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Sample records for serum alkaline phosphatase

  1. Alkaline phosphatase bone isoenzyme and osteocalcin in the serum of hyperthyroid cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, F J; Taylor, S M

    1996-01-01

    The effect of hyperthyroidism on serum markers for increased bone metabolism and turnover was evaluated in 36 cats with elevated serum levels of thyroxine and alkaline phosphatase. Serum was analyzed for total and ionized calcium and phosphorous. Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and osteocalcin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Values for hyperthyroid cats were compared with those for healthy cats. Alkaline phosphatase bone isoenzyme was markedly increased in all 36 hyperthyroid cats. Osteocalcin was increased in 44% of the cats. There was no correlation among the magnitude of increase in alkaline phosphatase bone isoenzyme, osteocalcin, and serum thyroxine concentrations. Increased serum phosphorus was found in 35% of the cats. Total calcium was within the reference range in all cats, while 50% of the cats had reduced levels of serum ionized calcium. We conclude that hyperthyroid cats do have altered bone metabolism, although it is usually clinically insignificant. PMID:9111692

  2. Serum alkaline phosphatase predicts survival outcomes in patients with skeletal metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ying, Jin; Mei-Qin, Yuan; Jun-Qing, Chen; Yi-Ping, Zhang.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bone metastasis is frequently associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The diagnosis and follow-up of bone metastatic patients usually relies on skeletal X-ray and bone scintigraphy, which are time-consuming and costly. This study aimed to evaluate whether serum alkaline phosphatase off [...] ers clinical value in predicting the clinical response and survival outcome for skeletal metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was measured at baseline and then before each cycle of treatment in 416 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with bone metastasis. The correlations between the pre-treatment and post-treatment alkaline phosphatase levels and the treatment efficacy were analyzed using the chi-square test. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and then compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Patients with elevated pre-treatment alkaline phosphatase (>110 IU/L) had significantly worse progression-free survival (P

  3. Comparative Effects of Lead on Serum, Liver and Brain High Molecular Weight Alkaline Phosphatase in Rats

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    A.A. Moshtaghie

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lead treatment and changes in the concentration of serum, liver and brain high and low molecular weight alkaline phosphatase has been investigated in this manuscript. Results obtained showed that every other day intrapritoneally injection of 39.5 ?mol kg-1 of lead as (Pb(CH3COO2.3H2O, in male rats for 2 consecutive weeks resulted in decreasing level of liver and brain alkaline phosphatase by 16.7 and 10.9%, respectively, whereas an elevation of serum enzyme activity by 28.4% was seen in comparison to untreated controls (p<0.05. Long-term exposure to 13.2 ?mol kg-1 of this salt, showed a statistically significant reduction in liver and brain levels of alkaline phosphatase by 18.7 and 13.2%, respectively and an increment in serum activity of the enzyme by 37.6% in compared to control group (p<0.05. Using gel filtration chromatography technique with sephacryl S300 showed that, in comparison to control groups, serum and liver homogenate from lead treated groups had a significant level of high molecular weight alkaline phosphatase, which might be considered as a potential biomarker for lead toxicity.

  4. Correlation Between Serum Level Parathormone, Alkaline Phosphatase, Calcium and Phosphorus of Patients Hemodialysis in Zahedan

    OpenAIRE

    Saravani, R.; Qureshi, M. I.; Jafari, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism and its effects on bone tissue are among the most important complication of end-stage renal disease. In the present study, we investigated correlation between the serum parathormone level (PTH) of hemodialysis men and women with calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Pi) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We studied 30 chronic renal failure hemodialysis patients 16 men and 14 women, aged 22-66 years old (average 44 years old) with dialysis duration of 5 months to 14 years. We me...

  5. The effects of zinc supplementation on serum zinc, alkaline phosphatase activity and fracture healing of bones.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sadighi; Marjan M. Roshan; Amin Moradi; Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of zinc supplementation on callus formation, serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity in humans. METHODS This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with traumatic bone fracture referred to Shohada Hospital of Tabriz, Iran from August to December 2007. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: cases (n=30), receiving one capsule of zinc sulfate consists of 50 mg zinc each day and the controls...

  6. The effects of Zinc supplementation on serum zinc, alkaline phosphatase activity and fracture healing of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on callus information, serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with traumatic bone fracture referred to Shohada Hospital of Tabriz, Iran from August to December 2007. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: cases (n=30), receiving one capsule of zinc sulfate consists of 50 mg zinc each day and the controls (n=30), receiving placebo for 60 days. Individual and clinical information was determined by a questionnaire: nutritional intake by 3 days food records at the beginning and the end of trial. Serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by enzymatic method. Callus information during fracture healing was evaluated by radiography of the bone. There was no significant difference in physical activity, gender, age, type of fractures and nutrient intake, between the 2 groups. The administration of zinc caused a significant elevation of serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity. Assessment of bone x-rays showed a significant progress in callus formation in cases compared to the controls. This study shows that zinc supplementation can stimulate fracture healing, however, it needs further study. (author)

  7. Serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) activity following exposure to cadmium and/or 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred and sixteen male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats were assigned at random to nine groups of 24 rats each. Rats were injected with cadmium (Cd) intraperitoneally every 3 days for 29 days for a total of nine injections. Injection doses were 0, 1.0, or 2.5 mg Cd kg-1 body weight. Twenty-four hours after the last Cd injection (day 30), each rat received an acute whole-body 60Co gamma radiation dose of 0, 3.62, or 5.43 Gray (Gy) at a dose rate of 3.304 Gy min-1. Eight rats from each of 9 groups were sacrificed on day 1, 7, or 21. High dose radiation administered 24 hours following the last dosage of Cd caused significantly elevated serum alkaline phosphatase levels, whereas high dose cadmium caused the enzyme to be significantly depressed. When Cd and radiation were used as the co-insult, the combination of high Cd-high radiation was more effective than either cadmium or radiation alone, suggesting a previously reported cadmium metal protection against the radiation. Although the precise mechanism is unknown, they speculate that the protection afforded by cadmium against radiation might be attributed to different conformations of metal-induced metallothionein cysteine clusters. Further, these clusters are likely dependent upon conversion between conformational forms requiring specific levels of metal ion site occupancy

  8. Normalization of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Associated with Ulcerative Colitis

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    Mitsuro Chiba

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is commonly associated with ulcerative colitis (UC. PSC progresses independently of UC ultimately resulting in liver failure. There is no established medical treatment to improve the natural course of PSC. Normalization of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP in early stage might delay the progress of PSC. A 20-year-old female, had a sudden attack of right hypochondralgia with high fever and abnormal liver function tests without elevation of bilirubin: ALP 478 IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase 360 IU/L, alanine aminotransferase 174 IU/L. Abnormal liver function tests returned to normal after the attacks. Morphological examinations initially indicated then confirmed a diagnosis of PSC. One month after displaying PSC symptoms administration of ursodeoxycholic acid was initiated. Similar attacks of cholangitis were repeated several times over the following two years. Even in the absence of these attacks, she always suffered postprandial hypochondralgia. There was no acute cholangitis in the year prior to the last hospitalization due to abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Findings were consistent with UC in the form of entire colitis. Sulfasalazine, metronidazole and semi-vegetarian diet (SVD were initiated. Metronidazole is routinely used in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in our practice with the expectation of elimination of any potentially pathogenic bacteria. SVD was designed for IBD hoping to increase beneficial bacteria. A remission of UC was ascertained during hospitalization. Elevated ALP, in the absence of clinical cholangitis, was decreased to normal after the therapy for UC.

  9. Alkaline phosphatase activity in blood serum of dogs exposed to a mixture of external ?-radiation and internal ?-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase activity in dog blood serum was studied for two years following separate and combined exposure to gamma radiation (6.45 to 51.6 mc/kg) and inhaled submicron 239Pu oxide containing 25% 241Am in chronically effective amounts (approx. 7-10 kBq/kg). Alkaline phosphatase activity was of an ondulatory nature and the significance of changes depended on the kind and the level of radiation as well as the time lapsed from the start of the expose. With the combined exposure to gamma and alpha radiation in the doses used no enhancement of the effec twaas noted as compared with the action of each factor applied separately

  10. ESTIMATION OF SERUM ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE, CHOLESTEROL, CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DURING PRE-LA YING AND LAYING CONDITIONS IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF CHICKENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2002-01-01

    In order to estimate serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus during pre-laying and laying reproductive conditions, 60 hens of Desi, Fayoumi, Cross (Rhode Island Red X Fayoumi} and Nick Chick strains were maintained for one year. Five random blood samples from each strain were collected and analyzed during both pre egg laying and egg laying physiological conditions. It was observed that alkaline phosphatase activity increased significantly (P

  11. Serum Proteins and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Six 4- to 37-year-old patients with tuberosis sclerosis (a chronic condition characterized by siezures, intercranial calcification, a reddish-yellow sebaceous glandular mass on the face, and frequent crises in early years), did not exhibit an elevation of the (alpha + beta) globulin fraction in their serum. (Author/MC)

  12. Isoenzimas de fosfatasa alcalina en el suero de pacientes con insuficiencia renal / Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in the serum of patients with renal insufficiency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mª. R., Sánchez Navarro; Mª. E., Fernández-Conde; S., Blanco Martín; C., Samaniego.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudiar la utilidad clínica de la determinación sérica de las isoenzimas de fosfatasa alcalina en pacientes con insuficiencia renal. Material y métodos: se midieron las isoenzimas de fosfatasa alcalina en un grupo de 58 pacientes: 22 con insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA) y 36 con fallo rena [...] l crónico (IRC) y sometidos a hemodiálisis, comparándose los resultados con los de una población de 30 adultos sanos. Las isoenzimas intestinal, ósea, hepática, macromolecular e intestinal variante se separaron por electroforesis sobre gel de agarosa, cuantificándose por densitometría. Resultados: la actividad total de fosfatasa alcalina se mostró significativamente aumentada en ambos grupos patológicos (p Abstract in english Objective: The aim of this study was to test the utility of serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes determination from patients with renal insufficiency. Material and methods: serum levels of alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were determined in a group of 58 patients: 22 of them suffering acute renal in [...] sufficiency (ARI) and 36 with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing regular hemodialysis, results obtained were compared from a population of 30 healthy adults. Intestinal, bone, liver, macromolecular and intestinal variant isoenzymes, were separated by electrophoresis on agarose gel and quantified using a densitometer. Results: were found a significant increase the total alkaline phosphatase activity in both pathologic groups (p

  13. Sensitive Fluorogenic Substrate for Alkaline Phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Michael N.; RAINES, RONALD T.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase serves as both a model enzyme for studies on the mechanism and kinetics of phosphomonoesterases and as a reporter in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and other biochemical methods. The tight binding of the enzyme to its inorganic phosphate product leads to strong inhibition of catalysis and confounds measurements of alkaline phosphatase activity. We have developed an alkaline phosphatase substrate in which the fluorescence of rhodamine is triggered upon P–O b...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864...Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1050 Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. An alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure alkaline...isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum or plasma....

  16. Multisystemic functions of alkaline phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchet, René; Millán, José Luis; Magne, David

    2013-01-01

    Human and mouse alkaline phosphatases (AP) are encoded by a multigene family expressed ubiquitously in multiple tissues. Gene knockout (KO) findings have helped define some of the precise exocytic functions of individual isozymes in bone, teeth, the central nervous system, and in the gut. For instance, deficiency in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in mice (Alpl (-/-) mice) and humans leads to hypophosphatasia (HPP), an inborn error of metabolism characterized by epileptic seizures in the most severe cases, caused by abnormal metabolism of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (the predominant form of vitamin B6) and by hypomineralization of the skeleton and teeth featuring rickets and early loss of teeth in children or osteomalacia and dental problems in adults caused by accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Enzyme replacement therapy with mineral-targeting TNAP prevented all the manifestations of HPP in mice, and clinical trials with this protein therapeutic are showing promising results in rescuing life-threatening HPP in infants. Conversely, TNAP induction in the vasculature during generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), type II diabetes, obesity, and aging can cause medial vascular calcification. TNAP inhibitors, discussed extensively in this book, are in development to prevent pathological arterial calcification. The brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an important role in fatty acid (FA) absorption, in protecting gut barrier function, and in determining the composition of the gut microbiota via its ability to dephosphorylate lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knockout mice (Akp3 (-/-)) deficient in duodenal-specific IAP (dIAP) become obese, and develop hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). These changes are accompanied by upregulation in the jejunal-ileal expression of the Akp6 IAP isozyme (global IAP, or gIAP) and concomitant upregulation of FAT/CD36, a phosphorylated fatty acid translocase thought to play a role in facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids into cells. gIAP, but not dIAP, is able to modulate the phosphorylation status of FAT/CD36. dIAP, even though it is expressed in the duodenum, is shed into the gut lumen and is active in LPS dephosphorylation throughout the gut lumen and in the feces. Akp3 (-/-) mice display gut dysbiosis and are more prone to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis than wild-type mice. Of relevance, oral administration of recombinant calf IAP prevents the dysbiosis and protects the gut from chronic colitis. Analogous to the role of IAP in the gut, TNAP expression in the liver may have a proactive role from bacterial endotoxin insult. Finally, more recent studies suggest that neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease may also be associated with TNAP function on certain brain-specific phosphoproteins. This review recounts the established roles of TNAP and IAP and briefly discusses new areas of investigation related to multisystemic functions of these isozymes. PMID:23860646

  17. High serum alkaline phosphatase cooperating with MMP-9 predicts metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with primary osteosarcoma in Southern China

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    Han Ju

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor with high ability to form invasion and metastasis. Identifying prognostic factor in osteosarcoma is helpful to select those patients for more aggressive management. Our study evaluated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP cooperating with matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 as an important prognostic predictor for local recurrence and distant metastasis of osteosarcoma. Methods 177 cases were included from the osteosarcoma patients treated at 1st Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (1999-2008. Pre-chemotherapy serum ALP (pre-ALP were studied and correlated with tumor recurrence, lung metastasis and patient survival. MMP-9 protein in tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and correlated with pre-ALP level. Results Pre-ALP were partitioned into normal, high, and very high groups, in each group the incidence of metastases was 12.2%, 21.2% and 34.6%, respectively (p = 0.007. In the three groups the mean disease-free survival (DFS was 57 ± 3.15, 28 ± 3.57 and 14 ± 3.35 months, respectively (p Conclusions Pre-ALP was an independent prognostic factor for the survival of osteosarcoma patients in south China, and correlated with MMP-9 expression and lung metastasis. ALP can also serve as a prognostic marker for treatment, and merit large-scale validation studies.

  18. A variant alkaline phosphatase found in a case of gastric carcinoma with super bone scan.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, F.; Ikeda, T.; Tozuka, S.; Noguchi, O.; Fukuma, T.; Sakamoto, S.; Marumo, F.; Komoda, T.; Sakagishi, Y.; Sato, C.

    1995-01-01

    A rare case of gastric carcinoma associated with increased serum variant alkaline phosphatase activities is presented. A 54 year old man had extremely high serum alkaline phosphatase activity (18,607 U/l) with normal calcium and phosphate concentrations. His bone scintigram showed abnormal findings, 'super bone scan'. He was diagnosed as having Borrmann type 4 gastric carcinoma with diffuse bone metastases by examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract and iliac bone biopsy. The alkaline...

