercourse at later ages than nonreligious adolescents. Both religious attendance and importance of religion and values in sexual decision making were associated with more conservative sexual values. Boys who were raised Catholic were more likely to endorse female virginity values and were less likely to expect to wait to have sex until married than nonreligious boys. These associations were not significant among girls. Catholic boys may be more likely to internalize sexual double standard beliefs regarding premarital sex than nonreligious boys. This study expands our understanding of the role of religiousness in Mexican adolescents' sexuality. PMID:26010586
The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis. PMID:24069761
Aebi, Marcel; Landolt, Markus A; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun
A long-standing belief in the literature on sex offenders is that sexually victimized youths are at increased risk of becoming sex offenders themselves. The present study tested the link between past sexual abuse, either with or without contact, and sexually offending behavior in a representative sample of male and female adolescents while controlling for other types of abuse, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behaviors. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 6,628 students attending 9th grade public school in Switzerland (3,434 males, 3,194 females, mean age = 15.50 years, SD = 0.66 years). Exposure to contact and non-contact types of sexual abuse was assessed using the Child Sexual Abuse Questionnaire and sexually offending behavior by the presence of any of three behaviors indicating sexual coercion. Two-hundred-forty-five males (7.1 %) and 40 females (1.2 %) reported having sexually coerced another person. After controlling for non-sexual abuse, low parent education, urban versus rural living, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behavior, male adolescents who were victims of contact sexual abuse and non-contact sexual abuse were significantly more likely to report coercive sexual behaviors. Females who experienced contact or non-contact sexual abuse were also found at increased risk of committing sexual coercion after controlling for covariates. The present findings demonstrate a strong relationship between past sexual abuse, with and without physical contact, and sexual-offending behavior in male and female adolescents. Reducing exposure to non-contact sexual abuse (like Internet-based sexual exploitation) should become a new area of sexual violence prevention in youths. PMID:25981223
Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.
The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual
Fisher, Colleen M.
Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording ofâ¦
Full Text Available Background: Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescentsâ sexual and reproductive health (SRH communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parentâadolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on adolescents aged 13â18 who had sexual initiations. Adolescents who failed to use any contraceptive method and/or condom during last sexual intercourse and who experienced multiple sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the study were taken as âat riskâ. In view of these, the adolescents risk count ranged from zero to three â greater number indicates higher count of risky sexual practices. Poisson regression model was used to examine the associations and p<0.05 indicated a statistical significance. Results: It was found out that 301 of 633 (47.55%; 95% CI=43.62%, 51.45% adolescents experienced one or more risky sexual practices. High parental monitoring compared to low decreases the Incidence Rate of engaging in risky sexual practices by 28% (adjusted incidence rate ratio, or IRR=0.72; 95% CI=0.520, 0.986. Those who had a satisfactory level of SRH communications with their parents compared to poor communicators experianced less incidence rate of risky sexual practices which was marginal (adjusted IRR=0.82; 95% CI=0.637, 1.051. Conclusions: A significant proportion of the adolescents engaged in one or more risky sexual practices. Importantly, high parental monitoring decreases the likelihood of these risky practices. Therefore, parents need to be encouraged to keep an eye on their young children.
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15â18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that ...
Brad Lian; John Bolland; Linda Stonecipher; Jessica W. Henderson; Shannon Talbott
Background and Aims: Younger age at first sexual intercourse is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to gain a clearer understanding of a wide range of individual, family and social factors that may influence sexual behavior of children and adolescents. Specifically, we examined the relationships of developmental assets with age of first sexual intercourse among a large sample (n = 1061) of adolescent African American males living in low-income neighborhoods in Mobi...
Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and adolescent sexual behavior. We found that caregiver hostility was positively associated with early sex and sex with multiple partners in neighborhood...
Dill, LeConte Jeanine
This study examines how minority adolescents actively work to stay safe and to improve their life chances within urban neighborhoods marked by high rates of crime, violence, and physical disorder. Often, these youth are seen as resilient by others; however, the work that goes into building resilience is often overlooked. This study provides a deeper understanding of the ongoing processes of resilience that occur over the course of adolescence. Ethnographic approaches and participatory narr...
Huwaidi, Mohamed A.; Daghustani, Wid H.
The present study aimed to identify common sexual behavior among adolescents with autism, where parents and teachers of sixty-one male adolescents from twelve to twenty-one years of age were recruited from three cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were asked to respond to a sexual behavior questionnaire, and a social-sexual skillsâ¦
C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.
Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of ...
Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul
Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-a...
Tushar Rai; Pradeep Aggarwal; S.D. Kandpal
Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents rega...
Sebla GÃKÃE Ä°MREN; AYAZ, AyÅe Burcu; Canan YUSUFOÄLU; Rodopman Arman, AyÅe
Objective: This study investigated the sociodemographic variables, intelligence levels, psychiatric disorders, and suicide risks of sexually abused children and adolescents who were referred for forensic examination to our child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic.Method: Forensic reports of 157 children and adolescents aged 3-17 years who had been referred to our child psychiatry outpatient clinic between July 2011 - June 2012 were examined retrospectively.Results: Of 157 sexually ab...
LIVINGSTON, JENNIFER A.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Hequembourg, Amy L.; TESTA, MARIA; Downs, Julie S.
Experimentation with alcohol and sexuality is a normative aspect of adolescent development. Yet both present distinct risks to adolescent females and are especially problematic when they intersect. Although youth are often cautioned about the dangers associated with having sex and using alcohol, popular entertainment media frequently depict the combination of alcohol and sexuality as carefree fun. It is unclear how adolescent females interpret these contradictory messages in their everyday li...
Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Harper, Gary W; Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school- and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent males ages 15-19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one's sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., "top" or "bottom"); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who may be accessing SEM. PMID:25677334
Sermabeikian, P; Martinez, D
The treatment of adolescent sexual offenders (ASO) has its theoretical underpinnings in social learning theory. Although social learning theory has been frequently cited in literature, a comprehensive application of this theory, as applied to practice, has not been mapped out. The social learning and social cognitive theories of Bandura appear to be particularly relevant to the group treatment of this population. The application of these theories to practice, as demonstrated in a program model, is discussed as a means of demonstrating how theory-driven practice methods can be developed. PMID:7850605
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin
This article reports on the extent to which adolescents report actively seeking sexual content in media, identifies from which media they report seeking, estimates the association between seeking sexual information and romantic and sexual behavior, and shows that active seeking of sexual content in media sources is explained by an intention to seek such content using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, a reasoned action approach. The data are a national sample of 810 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Results show that 50% of adolescents reported actively seeking sexual content in their media choices, which included movies, television, music, Internet pornography sites, and magazines. Males sought sex content more than females, and gender differences were greatest for seeking from Internet pornography sites, movies, and television. Path analysis demonstrate that seeking sexual content is well-predicted by intentions to seek, and intentions are primarily driven by perceived normative pressure to seek sexual content. PMID:20672214
This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamicâ¦
This paper offers a critical examination of the problematics of childhood and adolescent sexuality and sex education in an Islamic context. By exploring conceptions of (pre-marital) sexuality, childhood, and maturity/adulthood, it is suggested that: (i) "childhood" and "sexuality" do not coexist harmoniously in Islamic
Velez-Pastrana, Maria C.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael A.; Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with early onset of sexual intercourse. Within an ecological system's conceptual framework, familial factors associated with early onset of sexual activity were identified in a sample of 425 adolescents from San Juan metro area schools. Measures included questions about sexual activity,â¦
Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.
Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,â¦
Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.
"Pervasive Vulnerabilities" explores the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescent girls and boys and female teachers in order to expose the continuing persistence of sexual harassment in the United States. The book addresses the sexual double standard that continues to hold girls and women accountable for male sexual aggression, andâ¦
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
Objectives Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. Methods We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10â19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkmanâs conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Results Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14â11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56â4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96â1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73â2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34â1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62â3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49â1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV-negative status were significantly less likely to use religion as a coping strategy (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09â0.83). Conclusion History of forced sexual initiation and HIV status affected perception of events as stressors and use of specific coping strategies. Our study findings could inform best practice interventions and policies to prevent and address forced sexual initiation among adolescents in Nigeria and other countries. PMID:27163436
Popoola, Bayode Isaiah
This study investigated the association between sex stereotypes and the sexual behaviour of Nigerian school-going adolescents. It also ascertained the effects of age and sex on adolescents' beliefs about sex stereotypes. The study sample consisted of 658 (male = 287, female = 371) adolescents from nine randomly selected secondary schools in three
Guarini, Tristan E.; Marks, Amy K.; Patton, Flannery; Coll, Cynthia Garcia
This article contributes new evidence on the associations among immigrant generation, gender, and sexual risk behavior among Latino adolescents in the United States. Longitudinal data from 3,272 Latino adolescents (grades 7-12) who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were examined for evidence of the
Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra
Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956
Reitz, Ellen; Van de Bongardt, Daphne; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan; Dalenberg, Wieke; Dubas, Judith; van Aken, Marcel; Overbeek, Geertjan; Ter Bogt, Tom; van den Eijnden, Regina; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Kunnen, E. S.; Timmerman, M. C.; van Geert, P.; Dekovic, Maja
This study gives an overview of Project STARS (Studies on Trajectories of Adolescent Relationships and Sexuality), a four-wave longitudinal study of 1297 Dutch adolescents. First, the sample, measures and four sub-projects are described. Second, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine how key variables from the individual domain (impulsivity), parent domain (parentâ adolescent relationship quality), peer domain (involvement with peers) and media domain (time spent on social...
Racz, Sarah Jensen; Saha, Shonali; Trent, Maria; Adger, Hoover; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth
Background: Adolescent juvenile offenders are at high risk for problems associated with drug use, including polysubstance use (i.e., use of a variety of drugs). The combination of juvenile offending and polysubstance use presents a significant public and child health concern. Objective: This study explored polysubstance use among a sample of youthâ¦
Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela A.; Penckofer, Sue
Depression is associated with obesity among adolescents, with racial/ethnic variability noted. Psychological correlates that may influence this relationship have not been adequately explored. The primary objective of this secondary analysis was to compare levels of stress, self-esteem, coping, social support, and depressive mood between normalâ¦
Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo
On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewishâ¦
Fava, Nicole M; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y
Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus and fellatio and sexual motives, experiences of sexual coercion, and indicators of psychological functioning. Age at cunnilingus initiation was unrelated to sexual coercion or psychological functioning; however it was related to engaging in sex for personal stimulation and gratification (personal drive motive) and to feel agentic, assertive, and skillful (power motive). Age at fellatio initiation was related to feelings of inferiority compared to others and a devaluing of the self (interpersonal sensitivity). Findings challenge the unilateral assumption that all adolescent sexual activity is negative and indicate the need for future research distinguishing between cunnilingus and fellatio. PMID:22546273
van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan
The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed Sexual Offenses (AMSO, n = 743). Results showed that AFSOs and AMSOs were remarkably similar, whereas AFSOs and AFVOs were remarkably different on the measured variables. Compared to AFVOs, AFSOs less often had antisocial friends and problems in the domains of school (truancy, behavior problems, dropping out of school) and family (e.g., parental problems, poor authority and control, and run away from home). Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family and social isolation were found to be more common in AFSOs than in AFVOs. Victimization of sexual abuse outside the family was the only specific characteristic of female adolescent sexual offending, as this was more common in AFSOs than in both AMSOs and AFVOs. PMID:23823249
Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S; Kachieng'a, Millicent A
The study examined South African adolescents' beliefs and attitudes regarding drug use, sexual risk behaviour and relationships between the two behaviours. Eleven single-gender focus groups were held among male and female Grade 8 and 11 students from three schools in Cape Town. The adolescents' opined that drugs' reinforcing effects were the main factor underlying their use, and that sexual risk behaviours resulted from girls' limited power in sexual relationships and boys' perceived invulnerability to HIV infection and the positive status associated with having multiple partners. Drug use was considered to exacerbate underlying vulnerabilities to risky sexual behaviour mainly due to drugs' effects on adolescents' inhibitions, rational thinking, and safer sex negotiation skills. The findings suggest that adolescent HIV intervention programmes should address the risks posed by drug use on sexual behaviour. PMID:16546781
Harris, Allyssa L
Adolescents spend an inordinate amount of time engaged with media, which is highly sexualized. Sexualized material can be found in music, on television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and books. Adolescents engaged with media are often influenced by this sexualized content, leading them to engage in risky sexual behavior. Urban literature (urban lit) is extremely popular among African-American female adolescents due to its portrayal of urban life and hip-hop culture. The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the extent to which African-American adolescent females are reading urban literature and to document whether this genre of literature had an effect on their sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26371361
Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, JosÃ©
Objectives To ascertain the effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps, perceived discrimination, and perceived negative context of reception on adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual activity, and sexual risk taking. We used an expanded, multidimensional model of acculturation. Method A sample of 302 recently immigrated parent-adolescent dyads (152 from Miami and 150 from Los Angeles) completed measures of acculturation (Hispanic and American practices and identifications, and individualist and collectivist values) and parent-adolescent communication. Adolescents completed measures of recent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual behavior, and sexual risk taking. Results Parent-adolescent gaps in American practices and ethnic identity, and perceptions of a negative context of reception, predicted compromised parent-adolescent communication. In Miami only, adolescent-reported communication negatively predicted odds of cigarette smoking, occasions of drunkenness, and number of sexual partners. Also in Miami only, parent-reported communication positively predicted these outcomes, as well as occasions of adolescent binge drinking, drunkenness, number of sexual partners, and odds of unprotected sex. The only significant findings in Los Angeles were protective effects of parent-reported communication on frequency of alcohol use and of binge drinking. Mediational effects emerged only in the Miami sample. Conclusions Effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps vary across Hispanic groups and receiving contexts. The especially strong parental control in many Mexican families may account for these differences. However, other important differences between Hispanic subgroups and communities of reception could also account for these differences. Prevention efforts might encourage Hispanic youth both to retain their culture of origin and to acquire American culture. PMID:22699094
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Collins, W Andrew
Theories and empirical studies of adolescent sexual behavior have identified the contributions of personal attributes and social experiences; however, it is rare that models have clarified developmental pathways to adolescent sexual behavior that include (1) factors assessed prior to and early in adolescence and (2) dyadic experiences in adolescence that provide the opportunity for sexual behavior (i.e., dating). Using data from a prospective study, structural equation modeling was used to test a model predicting adolescent sexual behavior at age 19, denoted by the number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors examined were sociability and impulsivity assessed at 30 months of age, physical characteristics and experiences with peers measured at age 12-13, the age of first romantic relationship, and frequency of alcohol use at age 16. The pathway to greater sexual involvement was marked by some desired personal attributes (e.g., sociability) and peer experiences (e.g., higher quality friendships). These associations were mediated, however, by earlier initiation of romantic relationships and more frequent use of alcohol in middle adolescence. Earlier initiation of romantic relationships and more frequent alcohol use were predicted by greater sociability and less impulsivity in childhood, higher quality friendships and greater peer acceptance in early adolescence, and a more mature appearance and physical attractiveness (among females) at age 13. The findings imply a complex pathway that leads to a greater accumulation of sexual partners by age 19. This pathway begins in childhood and includes individual qualities, peer acceptance, romantic relationships, and alcohol use. PMID:15162084
OrgilÃ©s, Mireia; CarratalÃ¡, Elena; Espada, JosÃ© P
Parental divorce has been linked to some risky sexual behaviour in previous studies. Here we examine whether the sexual behaviour of adolescents is related more to the perceived quality of the interparental relationship or to the parents' divorce in a sample from Spain, the country that has experienced the greatest recent increase in marital break-ups in the European Union. Participants were 801 adolescents aged between 14 and 17, who completed questionnaires anonymously. Adolescents who perceive high conflict in their parents' marriages have more sexual activity and engage in more risk practices in some sexual behaviours compared to adolescents with divorced parents and low interparental conflict. When adolescents perceive low conflict, those with divorced parents are more sexually active than adolescents with married parents, but they do not engage in more risk practices. The perceived quality of the parental relationship has a greater negative impact on adolescents than does the type of family structure. The study highlights the need to address the parents' marital relationship in the implementation of prevention programmes of sexual risk behaviours in Spanish adolescents. PMID:24788095
ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis was to investigate aspects of self-reported sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence in a population-based study of Swedish high school students. The aim of this thesis was first to investigate the lifetime prevalence of sexual abuse of varying severity and characteristics as well as the associations between sexual abuse, gender, socio-demographic characteristics and consensual sexual experiences. The next aim was to investigate disclosure rates and...
Carlson, Daniel L.; McNulty, Thomas L.; Bellair, Paul E.; Watts, Stephen
Understanding the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent sexual risk behavior is important given its links to the differential risk of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections. This article tests a contextual model that emphasizes the concentration of neighborhood disadvantage in shaping racial/ethnic disparities in sexual risk behavior. We focus on two risk behaviors that are prevalent among Black and Hispanic youth: the initiation of sexual activity...
Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affectâ¦
Kawsar, M; Anfield, A; Walters, E.; McCabe, S.; Forster, G.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the mental health needs of female child and adolescent survivors of rape and sexual assault who were referred to a specialist genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic.
As the age at marriage continues to rise in East and Southeast Asia, the fertility behavior of unmarried teenagers is receiving more attention from population policymakers. In addition to fertility reduction through family planning, Asian societies today consider population planning strategies in relation to national needs and social goals, including such matters as the population's growth rate, age structure, educational quality and skills. The number of single youth in Asia is growing much more rapidly than the total youth population. By the year 2010, for example, India is projected to have nearly 70 million single teenagers, aged 15-19, 188% more than in 1980. In many developing countries today, such as the Philippines and Korea, the rising age at marriage has combined with rapid urbanization, improved status for women, and more educational opportunity to alter both the behavioral norms of young people and the traditional means of social control over youth. Studies of contemporary adolescent sexuality have been conducted in 4 Asian countries. In the Philippines an overt independent youth homosexual culture was found to exist in urban and to some extent rural areas. In Thailand research revealed little conservative resistance to family planning or to contraceptives for young unmarried people. Surveys in Taiwan indicate that behavior related to dating and choice of spouse has become more liberal, and a survey in Hong Kong revealed a higher level of premarital sex and use of prostitutes among Chinese men than expected. Population policy perspectives that need to be considered in these changing times include: 1) issues of access to family planning services by unmarried people below the legal age of maturity; 2) the development of social institutions, such as exist in Thailand and the Philippines, to guide adolescents' behavior; 3) more extensive study of adolescent sexuality; 4) establishment of the scope of family policy. PMID:12315866
Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth--Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges
Leibowitz, George S.; Burton, David L.; Howard, Alan
In a recent paper published in the "Journal of Child Sexual Abuse," we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. PMID:25475102
Callister, Mark; Coyne, Sarah M; Stern, Lesa A; Stockdale, Laura; Miller, Malinda J; Wells, Brian M
Most research on sexual content in the media has focused on visual images such as those in TV, film, advertisements, and magazines. However, researchers have largely overlooked sexual content in novels. The popularity of novels and the potential for such literature to educate teens on sexual behaviors merits a closer examination into the sexual messages contained in popular adolescent literature. This study content analyzes the top 40 novels targeting adolescents. Results show that adolescent novels are replete with sex-related information, especially in novels targeted to girls. These sexual behaviors range from passionate kissing and romantic ideation to sexual intercourse. Over one third of the instances focus on references to sex, suggestive innuendos, or sexual descriptions; and an additional one third of sexual behavior involved sexual affection in the form of passionate kissing, intimate touching, and playful sexual behavior. Across the 40 books, there were 56 instances of sexual intercourse, most of which involved unmarried couples (94%); and many were in non-committal relationships. Moreover, sexual material rarely dealt with issues of abstinence, safe sex practices, and the health risks associated with sex. PMID:21660836
Page, Randy M.; Hall, Cougar P.
Background: This study examines the relationship between sexual behavior, alcohol use, and indicators of psychosocial distress (mental health) of adolescents in 6 sub-Saharan African countries using the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). Methods: The sample consisted of 22,949 adolescents from Botswana, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda,
Moreno, Megan A; Brockman, Libby N; Wasserheit, Judith N; Christakis, Dimitri A
Many older adolescents display sexual references on their social networking site profiles; this study investigated whether these references were associated with self-reported sexual intention, sexual experience, or risky sexual behavior. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduate freshmen were identified within 1 large U.S. university Facebook network. Profile owners who displayed sexual references (Displayers) and did not display references (Non-Displayers) were invited to complete surveys. Surveys measured sexual intention, using the Postponing Sexual Intercourse (PSI) scale, and sexual experiences. A higher PSI score was inversely related to intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Of the 118 profiles that met inclusion criteria, 85 profile owners completed surveys. Profile owners were mostly female (56.5%) and Caucasian (67.1%). The mean PSI score for Displayers was 6.5Â Â±Â 1.6, and the mean PSI score for Non-Displayers was 10.2Â Â±Â 0.6 (pÂ =Â .02). There were no differences between Displayers and Non-Displayers regarding lifetime prevalence of sexual behavior, number of sexual partners, or frequency of condom use. Display of sexual references on college freshmen's Facebook profiles was positively associated with reporting intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Facebook profiles may present an innovative cultural venue to identify adolescents who are considering sexual activity and may benefit from targeted educational messages. PMID:22239559
Dimitrova, Radosveta; Chasiotis, Athanasios; Bender, Michael; Vijver, Fons. Van de
In Europe and particularly in Bulgaria, Roma represent the largest low-status minority group that is subjected to marked public intolerance and discrimination. This study examined links among Roma (Nâ=â207) and Bulgarian (Nâ=â399) adolescentsâ ethnic, familial, and religious identities as salient identity aspects for their psychological wellbeing. Results indicated that, as expected, Roma youth reported lower levels of wellbeing than Bulgarian youth. The latter revealed a weaker religious ide...