  19. Second generation of pseudotype-based serum neutralization assay for Nipah virus antibodies: sensitive and high-throughput analysis utilizing secreted alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Marsh, Glenn A; Barr, Jennifer A; Okutani, Akiko; Hotta, Kozue; Bazartseren, Boldbaatar; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Broder, Christopher C; Yamada, Akio; Inoue, Satoshi; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2012-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV), Paramyxoviridae, Henipavirus, is classified as a biosafety level (BSL) 4 pathogen, along with the closely related Hendra virus (HeV). A novel serum neutralization test was developed for measuring NiV neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 conditions using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) and pseudotyped with NiV F/G proteins (VSV-NiV-SEAP). A unique characteristic of this novel assay is the ability to obtain neutralization titers by measuring SEAP activity in supernatant using a common ELISA plate reader. This confers a remarkable advantage over the first generation of NiV-pseudotypes expressing green fluorescent protein or luciferase, which require expensive and specific measuring equipment. Using panels of NiV- and HeV-specific sera from various species, the VSV-NiV-SEAP assay demonstrated neutralizing antibody status (positive/negative) consistent with that obtained by conventional live NiV test, and gave higher antibody titers than the latter. Additionally, when screening sixty-six fruit bat sera at one dilution, the VSV-NiV-SEAP assay produced identical results to the live NiV test and only required a very small amount (2?l) of sera. The results suggest that this novel VSV-NiV-SEAP assay is safe, useful for high-throughput screening of sera using an ELISA plate reader, and has high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:22115786

  20. Cationized dextran nanoparticle-encapsulated CXCR4-siRNA enhanced correlation between CXCR4 expression and serum alkaline phosphatase in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

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    Abedini F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Abedini,1 Hossein Hosseinkhani,2 Maznah Ismail,1,3 Abraham J Domb,4 Abdul Rahman Omar,1,5 Pei Pei Chong,1,2 Po-Da Hong,3 Dah-Shyong Yu,6 Ira-Yudovin Farber41Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia, 4Institute of Drug Research, The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy-Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia, 6Nanomedicine Research Center, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, TaiwanPurpose: The failure of colorectal cancer treatments is partly due to overexpression of CXCR4 by tumor cells, which plays a critical role in cell metastasis. Moreover, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels are frequently elevated in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. A polysaccharide, dextran, was chosen as the vector of siRNA. Spermine was conjugated to oxidized dextran by reductive amination process to obtain cationized dextran, so-called dextran-spermine, in order to prepare CXCR4-siRNAs/dextran-spermine nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were used in order to investigate whether downregulation of CXCR4 expression could affect serum ALP in mouse models of colorectal cancer.Methods: Colorectal cancer was established in BALB/C mice following injection of mouse colon carcinoma cells CT.26WT through the tail vein. CXCR4 siRNA for two sites of the target gene was administered following injection of naked siRNA or siRNA encapsulated into nanoparticles.Results: In vivo animal data revealed that CXCR4 silencing by dextran-spermine nanoparticles significantly downregulated CXCR4 expression compared with naked CXCR4 siRNA. Furthermore, there was correlation between CXCR4 expression and serum ALP.Conclusion: CXCR4 siRNA/dextran-spermine nanoparticles appear to be highly effective, and may be suitable for further in vivo applications. Further research evaluation will be needed to determine the effect of CXCR4 silencing on serum ALP levels, which may be a useful marker to predict liver metastasis in colorectal cancer.Keywords: nanoparticles, cationized dextran, colorectal cancer, serum ALP enzyme, CXCR4, siRNA

  1. INEXPENSIVE CHEMIFLUORESCENT DETECTION OF ANTIBODY ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE CONJUGATES ON WESTERN BLOTS USING 4-METHYLUMBELLIFERYL PHOSPHATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phosphatase substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate was tested as a fluorescent reporter for the detection of alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated antibody on immunoblots. Dilution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a protein target with the use of anti-BSA antisera as the primary react...

  2. Paget’s Disease Of The Spine With Low Bone Alkaline Phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    Cagavi, Ferda; Tekkok, Ismail Hakk?; Akpinar, Gokhan; Gungen, Yucel

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of 35-year-old man who was referred to us with a preliminary diagnosis of multiple spinal metastasis. Laboratory studies have shown a high serum alkaline phosphatase and a low bone alkaline phosphatase levels. Spinal magnetic resonance scans demonstrated involvement of T9, T11 and L3 vertebral bodies. The involved vertebrae appeared hypointense on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images and a radionuclide bone scan has shown increased uptake in involved vertebral bodies. ...

  3. Negative modulation of alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase by homobrassinolide

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    G. Nirmal Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Homobrassinolide is a plant hormone implicated in plant growth and development. Its effect on animal metabolism was less known to date. We have investigated its effect on the marker enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase in selected rat tissues-brain, heart, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle and testis. Homobrassinolide was administered (66 and 330ng/ Kg body weight intradermally in male albino wistar strain rats and changes in alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase activities were measured. An overall reduction in both the enzyme activities occurred within 2hr of administration with few exceptions. The reaction rate constants for the enzyme activities were in the order 10-7 mM/min for alkaline phosphatase and 10-3 mM/min for creatine kinase. Time course studies indicated a decrease in enzyme activities as a function of time. Elevated hemoglobin content correlated with rise in erythrocyte number. Blood glucose level decreased by a percentage of 15.7 and 21.7 compared to control with the administration of 10?g and 50?g homobrassinolide respectively. Serum cholesterol content showed 15% decrease and 25% increase compared to control following 10?g and 50?g homobrassinolide administration. We conclude that homobrassinolide inhibited both the enzymes in the tissues and produced erythrocytosis, leukocytosis and hypoglycemia, while cellular phosphorylation status remained principally affected by this oxysterol in rat. Even though the physiological and pathological significance of these observations is not clear, it is suggested that 28-HB enriched diets may not be appropriate for higher energy related work activities.

    Keywords: Alkaline phosphatase; Creatine kinase; Homobrassinolide; Oxysterol; Phosphorylation; Rate constant.

  4. Monomeric alkaline phosphatase of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, N.K.; Ghosh, R.K.; J. Das

    1982-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase has been purified to homogeneity from two strains of Vibrio cholerae. The enzymes from both strains are single polypeptides of molecular weight 60,000. Both of the enzymes have pH optima around 8.0 and can act on a variety of organic phosphate esters, glucose-1-phosphate being the best substrate. The enzymes are unable to hydrolyze ATP and AMP. Although they have identical Km values, the two enzymes differ significantly in Vmax with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. T...

  5. Phosphorylation by Alkaline Phosphatase: Immobilization and Synthetic Potential

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    Lara Babich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatases (AP, E.C. 3.1.3.1 are hydrolytic enzymes that naturally hydrolyse phosphomonoesters but in a so-called transphosphorylation reaction these enzymes are also able to transfer a phosphate group from phosphorylated compounds to alcoholic functions. This transphosphorylation catalysed by acid phosphatases using pyrophosphate as a phosphate donor has been studied in some detail. However, the acidic pH optimum of these enzymes limits some of their applications. The catalytic features of alkaline phosphatase are similar to the acid phosphatases and its alkaline pH optimum suggests a possible application of this enzyme in phosphorylation reactions which need to be carried out at higher pH. Here we explore the synthetic potential of bovine intestine alkaline phosphatase (AP in the phosphorylation of dihydroxyacetone (DHA and glycerol using pyrophosphate (PPi as phosphate donor. The phosphorylated compounds are intermediates in two multi-enzymatic cascade reactions for the synthesis of carbohydrates. The yields of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP and glycerol-1-phosphate at pH 8 (2.6 mM and 2.2 mM, respectively were comparable to the results obtained with the acid phosphatases at pH 4. Nevertheless, when the cascade reactions were carried out at pH 8, very low conversions were measured due to inactivation of the alkaline phosphatase by the product phosphate. To circumvent this inhibition, the alkaline phosphatase was immobilized on aldehyde-activated beads (Sepabeads EC-HA. The immobilization greatly diminished the inhibition by phosphate, and the immobilized alkaline phosphatase at pH 8 gave the same conversions in the cascade reaction starting from DHA as obtained with the acid phosphatase at pH 6. However, the immobilized enzyme was active for only one catalytic cycle and the beads could not be reused.

  6. Plasma alkaline phosphatase is elevated in Alzheimer's disease and inversely correlates with cognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Kellett, Katherine AB; Williams, Jonathan; Vardy, Emma RLC; Smith, A. David; Hooper, Nigel M.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is present on neuronal membranes and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity increases in brain injury and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting that plasma alkaline phosphatase may partly reflect neuronal loss. As neuronal loss occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we hypothesised that alterations in plasma alkaline phosphatase activity may correlate with cognitive impairment. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was measured in the longitudinal Oxford Project to Investigate Me...

  7. Sensitive optical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method has been developed to detect the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by the changing of fluorescence intensities of the quantum dots (QDs). In this system, the fluorescence intensities of the QDs were quenched by p-nitrophenol (pNP) which was produced in the process of ALP catalytic reaction. A series of linear calibration curves of the activity of ALP were obtained in different pH buffer solutions. The wide linear range was 3–1000 U L?1 and the detection limit was 3 U L?1 (S/N=3). Furthermore, the experimental conditions of biosensor were optimized, and anti-interference ability was presented. The activity of ALP was also detected in serum and the recovery of ALP in serum samples was more than 95%. The excellent performance of this biosensor indicates that it can be used in practice detection of ALP. -- Highlights: • A sensitive ALP biosensor is constructed based on QDs without complex processes. • The analysis processing is very convenient, simple and rapid. • The detection mechanism of the ALP biosensor is studied by XPS. • The paper proposes a feasible approach for some substrates or enzymes detecting

  8. Sensitive optical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity with quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiangling [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Chen, Zhenzhen; Chen, Xiaoying; Liu, Jing [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China); Tang, Fangqiong, E-mail: tangfq@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Laboratory of Controllable Preparation and Application of Nanomaterials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 29, Zhongguancun East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-01-15

    A simple method has been developed to detect the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by the changing of fluorescence intensities of the quantum dots (QDs). In this system, the fluorescence intensities of the QDs were quenched by p-nitrophenol (pNP) which was produced in the process of ALP catalytic reaction. A series of linear calibration curves of the activity of ALP were obtained in different pH buffer solutions. The wide linear range was 3–1000 U L{sup ?1} and the detection limit was 3 U L{sup ?1} (S/N=3). Furthermore, the experimental conditions of biosensor were optimized, and anti-interference ability was presented. The activity of ALP was also detected in serum and the recovery of ALP in serum samples was more than 95%. The excellent performance of this biosensor indicates that it can be used in practice detection of ALP. -- Highlights: • A sensitive ALP biosensor is constructed based on QDs without complex processes. • The analysis processing is very convenient, simple and rapid. • The detection mechanism of the ALP biosensor is studied by XPS. • The paper proposes a feasible approach for some substrates or enzymes detecting.

  9. As fosfatases alcalinas, transaminases e gama-glutamil-transferase séricas em pacientes epilépticos tratados com carbamazepina The serum alkaline phosphatases, transaminases, and gamma-glutamil transferases in epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Jacobina Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A carbamazepina é a droga utilizada no tratamento de pacientes com epilepsia parcial (ou focal secundariamente generalizada. Apesar do uso terapêutico, este fármaco tem sido implicado no aumento das atividades séricas de algumas enzimas. Alguns autores descreveram valores de prevalência de 7,7%, 13% e 22% para aumento de atividade das fosfatases alcalinas séricas (FA ou EC 3.1.3.1. A divergência de resultados também foi encontrada para as atividades da gama-glutamil-transferase sérica (gama-glutamil transferase ou GGT ou EC 2.3.2.2. OBJETIVO: Assim, a meta desta pesquisa é determinar, dentre outros objetivos, a freqüência de alterações nas atividades das FA, GGT e transaminases (AST, aspartato-amino-transferase, EC 2.6.1.1; e ALT, alanina-amino-transferase, EC 2.6.1.2 de uma amostra de pacientes do ambulatório de epilepsia em Salvador, Bahia. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O desenho do estudo é descritivo do tipo série de casos, aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética local, no qual uma amostra de conveniência de 52 pacientes epilépticos de acompanhamento ambulatorial foi obtida sem interferência dos pesquisadores. Estes pacientes foram organizados por faixa etária de 12 a 30 e de 31 a 90 anos e, subdivididos por tempo de monoterapia com carbamazepina. As atividades séricas das enzimas GGT, FA, AST e ALT foram determinadas. RESULTADOS: As proporções de alterações por variáveis foram descritas: 42% para as FA, 18% para as GGT, 2% para as ALT e 12% para as AST, respectivamente. A faixa etária de 12 a 30 anos apresentou 56% de alterações nas FA enquanto que aquela de 31 a 90 anos, apenas 18%. CONCLUSÃO: Nós concluímos que as enzimas FA, GGT, AST e ALT apresentaram maiores freqüências de alterações de suas atividades naqueles pacientes com idade igual ou inferior a 30 anos, sendo que as FA apresentaram maiores valores.INTRODUCTION: Carbamazepine is the drug of choice used in the treatment of patients with partial (or focal epilepsy with secondary generalization. Despite its therapeutical use, this drug has been implicated in the increase of serum activities in some enzymes. Some authors have described prevalence values of 7.7%, 13%, and 22% for the increase of activity of serum alkaline phosphatases (AF or EC 3.1.3.1. A divergence in the results was also found for the activities of the serum g-glutamil transferase (gamma-glutamil transferase or GGT, or EC 2.3.2.2. OBJECTIVE: Hence, among other objectives, the aim of this research is to determine the frequency of sample alterations in serum enzymatic activities of AF, GGT and transaminases (AST, aspartate amino-transferase, EC 2.6.1.1; and ALT, alanine-amino-transferase, EC 2.6.1.2 in epilepsy ward patients in Salvador, Bahia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The design of the study is descriptive and it is a case series type. It has been approved by the local Ethics Committee. In this study, a convenience sample of 52 epileptic patients who receive ambulatory care was obtained without interference by the researchers. These patients were divided according to age groups of 12 to 30 years and 31 to 90 years, which were then subdivided according to the period of monotherapy with carbamazepine. The serum activities of the enzymes GGT, AF, AST and ALT were determined. RESULTS: The ratios of alterations per variables were described: 42% for the FA, 18% for the GGT, 2% for the ALT, and 12% for the AST respectively. The age group of 12 to 30 years presented 56% of alterations in the AF while the group of 31 to 90 years presented only 18% of alterations. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the enzymes AF, GGT, AST, and ALT presented higher frequencies of alterations of their activities in those patients with age equal to or below 30 years, while the AF presented higher values.

  10. Accelerated Fat Absorption in Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Knockout Mice†

    OpenAIRE

    Narisawa, Sonoko; Huang, Lei; Iwasaki, Arata; Hasegawa, Hideaki; Alpers, David H; Millán, José Luis

    2003-01-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is the most ancestral of the tissue-specific members of the AP gene family. Several studies have suggested an absorptive function for IAP, but in vivo data to this effect have been lacking. We inactivated the mouse IAP gene in embryo-derived stem cells and generated mice homozygous for the null mutation. The mice were macroscopically and histologically normal and fertile and showed no difference from the wild-type controls under normal laboratory conditio...

  11. Interplay between intestinal alkaline phosphatase, diet, gut microbes and immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Estaki, Mehrbod; DeCoffe, Daniella; Deanna L. Gibson

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an essential role in intestinal homeostasis and health through interactions with the resident microbiota, diet and the gut. IAP’s role in the intestine is to dephosphorylate toxic microbial ligands such as lipopolysaccharides, unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides and flagellin as well as extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate. IAP’s ability to detoxify these ligands is essential in protecting the host from sepsis during a...

  12. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase prevents metabolic syndrome in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R.; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Moaven, Omeed; Patel, Palak; Malo, Nondita S.; Ray, Madhury; Abtahi, Seyed M.; Muhammad, Nur; Raychowdhury, Atri; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M. Rafat; Moss, Angela K.; Ahmed, Rizwan

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of related disorders that includes obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Recently, gut-derived chronic endotoxemia has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the low-grade inflammation responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we examined the role of the small intestinal brush-border enzyme, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), in preventing a high-fat-diet–ind...

  13. Osmoregulation of alkaline phosphatase synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Villarejo, M.; Davis, J. L.; Granett, S.

    1983-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase, the phoA product, is synthesized constitutively in phoR mutants. This constitutive synthesis, which is independent of phosphate control, varies with changes in the osmolarity of the growth medium; phoA expression increases with increasing osmolarity. Maximum expression of the osmoregulated genes phoA, ompC, and ompF was achieved by osmotic manipulation of minimal medium; complex media repressed their expression.

  14. Alkaline phosphatase grafting on bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Spriano, Silvia Maria; Verne, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara; Vitale Brovarone, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    a b s t r a c t Bone integration of orthopaedic or dental implants and regeneration of damaged bone at the surgical site are still unresolved problems in prosthetic surgery. For this reason, biomimetic surfaces (i.e. both inorganic and biological bioactive surfaces) represent a challenge for bone implantation. In this research work a hydrolase enzyme (alkaline phosphatase) was covalently grafted to inorganic bioactive glass and glass ceramic surfaces, in order to impart biological bioactivity...