Brunnberg, Elinor; Bostrom, Margareta Linden; Berglund, Mats
The aims of this study are first to compare the incidence of force on the first occasion of sexual intercourse reported by participants with disabilities to that of students without disabilities; second to determine whether there are significant differences in mental health, substance abuse, and school performance as reported by participantsâ¦
Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H
Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area. PMID:25344999
Geoffroy, Marie; Chamberland, Line
Despite legislative advances in terms of workplace equality for sexual and gender minorities (SGM), available data ascertains the persistence of workplace discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and especially of transgender/transsexual employees. This article, based on an extensive literature review, explores the relationship between different types of workplace discrimination experiences and their impacts on the mental health of SGM and of different sub-populations: men who have sex with men, non-heterosexual women, lesbian and gay parents, and trans people. Furthermore, the article explores certain individual and systemic protection and risk factors that have an impact on this relationship, such as coming-out at work and organisational support. Finally, the existing literature on workplace discrimination and mental health of sexual and gender minorities highlights the importance, in the current legal and social context, of intersectional approaches and of research on homo- and trans-negative microaggressions. The article ends with a discussion on the implications for practice, research, and workplace settings, as well as with several recommendations for these settings. PMID:26966853
Gunst, NoÃ«lle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L
We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality. PMID:25597406
Adolescents found within single-parent families without a residential father have reported higher levels of sexual debut and higher levels of reported pregnancy. Using data from the Mobile Youth Survey, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the presence of a father figure on the sexual debut of African-American adolescents living in poverty and to determine if gender moderates the relationship between the presence of a father figure and sexual debut. Additionally, this study will examine the family processes in which the presence of a father figure can affect the sexual debut of African-American adolescents who live within economically and socially disadvantaged communities. The results revealed that African-American adolescents reporting a father figure had lower rates of sexual debut than those youth reporting no father figure. Gender was not found to be a significant moderator in the relationship between father figure presence and sexual debut. However, existing curfews and family rules did account for some of the effects of presence of a father figure and sexual debut. The results suggest that when adolescents have a father figure in their lives, it may reduce the possibility of early sexual debut. PMID:25582779
Saada A. Seif
Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the perceptions of adolescents on caretaker-adolescent communication on sexuality. Using an Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills model, this article highlights areas to emphasise when planning strategies to improve caretaker-adolescent communication on sexuality. Twelve focus group discussions were held with adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years, and data were analysed using content analysis. The participants found it important for caretakers to communicate with adolescents about sexuality to avoid sexual and related health risks. Caretakers were the most preferred communicators, by adolescents, on sexuality matters. It became apparent that information about the use of condoms was the most unpopular topic during the discussions, while information about the use of contraceptives seemed to be more interesting to the majority of the participants. From the adolescents point of view, the barriers to communication about sexuality on the caretakers side, include, the belief that such information might encourage promiscuity; some caretakers do not find it easy to discuss matters related to sexuality with their children; and others feel that some adolescents know more about sexuality than themselves. On the other hand, barriers on adolescents side include, fear of the caretakers, some of whom seem harsh, unfriendly, and sometimes unapproachable. Following the findings, it is being suggested that intervention strategies that would help to alleviate communication barriers would consequently facilitate caretaker-adolescent discussions about sexuality and reproductive health.
Full Text Available Adolescence is defined as the period of transition from childhood to adulthood in terms of physical, sexual, cognitive and psychosocial development. Adolescence period can be investigated in three phases which are early adolescence, middle adolescence and late adolescence. Physical and mental maturity is reached in late adolescence and the sexual behavior of the child changes from individual to socially shared relationships. There are some researches which show the increase of sexual abuse in adolescence. In these researches, importance of forensic and medical evaluation is emphasized in situations where sexual abuse of a psychosocially immature child by an adult exists. During forensic and medical evaluation, protecting every kind of material which can be used as medical evidence, and structuring the inspection as soon as possible is very important in order to not only preserve the rights of the attacked person, but also to identify the attacker. In forensic and medical evaluation, preparation of judicial report by doctors, who were assigned as medical referees, collaborating with doctors from different specialty areas in medicine is very important. During the evaluation of physical and mental symptoms in the sexually abused adolescent forensic and psychiatric examination is also needed. To be able to reintegrate child to the society, carrying out the medicalevaluation by an experienced team composed of forensic science experts, psychiatrists, psychologists, pedagogues, and social service experts is very important. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46 Suppl: 35-8
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
Introduction We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young personsâ in rural and urban Nigeria. Methodology We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participantsâ socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined. Results More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001) and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04) and urban (15.0% vs 29.1%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of itching. Conclusion There are differences in the sexual behavior and practices of adolescents and young personsâ residing in the urban and rural area with implication for HIV prevention programming. PMID:26171859
Marques, Sara S; Lin, Jessica S; Starling, M Summer; Daquiz, Aubrey G; Goldfarb, Eva S; Garcia, Kimberly C R; Constantine, Norman A
The web has unique potential for adolescents seeking comprehensive sexual health information. As such, it is important to understand the nature, scope, and readability of the content and messaging provided by sexuality educational websites. We conducted a content analysis of 14 sexuality education websites for adolescents, based on the 7 essential components (sexual and reproductive health and HIV, relationships, sexual rights and sexual citizenship, pleasure, violence, diversity, and gender) of the International Planned Parenthood Framework for Comprehensive Sexuality Education. A majority of content across all sites focused on sexual and reproductive health and HIV, particularly pregnancy and STI prevention, and other information about STIs and HIV. No other topic comprised more than 10% of content coverage across a majority of sites. The authors found little discussion of gender issues, sexual rights, sexual diversity, or sexual violence. Most sites provided brief references to sexual pleasure, generally moderated with cautionary words. Language used implied a heterosexual female audience. Reading levels for most sites were above the 9th-grade level, with several at the college level. These findings have implications for enhancing online sexuality education and broadening the coverage of essential topics. PMID:26147453
Barker, G K; Rich, S
Continuing high rates of adolescent childbearing in sub-Saharan Africa indicate a need for improved understanding of factors affecting adolescent sexuality. As traditional cultural influences on adolescent sexuality in Africa have diminished, peer interaction and modern influences have gained importance. To study peer interaction and societal factors and their impact on adolescent attitudes toward sexuality and contraception, the authors conducted a series of single-sex-focus-group discussions with in-school and out-of-school youth in urban and rural areas of Kenya and Nigeria in 1990. Out-of-school youth generally receive information on sexuality and family planning from peers (and the media), while in-school youth receive information in school, although not necessarily relevant information. Young women interviewed perceived unwanted early childbearing as something that affected them, an important precursor to family planning use. However, young people tended to have better information and more positive attitudes about induced abortion than about family planning. PMID:1523699
Harris, Allyssa L
Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon. PMID:21888149
Jessy Devieux; McMahon, Robert C.; Rhonda Rosenberg; MALOW, ROBERT M.
Problem statement: Delinquent adolescents with substance abuse disorders frequently engage in behaviors that elevate their risk of contracting HIV. Although effective risk reduction interventions are urgently needed, there is uncertainty about the nature of interventions required to produce change. Approach:This study evaluated whether Modified version of Becoming A Responsible Teen (M-BART) produced greater reductions in drug use and sexual risk behaviors than an Anger Mana...
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
Using a longitudinal web-based survey of adolescents 14-16 years of age, we estimate regression models where self-reported sexual behavior and content analytic-based exposure to sex in the media are related cross-sectionally and longitudinally. We find evidence for both cross-sectional non-recursive and prospective longitudinal relationships even after adjusting for both established predictors of sexual behavior (e.g., physical development, having a romantic partner, parental monitoring, peer and parental norms, respondent's age) and of exposure to sexual media content (e.g., time the respondent goes to bed, extracurricular activities, television in the bedroom, total time spent with television, music, videogames, and magazines). Sexually active adolescents are more likely to expose themselves to sex in the media and those exposed to sex in the media are more likely to progress in their sexual activity. These findings are consistent with others in the literature that demonstrate a causal effect of exposure to sexual content on sexual behavior but extend established results by also looking at the causal effect of sexual behavior on exposure both cross-sectionally and over time. PMID:20376301
Idania Castro Abreu
Full Text Available Se realizÃ³ un estudio de tipo descriptivo de corte transversal a un grupo de adolescentes de la Escuela Secundaria BÃ¡sica Fructuoso RodrÃguez de la localidad de Punta Brava, Municipio La Lisa, en un perÃodo de tiempo que abarcÃ³ desde enero a marzo del aÃ±o 2008. Se utilizÃ³ un muestreo simple aleatorio con 95 % de confiabilidad. Los datos fueron procesados por el cÃ¡lculo porcentual y se expresaron en tablas. Se consideraron algunas variables sociodemogrÃ¡ficas para caracterizar e identificar conocimientos y factores de riesgo sobre esta temÃ¡tica. Hubo un predominio del sexo femenino, el grupo de edades de 13 a 14 aÃ±os y los que cursan el 9no grado. En cuanto a los conocimientos sobre infecciones de transmisiÃ³n sexual y su prevenciÃ³n, las fÃ©minas evidenciaron mejor preparaciÃ³n. Observamos mayor dificultad en la identificaciÃ³n de las manifestaciones clÃnicas de las infecciones de transmisiÃ³n sexual. Se apreciÃ³ que la minorÃa de los estudiantes ha iniciado ya sus relaciones sexuales. Se demostrÃ³ la existencia de prÃ¡cticas sexuales de riesgo como: edad de inicio precoz entre 12.5 y 13.7, MotivaciÃ³n errada para iniciar la vida sexual (Curiosidad y bÃºsqueda de apoyo, afecto, gran nÃºmero de ellos ha tenido mÃ¡s de 3 parejas sexuales, aunque predominÃ³ el uso del condÃ³n como medio de protecciÃ³n, no es usado con la frecuencia adecuada. No se evidenciÃ³ en la investigaciÃ³n estudiantes que hayan contraÃdo infecciones de transmisiÃ³n sexual. Se diseÃ±Ã³ una estrategia para incrementar el conocimiento de las ITS en estos adolescentes.A survey was done with adolescents of the Fructuoso Rodriguez High School, located in Punta Brava town, La Lisa Municipality. During the months of January and March of 2008, a simple model 95% reliable by change was obtained and the data were processed by means of the porcentage calculus and put on boards. General points of view were considered according to the social way of life and quantity of people to identify the risk factors about this subject there was a predominance of the feminine sex, in the students from 13 to 14 years old of the ninth grade. The females had the best preparation about how to prevent the sexual- transfer- infection. We observed difficulties identifying the clinic declare of the ITS. We appreciated that the minority of the students have already started the sexual relationship. In the survey was demonstrated the existence of the risk- sexual- practicing such as: Precocious start age between 12.5 and 13.7, erroneous motivation to start the sexual life (curiosity and search of a support affection, the great number of them have had more than 3 sexual couple, although the used condom as a means of protection, it was not used with an appropriate frequency. In our research we did not found students with ITS . A strategy to improve the adolescents knowledge about the ITS.
Aline Riboli Marasca; Denise Falcke
Violence in the affective-sexual relationships of adolescents is a theme that has been highlighted by the literature as a result of its high rates of prevalence. It has different characteristics, while many factors are shown to be associated with its occurrence. The present study investigated the affective-sexual relationships of adolescents, focusing on the experiences as perpetrators and victims of different types of violence between partners. We conducted a quantitative study with a descri...
HalpÃ©rin, D. S.; Bouvier, P; JaffÃ©, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; AstiÃ©, F.
OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to t...
Smerecnik Chris; Schaalma Herman; Gerjo Kok; Meijer Suzanne; Poelman Jos
Abstract Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim y...
Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental âchat roomâ paradigm involving âe-confederatesâ who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. Changes in participants' responses to risk scenarios before versus during the âchat roomâ were used as a performance-based...
The aim of this study is to assess the crucial role of sexuality education in addressing adolescents reproductive health needs within the backdrops of immense challenges in Nigerian environment. Young people have been well documented as a special need group in the area of reproductive health. Adolescent sexuality and reproductive health are important contemporary concerns especially for reproductive health problems such as early marriage, unintended/unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality and...
Tilahun Mesfin; Mengistie Bezatu; Egata Gudina; Reda Ayalu A
Abstract Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010....
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja
Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2,564 grade 10 students and their parents in the Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention that should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs. PMID:25490732
Valentine, Sarah E; Elsesser, Steven; Grasso, Chris; Safren, Steven A; Bradford, Judith B; Mereish, Ethan; O'Cleirigh, Conall
Previous studies documenting sexual minority women's disproportionate risk for a range of medical, mental health, and substance use disorders have not provided a predictive framework for understanding their interrelations and outcomes. The present study aimed to address this gap by testing the syndemic effect of co-occurring psychosocial problems on 7-year health care costs and utilization among sexual minority women. The sample was comprised of sexual minority women (Nâ=â341) who were seen at an urban LGBT-affirmative community health center. Medical and mental health care utilization and cost data were extracted from electronic medical records. Demographically adjusted regression models revealed that co-occurring psychosocial problems (i.e., childhood sexual abuse, partner violence, substance use, and mental health distress [history of suicide attempt]) were all strongly interrelated. The presence of these indicators had a syndemic (additive) effect on medical costs and utilization and mental health utilization over 7-year follow-up, but no effect on 7-year mental health costs. These results suggest that the presence and additive effect of these syndemic conditions may, in part, explain increased medical costs and utilization (and higher medical morbidity) among sexual minority women. PMID:26438415
Madan Mohan Laddunuri
Full Text Available Introduction: A surge of sexual interest occurs around puberty and continues through adolescence. Heightened adolescent sexuality may be caused by a number of factors, including bodily changes, sexual hormones, social forces, and rehearsal for adult gender roles. The main objective of the present study is to understand the patterns and trends of adolescent studentsâ sexual behaviour in Tanzania.Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted and 550 secondary school students (13 to 19 years old were recruited by using a multistage random sampling technique from Tanzaniaâs secondary schools. The data collection tool was a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed by using SPSS software package version 16.Results: More than one third (40.2% of the participant students had experienced intercourse with mean age 17.2Â±1.8 years and one sixth (17.6% of the participants had multiple sexual partners. The mean age for hugging, kissing and breast fondling was significantly younger when compared to the sexual intercourse. Most (78.5% of the students had used contraceptives but the frequency of contraception was less than half (48.6% âalwaysâ. The main reasons beyond sexual debut were âjust for funâ (37% and âpeer pressureâ (27.6%. A male student was 1.46 times more likely to have had intercourse than a female. Parental education was the most significant association with sexual debut of adolescents and the odds ratio indicates that sexual intercourse among students is decreasing with the increasing of parental education.Conclusion: A relatively high sexual intercourse has been recorded and risky sexual behaviour also existed among the respondents. Hence, there is a need to promote specific intervention programmes built upon those factors which are associated with an increased likelihood for early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviour.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in a group of adolescents in MedellÃn, Colombia, and the most frequent risk factors for acquiring them. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, between 2010 and 2013, in 569 students who had started sexual intercourse. A questionnaire was applied, and screening was done for the following infections: hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, HPV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and nongonococcal urethritis in men. Results: Women had the following frequencies of infections: HPV 28.1 %; Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4 %; bacterial vaginosis 42.7 %; candidiasis 14.1 %. Nongonococcal urethritis was found in 6.2 % of men. Hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, and gonococcal infections were not found. The most frequent risk factors were as follows: to have started sexual relations before the age of 15 (59.9 %; not to use condom (58.2 %; not to have utilized condom in the last sexual intercourse (41.7 %; to lack adequate knowledge on sexual health (39.1 %; to have had three or more sexual partners (30.6 %; to have had sexual partners 10 or more years older than themselves (20.4 %, and to have sexual relations with persons different from the formal partner (18.8 %. Conclusions: The high prevalence of STIs in teenagers that are just starting sexual life must be an alert to implement high impact sexual health programs.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the crucial role of sexuality education in addressing adolescents reproductive health needs within the backdrops of immense challenges in Nigerian environment. Young people have been well documented as a special need group in the area of reproductive health. Adolescent sexuality and reproductive health are important contemporary concerns especially for reproductive health problems such as early marriage, unintended/unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality and sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. A large number of adolescents in Nigeria decide to be more sexually active without access to preventive measure, such as condoms or family planning devices and thus face undesired consequences, including unwanted pregnancies, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs, including the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS and the social consequences of both. In fact, adolescents have a higher prevalence of most reproductive health problems because of lack of information and poor access to service. However, one of the 2004 Nigerian National Population Policy objectives is increasing the integration of adolescents and young people into development efforts and effectively addressing their reproductive health and related needs. The study, which relies mainly on secondary data, examines the crucial role and benefits of sexuality education against the backdrops of the challenges including reaching the youths with sexuality and reproductive information and service, or motivating them to change behavior in the light of new information and awareness, more institutional support and creating the social and economic climate, which will make the desired changes possible and sustainable. The author contends that it is a violation of ones fundamental human rights and freedom guaranteed by numerous international, regional and national policies as well as legal instruments when attempts are made to control rather than educate people to freely express their sexuality positively and in good health. Thus, there is need for all stakeholders to acknowledge the reality of adolescent sexuality and teach them how to be healthy sexual beings without endangering themselves and others.
Ayse Sonay Kurt
Full Text Available Recently, the importance of cervical cancer one of the womenâs most important health problems has increased. One of the important causes of cervical cancer is the HPV (Human Papilloma Virus. Cervical cancer has high level of severity and it is difficult to diagnose because it is difficult detect its symptoms in earlier period. Therefore, in order to reduce the negative effects of cervical cancer and to take appropriate measures, itsâ risk factors should be known. This study is designed to review studies to determine risk factors of cervical cancer. In reviewed studies, the clear and exact factors are given; however, common risk factors that were stated in the studies are listed as adolescent sexuality in the period (age at first intercourse at a young age or pregnancy in young, multiple sexual partner, smoking and oral contraceptive. As it is believed by the researchers that some precautions could be taken, informing of the community in this regard is of great importance.
Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G
To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la CrÃ©ation (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. YaoundÃ©, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national program to combat this plight. PMID:19499745
Isiugo-Abanihe, Uche C; Olajide, Rasak; Nwokocha, Ezebunwa; Fayehun, Funke; Okunola, Rasheed; Akingbade, Retta
The introduction of school-based adolescent sexuality and life skills education in Nigeria's formal education sector raises the misgiving that out-of-school youths who constitute more than half of the youth population might be neglected. This study investigated the extent to which out-of-school adolescents have been reached with sexuality education in Nigeria. The study took place in the six geopolitical zones and the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, and involved out-of-school adolescents, Non-Governmental Organizations, and community leaders. The qualitative research approaches were employed. Most of the youths had been exposed to sexuality education through seminars, trainings and workshops organized by different organizations. However, states in the south were better served than those in the north. Sexually Transmitted Infections including HIV/AIDS prevention accounted for more than 40% of the content of sexuality and life skills education received by out-of-school adolescents. The programmes have impacted positively on adolescents' disposition and relationship with the opposite sex, knowledge and skill building. PMID:26103700
This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs.
Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa
There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this newâ¦
Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth
The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to be at riskâ¦
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
Objectives: To examine how sources of sexual information are associated with adolescents' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about having sexual intercourse using the integrative model of behavior change. Methods: Survey data from a quota sample of 459 youth. Results: The most frequently reported sources were friends, teachers, mothers,
Inyang, Mfrekemfon P.
Most adolescents engage in indiscriminate sexual experimentations. This practice exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndromes (AIDS) are among the deadly diseases that exist globally. Twice as many girls, compared to boys
Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.
It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and promptedâ¦
Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy
Objectives: To examine how sources of sexual information are associated with adolescents' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about having sexual intercourse using the integrative model of behavior change. Methods: Survey data from a quota sample of 459 youth. Results: The most frequently reported sources were friends, teachers, mothers,â¦
This article explores the relationship between employment and first sexual intercourse in the early teen years. Past research has examined the influence of a wide range of social contexts on adolescent sexual behavior. Very few studies, however, consider the work-place. In this study, a series of Cox proportional hazard models predicting the riskâ¦
Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.
Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of
Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and
Lando-King, Elizabeth; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gower, Amy L; Shlafer, Rebecca J; McMorris, Barbara J; Pettingell, Sandra; Sieving, Renee E
Social-emotional intelligence (SEI) has been linked with a number of health behaviors in adolescent populations. However, little is known about the influence of SEI on sexual behavior. This study examined associations between three indicators of SEI (intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, stress management skills) and adolescent girls' sexual risk behaviors. Data come from a cross-sectional sample of sexually active adolescent girls (ages 13 to 17 years) at high risk for pregnancy (NÂ =Â 253), recruited from health care clinics in a Midwest metropolitan area during 2007 and 2008. Results of multivariable regression models controlling for participants' age and race/ethnicity indicated that each aspect of SEI was related to distinct sexual risk behaviors. Specifically, girls with greater intrapersonal skills had significantly fewer male sex partners in the past six months (bÂ =Â -0.16). Participants with greater interpersonal skills reported earlier communication with their sexual partner about sexual risk (bÂ =Â 0.14), and those with a better ability to manage stress reported more consistent condom use (bÂ =Â 0.31). Study findings suggest that SEI may provide a protective buffer against sexual risk behaviors. Building adolescent girls' social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their risk for early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25621508
Scull, Tracy Marie; Malik, Christina V.; Kupersmidt, Janis Beth
As states are moving toward comprehensive sexual health education, educators require engaging and effective curricula. This pre-post study (N = 64) examined the feasibility of a comprehensive, media literacy education program for influencing adolescents' sexual health and media literacy outcomes. After the program, participants were moreâ¦
Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick
Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so.â¦
Farr, Rachel H; Crain, Emily E; Oakley, M K; Cashen, Krystal K; Garber, Karin J
Limited research exists about the unique experiences and possible marginalization of children with sexual minority parents. From a larger longitudinal project of diverse adoptive families, we examined cross-sectional data using mixed methods from interviews with 49 adopted children (M age = 8 years; 47 % female) in 27 two-father and 22 two-mother families. Using thematic analysis, we coded themes of awareness of difference, microaggressions, and resilience (i.e., coping and positive family conceptualizations). Children experienced "feeling different" and microaggressions from peers, but generally at a low to medium intensity and with neutral (not negative) emotion. More instances of resilience and positive family conceptualizations were reported than microaggressions or feelings of difference, suggesting that children develop positive perceptions of their family and navigate experiences of difference with resilience. Filling important gaps in the literature, we discuss implications of our results for practice and policy. PMID:26374241
Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted diseases are very important health challenges for adolescents. Many national and international governmental and nongovernmental health agencies are running programmes to reduce the incidence of these diseases. We can provide an insight to the reproductive and sexual health needs of adolescents by assessing their knowledge, attitude and practice about these diseases. Research Question: What is the level of knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases? Objectives: To assess the knowledge awareness and practice among adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases in an urban slum in Dehradun. Study Design: Cross-Sectional Settings and Participants: Adolescents belonging to registered families of Chandreshwar Nagar urban slum under the field practice area of Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC of department of Community Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences. Sample Size: 166 Adolescents i.e. Males-88 and Females-78. Study Period: May 2009 to October 2009 Study Variable: A predesigned, pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting information on Age, Sex, Knowledge and awareness regarding STDs, etc. Statistical Analysis: Standard statistical package i.e. SPSS, Microsoft Excel. Results: 51.2% of the adolescents were having knowledge about STDs. Majority of (91.4% the adolescents knew about AIDS as a type of STD. Their attitude cum practice towards prevention of STD was found to be 72.9% by use of condoms. Conclusions: Appropriate health care seeking behaviour and Information Education and Communication (IEC activities should be promoted.