  15. An alkaline phosphatase reporter for use in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Pascual, Ricardo A; Childress, Kevin O; Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Woods, Emily C; McBride, Shonna M

    2015-04-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes severe gastrointestinal disease in humans and other mammals. C. difficile is notoriously difficult to work with and, until recently, few tools were available for genetic manipulation and molecular analyses. Despite the recent advances in the field, there is no simple or cost-effective technique for measuring gene transcription in C. difficile other than direct transcriptional analyses (e.g., quantitative real-time PCR and RNA-seq), which are time-consuming, expensive and difficult to scale-up. We describe the development of an in vivo reporter assay that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of C. difficile gene expression. Using the Enterococcus faecalis alkaline phosphatase gene, phoZ, we measured expression of C. difficile genes using a colorimetric alkaline phosphatase assay. We show that inducible alkaline phosphatase activity correlates directly with native gene expression. The ability to analyze gene expression using a standard reporter is an important and critically needed tool to study gene regulation and design genetic screens for C. difficile and other anaerobic clostridia. PMID:25576237

  16. Transient kinetic analysis of the catalytic cycle of alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J R; Huang, C Y; Chock, P B

    1980-09-25

    Transient kinetic studies were carried out to elucidate the catalytic cycle of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase at ph 8.3, 10 degrees C, and to evaluate the rate constants for the individual steps. Using a rapid mixing cell, we were able to detect the burst phase of the reaction, which could not be obtained at alkaline ph values with conventional mixing devices. Analysis of the burst phase revealed that the equilibrium of the initial binding of the substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate, to the enzyme is attained rapidly, and that the production of the alcohol, 4-methylumbelliferone, is fast. Analysis of the steady state phase of the reaction yielded a phosphate release rate constant which agrees very well with the kcat determined by initial rate studies. Dephosphorylation of the phosphoryl enzyme prepared at pH 5.7 was studied by the pH-jump technique, using a three-syringe stopped flow apparatus. The results showed that the dephosphorylation step is not rate-limiting in the catalytic cycle and that the presence of substrates or inhibitor has no effect on this step. The lack of effect of substrates on the rate of dephosphorylation and on the rate of phosphate dissociation indicates that the flip-flop mechanism, in which the product release is supposedly facilitated by the binding of a 2nd molecule of substrate, is not valid for alkaline phosphatase. Kinetic constants for various steps in the catalytic cycle of alkaline phosphatase at pH 8.3, 10 degrees C, are reported and a reaction scheme which is in harmony with previous observations from other laboratories is described. PMID:6997297

  17. Alkaline Phosphatase-Mimicking Peptide Nanofibers for Osteogenic Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulseren, Gulcihan; Yasa, I Ceren; Ustahuseyin, Oya; Tekin, E Deniz; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O

    2015-07-13

    Recognition of molecules and regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis are some of the functions of enzymes in addition to their catalytic activity. While a diverse array of enzyme-like materials have been developed, these efforts have largely been confined to the imitation of the chemical structure and catalytic activity of the enzymes, and it is unclear whether enzyme-mimetic molecules can also be used to replicate the matrix-regulatory roles ordinarily performed by natural enzymes. Self-assembled peptide nanofibers can provide multifunctional enzyme-mimetic properties, as the active sequences of the target enzymes can be directly incorporated into the peptides. Here, we report enhanced bone regeneration efficiency through peptide nanofibers carrying both catalytic and matrix-regulatory functions of alkaline phosphatase, a versatile enzyme that plays a critical role in bone formation by regulating phosphate homeostasis and calcifiable bone matrix formation. Histidine presenting peptide nanostructures were developed to function as phosphatases. These molecules are able to catalyze phosphate hydrolysis and serve as bone-like nodule inducing scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase-like peptide nanofibers enabled osteogenesis for both osteoblast-like and mesenchymal cell lines. PMID:26039144

  18. [Measuring the activity of the placental isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase: 3 methods compared (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, P M; Gabl, F; Knoth, E

    1979-09-01

    Three methods were compared in human serum for determining the activity of the placental isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase: 1. Heat inactivation at 65 degrees C for 10 minutes, 2. Differential inactivation with L-p-Bromotetramisole, and 3. an immunological precipation test. A good comparison between the three methods was found (correlation coefficient between 0.973 and 0.982). For long series or screening determinations for "Regan-isoenzyme" the differential inactivation with L-p-Bromotetramisole is preferred because of the short analysis time and the possibility of simple mechanisation. PMID:501308

  19. ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY AS A MARKER OF DOG SEMEN FREEZABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. KOSINIAK-KAMYSZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was performed to evaluate the dog semen freezability and itsquality after thawing allowing its use for artificial insemination (AI. On the basis ofsperm motility, concentration and alkaline phosphatase (AP activity in semenplasma it was possible to establish that AP activity corresponds with the basic factorof semen examination. Significant statistical differences occurred between thequality of ejaculates which were qualified or disqualified to deep freezing and AI.These results show that AP activity in raw dog semen plasma can be used as amarker for the dog semen qualification for deep freezing and AI with 95%probability of the prognosis of the results.

  20. Alkaline phosphatase activity of water column fractions and seagrass in a tropical carbonate estuary, Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marguerite S.; Kletou, Demetris C.; Tursi, Rosanna

    2009-08-01

    Few phosphorus-depleted coastal ecosystems have been examined for their ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoesters. We examined seasonal (August 2006-April 2007) alkaline phosphatase activity in Florida Bay, a phosphorus-limited shallow estuary, using fluorescent substrate at low concentrations (?2.0 ?M). In situ dissolved inorganic and organic phosphorus levels and phosphomonoester concentrations were also determined. Water column alkaline phosphatase activity was partitioned into two particulate size fractions (>1.2 and 0.2-1.2 ?m) and freely dissolved enzymes (split equally between particulate and dissolved fractions. (3) Alkaline phosphatase activity was highest during cyanobacterial blooms, but not when normalized to chl a. These results suggest that dissolved, heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaline phosphatase activity is stimulated by phytoplankton blooms. (4) The dissolved alkaline phosphatase activity is relatively constant, while the particulate activity is seasonally and spatially dynamic, typically associated with phytoplankton blooms. (5) Phosphomonoester concentrations throughout the bay are low, even though potential hydrolysis rates are high. We propose that bioavailable dissolved organic P is hydrolyzed by dissolved and microbial alkaline phosphatase enzymes in Florida Bay. High alkaline phosphatase activity in the bay is also promoted by long hydraulic residence times. This background activity is primarily driven by carbon and phosphorus limitation of microorganisms, and regeneration of enzymes associated with cell lysis. Pulses of inorganic phosphorus and labile organic phosphorus and nitrogen may stimulate autotrophs, particularly cyanobacteria, which in turn promote biological activity that increase alkaline phosphatase activity of both autotrophs and heterotrophs in the bay.

  1. Outer membrane protein e of Escherichia coli K-12 is co-regulated with alkaline phosphatase.

    OpenAIRE

    Tommassen, J.; Lugtenberg, B.

    1980-01-01

    Outer membrane protein e is induced in wild-type cells, just like alkaline phosphatase and some other periplasmic proteins, by growth under phosphatase limitation. nmpA and nmpB mutants, which synthesize protein e constitutively, are shown also to produce the periplasmic enzyme alkaline phosphatase constitutively. Alternatively, individual phoS, phoT, and phoR mutants as well as pit pst double mutants, all of which are known to produce alkaline phosphatase constitutively, were found to be con...

  2. Paget’s Disease Of The Spine With Low Bone Alkaline Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda CAGAVI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of 35-year-old man who was referred to us with a preliminary diagnosis of multiple spinal metastasis. Laboratory studies have shown a high serum alkaline phosphatase and a low bone alkaline phosphatase levels. Spinal magnetic resonance scans demonstrated involvement of T9, T11 and L3 vertebral bodies. The involved vertebrae appeared hypointense on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images and a radionuclide bone scan has shown increased uptake in involved vertebral bodies. A transpedicular open biopsy was considered necessary for accurate diagnosis. Histopathologic evaluation of the specimen revealed typical “mosaic pattern” of Paget’s disease. After surgery, urinary deoxypridinoline and pridinoline levels were tested and were higher than normal. The patient was given oral doses of alendronate, 40 mg per day and follow-up magnetic resonance scans at 6 months and 2 years demonstrated improvement in the signal intensity of the involved vertebral bodies. This case not only shows that Paget’s disease can occur in the setting of low bone AP but also shows that the clinical improvement can be monitored by improvement in magnetic resonance signal.

  3. Responses of alkaline phosphatase activity in Daphnia to poor nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicole D; Frost, Paul C

    2012-09-01

    The use of biochemical and molecular indices of nutritional stress have recently been promoted for their potential ability to assess the in situ nutritional state of zooplankton. The development and application of these indicators should at least consider the cross-reactivity with other nutritional stressors. We examined the potential usefulness of body alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) as an indicator of dietary phosphorus (P) stress in Daphnia. We measured growth rate, body P-content, and body APA of two species of Daphnia (D. magna, D. pulex) grown for different periods under diverse dietary conditions. We found P-poor food reduced daphnid growth rates and body P-content, while body APA increased in both species. However, body APA increased in P-sufficient D. magna and D. pulex that were feeding on cyanobacterial compared to green algal food, despite no differences in animal body P content. Body APA increased in D. magna fed P-poor food whether cyanobacterial or algal. Body APA also varied with age and other nutritional stresses (low food quantity, nitrogen-poor algae) in both daphnid species. Our results demonstrate that whole body homogenate APA in Daphnia is not singularly responsive to P-poor food, which will complicate or limit its future usefulness and application as an indicator of dietary P-stress in metazoans. PMID:22327742

  4. Alkaline phosphatase from venom of the endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yin Ye, Gong; Fang, Qi; Hu, Cui

    2010-01-01

    Using chromogenic substrates 5-bromo-4-chloro-3'-indolyl phosphate and nitro blue tetrazolium, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) was histochemically detected in the venom apparatus of an endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum L. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Ultrastructural observations demonstrated its presence in the secretory vesicles and nuclei of the venom gland secretory cells. Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate to measure enzyme activity, the venom ALPase was found to be temperature dependent with bivalent cation effects. The full-length cDNA sequence of ALPase was amplified from the cDNA library of the venom apparatus of P. puparum, providing the first molecular characterization of ALPase in the venom of a parasitoid wasp. The cDNA consisted of 2645 bp with a 1623 bp open reading frame coding for 541 deduced amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 59.83 kDa and pI of 6.98. Using multiple sequence alignment, the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity to its counterparts from other insects. A signal peptide and a long conserved ALPase gene family signature sequence were observed. The amino acid sequence of this venom protein was characterized with different potential glycosylation, myristoylation, phosphorylation sites and metal ligand sites. The transcript of the ALPase gene was detected by RT-PCR in the venom apparatus with development related expression after adult wasp emergence, suggesting a possible correlation with the oviposition process. PMID:20575745

  5. Interplay between intestinal alkaline phosphatase, diet, gut microbes and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estaki, Mehrbod; DeCoffe, Daniella; Gibson, Deanna L

    2014-11-14

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an essential role in intestinal homeostasis and health through interactions with the resident microbiota, diet and the gut. IAP's role in the intestine is to dephosphorylate toxic microbial ligands such as lipopolysaccharides, unmethylated cytosine-guanosine dinucleotides and flagellin as well as extracellular nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate. IAP's ability to detoxify these ligands is essential in protecting the host from sepsis during acute inflammation and chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Also important in these complications is IAP's ability to regulate the microbial ecosystem by forming a complex relationship between microbiota, diet and the intestinal mucosal surface. Evidence reveals that diet alters IAP expression and activity and this in turn can influence the gut microbiota and homeostasis. IAP's ability to maintain a healthy gastrointestinal tract has accelerated research on its potential use as a therapeutic agent against a multitude of diseases. Exogenous IAP has been shown to have beneficial effects when administered during ulcerative colitis, coronary bypass surgery and sepsis. There are currently a handful of human clinical trials underway investigating the effects of exogenous IAP during sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis and heart surgery. In light of these findings IAP has been marked as a novel agent to help treat a variety of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. The purpose of this review is to highlight the essential characteristics of IAP in protection and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis while addressing the intricate interplay between IAP, diet, microbiota and the intestinal epithelium. PMID:25400448

  6. The Detection of Alkaline Phosphatase Using an Electrochemical Biosensor in a Single-Step Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chiun Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-step, single use, disposable Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP biosensor has been developed. It is based on the detection of phenol produced by an ALP enzymatic reaction. It can operate at 25 °C in a pH 10 medium. It measures ALP of 0–300 IU/L. The permissible concentrations of glucose, ascorbic acid and urea without interference are 10 mM/L, 5 mg/L and 400 mg/L, respectively. Experimental results are compared to those obtained by spectrophotometric measurements in bovine serum. Excellent linearity between the biosensor outputs and the ALP concentrations exists. The agreement between the measurements of this biosensor and the spectrophotometer is also outstanding.

  7. Cytochrome c forms complexes and is partly reduced at interaction with GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dadák, V.; Janiczek, O.; Vrána, Old?ich

    2002-01-01

    Ro?. 1570, ?. 1 (2002), s. 9-18. ISSN 0304-4165 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : cytochrome c * aromatic amino acid * alkaline phosphatase Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.845, year: 2002

  8. Ion transport processes and alkaline phosphatase activity in the skin of the crested newt

    OpenAIRE

    Usai, Pasquale; Lodi, Giovanni; Dore, Bruno Emilio

    1995-01-01

    The supposed relationship linking alkaline phosphatase (APH) activity and selective transepithelial transport processes was investigated in the skin of the crested newt under various experimental conditions of ion transport stimulation and inhibition.

  9. Changes in intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity in cholera toxin-treated rats.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Miura; Asakura, H; Morishita, T.; Hibi, T.; Munakata, Y; K. Kobayashi; Tsuchiya, M.

    1982-01-01

    It is conceivable that brush border enzyme activities of the intestinal mucosa will change when bacterial toxins are exposed to the intestinal microvillous membranes. The effect of cholera toxin on the activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase in rats was therefore determined in the intestinal mucosa by the histochemical method as well as in intestinal lymph by using lymph fistulated-rats. Activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase in the intestinal mucosa and lymphatics changed biphasical...

  10. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against alkaline phosphatase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, M O; Mielcarek, C; Gavini, F.; Caron, C.; Izard, D; Leclerc, H

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against the alkaline phosphatase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were produced from spleen cells of BALB/c mice primed with purified alkaline phosphatase of P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 and SP20/Ag-14 myeloma cells. The eight stable clones established produced antibodies that reacted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and indirect immunofluorescence assays with all bacterial strains of P. aeruginosa, including the 17 serotypes and two nontypable strains. Three of the clones cross-reac...

  11. Optical Algal Biosensor using Alkaline Phosphatase for Determination of Heavy Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Durrieu, Claude; Tran-Minh, Canh

    2002-01-01

    A biosensor is constructed to detect heavy metals from inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) present on the external membrane of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The microalgal cells are immobilized on removable membranes placed in front of the tip of an optical fiber bundle inside a homemade microcell. C. vulgaris was cultivated in the laboratory and its alkaline phosphatase activity is strongly inhibited in the presence of heavy metals. This property has been used for the determination of t...

  12. Optical algal biosensor using alkaline phosphatase for determination of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrieu, Claude; Tran-Minh, Canh

    2002-03-01

    A biosensor is constructed to detect heavy metals from inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) present on the external membrane of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The microalgal cells are immobilized on removable membranes placed in front of the tip of an optical fiber bundle inside a homemade microcell. C. vulgaris was cultivated in the laboratory and its alkaline phosphatase activity is strongly inhibited in the presence of heavy metals. This property has been used for the determination of those toxic compounds. PMID:11971642

  13. The fate of purified radio-labelled alkaline phosphatase from the liver in the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from dog liver was enriched by a factor of 5.444 in various steps. Rabbit antiserum to the purified AP was produced; 125-I was used then to radiolabel the highly purified AP. Four dogs were cholecystectomized and subsequently received an extracorporal drainage of the bile ducts. Decrease rate of total radio-activity and of PBI in the serum was determined in one dog; likewise in three other dogs before and one week after occlusion of their main bile ducts. In addition, radioactivity above the organs was measured in some animals at short intervals. In the dogs with main bile duct drainage, bile was collected continuously for up to 70 h, samples were taken, and residual bile plus native dog bile were re-infused into the distal choledochus catheter. Total radioactivity, PBI and immunoprecipitability with antibodies were determined in the bile and serum samples. AP, GOT, CPT and bilirubin were determined in some serum samples. In addition, total radioactivity excreted by urine was established. Results show injected 125-I-AP to be rapidly stored in the liver and not to be excreted via bile to a decisive extent. The fact that 125-I-AP is not excreted via bile is further indicated by the identical decrease rate of injected 125-I-AP in the serum in dogs with and without main bile duct occlusion. Injected 125-I-AP appears to be metabolized very rapidly in the liver as is indicated by the rapid decrease of immuno precipitability of 125-I-AP in the serum. (orig./MG)

  14. Control of placental alkaline phosphatase gene expression in HeLa cells: induction of synthesis by prednisolone and sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HeLa S3 cells produce an alkaline phosphatase indistinguishable from the enzyme from human term placenta. The phosphatase activity in these cells was induced by both prednisolone and sodium butyrate. Both agents stimulated de novo synthesis of the enzyme. The increase in phosphatase activity paralleled the increase in immunoactivity and biosynthesis of placental alkaline phosphatase. The fully processed phosphatase monomer in control, prednisolone-treated or butyrate-treated cells was a 64.5 K polypeptide, measured by both incorporation of L-[35S]methionine into enzyme protein and active-site labeling. The 64.5K polypeptide was formed by the incorporation of additional N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties to a precursor polypeptide of 61.5K. However, this biosynthetic pathway was identified only in butyrate-treated cells. In prednisolone-treated cells, the processing of 61.5K to 64.5K monomer was accelerated, and the presence of the 61.5 precursor could only be detected by either neuraminidase or monensin treatment. Phosphatase mRNA which comigrated with the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA of 2.7 kilobases was induced in the presence of either prednisolone or butyrate. Alkaline phosphatase mRNA is untreated HeLa S3 cells migrated slightly faster than the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Butyrate also induced a second still faster migrating alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Both prednisolone and butyrate increased the steady-statone and butyrate increased the steady-state levels of placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. The data indicate that the increase in phosphatase mRNA by prednisolone and butyrate resulted in the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and biosynthesis in HeLa S3 cells. Furthermore, both agents induced the expression of different alkaline phosphatase gene transcripts without altering its protein product

  15. Alkaline phosphatase activity in plasma and liver of rats submitted to chronic exposure to fluoride

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mileni da Silva, Fernandes; Flávia Godoy, Iano; Vivian, Rocia; Marcela Mitsuko, Yanai; Aline de Lima, Leite; Tatiana Almeida, Furlani; Marília Afonso Rabelo, Buzalaf; Rodrigo Cardoso de, Oliveira.

    1187-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of fluoride (F) on alkaline phosphatase activity in the liver and plasma of the rats. Four groups of male Wistar rats (n=6), which received drinking water containing 5, 15 or 50 ppm F or deionized water (control) throughout the experiment were included [...] in the study. The animals were euthanized and had their tissues and blood plasma collected for the analysis of fluoride and alkaline phosphatase. There was an increase in F concentration in most tissues in the animals treated with higher F concentrations, except for the heart. The alkaline phosphatase assay showed an increase in the activity in the liver and blood plasma of the animals treated with fluoride concentrations of 15 and 50 ppm (p

  16. The tillage effect on the soil acid and alkaline phosphatase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Magdalena Zamfirache; Simona Isabela Dunca; Zenovia Olteanu; Lacramioara Oprica

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatases (acid and alkaline) are important in soils because these extracellular enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of organic phosphate esters to orthophosphate; thus they form an important link between biologically unavailable and mineral phosphorous. Phosphatase activity is sensitive to environmental perturbations such as organic amendments, tillage, waterlogging, compaction, fertilizer additions and thus it is often used as an environmental indicator of soil quality in riparian ecosystems...

  17. Additional Possibility of Data Analysis of Enzyme Inhibition and Activation. 5. Comparative Study of Temperature Activation of Calf Alkaline Phosphatase and Escherichia coli Alkaline Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Krupyanko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that simultaneous account of a course of change in the maximum reaction rate (V and the Michaelis constant (Km by plotting their vector representations in the three-dimensional KmVt coordinate system allows additional analysis of the dynamics of enzyme temperature activation. It also makes it possible to study the mechanism of enzyme action under varying temperature conditions of technological processes by use of such new parameters of enzyme activation as: a enzyme activation intensity, b the overall enzyme activation effect, c a geometrical portrait of enzyme activation. A comparative study of temperature activation of calf alkaline phosphatase and Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase was performed by conventional and new methods of data processing.

  18. Relation of salivary calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase with the incidence of dental caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaprasad K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess possible relationship of Calcium, Phosphorus and Alkaline-phophatase levels in saliva with incidence of caries in child patients. Settings and Design: Children (n=75 attending Department of Pedodontics, St. Joseph Dental college, Eluru, with and without caries were categorized in to Group I: Consisting of 25 children with non-rampant caries, Group II: Consisting of 25 children with rampant caries, Group III: Consisting of 25 children without caries. (Control group. Materials and Methods: The samples of saliva were collected one week after oral prophylaxis. Unstimulated directly expectorated whole saliva samples were collected in clean, dry, sterilized glass bottles and fitted with proper rubber stoppers immediately. The samples were subjected to biochemical assay for estimation of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels. Statistical analysis used: ANOVA. Results: The alkaline Phosphatase activity for rampant caries group was 18.66 K.A, and control group was 4.68 K.A. The values of alkaline phosphatase activity for minimal caries group was 6.16 KA. Conclusion: Saliva could reflect a caries risk situation was supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase activity was very much significantly higher in caries prone groups.

  19. EXPRESSION OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE DURING OSTEOGENIC DIFFERENTIATION OF RAT BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKBARI M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bone marrow contains a population of stem cells capable of differentiating to osteoblast and forming the bone nodule by dexamethasone. Material and Methods: The stromal cells of bone marrow obtained from 4 to 6 weeks old Spruge-Dawely male rats were grown in primary culture for 7 days and subcultured for 18 days. The cells were cultured in either DMEM medium containing 15% fetal calf serum and antibiotics as the controls or the above medium supplemented with osteogenic supplements (OS: include 10 mM Na-beta glycerophosphate (Na-betaGp, 10 nM dexamethasone (Dex and 50 g/ml ascordic acid (AsA as the examined cultures. After 6, 12 and 18 days of grow up in subculture, the cultures were examined for mineralization and alkaline phosphatase (Apase expression. Results: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in examined cultures underwent a dramatic change in cellular morphology and a significat increase in Apase activity by day 12. The deposition of a calcified matrix on the surface of the culture flasks became evident between days 12 and 18. Conclusion: The addition of osteogenic supplements (OS to MSCs cultures induced Apase expression that contributes to cellular differentiation and mineralization of extracellular matrix.

  20. Dietary free fatty acids form alkaline phosphatase-enriched microdomains in the intestinal brush border membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acids released during intralumenal digestion of dietary fat must pass through the enterocyte brush border membrane before triacylglycerol reassembly and subsequent chylomicron delivery to the lymph system. In the present work fluorescent BODIPY fatty acid analogs were used to study this membrane passage in organ cultured intestinal mucosal explants. We found that in addition to a rapid uptake into the cytoplasm, a fraction of the fatty acid analogs were inserted directly into the brush border membrane. Furthermore, a brief exposure of microvillar membrane vesicles to a fat mixture mimicking a physiological solution of dietary mixed micelles, rearranged the lipid raft microdomain organization of the membranes. Thus, the fat mixture generated a low-density subpopulation of microvillar detergent resistant membranes (DRMs) highly enriched in alkaline phosphatase (AP). Since this GPI-linked enzyme is the membrane protein in the brush border with the highest affinity for lipid rafts, this implies that free fatty acids selectively insert stably into these membrane microdomains. We have previously shown that absorption of dietary lipids transiently induce a selective endocytosis of AP from the brush border, and from work by others it is known that fat absorption is accompanied by a rise in serum AP and secretion of surfactant-like particles from enterocytes. We propose that these physiological processes may be triggered by the sequestering of dietary free fatty acids in lipid raft microdomains of the brush border.

  1. Effects of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity on Nucleotide Measurements in Aquatic Microbial Communities †

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, D. M.; Craven, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity was detected in aquatic microbial assemblages from the subtropics to Antarctica. The occurrence of APase in environmental nucleotide extracts was shown to significantly affect the measured concentrations of cellular nucleotides (adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate, and cytidine triphosphate), adenylate energy charge, and guanosine triphosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratios, w...

  2. Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline phosphatases for the water quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Berezhetskyy, A.

    2008-01-01

    Researches are focused on the elaboration of enzymatic microconductometric device for heavy metal ions detection in water solutions. The manuscript includes a general introduction, the first chapter contains bibliographic review, the second chapter described the fundamentals of conductometric transducers, the third chapter examining the possibility to create and to optimize conductometric biosensor based on bovine alkaline phosphatase for heavy metals ions detection, the fou...

  3. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities of a fraction isolated from Parawixia bistriata spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araujo; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza; Liberato, José Luis; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria; dos Santos, Wagner Ferreira

    2006-06-15

    This present study describes the isolation of a high molecular weight fraction (F1) from the venom of the social spider Parawixia bistriata, by gel filtration and also its subfractions by further purification with affinity chromatography on a Concanavalin A-Sepharose column. Acid and an alkaline phosphatase activities were found in fractions. The effects of pH, temperature and metallic ions on these activities were evaluated. Optimal temperature for both enzymes was 55 degrees C and optimal pH was 5.0 and 8.5 for the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, respectively. As ZnCl(2) inhibited enzymatic activities and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) raised the basal phosphatase activities, it was speculated that the venom itself could contain Zn(+ +); this was confirmed with the use of an atomic absorption flame spectrometer. In conclusion, the high molecular weight components of the spider venom of P. bistriata have acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, which may reflect the presence of at least two different enzymes. PMID:16730046

  4. Physiological factors in the regulation of alkaline phosphatase synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, A S

    1972-05-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is induced in excess phosphate media by starvation either for pyrimidines or for guanine. Induction is observed both during starvation, after a lag period, and following a period of starvation. Induction is not caused by a lowering of the internal orthophosphate pool, but is linked to alterations in the levels of the nucleotide pools. Experiments with purine-requiring mutants suggest that phosphatase is induced in wild-type strains by an adenine nucleotide. Mutations in the phoR gene can produce differential responses to the different starvation regimes. PMID:4553839

  5. Método fosfatasa alcalina anti-fosfatasa alcalina para el diagnóstico de inmunodeficiencias celulares Alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method for the diagnosis of cell immunodeficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta B Socarrás Ferrer

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Para el estudio de 25 pacientes con infecciones recurrentes y un grupo control de 25 individuos supuestamente sanos, se aplicó, en nuestro laboratorio, el método inmunocitoquímico de fosfatasa alcalina anti-fosfatasa alcalina, para la cuantificación de las principales subpoblaciones de linfocitos T identificados con los anticuerpos monoclonales: anti-CD3, anti-CD4 y anti-CD8. Se obtuvieron diferencias significativas para las subpoblaciones TCD3 y CD4 positivos (p For the study of 25 patients with recurrent infections and a control group of 25 supposedly healthy individuals, our Laboratory applied the immunocytochemical method of alkaline phosphatase - anti-alkaline phosphatase for the quantitation of the main T-lymphocyte subgroups identified with monoclonal antibodies:antiCD3, anti-CD4 and anti-CD8. There were significant differences in positive TCD3 and CD4 subsets (p<0,05. Because this is a low cost and quick method, it may be applied by other immunodiagnosis labs throughout the country

  6. Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline phosphatases for the water quality control

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhetskyy, A

    2008-01-01

    Researches are focused on the elaboration of enzymatic microconductometric device for heavy metal ions detection in water solutions. The manuscript includes a general introduction, the first chapter contains bibliographic review, the second chapter described the fundamentals of conductometric transducers, the third chapter examining the possibility to create and to optimize conductometric biosensor based on bovine alkaline phosphatase for heavy metals ions detection, the fourth chapter devoted to creation and optimization of conductometric biosensor based on alkaline phosphatase active microalgae and sol gel technology, the last chapter described application of the proposed algal biosensor for measurements of heavy metal ions toxicity of waste water, general conclusions stating the progresses achieved in the field of environmental monitoring

  7. Alkaline phosphatase cytochemistry in confocal scanning light microscopy for imaging the bone marrow stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, P; Boyde, A

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of alkaline phosphatase cytochemistry and combined conventional and confocal reflection and fluorescence scanning light microscopic modes in the study of human marrow stroma. It was found that the end product of the enzyme reaction using Napthol AS phosphate as substrate and Fast Blue BB as coupler reflected the 633 nm (red) light from a Helium-Neon laser. Serial optical sections suitable for 3-D reconstruction and selectively depicting the marrow reticulum cells could be obtained from thick glycol methacrylate sections reacted for Alkaline phosphatase. Furthermore, the yellow background of uncoupled diazonium salt over cytochemically unreactive structures in the same specimens and fields was used for imaging haemopoietic cell mass by operating the microscope at 488 nm (argon ion laser, blue-green). These methods may offer advantages in the investigation of the bone marrow stroma and its interplay with haemopoiesis and osteogenesis in normal and disease conditions. PMID:2730514

  8. Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline phosphatases for the water quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhetskyy, A.

    2008-09-01

    Researches are focused on the elaboration of enzymatic microconductometric device for heavy metal ions detection in water solutions. The manuscript includes a general introduction, the first chapter contains bibliographic review, the second chapter described the fundamentals of conductometric transducers, the third chapter examining the possibility to create and to optimize conductometric biosensor based on bovine alkaline phosphatase for heavy metals ions detection, the fourth chapter devoted to creation and optimization of conductometric biosensor based on alkaline phosphatase active microalgae and sol gel technology, the last chapter described application of the proposed algal biosensor for measurements of heavy metal ions toxicity of waste water, general conclusions stating the progresses achieved in the field of environmental monitoring

  9. Alkaline phosphatase inhibition based conductometric biosensor for phosphate estimation in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan; Verma, Nishant

    2015-06-15

    Determination of phosphate ions concentration is very important from both, environmental and clinical point of view. In this study, a simple and novel conductometric biosensor for indirect determination of the phosphate ions in aqueous solution has been developed. The developed biosensor is based on the inhibition of immobilized alkaline phosphatase activity, in the presence of the phosphate ions. This is the first time we developed a mono-enzymatic biosensor for indirect estimation of phosphate ions. The developed biosensor showed a broad linear response (as compared to other reported biosensors) for phosphate ions in the range of 0.5-5.0 mM (correlation coefficient=0.995), with a detection limit of 50 µM. Different optimized parameters were obtained as the buffer concentration of 30 mM, substrate concentration of 1.0mM, and a pH of 9.0. All the optimized parameters were analyzed by analysis of variance, and were found to be statistically significant at a level of ?=0.05. The developed biosensor is also suitable to determine the serum phosphate concentration, with a recovery of 86-104%, while a recovery of 102% was obtained from the water samples that were spiked with 500 µM phosphate. A relative standard deviation in the conductance response for five successive measurements (n=5) did not exceed 7%, with a shelf life of 30 days. With a lower detection limit and a higher recovery, the biosensor provides a facile approach for phosphate estimation in biological fluids. PMID:25656777

  10. Copper sulfide nanoparticle-decorated graphene as a catalytic amplification platform for electrochemical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Juan; Han, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Qing-Chun; Yao, Hui-Qin; Gao, Zuo-Ning

    2015-06-01

    Copper sulfide nanoparticle-decorated graphene sheet (CuS/GR) was successfully synthesized and used as a signal amplification platform for electrochemical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity. First, CuS/GR was prepared through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach. The CuS/GR nanocomposites exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of ALP hydrolyzed products such as 1-naphthol, which produced a current response. Thus, a catalytic amplification platform based on CuS/GR nanocomposite for electrochemical detection of ALP activity was designed using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a model substrate. The current response increased linearly with ALP concentration from 0.1 to 100UL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.02UL(-1). The assay was applied to estimate ALP activity in human serum samples with satisfactory results. This strategy may find widespread and promising applications in other sensing systems that involves ALP. PMID:26002329

  11. Promiscuous sulfatase activity and thio-effects in a phosphodiesterase of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily†

    OpenAIRE

    Lassila, Jonathan K; HERSCHLAG, DANIEL

    2008-01-01

    The nucleotide phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase from Xanthomonas axonopodis (NPP) is a structural and evolutionary relative of alkaline phosphatase that preferentially hydrolyzes phosphate diesters. With the goal of understanding how these two enzymes with nearly identical Zn2+ bimetallo sites achieve high selectivity for hydrolysis of either phosphate monoesters or diesters, we have measured a promiscuous sulfatase activity in NPP. Sulfate esters are nearly isosteric with phosphate esters b...

  12. A Disposable Alkaline Phosphatase-Based Biosensor for Vanadium Chronoamperometric Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lorena Alvarado-Gámez; María Asunción Alonso-Lomillo; Olga Domínguez-Renedo; María Julia Arcos-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    A chronoamperometric method for vanadium ion determination, based on the inhibition of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, is reported. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were used as transducers for the immobilization of the enzyme. The enzymatic activity over 4-nitrophenyl phosphate sodium salt is affected by vanadium ions, which results in a decrease in the chronoamperometric current registered. The developed method has a detection limit of 0.39 ± 0.06 µM, a r...

  13. Expression of alkaline phosphatase in immortalized murine cementoblasts in response to compression-force.

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Tian; Lan Huang; Yong-Wen Guo; Li Cao; Ya-Ting Wang; Hui Xu; Ding Bai

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of compression-force on the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ALP activity in cementoblasts. METHODS We performed this study in the State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Stomatology Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China from October to December 2010. We exposed murine immortalized cementoblasts (OCCM-30) to 2000-ustrain compression-force at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours. We assayed the ce...

  14. Nucleotide pool in pho regulon mutants and alkaline phosphatase synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, N. N.; Wang, E.; Yashphe, J.; Torriani, A.

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular nucleotide pool of Escherichia coli W3110 reproducibly changes from conditions of growth in phosphate excess to phosphate starvation, with at least two nucleotides appearing under starvation conditions and two nucleotides appearing only under excess phosphate conditions. Strains bearing a deletion of the phoA gene show the same pattern, indicating that dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase is not responsible for the changes. Strains with mutations in the phoU gene, which...

  15. Characterization of rat heart alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes and modulation of activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, A.; Silva, P.; Neves, D.; Lemos, C.; Calhau, C.; Torres, D.; Martel, F.; Fraga, H.; Ribeiro, L.; Alc?ada, M. N. M. P.; Pinho, M. J.; Negra?o, M. R.; Pedrosa, R.; Guerreiro, S.; Guimara?es, J. T.