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei
Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of
Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostlyâ¦
Livingston, Jennifer A.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Hequembourg, Amy L.; Testa, Maria; Downs, Julie S.
Experimentation with alcohol and sexuality is a normative aspect of adolescent development. Yet, both present distinct risks to adolescent females and are especially problematic when they intersect. Although youth are often cautioned about the dangers associated with having sex and using alcohol, popular entertainment media frequently depict theâ¦
Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph
Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent andâ¦
Averett, Susan; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy
We use data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to estimate effects of adolescent girls' overweight on their propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior. We estimate single equation, two-stage, and sibling fixed-effects models and find that overweight or obese teenage girls are more likely than their recommended-weightâ¦
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei
Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas ofâ¦
St. Lawrence, Janet S.; And Others
Examined 295 African-American adolescents' degree of social support, attitudes regarding health beliefs and condoms, AIDS knowledge and risk, self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Found that adolescents with less social support were less knowledgeable about AIDS, held more negative attitudes toward condoms, and were lower in self-efficacy than
Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann I.; Armour, Brian S.; Thibadeau, Judy K.
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether US female adolescents who self-reported having a physical disability or long-term health problem were more likely to report having been physically forced to have sexual intercourse than US female adolescents without a physical disability or long-term health problem. Methods: Using
Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involvingâ¦
Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann I.; Armour, Brian S.; Thibadeau, Judy K.
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether US female adolescents who self-reported having a physical disability or long-term health problem were more likely to report having been physically forced to have sexual intercourse than US female adolescents without a physical disability or long-term health problem. Methods: Usingâ¦
Drew, Cathy L.
Adolescent males are influenced by various social and cultural factors. This qualitative study sought to further understanding about adolescent males' thoughts and behaviors regarding sexual decision-making. Specific exploration encompassed the influences of the identified factors of parents, peers, media, first romantic relationship breakups, andâ¦
Perry, Raymond C. W.; Braun, Rebecca A.; Cantu, Michelle; Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Chung, Paul J.
Background: Text messaging is an increasingly common mode of communication, especially among adolescents, and frequency of texting may be a measure of one's sociability. This study examined how text messaging ("texting") frequency and academic performance are associated with adolescent sexual behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectionalâ¦
Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Adolescents' friendships with other-sex peers serve important developmental functions, but they may also facilitate engagement in problem behavior. This study examines the unique contributions of other-sex friendships and friends' behavior to alcohol use, smoking, and initiation of sexual intercourse among late adolescent girls and boys. A totalâ¦
Helweg-Larsen, Karin; BÃ¸ving Larsen, Helmer
representative sample of 15-16-y-olds. Child sexual abuse was defined according to the penal code and measured by questions defining specific sexual activities, the relationship between the older person and the child, and the youth's own perception of the incident. RESULTS: Among 5829 respondents, 11% reported......AIM: To obtain current data about child sexual abuse in Denmark and to assess abused children's own perception of early sexual experiences, which are unlawful according to the Danish Penal Code. METHODS: Multimedia computer-based self-administered questionnaires (CASI) were completed by a national...... unlawful sexual experiences, 7% of boys and 16% of girls. Only 1% of boys and 4% of girls felt that they "definitely" or "maybe" had been sexually abused. CONCLUSION: A relatively high percentage of Danish adolescents have early, unlawful sexual experiences. However, young people's own perception of sexual...
Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari
This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: MÂ =Â 14.96 years, SDÂ =Â 1.85), 155 mothers (age: MÂ =Â 36.16 years, SDÂ =Â 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: MÂ =Â 39.68 years, SDÂ =Â 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (nÂ =Â 221) and fathers (nÂ =Â 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists. PMID:26547146
Shandra, Carrie L.; Chowdhury, Afra R.
First sexual intercourse is an important experience in the young adult life course. While previous research has examined racial, gender, and socioeconomic differences in the characteristics of first sexual intercourse, less is known about differences by disability status. Using a racially diverse (27% Black, 20% Hispanic, and 53% non-Hispanic white) sample of 2,729 adolescent girls aged 12â24 at first sexual intercourse from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this article examine...
McLaughlin, CS; Chen, C.; Greenberger, E; Biermeier, C
This study explored ethnic and gender differences in sexual behavior and its correlates among 148 Caucasian American and 202 Asian American college students (mean age = 19.8 years). Among Asian Americans, differences in mean number of sexual partners were not associated with differences in generational status, ethnic subgroup, or level of acculturation as indicated by language usage at home. As expected, Caucasian Americans reported having had more sexual partners by late adolescence to young...
Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Lafortezza, Elena; Pinto, Floriana; Craig, Francesco; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Carabellese, Felice; Tarricone, Ivana; Margari, Francesco
A deep understanding of the characteristics of sex offenders may serve to improve clinical prevention and treatment programs. Mostly, however, this knowledge can aid in the creation of better re-education and rehabilitation programs as well as criminological treatment. In prison systems outside of Italy, the use of treatment programs specifically designed for sex offenders is commonplace, whereas in Italy, there is only sporadic experimentation in this field which is aimed at evaluating adults. If this is true for adults, it is even more so for the minors who commit this type of crime that gives rise to worry and a great sense of alarm. The aim of this work is to show the preliminary results of an empirical study that explores the mental representations of the parents of minors who commit acts of sexual violence towards other. This study is an ongoing in collaboration with the Juvenile Justice Center (Centro Giustizia Minorile) of the Region of Apulia, whose first data on 10 juvenile perpetrators of such specific crimes are presented here. PMID:21779102
Sun, Christina J; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D
The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not. Data from 167 participants who completed the baseline survey of a community-level HIV prevention intervention, which harnesses the social networks of Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons, were analyzed. One quarter of participants (28.74%, n = 48) reported using websites or apps designed for social and sexual networking, and 119 (71.26%) reported not using websites or apps designed for social and sexual networking. Those who used websites or apps were younger and reported more male sex partners, a sexually transmitted disease diagnosis, and illicit drug use other than marijuana. HIV prevention interventions for those who use websites or apps should consider addressing these risks for HIV. PMID:26272786
Chirinos Jesús L.
Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.
Jansen Lucres MC
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 1218 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83% was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality. Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention, although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.
Sherrill, Andrew; Renk, Kimberly; Sims, Valerie K.; Culp, Anne
The grayest areas of defining child sexual abuse appear to involve the age and sex of the individuals involved, resulting in a potential for different attributions regarding child sexual abuse across individuals. As a result, this study examines the responses of 262 male and female college student participants after viewing a series ofâ¦
Sherrill, Andrew; Renk, Kimberly; Sims, Valerie K.; Culp, Anne
The grayest areas of defining child sexual abuse appear to involve the age and sex of the individuals involved, resulting in a potential for different attributions regarding child sexual abuse across individuals. As a result, this study examines the responses of 262 male and female college student participants after viewing a series of
Mª Rosario, Cortés Arboleda; José, Cantón Duarte; David, Cantón-Cortés.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia, la naturaleza y las consecuencias de los abusos sexuales sufridos durante la infancia o la adolescencia. Métodos: 2.159 estudiantes de la Universidad de Granada respondieron voluntariamente y de forma anónima a un cuestionario sobre abuso sexual. Establecido el g [...] rupo de víctimas, se formó otro de comparación con estudiantes sin antecedentes de abusos. En una segunda sesión se evaluó la salud mental de ambos grupos. Resultados: 269 (12,5%) estudiantes manifestaron haber sufrido abusos sexuales antes de los 18 años de edad. El 62,8% de los abusos consistió en tocamientos y la edad media de inicio fue a los 8,8 años. Los perpetradores, mayoritariamente varones y un 44% menores de edad, solían cometer los abusos en el hogar de la víctima o en el suyo, aprovechándose de las visitas o de su estrecha vinculación. Alrededor del 50% se sirvió del engaño o del juego. En cuanto a la salud mental de las víctimas, las universitarias con antecedentes de abusos sexuales tenían menor autoestima y asertividad, y puntuaciones más altas en actitud vital negativa, depresión y ansiedad, que las del grupo de comparación. Las víctimas varones, sin embargo, sólo diferían de los universitarios sin antecedentes de abusos en su mayor nivel de ansiedad. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores y sus consecuencias, así como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las víctimas; unos resultados relevantes para la planificación de programas de detección y prevención de los abusos. Abstract in english Objective: To analyze the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence. Methods: A total of 2,159 college students from the University of Granada anonymously completed a questionnaire on sexual abuse. A group of sexual abuse survivors was established and a comp [...] arison group without a history of abuse was selected. In a second session, the socio-affective adjustment of both groups was assessed. Results Sexual abuse before the age of 18 was reported by 269 (12.5%) students. In 62.8%, the abuse consisted of the perpetrator touching the victim and/or the victim touching the perpetrator. The average age at which the sexual abuse started was 8.8 years old. The vast majority of perpetrators were males and 44% were under-age minors. The perpetrators usually committed the sexual abuse in the victim's home or in their own homes, taking advantage of visits and/or close relationships. Almost half the perpetrators made use of deception or games. Female college students with a history of sexual abuse had lower self-esteem, were less assertive, had a more negative attitude toward life, and higher depression and anxiety scores than women in the comparison group. Male survivors, however, differed from non-survivors only in having higher anxiety levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the severity of the problem of sexual abuse of minors and its consequences, the circumstances in which this abuse occurs, and the profiles of perpetrators and victims. These results are relevant for the planning of abuse detection and prevention programs.