    2008-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is important in calcification and its expression seems to be associated with the inflammatory process. We investigated the in vitro acute effects of compounds used for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases on total ALP activity from male Wistar rat heart homogenate. ALP activity was determined by quantifying, at 410 nm, the p-nitrophenol released from p-nitrophenylphosphate (substrate in Tris buffer, pH 10.4). Using specific inhibitors of ALP activi...

  16. In situ hybridization of cytokine mRNA using alkaline phosphatase-labelled oligodeoxynucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bettina Hjelm; Fenger, Christina

    2013-01-01

    In situ hybridization is a powerful tool for visualizing cellular gene expression in morphologically preserved brain tissue giving precise information on the regional expression of specific mRNA sequences in cells of diverse phenotype. Here, we describe a sensitive, simple, and robust method using alkaline phosphatase (AP)-labelled oligodeoxynucleotide probes to detect cytokine mRNA in the acutely injured or inflamed mouse CNS.

  17. Histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase in the uterus of rats: response to a few indigenous plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R

    1986-01-01

    Localization of alkaline phosphatase in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of rats under the influence of 50% ethanolic and benzene extracts of three indigenous plants viz. Embelia ribes Burm. (dried berries), Artobotrys odoratissimus Linn. (fresh green leaves) and Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. (flowers) has been studied histochemically. 75 and 150 mg/kg doses of 50% ethanolic extracts of E. ribes increased the intensity of reaction for alkaline phosphatase in both luminal and glandular epithelium, whereas extracts of A. odorantissimus and H. rosa-sinensis could not elicit any significant positive staining in luminal and glandular epithelium for alkaline phosphatase. Intense positive reaction for alkaline phosphatase due to E. ribes extract has been correlated with its estrogenic mode of action. PMID:3577595

  18. Alkaline phosphatases in microbialites and bacterioplankton from Alchichica soda lake, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino-Castillo, Patricia M; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Alcocer, Javier; Merino-Ibarra, Martín; Macek, Miroslav; Falcón, Luisa I

    2014-11-01

    Dissolved organic phosphorus utilization by different members of natural communities has been closely linked to microbial alkaline phosphatases whose affiliation and diversity is largely unknown. Here we assessed genetic diversity of bacterial alkaline phosphatases phoX and phoD, using highly diverse microbial consortia (microbialites and bacterioplankton) as study models. These microbial consortia are found in an oligo-mesotrophic soda lake with a particular geochemistry, exhibiting a low calcium concentration and a high Mg : Ca ratio relative to seawater. In spite of the relative low calcium concentration in the studied system, our results highlight the diversity of calcium-based metallophosphatases phoX and phoD-like in heterotrophic bacteria of microbialites and bacterioplankton, where phoX was the most abundant alkaline phosphatase found. phoX and phoD-like phylotypes were more numerous in microbialites than in bacterioplankton. A larger potential community for DOP utilization in microbialites was consistent with the TN : TP ratio, suggesting P limitation within these assemblages. A cross-system comparison indicated that diversity of phoX in Lake Alchichica was similar to that of other aquatic systems with a naturally contrasting ionic composition and trophic state, although no phylotypes were shared among systems. PMID:25112496

  19. Alkaline phosphatase capture test for the rapid identification of Escherichia coli and Shigella species based on a specific monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, M O; Mielcarek, C; Izard, D; Leclerc, H

    1989-01-01

    A specific monoclonal antibody for Escherichia coli and Shigella sp. alkaline phosphatase was used in an immunocapture assay and allowed identification of E. coli either in culture isolates or directly in clinical specimens. The assay was easy and required only four steps: (i) alkaline phosphatase was released within 10 min by using a gentle lysis procedure, (ii) cell lysates were transferred to antibody-coated tubes for 45 min, (iii) p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate was added, and (iv) alka...

  20. Lead Toxicity on Kinetic Behaviors of High and Low Molecular Weight Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes of Rat, in vivo and in vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mirhashemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lead (Pb toxicity and changes in the kinetic characteristics of serum, liver and brain high and low molecular weight alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes has been examined in this document. Alkaline phosphatase is a family of phosphomonoesterases that was measured in serum, liver and brain using paranitrophenol phosphate (pNPP as substrate and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol as buffer. Protein concentration was determined as described by Bradford. Results obtained showed that every other day intrapritoneally injection of 39.5 ?g kg-1 of lead as (Pb (CH3COO 2.3H2O, in male rats for 2 consecutive weeks resulted in decreasing level of liver and brain alkaline phosphatase by 16.7 and 10.9%, respectively, whereas an elevation of serum enzyme activity by 28.4% was seen in comparison to untreated controls (p<0.05. Long-term exposure to 13.2 ?g kg-1 of this salt, showed a statistically significant reduction in liver and brain levels of alkaline phosphatase by 18.7 and 13.2% respectively and an increment in serum activity of the enzyme by 37.6% in compared to control group (p<0.05. Using gel filtration chromatography technique with sephacryl S300 showed that, in comparison to control groups, serum and liver homogenate from lead treated groups had a significant level of high molecular weight alkaline phosphatase, which might be considered as a potential biomarker for lead toxicity. In vitro experiments showed that lead inhibited all the isoenzymes.

  1. Inhibition kinetics of acid and alkaline phosphatases by atrazine and methomyl pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Badawy, Mohamed E I

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the kinetic characteristics of acid and alkaline phosphatases isolated from different sources and to study the effects of the herbicide atrazine and insecticide methomyl on the activity and kinetic properties of the enzymes. Acid phosphatase (ACP) was isolated from the tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. lycopersicum); alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was isolated from two sources, including mature earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and larvae of the Egyptian cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). The specific activities of the enzymes were 33.31, 5.56 and 0.72 mmol substrate hydrolyzed per minute per milligram protein for plant ACP, earthworms ALP and cotton leafworm ALP, respectively. The inhibition kinetics indicated that atrazine and methomyl caused competitive-non-competitive inhibition of the enzymes. The relationships between estimates of Km and Vmax calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation have been explored. The extent of the inhibition was different, as estimated by the values of the inhibition constant Ki that were found to be 3.34 × 10(-3), 1.12 × 10(-2) and 1.07 × 10(-2) mM for plant ACP, earthworms ALP and cotton leafworm ALP, respectively, with methomyl. In the case of atrazine, Ki were found to be 8.99 × 10(-3), 3.55 × 10(-2) and 1.36 × 10(-2) mM for plant ACP, earthworms ALP and cotton leafworm ALP, respectively. PMID:25996812

  2. An Alkaline Phosphatase Reporter Gene Assay for Induction of CYP3A4 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hamzeiy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CYP3A4 probably has the broadest catalytic activity of any cytochrome P450. It is a crucial task to test new drug candidates in a reliable system for their ability to induce expression of this enzyme. Firstly, a total of 300 bp core distal enhancer of CYP3A4 XREM region (-7972/-7673 were amplified from human genomic DNA. The PCR product was then ligated into a human secretory alkaline phosphatase cDNA-containing reporter vector (pSEAP2-1creating pX-SEAP2 plasmid. Secondly, 1143 bp of the CYP3A4 proximal promoter region (-1203/-61 was amplified from the genomic DNA and then ligated into pX-SEAP2 plasmid DNA (between XREM and alkaline phosphatase gene, creating pXP-SEAP2 plasmid. Reporter constructs were then co-transfected with an hPXR expression vector into human liver and intestinal cells in culture. Xenobiotic modulation of CYP3A4 promoter activity was determined by chemiluminescent secretory alkaline phosphatase assay. Significant CYP3A4 induction atthe transcriptional level using three different cell lines and four classical CYP3A4 inducers was observed. Transfection of reporter constructs in HepG2, HuH7 and Caco-2 cells, in general, produced similar pattern of induction by the same drugs with the exception ofphenobarbital. The results suggest that, carefully designed reporter gene systems can provide a useful in vitro approach for characterization of possible CYP3A4 inducers.

  3. An Alkaline Phosphatase Reporter Gene Assay for Induction of CYP3A4 In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Hamzeiy; Mohammad Ali Eghbal

    2006-01-01

    CYP3A4 probably has the broadest catalytic activity of any cytochrome P450. It is a crucial task to test new drug candidates in a reliable system for their ability to induce expression of this enzyme. Firstly, a total of 300 bp core distal enhancer of CYP3A4 XREM region (-7972/-7673) were amplified from human genomic DNA. The PCR product was then ligated into a human secretory alkaline phosphatase cDNA-containing reporter vector (pSEAP2-1)creating pX-SEAP2 plasmid. Secondly, 1143 bp of the CY...

  4. Alkaline phosphatase-positive cells isolated from human hearts have mesenchymal stem cell characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Melo de Aguiar; Crisciele Kuligovski; Marise Teresinha Brenner Affonso da Costa; Marco Augusto Stimamiglio; Carmen Lúcia Kuniyoshi Rebelatto; Alexandra Cristina Senegaglia; Paulo Roberto Slud Brofman; Bruno Dallagiovanna; Samuel Goldenberg; Alejandro Correa

    2011-01-01

    Tissue-specific resident cells have been identified as a promising population of progenitor cells for cell-based therapies. We describe here the isolation from adult human hearts of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase-positive cells (ALPL+ cells) with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics. Samples from 24 adult cadaveric donors were obtained from a valve bank. Mean total ischemia time was 21.5 ± 9.1 hours. The success rate for the isolation of human heart-derived cells by the explan...

  5. Oncodevelopmental expression of rat placental alkaline phosphatase. Detection in oval cells during liver carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yaswen, P.; Thompson, N L; Fausto, N

    1985-01-01

    Oval cells isolated from livers of rats fed a choline-deficient diet containing 0.1% DL-ethionine (CDE) have an alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) isozyme which can be distinguished by its electrophoretic mobility from the enzyme present in parenchymal cells isolated from normal liver or livers of rats fed the CDE diet for 4 weeks. The oval cell ALKP has the same electrophoretic mobility as the enzyme from fetal rat liver and placenta. ALKPs from oval cells, parenchymal cells, and placenta all diffe...

  6. Alkaline phosphatase secretion-negative mutant of Bacillus licheniformis 749/C.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, B. K.

    1983-01-01

    An alkaline phosphatase secretion-blocked mutant of Bacillus licheniformis 749/C was isolated. This mutant had defects in the phoP and phoR regions of the chromosome. The selection procedure was based on the rationale that N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine can induce mutations of closely linked multiple genes. The malate gene and the phoP and phoR genes are located at the 260-min position in the Bacillus subtilis chromosome; hence, the malate gene could be used as a marker for the mutation...

  7. Diarylsulfonamides and their bioisosteres as dual inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase: Structure activity relationship and molecular modelling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rashida, Mariya; Ejaz, Syeda Abida; Ali, Sharafat; Shaukat, Aisha; Hamayoun, Mehwish; Ahmed, Maqsood; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2015-05-15

    The effect of bioisosteric replacement of carboxamide linking group with sulfonamide linking group, on alkaline phosphatase (AP) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition activity of aromatic benzenesulfonamides was investigated. A series of carboxamide linked aromatic benzenesulfonamides 1a-1c, 2a-2d and their sulfonamide linked bioisosteres 3a-3d, 4a-4d was synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity against bovine tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and bCA II. A significant increase in CA inhibition activity was observed upon bioisosteric replacement of carboxamide linking group with a sulfonamide group. Some of these compounds were identified as highly potent and selective AP inhibitors. Compounds 1b, 2b, 3d, 4d 5b and 5c were found to be selective bTNAP inhibitors, whereas compounds 1a, 1c, 2a, 2c, 2d, 3a, 3c, 4a, 4b, 4c, 5a were found to be selective bIAP inhibitors. For most active AP inhibitor 3b, detailed kinetic studies indicated a competitive mode of inhibition against tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and non-competitive mode of inhibition against intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). Molecular docking studies were carried out to rationalize important binding site interactions. PMID:25865133

  8. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against alkaline phosphatase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, M O; Mielcarek, C; Gavini, F; Caron, C; Izard, D; Leclerc, H

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies against the alkaline phosphatase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were produced from spleen cells of BALB/c mice primed with purified alkaline phosphatase of P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 and SP20/Ag-14 myeloma cells. The eight stable clones established produced antibodies that reacted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and indirect immunofluorescence assays with all bacterial strains of P. aeruginosa, including the 17 serotypes and two nontypable strains. Three of the clones cross-reacted only with some Pseudomonas species of the rRNA homology group I defined by N. J. Palleroni (in N. R. Krieg and J. G. Holt, ed., Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 8th ed., p. 140-218, 1984). The other clones also interacted with other species, including Pseudomonas acidovorans and Xanthomonas maltophilia. Because other species of the genera Aeromonas and Acinetobacter and species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were not detected by these monoclonal antibodies, the antibodies could be used as reagents for routine detection of P. aeruginosa in clinical specimens. Interactions of the antibodies with other Pseudomonas species such as P. fluorescens and P. stutzeri are not important, since these species are susceptible to the same antipseudomonal agents. Images PMID:2501343

  9. Nitrogenase and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Wetland Metaphyton: Implications for Primary Production and CNP Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, T.; Doyle, R.

    2005-05-01

    Longitudinal gradients of nutrient availability often occur along the flow path of water in freshwater wetlands. Differential removal efficiencies of water column nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) may increase the severity of nutrient deficiency and possibly change the nutrient that limits primary production. A previous study demonstrated that periphyton in the Lake Waco Wetlands (LWW), near Waco, Texas, USA, are generally more P limited near the inflow and become increasingly N limited as distance from the inflow increases. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability likely influences both the structure and function of periphyton assemblages within this system. In this ongoing study, we are evaluating the relationships between metaphyton primary production, nitrogenase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and CNP stoichiometry in areas of differing nutrient limitation within the LWW. As expected, primary production is generally greatest in areas where nitrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities are minimal. However, expected increases in C:N ratios in areas of greatest nutrient deficiency have not been frequently observed. Decreased primary production and increased enzyme mediated nutrient uptake appear to balance metaphyton nutrient content in these areas.

  10. Alkaline Phosphatase Protects Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Early Pregnancy Defects in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Ni, Hua; Herington, Jennifer; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive cytokine inflammatory response due to chronic or superphysiological level of microbial infection during pregnancy leads to pregnancy complications such as early pregnancy defects/loss and preterm birth. Bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), long recognized as a potent proinflammatory mediator, has been identified as a risk factor for pregnancy complications. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes have been shown to detoxify LPS by dephosphorylation. In this study, we examined the role of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in mitigating LPS-induced early pregnancy complications in mice. We found that 1) the uterus prior to implantation and implantation sites following embryo implantation produce LPS recognition and dephosphorylation molecules TLR4 and tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) isozyme, respectively; 2) uterine TNAP isozyme dephosphorylates LPS at its sites of production; 3) while LPS administration following embryo implantation elicits proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the embryo implantation sites (EISs) and causes early pregnancy loss, dephosphorylated LPS neither triggers proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at the EISs nor induces pregnancy complications; 4) AP isozyme supplementation to accelerate LPS detoxification attenuates LPS-induced pregnancy complications following embryo implantation. These findings suggest that a LPS dephosphorylation strategy using AP isozyme may have a unique therapeutic potential to mitigate LPS- or Gram-negative bacteria-induced pregnancy complications in at-risk women. PMID:25910276

  11. Biocompatibility and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of Phosphorylated Chitooligosaccharides on the Osteosarcoma MG63 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated chitooligosaccharides (P-COS were prepared using a H3PO4, P2O5, Et3PO4 and hexanol solvent system. The P-COS were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Thermo gravimetric-Differential Thermal Analyzer (TG-DTA, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, solubility studies, biocompatibility and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (ALP. The results reveal that phosphorylation occurred at the C3 and C6 position of OH groups and the C2 position of NH2 group. FT-IR confirmed no decomposition in pyranose ring in P-COS even with heating and treatment in acidic conditions. The amorphous nature of P-COS was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Further, the biocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase activity of P-COS were checked against the osteosarcoma MG63 cell line at different concentrations and no cytotoxicity was observed. After 12 h and 24 h of incubation, the ALP activity of P-COS was higher compared with the control group. These results suggest that P-COS is a biocompatible material and in future P-COS could open up a number of promising pharmaceutical and clinical applications to mankind.

  12. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs icesses in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  13. Endothelial alkaline phosphatase activity loss as an early stage in the development of radiation-induced heart disease in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase activity of capillary endothelial cells in the heart of Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats was studied sequentially after single doses of 10, 15, 20, or 25 Gy. Following irradiation capillary density and alkaline phosphatase activity were focally lost before myocardial degeneration or clinical symptoms of heart disease developed. Recovery from both changes took place after doses of 10 or 15 Gy. The decrease in capillary density and enzyme activity showed the same strain difference in latency times and in the extent of the lesions as previously described for pathological and clinical signs of heart disease

  14. A Novel Bifunctional Hybrid with Marine Bacterium Alkaline Phosphatase and Far Eastern Holothurian Mannan-Binding Lectin Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Balabanova, Larissa; Golotin, Vasily; Kovalchuk, Svetlana; Bulgakov, Alexander; Likhatskaya, Galina; Son, Oksana; Rasskazov, Valery

    2014-01-01

    A fusion between the genes encoding the marine bacterium Cobetia marina alkaline phosphatase (CmAP) and Far Eastern holothurian Apostichopus japonicus mannan-binding C-type lectin (MBL-AJ) was performed. Expression of the fusion gene in E. coli cells resulted in yield of soluble recombinant chimeric protein CmAP/MBL-AJ with the high alkaline phosphatase activity and specificity of the lectin MBL-AJ. The bifunctional hybrid CmAP/MBL-AJ was produced as a dimer with the molecular mass of 200 kDa...

  15. Mutants Affected in Alkaline Phosphatase Expression: Evidence for Multiple Positive Regulators of the Phosphate Regulon in ESCHERICHIA COLI

    OpenAIRE

    Wanner, Barry L.; Latterell, Patrick

    1980-01-01

    The expression of alkaline phosphatase (the product of the phoA gene) in Escherichia coli is believed to be subject to both positive control by the phoB gene product and negative control by the phoR gene product. We have isolated a large number of PhoA- mutants in the phoR- genetic background. Among mutants altered in the positive control of alkaline phosphatase, some were phoB mutants; others had a mutation in a new gene, designated phoM. We believe that the phoM gene codes for a positive re...

  16. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  17. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg2+.

  18. ?? Adrenergic Receptor Activation Suppresses Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-Induced Alkaline Phosphatase Expression in Osteoblast-Like MC3T3E1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Ezura, Yoichi; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Moriya, Shuichi; Shirakawa, Jumpei; Notomi, Takuya; Arayal, Smriti; Kawasaki, Makiri; Izu, Yayoi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Noda, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    ? adrenergic stimulation suppresses bone formation in vivo while its actions in osteoblastic differentiation are still incompletely understood. We therefore examined the effects of ?2 adrenergic stimulation on osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells focusing on BMP-induced alkaline phosphatase expression. Morphologically, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced increase in the numbers of alkaline phosphatase-positive small foci in the cultures of MC3T3-E1 cells. Biochemically, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase in a dose-dependent manner. Isoproterenol suppression of alkaline phosphatase activity is observed even when the cells are treated with high concentrations of BMP. With respect to cell density, isoproterenol treatment tends to suppress BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression more in osteoblasts cultured at higher cell density. In terms of treatment protocol, continuous isoproterenol treatment is compared to cyclic treatment. Continuous isoproterenol treatment is more suppressive against BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression than cyclic regimen. At molecular level, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced enhancement of alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression. Regarding the mode of isoproterenol action, isoproterenol suppresses BMP-induced BRE-luciferase activity. These data indicate that isoproterenol regulates BMP-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3E1 cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1144-1152, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25536656

  19. An electrochemical microRNAs biosensor with the signal amplification of alkaline phosphatase and electrochemical-chemical-chemical redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ning; Zhang, Youjuan; Wei, Xin; Huang, Yaping; Liu, Lin

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) have been regarded as clinically important biomarkers and drug discovery targets. In this work, we reported a simple and ultrasensitive electrochemical method for miRNAs detection based on single enzyme amplification and electrochemical-chemical-chemical (ECC) redox cycling. Specifically, upon contact with the target miRNAs, the hairpin structure of biotinylated DNA immobilized on gold electrode was destroyed and the biotin group in DNA was forced away from the electrode surface, allowing for the coupling of streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase (SA-ALP). Then, ascorbic acid (AA, the enzymatic product of ALP) triggered the ECC redox cycling with ferrocene methanol (FcM) and tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) as the redox mediator and the chemical reducing reagent, respectively. The method was more sensitive than that with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or glucose oxidase (GOx) triggered recycling since one ALP molecule captured by one target miRNA molecule promoted the production of thousands of AA. Analytical merits (e.g., detection limit, dynamic range, specificity, regeneration and reproducibility) were evaluated. The feasibility of the method for analysis of miRNA-21 in human serum has also been demonstrated. PMID:26002330

  20. Carbon quantum dots-based recyclable real-time fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase with adenosine triphosphate as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhaosheng; Chai, Lujing; Tang, Cong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jianrong; Feng, Hui

    2015-03-01

    A convenient, reliable, and highly sensitive real-time assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the continuous and recyclable way is established on the basis of aggregation and disaggregation of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) through the competitive assay approach. CQDs and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were used as the fluorescent indicator and substrate for ALP activity assessment, respectively. Richness of carboxyl groups on the surface of CQDs enables their severe aggregation triggered by cerium ions, which results in effective fluorescence quenching. Under the catalytic hydrolysis of ALP, ATP can be rapidly transformed to phosphate ions. Stronger affinity of phosphate ions to cerium ions than carboxyl groups is taken advantage of to achieve fluorescence recovery induced by redispersion of CQDs in the presence of ALP and ATP. Quantitative evaluation of ALP activity in a broad range from 4.6 to 383.3 U/L with the detection limit of 1.4 U/L can be realized in this way, which endows the assay with high enough sensitivity for practical detection in human serum. The assay can be used in a recyclable way for more than three times since the generated product CePO4 as a precipitate can be easily removed from the standard assay system. This strategy broadens the sensing application of fluorescent CQDs with excellent biocompatibility and provides an example based on disaggregation in optical probe development. PMID:25642736

  1. A real-time fluorescent assay for the detection of alkaline phosphatase activity based on carbon quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhao Sheng; Chai, Lu Jing; Huang, Yuan Yuan; Tang, Cong; Shen, Jia Jia; Chen, Jian Rong; Feng, Hui

    2015-06-15

    A convenient and real-time fluorometric assay with the assistance of copper ions based on aggregation and disaggregation of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) was developed to achieve highly sensitive detection of alkaline phosphatase activity. CQDs and pyrophosphate anions (PPi) were used as the fluorescent indicator and substrate for ALP activity assessment respectively. Richness of carboxyl groups on the surface of CQDs enables their severe aggregation triggered by copper ions, which results in effective fluorescence quenching. Under the catalytic hydrolysis of ALP, PPi can be rapidly transformed to phosphate ions. Stronger affinity of phosphate ions to copper ions than carboxyl groups is taken advantage of to achieve fluorescence recovery induced by re-dispersion of CQDs in the presence of ALP and PPi. Quantitative evaluation of ALP activity in a broad range from 16.7 to 782.6 U/L with the detection limit of 1.1 U/L can be realized in this way, which endows the assay with high enough sensitivity for practical detection in human serum. This strategy broadens the sensing application of fluorescent CQDs with excellent biocompatibility, and provides an example based on disaggregation in optical probe development. PMID:25660658

  2. Relationship between Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity and The Concentrations of Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Jazaeri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although salivary alkaline phosphatase (ALP can balance de- and remineralization processes of enamel, there is no evidence regarding its effects on the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. The present study aims to determine the relationship between salivary ALP activity and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated salivary markers in 120 males, ages 19 to 44 years. All participants provided 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva and the level of enzyme activity as well as calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Data were gathered and analyzed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 13.00 using Pearson correlation test. A p value of 0.05. According to the results of the present study, there was no significant relation between salivary ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva. However, further research is highly recommended.

  3. Skeletal alkaline phosphatase: a marker for individual follow-up in patients with advanced prostatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsel, H W; Petri, E; Bichler, K H

    1997-01-01

    Skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sAP) is a tumor marker indicating osseous metastases, e.g. of prostate cancer. Sera of healthy men and patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), localized and advanced prostatic cancer (PCa) were analyzed with Tandem-R-Ostase and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). No significant differences were found in sAP levels between healthy men and patients with BPH and localized PCa, but there was a significant difference with the group of patients with advanced PCa. In some cases, the individual follow-up was better and earlier with sAP compared to PSA. It is possible to discriminate between localized and advanced PCa with sAP. The individual follow-up shows in 30% of patients with advanced PCa an earlier increase in sAP, compared to PSA, during progression of disease. PMID:9096267

  4. Alkaline Phosphatase and CD34 Reaction of Deciduous Teeth Pulp Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abedini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells from the pulp of milk teeth were isolated for use in clinical applications and tissue engineering. Normal deciduous teeth from children of 7 to 8 years of age, which more than half the tooth root was extracted, were selected from the dental centre. Cells from enzyme treated pulps were cultured and cells resulting from the fifth and eight subculture were combined for cell surface marker determination experiments. Cells were positive for CD34 marker with a total of 99/45%, determined by flowcytometry. Cells also demonstrated alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity. From the developmental point of view, stem cells from the dental pulp seem to have derived from the neural crest, which our findings technically support this theory. In essence mobile progenitor cells from bone marrow of endothelial origin could also play a significant role in the derivation of dental pulp stem cells.

  5. A Disposable Alkaline Phosphatase-Based Biosensor for Vanadium Chronoamperometric Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lorena Alvarado-Gámez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A chronoamperometric method for vanadium ion determination, based on the inhibition of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, is reported. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were used as transducers for the immobilization of the enzyme. The enzymatic activity over 4-nitrophenyl phosphate sodium salt is affected by vanadium ions, which results in a decrease in the chronoamperometric current registered. The developed method has a detection limit of 0.39 ± 0.06 µM, a repeatability of 7.7% (n = 4 and a reproducibility of 8% (n = 3. A study of the possible interferences shows that the presence of Mo(VI, Cr(III, Ca(II and W(VI, may affect vanadium determination at concentration higher than 1.0 mM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in spiked tap water.

  6. The effect of 50 kV X-ray irradiation on the alkaline phosphatase activity of growing rat bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was decreased in tibial metaphysis of growing rats on the first day after 50 kV x-irradiation with 0.5-8.0 Gy. There were no differences in enzyme activity between the control and the irradiated metaphysis 30 days after irradiation. (author)

  7. One-step ultrasonic synthesis of graphene quantum dots with high quantum yield and their application in sensing alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanhong; Wang, Guangfeng; Jiang, Hong; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-18

    With only graphene oxide and KMnO4, the luminescent graphene quantum dots (GQDs) in high quantum yield were prepared by one-step synthesis using ultrasonication, and applied in the label-free, simple and fast fluorescence assay of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). PMID:25434403

  8. Changes in Bone Alkaline Phosphatase and Procollagen Type-1 C-Peptide after Static and Dynamic Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Yuki, Kazuhito; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two types of nonweight-bearing exercise on changes in bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and pro-collagen type 1 C-peptide (P1P). BAP is a specific marker of bone synthesis, whereas P1P reflects synthesis of type 1 collagen in other organs as well as bone. Eight participants performed static and dynamic…

  9. Quantification and comparison of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase with two methods in normal and paget’s specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Masrour Roudsari, Jila; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is synthesized by the osteoblasts and is presumed to be involved in the calcification of bone matrix, though its precise role in the formation process is unknown. The aim of the present study was to measure the BAP activity in Paget's and normal specimens by two different techniques.

  10. Regulation of Escherichia coli K10 aminoendopeptidase synthesis. Effects of mutations involved in the regulation of alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazdunski, A; Pellissier, C; Lazdunski, C

    1975-12-15

    The synthesis of alkaline phosphatase in Escherichia coli is controlled by the action of at least four genes denoted phoS, phoT, phoR and phoB. The effect of mutations in the first three of these genes on the synthesis of periplasmic aminoendopeptidase of E. coli K 10 have been investigated. phoR gene product does not seem to be involved either in the constitutive or in the derepressed synthesis of this enzyme. Mutations in phoS or phoT influence the intracellular level of Pi in much the same way as depletion of Pi from the growth medium, and only as a consequence influence the synthesis of aminoendopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase. Point, amber or deletion mutations in the alkaline phosphatase structural gene do not affect aminoendopeptidase synthesis. Thus, alkaline phosphatase and 'derepressed' aminoendopeptidase synthesis are co-regulated by the endogenous level of inorganic phosphate. The way by which this regulation operates is discussed. PMID:1107040

  11. Robotic implementation of assays: tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Thomas D Y

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory automation and robotics have "industrialized" the execution and completion of large-scale, enabling high-capacity and high-throughput (100 K-1 MM/day) screening (HTS) campaigns of large "libraries" of compounds (>200 K-2 MM) to complete in a few days or weeks. Critical to the success these HTS campaigns is the ability of a competent assay development team to convert a validated research-grade laboratory "benchtop" assay suitable for manual or semi-automated operations on a few hundreds of compounds into a robust miniaturized (384- or 1,536-well format), well-engineered, scalable, industrialized assay that can be seamlessly implemented on a fully automated, fully integrated robotic screening platform for cost-effective screening of hundreds of thousands of compounds. Here, we provide a review of the theoretical guiding principles and practical considerations necessary to reduce often complex research biology into a "lean manufacturing" engineering endeavor comprising adaption, automation, and implementation of HTS. Furthermore we provide a detailed example specifically for a cell-free in vitro biochemical, enzymatic phosphatase assay for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase that illustrates these principles and considerations. PMID:23860647

  12. [Clinical evaluation of the results of the Sr85 test and of bone alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St?pán, J; Kolár, J; St?pán, J; Susta, A

    1977-01-01

    Coinciding investigations of the 85Sr test and of bone derived serum alkaline phosphatases activity were undertaken in 38 patinets with locomotor system diseases. In 15 patients there was congruence between the positive result of the 85Sr test and an increased activity of B-ALP. In 5 patients there was congruence between negative outcome of B-ALP and negative 85Sr test. The activities of T-ALP, B-ALP, L-ALP and I-ALP were compared with a group of 124 healthy controls. The causes of 18 incongruent results were analysed. In rhizomelic form of ASp, active Paget's disease, osteomalacia and in some forms of osteoporosis there was congruence between increased activity of B-ALP and the positive 85Sr test over the clinically involved area of the locomotor system. In ankylosing spondylitis (without rhizomelic involvement) there may be a moderate fall of B-ALP activity but the 85Sr test is usually positive; this may correspond with metabolic activity in the paravertebral region of the ligaments. Low B-ALP activity and positive 85Sr test in MP may refer to a latent process in the bone apparatus without marked activity of osteoblasts. The fall of B-ALP may be a result of therapy or due to the reduced capacity of B-ALP to be released from the bone. In osteomalacia the rapid fall of 85Sr activity during the test is the cause by the presence of pathological osteoid which may be, even in patients with hypertension, of renal origin. A method was described permitting the evaluation of the process of active incorporation of bone minerals (after 8 days). The activity of the 85Sr test over clinically silent areas (e.g. spine) may indicate a decompensated process in the spine due to an involvement to the large joints. The two methods used in this study are metabolically different (85Sr binds to proteoglycans and inorganic structures of bone tissue, alkaline phosphatase to the activity of osteoblasts) and prove to be clinically valuable. Detailed analysis of the results makes it possible to define the stages of clinical activity of disease and to check more exactly the efficiency of the therapeutic method. PMID:871069

  13. Conditioned media of glial cell lines induce alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured artery endothelial cells. Identification of interleukin-6 as an induction factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, H; Kaneda, K; Hosokawa, M; Ide, M; Fukushima, H

    1994-08-15

    Conditioned media of human glial cell lines induced alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured calf artery endothelial cells. The maximal alkaline phosphatase activity in the culture was comparable to the level in isolated brain capillary endothelial cells. An induction factor in the conditioned media was purified and identified as interleukin-6 from its amino-terminal sequence, molecular weight, amino acid composition and immunoreactivity. Recombinant interleukin-6 had similar induction activity. Our findings raise the possibility that interleukin-6 induces and modulates alkaline phosphatase activity in endothelial cells during normal development of the blood-brain barrier and under certain pathological conditions. PMID:8062934

  14. Structural characteristics of alkaline phosphatase from the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ishibashi, Matsujiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Matsumoto, Fumiko; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tokunaga, Hiroko [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Blaber, Michael [Florida State University, 1115 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4300 (United States); Tokunaga, Masao [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Kuroki, Ryota, E-mail: kuroki.ryota@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the halophilic characteristics of an alkaline phosphatase derived from the moderate halophile Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP), the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined to 2.1 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structural properties of surface negative charge and core hydrophobicity were shown to be intermediate between those characteristic of halophiles and non-halophiles, and may explain the unique functional adaptation to a wide range of salt concentrations. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters over a wide salt-concentration range (1–4 M NaCl). In order to clarify the structural basis of its halophilic characteristics and its wide-range adaptation to salt concentration, the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.1 Å resolution. The unit cell of HaAP contained one dimer unit corresponding to the biological unit. The monomer structure of HaAP contains a domain comprised of an 11-stranded ?-sheet core with 19 surrounding ?-helices similar to those of APs from other species, and a unique ‘crown’ domain containing an extended ‘arm’ structure that participates in formation of a hydrophobic cluster at the entrance to the substrate-binding site. The HaAP structure also displays a unique distribution of negatively charged residues and hydrophobic residues in comparison to other known AP structures. AP from Vibrio sp. G15-21 (VAP; a slight halophile) has the highest similarity in sequence (70.0% identity) and structure (C{sup ?} r.m.s.d. of 0.82 Å for the monomer) to HaAP. The surface of the HaAP dimer is substantially more acidic than that of the VAP dimer (144 exposed Asp/Glu residues versus 114, respectively), and thus may enable the solubility of HaAP under high-salt conditions. Conversely, the monomer unit of HaAP formed a substantially larger hydrophobic interior comprising 329 C atoms from completely buried residues, whereas that of VAP comprised 264 C atoms, which may maintain the stability of HaAP under low-salt conditions. These characteristics of HaAP may be responsible for its unique functional adaptation permitting activity over a wide range of salt concentrations.