MÂª Rosario CortÃ©s Arboleda
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia, la naturaleza y las consecuencias de los abusos sexuales sufridos durante la infancia o la adolescencia. MÃ©todos: 2.159 estudiantes de la Universidad de Granada respondieron voluntariamente y de forma anÃ³nima a un cuestionario sobre abuso sexual. Establecido el grupo de vÃctimas, se formÃ³ otro de comparaciÃ³n con estudiantes sin antecedentes de abusos. En una segunda sesiÃ³n se evaluÃ³ la salud mental de ambos grupos. Resultados: 269 (12,5% estudiantes manifestaron haber sufrido abusos sexuales antes de los 18 aÃ±os de edad. El 62,8% de los abusos consistiÃ³ en tocamientos y la edad media de inicio fue a los 8,8 aÃ±os. Los perpetradores, mayoritariamente varones y un 44% menores de edad, solÃan cometer los abusos en el hogar de la vÃctima o en el suyo, aprovechÃ¡ndose de las visitas o de su estrecha vinculaciÃ³n. Alrededor del 50% se sirviÃ³ del engaÃ±o o del juego. En cuanto a la salud mental de las vÃctimas, las universitarias con antecedentes de abusos sexuales tenÃan menor autoestima y asertividad, y puntuaciones mÃ¡s altas en actitud vital negativa, depresiÃ³n y ansiedad, que las del grupo de comparaciÃ³n. Las vÃctimas varones, sin embargo, sÃ³lo diferÃan de los universitarios sin antecedentes de abusos en su mayor nivel de ansiedad. Conclusiones: Los resultados demuestran la gravedad del problema de los abusos sexuales a menores y sus consecuencias, asÃ como las circunstancias en que se producen y el perfil de los agresores y de las vÃctimas; unos resultados relevantes para la planificaciÃ³n de programas de detecciÃ³n y prevenciÃ³n de los abusos.Objective: To analyze the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence. Methods: A total of 2,159 college students from the University of Granada anonymously completed a questionnaire on sexual abuse. A group of sexual abuse survivors was established and a comparison group without a history of abuse was selected. In a second session, the socio-affective adjustment of both groups was assessed. Results Sexual abuse before the age of 18 was reported by 269 (12.5% students. In 62.8%, the abuse consisted of the perpetrator touching the victim and/or the victim touching the perpetrator. The average age at which the sexual abuse started was 8.8 years old. The vast majority of perpetrators were males and 44% were under-age minors. The perpetrators usually committed the sexual abuse in the victim's home or in their own homes, taking advantage of visits and/or close relationships. Almost half the perpetrators made use of deception or games. Female college students with a history of sexual abuse had lower self-esteem, were less assertive, had a more negative attitude toward life, and higher depression and anxiety scores than women in the comparison group. Male survivors, however, differed from non-survivors only in having higher anxiety levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the severity of the problem of sexual abuse of minors and its consequences, the circumstances in which this abuse occurs, and the profiles of perpetrators and victims. These results are relevant for the planning of abuse detection and prevention programs.
Raphan, Gwen; Cohen, Sarah; Boyer, Ann M.
Adolescent women are at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus (STDs/HIV) because of physiologic susceptibility and risky sexual behavior. The latter may be related to the personal factors of self-efficacy, sexual knowledge, self-esteem, and ability to communicate/negotiate. In the current study, near-peers attempted to have an impact on these factors by using the female condom as a negotiating tool for safer sex in a group of 100 urban adolescent women recr...
van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; DekoviÄ, Maja
The present study examined indirect over-time relations between parenting and adolescent sexuality through global self-esteem. Three waves of online questionnaire data were collected among a community sample of 1,116 Dutch adolescents (MÂ =Â 13.9 years at baseline). Participants rated the quality of their relationship with parents, their global self-esteem, and their experience with various sexual behaviors. Sexually experienced adolescents (nÂ =Â 168) evaluated their sexual experiences using six emotions. Path model results showed that a higher-quality relationship with parents at T1 predicted higher levels of self-esteem at T2, which in turn predicted less experience with sexual behaviors and more positive sexual emotions at T3. The indirect over-time path from relationship quality through self-esteem to adolescents' sexual emotions was significant; the indirect path to adolescents' experience with sexual behaviors was not significant at the .05 level. No significant age or gender differences were found in the path models. The findings indicate that self-esteem plays an important role in adolescent sexuality and that parents can contribute to positive sexual experiences of adolescents indirectly-through the enhancement of self-esteem-by fostering a high-quality relationship with their children. Implications for theory, future research, and strategies to promote healthy and positive youth sexuality are discussed. PMID:26452563
Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah
Using a sample of 284 sexual minority youth and young adults, this paper examines the relationships between mental health variables, the absence or presence of a gay-straight alliance, and membership status in a gay-straight alliance. The results suggest that the presence of a gay-straight alliance in a school or college, rather than actual
Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah
Using a sample of 284 sexual minority youth and young adults, this paper examines the relationships between mental health variables, the absence or presence of a gay-straight alliance, and membership status in a gay-straight alliance. The results suggest that the presence of a gay-straight alliance in a school or college, rather than actualâ¦
This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more
Eichler, Matthew A.; Mizzi, Robert C.
Sexual-minority male immigrants re-locating from the Middle East to the United States and Canada have particular experiences upon entry and integration into their new societies. The needs of learning and identity are highlighted through a multiple case approach involving three men. Interviews were conducted with the three participants, which were
Rubin, Lisa R.; Tanenbaum, Molly
Feminist scholars and activists writing about breast cancer care among women have highlighted the sexist and heterosexist assumptions often embedded in the medical management of breast cancer, and of mastectomy in particular. Despite these contributions, and some speculation that sexual minority women may be less interested in breastâ¦
Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian
This study sheds light on obstacles to safe sexual health for young Thais and their need for appropriate sexual and reproductive health services. The study population was 1,745 unmarried adolescents aged 17-20 who resided or worked in Chiang Mai, the major city in northern Thailand. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the vulnerability of sexually active adolescents as well as the lack of support and care for them from parents and health providers. We found that young Thais still prefer pharmacies for self-medication and use government health care facilities as a last resort. Current health services are not suitable for adolescents in northern Thailand because they lack privacy and impose judgemental attitudes, especially towards sexually active adolescent females. Current programs for adolescent sexual and reproductive health focus on education and counselling and do not provide appropriate privacy or clinical care. There is a pressing need for advocacy, and policy support for the development of youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services in Thailand. PMID:23082599
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S
African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18Â months among 182 African American female adolescents. African American females (14-20Â years) completed interviews at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-months. At each assessment, pregnancy testing was conducted and self-collected vaginal swab specimens were assayed for Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using DNA amplification. Logistic subject-specific random-intercept models compared sexual risk outcomes during follow-up among adolescents who reported recent use of alcohol only (AO), marijuana only (MO) or both substances (AÂ +Â M) at the baseline assessment. Relative to baseline AO use, baseline MO use predicted condom non-use at last sex. Relative to AO use, AÂ +Â M use predicted pregnancy. Relative to MO use, AÂ +Â M use predicted pregnancy and acquisition of T. vaginalis and any STI. The results suggest that African American female adolescents who use AÂ +Â M may represent a priority population for STI, HIV, and pregnancy prevention efforts. PMID:25929200
Kershaw, Trace S.; Ethier, Kathleen A.; Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica B.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Meade, Christina; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Risky sexual behavior can lead to pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our study of 300 adolescent females takes an integrative approach by incorporating these multiple outcomes to assess the influence of risk perceptions on sexual behavior by (1) identifying subgroups of perceived susceptibilityâ¦
Wechsler-Zimring, Adrianna; Kearney, Christopher A
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among maltreated youth, but few investigations compare neglect with other maltreatment types. This study examined 84 adolescents who experienced neglect only, physical and/or sexual maltreatment only, or neglect with physical and/or sexual maltreatment. Symptoms of PTSD, dissociation, and depression were measured. Adolescents who experienced physical and/or sexual maltreatment, whether neglected or not, reported significantly greater symptomatology than adolescents who experienced neglect only (?2 = .094). This difference applied to PTSD symptoms, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization and derealization, negative mood, and anhedonia. Adolescents exposed to neglect only displayed substantial psychopathology but less than that of other groups. The findings may reflect emerging cascade models of the etiology of symptoms of PTSD following extensive maltreatment history. PMID:21887714
Virginia SÃ¡nchez JimÃ©nez
Full Text Available The new technologies have changed the way people interact with each other, especially among adolescents. The co-construction model stress that online and offline context are connected, so adolescents express the tasks and issues of their age, as sexuality and romantic relationships, in both contexts. These developmental tasks are an important source of learning, but some difficulties can appear, as sexual aggressions and other risky sexual behaviors. The attention to aggressive and risk of sexual behavior online has increased in the last years although results are not conclusive. This study will analyze the prevalence of these behaviors among adolescents, into peer and couple context. The perceived emotional harm will be also analyzed. 268 adolescents with sentimental experience (mean age 14.22, s.d. 1.44 were interviewed using an adaptation of the Sexual Harassment Survey. Results showed that aggressive and risky sexual behaviors online were present at similar level in both, peer and couple context. The most frequent behaviors were visual/verbal sexual messages. Boys were more involved than girls for perpetration but no differences appear for receiving it. Girls felt more upset than boys after receiving these behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of the meaning of these behaviors for adolescentsâ social development.
Worling, James R; Langton, Calvin M
Current approaches to violence risk assessment are focused on the identification of factors that are predictive of future violence rather than factors that predict desistance. This is also true for the popular tools designed to predict adolescent sexual recidivism. Research on strengths-based variables with adolescents who have sexually offended that could serve a protective function is only recently underway. In the current prospective study, scores from clinician-completed assessments using the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism (ERASOR) and the parent-completed form of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (BERS-2) were evaluated in a sample of 81 adolescent males with at least one sexual offense. As expected, the ERASOR was significantly correlated with sexual recidivism over an average 3.5-year follow-up. In terms of a protective function, the Affective Strength scale of the BERS-2 was significantly negatively correlated with sexual recidivism, although it did not have incremental validity over and above the ERASOR. The BERS-2 School Functioning scale was significantly negatively correlated with nonsexual recidivism. The results are discussed in terms of previous findings and theoretical work on attachment in sexual offending behavior and implications for risk assessment practice. PMID:25201880
Blum Robert W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early sexual debut among adolescents is associated with considerable negative heath and development outcomes. An understanding of the determinants or predictors of the timing of sexual debut is important for effective intervention, but very few studies to date have addressed this issue in the Nigerian context. The aim of the present study is to examine predictors of adolescent sexual initiation among a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Nigeria. Methods Interviewer-collected data of 2,070 never-married adolescents aged 15â19 years were analysed to determine association between age of sexual debut and demographic, psychosocial and community factors. Using Cox proportional hazards regression multivariate analysis was carried out with two different models â one with and the other without psychosocial factors. Hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated separately for males and females. Results A fifth of respondents (18% males; 22% females were sexually experienced. In the South 24.3% males and 28.7% females had initiated sex compared to 12.1% of males and 13.1% females in the North (p Conclusion Given the increased risk for a number of sexually transmitted health problems, understanding the factors that are associated with premarital sexual debut will assist programmes in developing more effective risk prevention interventions.
Full Text Available Researches in otherpopulations report a strong association between sexual orientationand depressive symptoms, that is, bisexual, gay, lesbian and unsureabout sexual orientation adolescents refer more depressive symptomsthan heterosexual students. Objective: To determine the associationbetween the sexual orientation and depressive symptomsin adolescent students of a public school at the city of Cartagena, Colombia.Method: A cross-sectional study was designed. This surveyincluded students aged 13-17 year-olds. These students completedin the classroom a questionnaire about health behaviors and theZungÂ´s self-rating depression. Logistic regression was computed forcontrolling confounding variables. Results: A total of 432 students,219 boys and 213 girls, completed successfully the survey. The meanage was 14,6 (SD=1,3, and the mean scholarship was 8,4 (1,5. Atotal of 21,1% of girls and 19,2% of boys considered themselvesbisexuals, gays, lesbians or insure about sexual orientation. Depressivesymptoms were related to sexual orientation exclusivally amonggirls (OR=1,10, 95%CI 1,01-1,18, after controlling confounding factors.Conclusions: Among these adolescent students, depressivesymptoms were associated with the sexual orientation only amonggirls. It is likely that this association could be explained better by the gender than the sexual orientation. Futher investigations are needed in Colombian adolescents students.
Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace
Background/Context: Prior research has linked social engagement, such as peer interaction and participation in school activities, to a host of positive outcomes for youth and adolescents. However, little research considers patterns of social engagement among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents, despite prior research suggestingâ¦
Full Text Available Para los propÃ³sitos de esta publicaciÃ³n, se define lo que entendemos por abuso sexual infantil (ASI. Los datos se obtienen de un protocolo utilizado en la revisiÃ³n de las fichas clÃnicas. Se describen algunas de las caracterÃsticas del abuso sexual en una poblaciÃ³n de 44 niÃ±os y adolescentes de ambos sexos, 24 mujeres (54,5% y 20 varones (45,5%, que consultaron en el Servicio de Salud Mental Infantil del Hospital Roberto del RÃo durante 1998, ya sea directamente por la situaciÃ³n de abuso sexual, por la patologÃa psiquiÃ¡trica asociada a esta situaciÃ³n o porque en sus antecedentes figuraba el dato de ASI. Los abusos sexuales mayoritariamente correspondieron a las formas mÃ¡s graves y de mayor penalidad legal (penetraciÃ³n bucal, vaginal, anal o intento de penetraciÃ³n, afectando Ã©stos al 62,5% de las mujeres y al 55% de los varones. Los abusadores se distinguieron, de acuerdo a la edad, en adultos (mayores de 18 aÃ±os y adolescentes (menores de 18 aÃ±os que correspondÃan al 79,5% y 20,5% respectivamente. El abusador era un familiar o conocido en el 90,9% de los casos. El 66,7% de los casos fueron abusos sexuales intrafamiliares. El abuso sexual constituye una patologÃa emergente en los Servicios de PsiquiatrÃa Infantil, debe ser buscado intencionadamente, pues de lo contrario puede pasar desapercibido. Se plantea la necesidad de constituir grupos multiprofesionales para proteger al menor de nuevos abusos y favorecer la recuperaciÃ³n de los miembros de la familia afectadosA definition is given of child sexual abuse (CSA for the purposes of this publication. The data was obtained from clinical records. Sexual abuse is described in a population of 44 children and adolescents of both sexes, 24 girls (54.5% and 20 boys (45.5% that were seen at the Pediatric Mental Health Service of Roberto del Rio Hospital during 1998 either directly for the sexual abuse, for psychiatric pathologies associated with the situation, or because of a past history of CSA. The sexual abuse was generally the more serious type carrying more serious legal penalties (mouth, vaginal or anal penetration, or attempted penetration and affected 62.5% of the girls and 55% of the boys. The abusers included both adults (over the age of 18 and adolescents (under 18, 79.5% and 20.5% respectively. Abusers were relatives or acquaintances in 90.9% of the cases, and 66.7% were cases of intrafamily sexual abuse. Sexual abuse is an emerging pathology in the pediatric psychiatric services, and it must be intentionally sought so that it does not go undetected. The need to establish multiprofessional groups is suggested in order to protect minors from subsequent abuse and to facilitate the recovery of the family members affected
Full Text Available We proposed that first year medical students who voluntarily participated in the Healthy Sexuality adolescent program would perform better than their peers on an adolescent counseling station at the year-end OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination. In addition we compared medical studentsÂ communication skills at the time of the program as assessed by self, peers and participating adolescents. Methods: Nineteen first year medical students voluntarily participated in the ongoing Healthy Sexuality program. Adolescent participants, medical student peer participants and medical students assessed communication components on a 7-point Likert scale at the end of the program. At the year-end OSCE, all first year medical students at the University of Western Ontario were assessed at an adolescent counseling station by a standardized patient (SP and a physician examiner. Statistical analysis examined differences between the two groups. Results: Students who participated in the Healthy Sexuality program did not perform better than their colleagues on the year-end OSCE. A statistically significant correlation between physician examiner and SP evaluations was found (r = 0.62. Adolescent participants communication skills assessments in the Healthy Sexuality Program demonstrated no significant correlation with medical student assessments (self or peer. Conclusions:Voluntary intervention with adolescents did not result in improved communication skills at the structured year-end examination. Further investigation will be directed towards delineating differences between SP and physician examiner assessments.
Sexually transmitted infections associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity Infecciones de transmisiÃ³n sexual asociadas a sÃntomas vulvovaginales en adolescentes que niegan vida sexual activa
Elizabeth Velarde-Jurado; Elizabeth Estrada-Reyes; Luis EraÃ±a-Guerra; AtlÃ¡ntida Raya-Rivera; E Yadira VelÃ¡zquez-Armenta; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence of a probable sexually transmitted infection associated with vulvovaginal symptoms in adolescents denying sexual activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of female adolescents, aged 10-18 years were reviewed. These women received first-time medical care for vulvovaginitis, between 1995 and 1999 at Hospital Infantil de MÃ©xico Federico GÃ³mez, (Children's Hospital). Comparisons between groups were performed, as ...
Lilian Fernández F
Full Text Available Background: Previous reports show that Chilean teenagers have an inadequate knowledge about sexuality and reproduction. Aim: To compare the knowlege about sexuality among adolescents coming from private and public schools, with and without sexual education programs. Material and methods: A structured anonymous inquiry, containing multiple choice and open questions, was applied to a sample of 229 adolescents attending seventh and eigth grade of junior school, in private and public schools of Temuco, Chile. Results: Eleven percent of adolescents had already their first sexual intercourse at a mean age of 12.2 ± 2.4 years old. Of these, 96% came from public schools. An overall analysis of tests, disclosed a 53% of correct answers to the inquiry. Adolescents coming from private schools had a better performance than those coming from public schools. Sexual attitudes were not influenced by sexual education programs. Conclusions: Adolescents coming from private schools have a better sexual knowledge level and more conservative attitudes towards sexuality. Overall knowledge is inadequate albeit overvalued. These teenagers are high risk group for unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases and require efficient sexual education programs. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 574-83.
Casciotti, Dana M; Smith, Katherine C; Tsui, Amy; Klassen, Ann C
Given the sexually transmitted nature of human papillomavirus (HPV), some worry the HPV vaccine will create a false sense of security and promote adolescent sexual activity. Media coverage of vaccines can influence social norms, parental attitudes, and vaccine acceptance; in this paper we examine U.S. news media messages related to sexuality and HPV vaccination. Drawing on a structured analysis of 447 articles published during 2005-2009, we qualitatively analyzed a purposive sample of 49 articles discussing adolescent health behaviors related to HPV vaccination. Commonly, articles discussed vaccination in the context of abstinence-only versus comprehensive sexual health education; cited research findings to support vaccination or sex education; argued against connecting vaccination to promiscuous behavior; but included fear-inducing messages. Media messages concerning health behaviors related to HPV vaccination tended to support government and parental involvement in sex education, and dismiss concerns linking vaccination to sexual activity, while also presenting the vaccine as lifesaving. PMID:24439619
Brakefield, Tiffany A; Mednick, Sara C; Wilson, Helen W; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H
Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power to those that suggest positive and significant peer-to-peer influence in sexual behavior fail to demonstrate a significant relationship on sexual attraction between friends or siblings. These results suggest that peer influence has little or no effect on the tendency toward heterosexual or homosexual attraction in teens, and that sexual orientation is not transmitted via social networks. PMID:23842784
Bramsen, Rikke Holm; Lasgaard, Mathias; Koss, Mary P; Elklit, Ask; Banner, Jytte
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between child maltreatment and severe early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression, using a multiple mediator model. METHODS: The study comprised 330 male Grade 9 students with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=0.5). RESULTS......: Estimates from the mediation model indicated significant indirect effects of child physical abuse on sexual aggression via peer influence and insecure-hostile masculinity. No significant total effect of child sexual abuse and child neglect on sexual aggression was found. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of the present...... study identify risk factors that are potentially changeable and therefore of value in informing the design of prevention programs aiming at early adolescent peer-on-peer sexual aggression in at-risk youth....
Young, E W; Jensen, L C; Olsen, J A; Cundick, B P
The effects of two family structures, single- and two-parent homes, on adolescent sexual behavior were studied. The variables of race, age, and gender were controlled. The analysis compared the age at first intercourse, frequency of intercourse in the last four weeks, and virgin/nonvirgin status of adolescents from black single-parent families, white single-parent families, black two-parent families, and white two-parent families. For males, the two-parent family was related to less sexual activity and older age at first intercourse. For females, the two-parent family was not as important as race in influencing sexual behavior. The white females from two-parent families were more likely to be virgins, but once having had sexual intercourse, tended to have a higher level of sexual activity than did black females from two-parent homes. PMID:1789184
Bauermeister, José A; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; Vanhemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena
Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18-29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices. PMID:24659928
Sirpal, Manjit Kaur; Haugen, Wenche; Christensen, Kaj Sparle; Haavet, Ole Rikard
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of validated instruments for detection of depression in ethnic minority adolescent patients in primary care. This study aimed to compare a subgroup of the bilingual, ethnic minority adolescents with the rest of the population using Hscl-10, Hscl-6, WHO-5 and 3-Key...... Questions for detection of depression in primary care. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted in General Practice in Norway and Denmark. A minor bilingual non-aggregated heterogenic ethnic minority group from non-European countries was compared with a major ethnic group of Norwegian...... for all instruments in the ethnic minority group. Cut-off points for major depressive disorder had sensitivities of 81 % (Hscl-10), 82 % (Hscl-6), 91 % (Who-5) and 81 % (3-key questions) in the ethnic minority group. Corresponding specificities were 80 % (Hscl-10), 77 % (Hscl-6), 80 % (Who-5) and 67...
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is facing a critical challenge of rapid and widespread human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS increase. Rural-to-urban migration plays a crucial role in shifting the HIV/sexual transmitted infection (STI epidemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of sexual behaviors and the correlates among the early adolescents of migrant workers in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 junior high schools from April to June of 2008. A total of 2821 adolescents aged 14.06 Â± 0.93 years (8.9% of migrant workers vs. 91.1% of general residents participated in the survey. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect information on knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with increased risk for HIV/STI. Results The percentage of adolescents who ever had sexual intercourse or had sexual intercourse in last three months was 7.2% and 4.3% in adolescents of migrant workers, respectively; in contrast, 4.5% and 1.8% in their peers of general residents, respectively. 47.3% adolescents of migrant workers and 34.3% of those adolescents of general residents reported no condom use in sexual intercourse during last three months. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that migration was a independent risk factor for sexual intercourse in last three months in our sampled adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01â1.72. In adolescents of migrant workers, factors such as lower family income (OR: 2.22, CI: 1.09â3.05 for low level; OR:1.25, CI: 1.04â1.59 for medium level, younger age at first sexual intercourse (OR: 1.24, CI: 1.09â1.57, lower knowledge on HIV/AIDS (OR: 0.93, CI: 0.90â0.97, and fewer communication on HIV/AIDS related issues (OR: 0.79, CI: 0.90â0.97 were related to sexual intercourse in last three months. Conclusion Based on these results, we advocated that heightened concerns targeting the adolescents of migrant workers be particularly necessary, given their higher level of sexual experience, lower socioeconomic status, restricted reproductive health information, and vulnerability to HIV/STI.