  15. Cloning and characterization of the alkaline phosphatase positive regulatory gene (phoM) of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, K; Shinagawa, H; Nakata, A

    1984-01-01

    The positive regulatory gene (phoM) for alkaline phosphatase of Escherichia coli was cloned on a mini-F plasmid pMF3 from the E. coli chromosome by a shotgun method. The hybrid plasmid pTHR32, which carries 10.8 kb chromosomal DNA, complemented both phoM and thrB mutations. The restriction map was constructed. Based upon this information, several PhoM- deletion plasmids and smaller PhoM+ plasmids were constructed in vitro. By examining the phenotypes and the physical maps of these plasmids, we could define the phoM gene locus in a 2.5 kb region on the restriction map of the cloned chromosomal DNA fragment. The PhoM+ plasmid not only enabled a phoM- -phoR- double mutant to express phoA (the structural gene for the alkaline phosphatase) but also phoB (another positive regulatory gene for phoA). These results are consistent with a model for genetic regulation of phoA expression that proposes that both the phoM and phoR gene products activate phoB expression under phosphate starved conditions, and PhoB protein, in turn, activates phoA expression. The phoM gene product was identified by the maxicell method as a protein with a molecular weight of 60,000. A hybrid plasmid that carries a phoM'-'lacZ fused gene on mini-F vector pMF3 was constructed in vitro. This plasmid enabled us to study phoM gene expression by measuring the beta-galactosidase level in the cells. The plasmid was introduced into various regulatory mutants related to the phosphate regulon, and phoM gene expression in these strains was studied under conditions of limited or excess phosphate. It was found that phoM expression was not regulated by phosphate nor by any of the pho genes. The transcriptional direction of phoM was found to be clockwise toward the thr operon on the E. coli genetic map. The fusion gene product interfered with phoB and phoA expression in the phoR mutants. Overproduction of PhoM protein increased phoB and phoA expression only in the phoR mutants. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:6381964

  16. Effects of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin on alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix calcification in rabbit growth-plate chondrocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of PTH and calcitonin (CT) on the expression of mineralization-related phenotypes by chondrocytes were examined. In cultures of pelleted growth-plate chondrocytes. PTH caused 60-90% decreases in alkaline phosphatase activity, the incorporation of 45Ca into insoluble material, and the calcium content during the post-mitotic stage. These effects of PTH were dose-dependent and reversible. In contrast, CT increased alkaline phosphatase activity, 45Ca incorporation into insoluble material, and the calcium content by 1.4- to 1.8-fold. These observations suggest that PTH directly inhibits the expression of the mineralization-related phenotypes by growth-plate chondrocytes, and that CT has the opposite effects

  17. Coupling technique of self-ordered ring and phosphorimetry for the determination of alkaline phosphatase and diseases prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li Hong; Zheng, Zhi Yong; Jiang, Shu-Lian; Cui, Ma-Lin; Jiao, Li; Lin, Xuan; Cai, Wen-Lian; Lin, Shao-Qin; liu, Jia-Ming

    2012-11-01

    Rhodamine S could emit strong and stable room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on polyamide membrane (PAM) in the presence of heavy atom perturber Pb2+. When Rhodamine S-piperidine solution was dropped on PAM, the red (Rhod.S)n-P-SOR (Rhod.S, (Rhod.S)n, P and SOR refer to alizarin red S, multiple Rhod.S molecules, piperidine and self-ordered ring, respectively) formed on PAM, leading to the enhancement of room temperature phosphorimetry (RTP) intensity (Ip, 117.2) of (Rhod.S)n-P-SOR system, which was 2.4 times higher than that without SOR (Ip, 48.1). Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was labelled with (Rhod.S)n-P-SOR by the -NH- of Rhod.S reacting with the -COOH of WGA to form WGA-(Rhod.S)n-P-SOR. The formation of WGA-AP-WGA-(Rhod.S)n-P-SOR in the affinity adsorption (AA) reaction carried out between the -COOH of WGA in WGA-(Rhod.S)n-P-SOR and the -NH2 of alkaline phosphatase (AP) caused the RTP intensity (?Ip) of the WGA-AP-WGA-(Rhod.S)n-P-SOR system 7.8 times larger than that without (Rhod.S)n-P-SOR. Therefore, the coupling technique of SOR and solid substrate-room temperature phosphorimetry (SS-RTP) for the determination of trace AP has been established. This method possessed good selectivity, high sensitivity (Detection limit (L.D) was 3.4 × 10-16 g mL-1) and accuracy, and it has been applied to the determination of trace AP in human serum and the forecast of human diseases, and the results agreed well with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Besides, the mechanism of the coupling technique for the determination of AP was discussed.

  18. Curcumin and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD: Major Mode of Action through Stimulating Endogenous Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha S. Ghosh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa, has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD, an inflammatory disease, can lead to end stage renal disease resulting in dialysis and transplant. Furthermore, it is frequently associated with other inflammatory disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review will focus on the clinically relevant inflammatory molecules that play a role in CKD and associated diseases. Various enzymes, transcription factors, growth factors modulate production and action of inflammatory molecules; curcumin can blunt the generation and action of these inflammatory molecules and ameliorate CKD as well as associated inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have shown that increased intestinal permeability results in the leakage of pro-inflammatory molecules (cytokines and lipopolysaccharides from gut into the circulation in diseases such as CKD, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This change in intestinal permeability is due to decreased expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP. Curcumin increases the expression of IAP and tight junction proteins and corrects gut permeability. This action reduces the levels of circulatory inflammatory biomolecules. This effect of curcumin on intestine can explain why, despite poor bioavailability, curcumin has potential anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and beneficial effects on CKD.

  19. A folding study of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) alkaline phosphatase using denaturants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jiang; Lee, Jinhyuk; Si, Yue-Xiu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Jun-Mo; Yin, Shang-Jun; Qian, Guo-Ying; Park, Yong-Doo

    2014-09-01

    To gain insight into the structural and folding mechanisms of Antarctic krill alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the enzyme was properly purified by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and by both Sephadex G-75 and DEAE anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme (62.6 kDa; 2.62 unit/mg) was unstable at temperatures exceeding 30°C. Denaturants, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), guanidine HCl, and urea, were applied to evaluate the folding mechanism, including kinetics and thermodynamics, of krill ALP. Sodium dodecyl sulfate elicited no significant effect on ALP activity even at excessively high concentrations (300 mM), whereas guanidine HCl and urea effectively inactivated the enzyme at concentrations of 2 and 3.5 M, respectively. Kinetic studies showed that the enzymatic inhibition by guanidine HCl and urea represented a first-order reaction that was a monophasic unfolding process. This process was found to be associated with conformational changes without significant transient free-energy changes. Additionally, the overall structural changes occurred proximally to the active site pocket. Our study provides new insight into ALP of the Antarctic krill, which lives in extreme environmental conditions. PMID:25016161

  20. Osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase mRNA is stabilized by binding to vimentin intermediary filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Yvonne; Biniossek, Martin; Stark, G Björn; Finkenzeller, Günter; Simunovic, Filip

    2015-03-01

    Vascularization is essential in bone tissue engineering and recent research has focused on interactions between osteoblasts (hOBs) and endothelial cells (ECs). It was shown that cocultivation increases the stability of osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. We investigated the mechanisms behind this observation, focusing on mRNA binding proteins. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we found that the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of ALP mRNA is necessary for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-mediated stabilization of osteoblastic ALP mRNA. Using pulldown experiments and nanoflow-HPLC mass spectrometry, vimentin was identified to bind to the 3'-UTR of ALP mRNA. Validation was performed by Western blotting. Functional experiments inhibiting intermediate filaments with iminodipropionitrile and specific inhibition of vimentin by siRNA transfection showed reduced levels of ALP mRNA and protein. Therefore, ALP mRNA binds to and is stabilized by vimentin. This data add to the understanding of intracellular trafficking of ALP mRNA, its function, and have possible implications in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25536665

  1. The effect of acute inflammation on total alkaline phosphatase activity in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapryanova Dimitrinka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute inflammation on total alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in dogs. In this study total ALP activity was determined in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation in order to characterize their potential value in this condition. For that, ALP concentrations were defined in plasmas from 9 mongrel male dogs (in an experimental group and 6 mongrel male dogs (in a control group at the age of 2 years and body weight 12-15 kg. The inflammation was reproduced by inoculation of 2 ml turpentine oil subcutaneously in lumbar region and same quantity saline in control dogs. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before inoculation, then at hours 6, 24, 48, 72 and on days 7, 14, 21. The total ALP concentrations were determined with commercial kits (Human-GmbH, Germany on an automatic biochemical analyzer (BS-3000 P, Sinnowa, LTD Nanjing China. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Statistica v.6.1 (StatSoft Inc., 2002. Statistically significant difference was not found between the groups, as well as within them. In conclusion, we can say that the total activity of ALP was not significantly affected in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation.

  2. Alkaline phosphatase as a treatment of sepsis-associated acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Esther; van Elsas, Andrea; Heemskerk, Suzanne; Jonk, Luigi; van der Hoeven, Johannes; Arend, Jacques; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Pickkers, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are no pharmacological therapies licensed to treat sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI). Considering the high incidence and mortality of sepsis-associated AKI, there is an urgent medical need to develop effective pharmacological interventions. Two phase II clinical trials recently demonstrated beneficial effects of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP). In critically ill patients with sepsis-associated AKI, treatment with AP reduced the urinary excretion of tubular injury biomarkers and plasma markers of inflammation, which was associated with improvement of renal function. The dephosphorylating enzyme, AP, is endogenously present in the renal proximal tubule apical membrane but becomes depleted during ischemia-induced AKI, thereby possibly contributing to further renal damage. The exact mechanism of action of AP in AKI is unknown, but might be related to detoxification of circulating lipopolysaccharide and other proinflammatory mediators that lose their proinflammatory effects after dephosphorylation. Alternatively, tissue damage associated with systemic inflammation might be attenuated by an AP-mediated effect on adenosine metabolism. Adenosine is a signaling molecule that has been shown to protect the body from inflammation-induced tissue injury, which is derived through dephosphorylation of ATP. In this Perspectives article, we discuss the clinical activity of AP and its putative molecular modes of action, and we speculate on its use to treat and possibly prevent sepsis-associated AKI. PMID:23131595

  3. Curcumin and chronic kidney disease (CKD): major mode of action through stimulating endogenous intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Siddhartha S; Gehr, Todd W B; Ghosh, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, an active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), an inflammatory disease, can lead to end stage renal disease resulting in dialysis and transplant. Furthermore, it is frequently associated with other inflammatory disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review will focus on the clinically relevant inflammatory molecules that play a role in CKD and associated diseases. Various enzymes, transcription factors, growth factors modulate production and action of inflammatory molecules; curcumin can blunt the generation and action of these inflammatory molecules and ameliorate CKD as well as associated inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have shown that increased intestinal permeability results in the leakage of pro-inflammatory molecules (cytokines and lipopolysaccharides) from gut into the circulation in diseases such as CKD, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This change in intestinal permeability is due to decreased expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). Curcumin increases the expression of IAP and tight junction proteins and corrects gut permeability. This action reduces the levels of circulatory inflammatory biomolecules. This effect of curcumin on intestine can explain why, despite poor bioavailability, curcumin has potential anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and beneficial effects on CKD. PMID:25474287

  4. Alkaline phosphatase variation during carfilzomib treatment is associated with best response in multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangari, Maurizio; Aujay, Monette; Zhan, Fenghuang; Hetherington, Kristina L; Berno, Tamara; Vij, Ravi; Jagannath, Sundar; Siegel, David; Keith Stewart, A; Wang, Luhua; Orlowski, Robert Z; Belch, Andrew; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Somlo, George; Trudel, Suzanne; Bahlis, Nizar; Lonial, Sagar; Singhal, Seema; Kukreti, Vishal; Tricot, Guido

    2011-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway regulates bone formation through osteoblast differentiation. We analyzed variation alkaline phosphatase (ALP) during carfilzomib treatment. Data from 38 patients enrolled in the PX-171-003 and 29 patients in PX-171-004 studies, for patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma, were analyzed. All patients received 20 mg/m(2) of carfilzomib on Days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 of a 28-day cycle. Sixty-seven patients from ALP data were evaluable. In PX-171-003, the ORR (>PR) was 18% and the clinical benefit response (CBR; >MR) was 26%, while in PX-171-004, the ORR was 35.5% overall and 57% in bortezomib-naive patients. ALP increment from baseline was statistically different in patients who achieved ? VGPR compared with all others on Days 1 (P = 0.0049) and 8 (P = 0.006) of Cycle 2. In patients achieving a VGPR or better, ALP increased more than 15 units per liter at Cycle 2 Day 1 over baseline. An ALP increase over the same period of time was seen in 26%, 13% and 11% of patients achieving PR, MR, and SD, respectively. This retrospective analysis of patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma treated with single-agent carfilzomib indicates that early elevation in ALP is associated with subsequent myeloma response. PMID:21477075

  5. Growth and alkaline phosphatase activity of Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo in response to phosphorus limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Hui; Liang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    The growth and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) of two raphidophyceae species Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo were investigated in response to P-limitation and subsequent addition of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP, NaH2PO4) and two dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) compounds: guanosine 5-monophosphate (GMP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP). APA levels increased greatly after P-starvation as the decrease of the cellular phosphorus quotes (Qp). C. marina responded to P-limitation quickly and strongly, with 10-fold increase in APA within 24hr after P-starvation. The larger difference between maximal and minimal QP values in C. marina indicated its high capacity in P storage. APA of H. akashiwo was maximally enlarged about 2.5 times at 48hr of P-starvation. After the addition of nutrients, cell numbers of C. marina increased in all treatments including the P-free culture, demonstrating the higher endurance of C. marina to P-limitation. However, those of H. akashiwo increased only in DIP and GMP cultures. APA increased only after the addition of the monophosphate ester GMP. The results suggest that quick responses of C. marina to P-limitation, high capacity in P storage as well as endurance for P-depletion provide this species an ecological advantage in phytoplankton community competition under DIP-limited conditions. PMID:25662231

  6. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase deficiency leads to lipopolysaccharide desensitization and faster weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Millán, José Luis; Mecsas, Joan; Guillemin, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Animals develop in the presence of complex microbial communities, and early host responses to these microbes can influence key aspects of development, such as maturation of the immune system, in ways that impact adult physiology. We previously showed that the zebrafish intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI) gene alpi.1 was induced by Gram-negative bacterium-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a process dependent on myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88), and functioned to detoxify LPS and prevent excessive host inflammatory responses to commensal microbiota in the newly colonized intestine. In the present study, we examined whether the regulation and function of ALPI were conserved in mammals. We found that among the mouse ALPI genes, Akp3 was specifically upregulated by the microbiota, but through a mechanism independent of LPS or MYD88. We showed that disruption of Akp3 did not significantly affect intestinal inflammatory responses to commensal microbiota or animal susceptibility to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection. However, we found that Akp3(-/-) mice acquired LPS tolerance during postweaning development, suggesting that Akp3 plays an important role in immune education. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibiting LPS sensing with a mutation in CD14 abrogated the accelerated weight gain in Akp3(-/-) mice receiving a high-fat diet, suggesting that the weight gain is caused by excessive LPS in Akp3(-/-) mice. PMID:25348635

  7. Acceleration of gelation and promotion of mineralization of chitosan hydrogels by alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Skwarczynska, Agata; Modrzejewska, Zofia; Balcaen, Lieve; Schaubroeck, David; Lycke, Sylvia; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vandenabeele, Peter; Dubruel, Peter; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2013-05-01

    Thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels containing sodium beta-glycerophosphate (?-GP), whose gelation is induced by increasing temperature to body temperature, were functionalized by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in mineralization of bone. ALP incorporation led to acceleration of gelation upon increase of temperature for four different chitosan preparations of differing molecular weight, as demonstrated by rheometric time sweeps at 37 °C. Hydrogels containing ALP were subsequently incubated in calcium glycerophosphate (Ca-GP) solution to induce their mineralization with calcium phosphate (CaP) in order to improve their suitability as materials for bone replacement. Incorporated ALP retained its bioactivity and induced formation of CaP mineral, as confirmed by SEM, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, ICP-OES, and increases in dry mass percentage, which rose with increasing ALP concentration and incubation time in Ca-GP solution. The results demonstrate that ALP accelerates formation of thermosensitive chitosan/?-GP hydrogels and induces their mineralization with CaP, which paves the way for applications as injectable bone replacement materials. PMID:23403025

  8. Differential patterns of expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored carcinoembryonic antigen and alkaline phosphatase in various cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshinari, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Kunio; Misaki, Hideo

    1999-01-01

    The expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on the cell surface of various cancer cell lines and a lung diploid cell line (WI38) was investigated, with exposure of the cell lines to a cell differentiation agent (sodium butyrate) to induce cell differentiation and expression of the two tumor-associated antigens. In three colon (SW1222, SW1116, and HT-29) and stomach (MKN-45) cancer cell lines, all of which are doub...