Full Text Available AIM: This is done as a descriptive study with the purpose of evaluating the communication of female students with their mothers related to sexual issues, who are being educated in high schools in the municipal border of Sivas. METHODS: The universe includes 7202 female students who receive education in high schools in the municipal border of Sivas, sample covers 1045 students from this universe. Data was collected by using ÂPersonal Information FormÂ and ÂThe Evaluating Form of Communication of Adolescent Girls with Their Mothers Related to Sexual IssuesÂ which is improved by researchers. Data is exhibited as frequency distribution and it is evaluated by using chi-square test. RESULTS: According to research findings, it was found that the communication between adolescent girls and their mothers about the subjects related to sexuality is not at the desired level. Mothers come third among the information resources from which the adolescent girls take information about subjects related to sexuality. The initial subjects that adolescent girls talk to their mothers are firstly menstruation (78.4 %, choosing a spouse (71.9 %, physical changes in puberty (68.0 %, flirtation (63.3 % and engagement (60.2%. Additionally the initial subjects that adolescent girls do not talk to their mothers are; the structure and function of male organ (94.0 %, sexual relation (87.6 %, risky sexual behaviors (83.0 %, sexuality before marriage (78.6 %, ways of contraception (74.3 %, sexually transmitted infections (74.2 %. Mostly, adolescent girls indicate that the information about menstruation they take from their mothers is enough. CONCLUSION: According to findings obtained from researches, mothers have an important part among the sources that adolescent girls take information about the subjects related to sexuality, however, it is concluded that the communication between adolescent girls and their mothers about the subjects related to sexuality is not at the desired level. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 27-36
Charak, Ruby; Koot, Hans M; Dvorak, Robert D; Elklit, Ask; Elhai, Jon D
The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more strongly related to membership of polysubstance use classes. From the National Survey of Adolescents-1995 (N= 4023) 918 adolescents (age range=12-17 years, M=14.92, 49.6% female) with reports of physical assault and/or sexual assault were selected. Using information on alcohol-use, cigarette-smoking, chewing tobacco, non-prescribed use of medicines, and drug-use, latent class analysis indicated a three class solution for substance-use, namely, Experimental use, Light polysubstance-use, and Polysubstance-use. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that as compared to adolescents exposed to a single type of assault those exposed to both physical and sexual assault were two-to-three times more likely to be in the heavier polysubstance-use class. Females were more likely to be members of the polysubstance-use class than of the experimental use class. Gender did not emerge as a significant moderator. It was concluded that assessing for single type or co-occurring assault can facilitate identification of adolescents at elevated risk for polysubstance-use. PMID:26596366
Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Sonfield, Adam; Gemmill, Alison
Adolescent males are practicing safer sexual behaviors and experiencing healthier outcomes than their predecessors. In recent years, adolescent males have tended to start having sex later in life, have fewer sexual partners, use condoms and other contraceptive methods more often, and father fewer children. Yet sexual activity during adolescence remains the norm, and thus adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) remains an important concern. Moreover, large disparities remain in risk and outcomes according to race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, social connectivity, and where men live. Policy and program advances have been limited. Adolescent males are less likely than they were a decade ago to be receiving broad-based SRH information in school, and their access to clinical services has increased only marginally. Most new funding has been provided for ineffective abstinence-only education programs. Prerequisites for continued progress include research to fill in gaps in our knowledge, arriving at societal consensus around key controversies, and new tactics and allies in the political arena. PMID:19477769
Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena E Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera LÃºcia Dutra; de FÃ¡tima Cordeiro Trajano, Maria; de Lima, Luciane Soares
Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence. Copyright Â© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26174484
Mansh, Matthew; Garcia, Gabriel; Lunn, Mitchell R
Equality for sexual and gender minorities (SGMs)-including members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities-has become an integral part of the national conversation in the United States. Although SGM civil rights have expanded in recent years, these populations continue to experience unique health and health care disparities, including poor access to health care, stigmatization, and discrimination. SGM trainees and physicians also face challenges, including derogatory comments, humiliation, harassment, fear of being ostracized, and residency/job placement discrimination. These inequities are not mutually exclusive to either patients or providers; instead, they are intertwined parts of a persistent, negative culture in medicine toward SGM individuals.In this Perspective, the authors argue that SGM physicians must lead this charge for equality by fostering diversity and inclusion in medicine. They posit that academic medicine can accomplish this goal by (1) modernizing research on the physician workforce, (2) implementing new policies and programs to promote safe and supportive training and practice environments, and (3) developing recruitment practices to ensure a diverse, competent physician workforce that includes SGM individuals.These efforts will have an immediate impact by identifying and empowering new leaders to address SGM health care reform, creating diverse training environments that promote cultural competency, and aligning medicine with other professional fields (e.g., business, law) that already are working toward these goals. By tackling the inequities that SGM providers face, academic medicine can normalize sexual and gender identity disclosure and promote a welcoming, supportive environment for everyone in medicine, including patients. PMID:25650825
KrahÃ©, Barbara; Bieneck, Steffen; Scheinberger-Olwig, Renate
The characteristic features of adolescents' sexual scripts were explored in 400 tenth and eleventh graders from Berlin, Germany. Participants rated the prototypical elements of three scripts for heterosexual interactions: (1) the prototypical script for the first consensual sexual intercourse with a new partner as pertaining to adolescents in general (general script); (2) the prototypical script for the first consensual sexual intercourse with a new partner as pertaining to themselves personally (individual script); and (3) the script for a nonconsensual sexual intercourse (rape script). Compared with the general script for the age group as a whole, the individual script contained fewer risk elements related to sexual aggression and portrayed more positive consequences of the sexual interaction. Few gender differences were found, and coital experience did not affect sexual scripts. The rape script was found to be close to the "real rape stereotype." The findings are discussed with respect to the role of sexual scripts as guidelines for behavior, particularly in terms of their significance for the prediction of sexual aggression. PMID:18321011
Ab Rahman, Azriani; Ab Rahman, Razlina; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Salleh, Halim; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Ali, Siti Hawa; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Ishak, Maizun; Ahmad, Amaluddin
The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education. PMID:21706952
Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert
This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex
Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert
This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sexâ¦
Doornwaard, Suzan M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Reitz, Ellen; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
Research on the role of sex-related Internet use in adolescents' sexual development has often isolated the Internet and online behaviors from other, offline influencing factors in adolescents' lives, such as processes in the peer domain. The aim of this study was to test an integrative model explaining how receptive (i.e., use of sexually explicit Internet material [SEIM]) and interactive (i.e., use of social networking sites [SNS]) sex-related online behaviors interrelate with perceived peer norms in predicting adolescents' experience with sexual behavior. Structural equation modeling on longitudinal data from 1,132 Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; range 11-17; 52.7% boys) demonstrated concurrent, direct, and indirect effects between sex-related online behaviors, perceived peer norms, and experience with sexual behavior. SEIM use (among boys) and SNS use (among boys and girls) predicted increases in adolescents' perceptions of peer approval of sexual behavior and/or in their estimates of the numbers of sexually active peers. These perceptions, in turn, predicted increases in adolescents' level of experience with sexual behavior at the end of the study. Boys' SNS use also directly predicted increased levels of experience with sexual behavior. These findings highlight the need for multisystemic research and intervention development to promote adolescents' sexual health. PMID:26086606
Timmermans, Maartje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Koot, Hans M.
Background: Health risk behaviors like substance use (alcohol, tobacco, soft/hard drugs) and risky sexual behavior become more prevalent in adolescence. Children with behavior problems are thought to be prone to engage in health risk behaviors later in life. It is, however, unclear which problems within the externalizing spectrum account for these
Full Text Available Despite their increasing numbers, few of the sexuality education and pregnancy prevention programs in developing countries have been evaluated. This study, conducted in 1995-1997, assesses the impact of a school-based sexuality education program, the Grade 7 Project, on 945 Jamaican seventh graders (aged 11-14 and their initiation of sexual activity and use of contraception at first intercourse, as well as the knowledge and attitudes that influence their behaviors. Using a quasi-experimental design, the study measured the effects of the Grade 7 Project when the nine-month intervention was completed (short term and one year after that (long term. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the project had no effect on initiation of sexual activity, but it had a positive short-term impact on use of contraception at first intercourse (P = .08; adolescents in the intervention group were more than twice as likely to use contraception. The project also had a positive short-term influence on several aspects of the adolescents' knowledge of and attitudes about sexuality and pregnancy. The modest impact of the Grade 7 Project is encouraging, as school-based sexuality education programs of limited duration rarely have a long-term impact. Moreover, competing socioeconomic and cultural forces in Jamaica encourage early sexuality and parenthood among adolescents. The use of more participatory teaching methods and smaller class sizes might strengthen the Grade 7 Project and enhance its impact.
Pires, Raquel; AraÃºjo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Pereira, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
Age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) is the initial factor related to adolescents' sexual life that may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy. We explored the biological, social, cultural, and political predictors of AFSI addressing several gaps that prevent us from generalizing the results of past research to adolescent pregnancy prevention. We also explored the moderating effects of cultural variables on the links between social and political predictors and AFSI. Our sample consisted of 889 Portuguese female adolescents aged 12-19. Earlier age at menarche, non-intact family structure, maternal history of adolescent pregnancy, lower maternal emotional warmth, absence of religious involvement, and living in Portugal's mainland and in a legal context penalizing abortion predicted earlier AFSI. School attendance predicted earlier AFSI among adolescents of European ethnic origin; adolescents of non-European ethnic origin presented the opposite, but non-significant, pattern. These findings suggest that, in addition to isolated characteristics, factors from different ecological contexts should be considered when planning interventions designed to foster healthy and informed transitions to sexual initiation and prevent the related risks of unwanted outcomes. We discuss implications for future research and practice. PMID:24676504
Weiss, Brandon J; Garvert, Donn W; Cloitre, MarylÃ¨ne
This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related symptoms among sexual minority (SM) and heterosexual women and the influence of social support on the relationship between SM status and symptoms. We hypothesized that SM women would endorse higher symptoms of PTSD and related difficulties and that social support would moderate the relationship between SM status and symptoms. The sample, women seeking treatment for PTSD related to interpersonal violence (n = 477; mean age = 36.07 years; 22.9% SM) completed clinician-administered measures of PTSD and self-report measures of trauma-related difficulties and social support. The rate of PTSD diagnosis was higher for SM women. Social support and SM status were significantly associated with suicidality, self-perceptions, depression, somatic complaints, and functional impairment. The interaction between social support and SM status was significant for both functional impairment (Î² = -.26) and somatic complaints (Î² = -.39). High social support had an equal, positive effect among SM and nonminority women, whereas low social support had a greater negative impact among SM women. Results suggested the particular salience of social support on functioning and symptom severity among SM women and the potential importance of including interventions addressing social support into PTSD treatments for SM women. PMID:26625354