  9. Crevicular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity and Rate of Tooth Movement of Female Orthodontic Subjects under Different Continuous Force Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab; Maryati Md Dasor; Sahidan Senafi; Asma Alhusna Abang Abdullah; Zulham Yamamoto; Abdul Aziz Jemain; Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study is aimed to compare the effects of two different orthodontic forces on crevicular alkaline phosphatase activity, rate of tooth movement, and root resorption. Materials and Methods. Twelve female subjects of class II division 1 malocclusion participated. Maxillary canines with bonded fixed appliances acted as the tested teeth, while their antagonists with no appliances acted as the controls. Canine retraction was performed using nickel titanium coil spring that delivered fo...

  10. Interactions between CD36 and global intestinal alkaline phosphatase in mouse small intestine and effects of high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lynes, Matthew; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Widmaier, Eric P.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of the saturable component of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) transport across the small intestinal epithelium and its regulation by a high-fat diet (HFD) are uncertain. It is hypothesized here that the putative fatty acid translocase/CD36 and intestinal alkaline phosphatases (IAPs) function together to optimize LCFA transport. Phosphorylated CD36 (pCD36) was expressed in mouse enterocytes and dephosphorylated by calf IAP (CIAP). Uptake of fluorescently tagged LCFA into isolated e...

  11. Alkaline phosphatase capture test for the rapid identification of Escherichia coli and Shigella species based on a specific monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, M O; Mielcarek, C; Izard, D; Leclerc, H

    1989-01-01

    A specific monoclonal antibody for Escherichia coli and Shigella sp. alkaline phosphatase was used in an immunocapture assay and allowed identification of E. coli either in culture isolates or directly in clinical specimens. The assay was easy and required only four steps: (i) alkaline phosphatase was released within 10 min by using a gentle lysis procedure, (ii) cell lysates were transferred to antibody-coated tubes for 45 min, (iii) p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate was added, and (iv) alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in a microsample spectrophotometer at 410 nm. This immunocapture assay was highly specific: only one false-positive reaction was observed with a Klebsiella pneumoniae lysate among the 205 non-E. coli strains tested. The assay was sensitive, detecting 10(7) CFU/ml from culture isolates or 10(5) CFU/ml from urine specimens which had first been grown in phosphate-limiting medium for 2 h. At these bacterial concentrations, the percentages of detected E. coli were high: 91% for blood cultures, 95.4% for culture isolates, and 96.8% for urine specimens. PMID:2671016

  12. Kinetic comparison of tissue non-specific and placental human alkaline phosphatases expressed in baculovirus infected cells: application to screening for Down's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Grozdea Jean J; Fournier Didier D; Biasini Ghislaine G; Brisson-Lougarre Andrée A; Denier Colette C

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background In humans, there are four alkaline phosphatases, and each form exibits a characteristic pattern of tissue distribution. The availability of an easy method to reveal their activity has resulted in large amount of data reporting correlations between variations in activity and illnesses. For example, alkaline phosphatase from neutrophils of mothers pregnent with a trisomy 21 fetus (Down's syndrome) displays significant differences both in its biochemical and immunological pro...

  13. Alkaline phosphatase activity of marine bacteria studied with ELF 97 substrate: success and limits in the P-limited Mediterranean Sea.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van Wambeke, F.; Nedoma, Ji?í; Duhamel, S.; Lebaron, P.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 52, ?. 3 (2008), s. 245-251. ISSN 0948-3055 Grant ostatní: MŠMT(CZ) PAI Barrande 2005-06-009-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : marine bacteria * alkaline phosphatase * ELF97 phosphatase substrate Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.190, year: 2008

  14. Studies on alkaline and acid phosphatase activity of neutrophil leukicytes, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to analyzing the inhibiting effect of anticancer drugs and irradiation on hematopoiesis in rabbits neutrophil (pseudoeosinophil) counts and the neutrophilic activities of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (SP) were serially followed up after drug administration or irradiation. The enzym activity was estimated histochemically, using azo-dye staining. Each rabbit was given cyclophosphamid (CP) (25mg/kg x 10, at intervals of 5 - 7 days ; 50mg/kg x 5, every day; or 100mg/kg x 1, i.m.), Thio-TEPA (4mg/kg x 1, i.m.), Vinblastin (VBT) (1mg/kg x 1, i.v.), 6MP (25mg/kg x 1, p.o.), or Mitomycin C (MMC) (1.5mg/kg x 1, i.v.). The results obtained were as follows : 1) The neutrophil counts became slightly elevated at 24 hrs, reached their nadir at 48 to 72 hrs, and recovered to normal in 5 to 6 days thereafter, except with 6 MP which produced no significant change but for a temporary elevation after dosages. 2) Except in the group administrated 6MP, which caused no significant hematorogical changes, the AP changes were similar in all of the animal groups : after temporary depression, it became elevated for 5 to 6 days, and recovered to normal about 9 days thereafter. 3) SP showed no changes in the 25mg/kg x 10 CP and the 6MP groups, it became elevated in 2 or 3 days after the administration of MMC, VBT, or Thio-TEPA to recover to normal in 5 to 10 days thereafter. 4) 60Co irradiation (1,000 rad/whole body x 1) led to a temporary ascent in phil cy x 1) led to a temporary ascent in phil count followed by a descent from the 6th day on, and then a slow recovery to normal. AP was elevated from the third to the sixth days, and, after a depression on the tenth day, it returned to normal 24 days after irradiation, while SP showed a continued elevation from the 2nd to the 13th day. (author)

  15. Contribution of matrix vesicles and alkaline phosphatase to ectopic bone formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Ciancaglini; A.M.S., Simão; F.L., Camolezi; J.L., Millán; J.M., Pizauro.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Endochondral calcification involves the participation of matrix vesicles (MVs), but it remains unclear whether calcification ectopically induced by implants of demineralized bone matrix also proceeds via MVs. Ectopic bone formation was induced by implanting rat demineralized diaphyseal bone matrix i [...] nto the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of Wistar rats and was examined histologically and biochemically. Budding of MVs from chondrocytes was observed to serve as nucleation sites for mineralization during induced ectopic osteogenesis, presenting a diameter with Gaussian distribution with a median of 306 ± 103 nm. While the role of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) during mineralization involves hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), it is unclear how the microenvironment of MV may affect the ability of TNAP to hydrolyze the variety of substrates present at sites of mineralization. We show that the implants contain high levels of TNAP capable of hydrolyzing p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP), ATP and PPi. The catalytic properties of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored, polidocanol-solubilized and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-released TNAP were compared using pNPP, ATP and PPi as substrates. While the enzymatic efficiency (k cat/Km) remained comparable between polidocanol-solubilized and membrane-bound TNAP for all three substrates, the k cat/Km for the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-solubilized enzyme increased approximately 108-, 56-, and 556-fold for pNPP, ATP and PPi, respectively, compared to the membrane-bound enzyme. Our data are consistent with the involvement of MVs during ectopic calcification and also suggest that the location of TNAP on the membrane of MVs may play a role in determining substrate selectivity in this micro-compartment.

  16. Recombinant production and characterization of a highly active alkaline phosphatase from marine bacterium Cobetia marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golotin, Vasily; Balabanova, Larissa; Likhatskaya, Galina; Rasskazov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    The psychrophilic marine bacterium, Cobetia marina, recovered from the mantle tissue of the marine mussel, Crenomytilus grayanus, which contained a gene encoding alkaline phosphatase (AP) with apparent biotechnology advantages. The enzyme was found to be more efficient than its counterparts and showed k cat value 10- to 100-fold higher than those of all known commercial APs. The enzyme did not require the presence of exogenous divalent cations and dimeric state of its molecule for activity. The recombinant enzyme (CmAP) production and purification were optimized with a final recovery of 2 mg of the homogenous protein from 1 L of the transgenic Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)/Pho40 cells culture. CmAP displayed a half-life of 16 min at 45 °C and 27 min at 40 °C in the presence of 2 mM EDTA, thus suggesting its relative thermostability in comparison with the known cold-adapted analogues. A high concentration of EDTA in the incubation mixture did not appreciably inhibit CmAP. The enzyme was stable in a wide range of pH (6.0-11.0). CmAP exhibited its highest activity at the reaction temperature of 40-50 °C and pH 9.5-10.3. The structural features of CmAP could be the reason for the increase in its stability and catalytic turnover. We have modeled the CmAP 3D structure on the base of the high-quality experimental structure of the close homologue Vibrio sp. AP (VAP) and mutated essential residues predicted to break Mg(2+) bonds in CmAP. It seems probable that the intrinsically tight binding of catalytic and structural metal ions together with the flexibility of intermolecular and intramolecular links in CmAP could be attributed to the adapted mutualistic lifestyle in oceanic waters. PMID:25260971

  17. Pathophysiological role of vascular smooth muscle alkaline phosphatase in medial artery calcification†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Campbell R.; Kuss, Pia; Narisawa, Sonoko; Yadav, Manisha C.; Nigro, Jessica; Wang, Wei; Chhea, T. Nicole; Sergienko, Eduard A.; Kapoor, Kapil; Jackson, Michael R.; Hoylaerts, Marc. F.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; O'Neill, W. Charles; Millán, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Medial vascular calcification (MVC) is a pathological phenomenon common to a variety of conditions, including aging, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, and a variety of rare genetic diseases, that causes vascular stiffening and can lead to heart failure. These conditions share the common feature of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) upregulation in the vasculature. To evaluate the role of TNAP in MVC, we developed a mouse model that overexpresses human TNAP in vascular smooth muscle cells in an X-linked manner. Hemizygous overexpressor male mice (Tagln-Cre+/-; HprtALPL/Y, or TNAP-OE) show extensive vascular calcification, high blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy and have a median age of death of 44 days, whereas the cardiovascular phenotype is much less pronounced and life expectancy is longer in heterozygous (Tagln-Cre+/-; HprtALPL/-) female TNAP-OE mice. Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of osteoblast and chondrocyte markers and decreased expression of vascular smooth muscle markers in the aortas of TNAP-OE mice. Through medicinal chemistry efforts, we developed inhibitors of TNAP with drug-like pharmacokinetic characteristics. TNAP-OE mice were treated with the prototypical TNAP inhibitor SBI-425 or vehicle to evaluate the feasibility of TNAP inhibition in vivo. Treatment with this inhibitor significantly reduced aortic calcification and cardiac hypertrophy, and extended lifespan over vehicle-treated controls, in the absence of secondary effects on the skeleton. This study shows that TNAP in the vasculature contributes to the pathology of MVC and that it is a druggable target. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved PMID:25428889

  18. Properties of a constitutive alkaline phosphatase from strain 74A of the mold Neurospora crassa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.C., Morales; S.R., Nozawa; G., Thedei Jr.; W., Maccheroni Jr.; A., Rossi.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A constitutive alkaline phosphatase was purified to apparent homogeneity as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from mycelia of the wild strain 74A of the mold Neurospora crassa, after growth on acetate and in the presence of saturating amounts of inorganic phosphate (Pi) for 72 h at 30 [...] ºC. The molecular mass was 58 kDa and 56 kDa as determined by exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE, respectively. This monomeric enzyme shows an apparent optimum pH ranging from 9.5 to 10.5 and Michaelis kinetics for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (the Km and Hill coefficient values were 0.35 mM and 1.01, respectively), alpha-naphthyl phosphate (the Km and Hill coefficient values were 0.44 mM and 0.97, respectively), ß-glycerol phosphate (the Km and Hill coefficient values were 2.46 mM and 1.01, respectively) and L-histidinol phosphate (the Km and Hill coefficient values were 0.47 mM and 0.94, respectively) at pH 8.9. The purified enzyme is activated by Mg2+, Zn2+ and Tris-HCl buffer, and is inhibited by Be2+, histidine and EDTA. Also, 0.3 M Tris-HCl buffer protected the purified enzyme against heat inactivation at 70ºC(half-life of 19.0 min, k = 0.036 min-1) as compared to 0.3 M CHES (half-life of 2.3 min, k = 0.392 min-1) in the same experiment.

  19. Properties of a constitutive alkaline phosphatase from strain 74A of the mold Neurospora crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A constitutive alkaline phosphatase was purified to apparent homogeneity as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from mycelia of the wild strain 74A of the mold Neurospora crassa, after growth on acetate and in the presence of saturating amounts of inorganic phosphate (Pi for 72 h at 30ºC. The molecular mass was 58 kDa and 56 kDa as determined by exclusion chromatography and SDS-PAGE, respectively. This monomeric enzyme shows an apparent optimum pH ranging from 9.5 to 10.5 and Michaelis kinetics for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (the Km and Hill coefficient values were 0.35 mM and 1.01, respectively, alpha-naphthyl phosphate (the Km and Hill coefficient values were 0.44 mM and 0.97, respectively, ß-glycerol phosphate (the Km and Hill coefficient values were 2.46 mM and 1.01, respectively and L-histidinol phosphate (the Km and Hill coefficient values were 0.47 mM and 0.94, respectively at pH 8.9. The purified enzyme is activated by Mg2+, Zn2+ and Tris-HCl buffer, and is inhibited by Be2+, histidine and EDTA. Also, 0.3 M Tris-HCl buffer protected the purified enzyme against heat inactivation at 70ºC(half-life of 19.0 min, k = 0.036 min-1 as compared to 0.3 M CHES (half-life of 2.3 min, k = 0.392 min-1 in the same experiment.

  20. Pathophysiological role of vascular smooth muscle alkaline phosphatase in medial artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Campbell R; Kuss, Pia; Narisawa, Sonoko; Yadav, Manisha C; Nigro, Jessica; Wang, Wei; Chhea, T Nicole; Sergienko, Eduard A; Kapoor, Kapil; Jackson, Michael R; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Pinkerton, Anthony B; O'Neill, W Charles; Millán, José Luis

    2015-05-01

    Medial vascular calcification (MVC) is a pathological phenomenon that causes vascular stiffening and can lead to heart failure; it is common to a variety of conditions, including aging, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, and a variety of rare genetic diseases. These conditions share the common feature of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) upregulation in the vasculature. To evaluate the role of TNAP in MVC, we developed a mouse model that overexpresses human TNAP in vascular smooth muscle cells in an X-linked manner. Hemizygous overexpressor male mice (Tagln-Cre(+/-) ; Hprt(ALPL) (/Y) or TNAP-OE) show extensive vascular calcification, high blood pressure, and cardiac hypertrophy, and have a median age of death of 44 days, whereas the cardiovascular phenotype is much less pronounced and life expectancy is longer in heterozygous (Tagln-Cre(+/-) ; Hprt(ALPL) (/-) ) female TNAP-OE mice. Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of osteoblast and chondrocyte markers and decreased expression of vascular smooth muscle markers in the aortas of TNAP-OE mice. Through medicinal chemistry efforts, we developed inhibitors of TNAP with drug-like pharmacokinetic characteristics. TNAP-OE mice were treated with the prototypical TNAP inhibitor SBI-425 or vehicle to evaluate the feasibility of TNAP inhibition in vivo. Treatment with this inhibitor significantly reduced aortic calcification and cardiac hypertrophy, and extended lifespan over vehicle-treated controls, in the absence of secondary effects on the skeleton. This study shows that TNAP in the vasculature contributes to the pathology of MVC and that it is a druggable target. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25428889

  1. Contribution of matrix vesicles and alkaline phosphatase to ectopic bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciancaglini

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Endochondral calcification involves the participation of matrix vesicles (MVs, but it remains unclear whether calcification ectopically induced by implants of demineralized bone matrix also proceeds via MVs. Ectopic bone formation was induced by implanting rat demineralized diaphyseal bone matrix into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of Wistar rats and was examined histologically and biochemically. Budding of MVs from chondrocytes was observed to serve as nucleation sites for mineralization during induced ectopic osteogenesis, presenting a diameter with Gaussian distribution with a median of 306 ± 103 nm. While the role of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP during mineralization involves hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi, it is unclear how the microenvironment of MV may affect the ability of TNAP to hydrolyze the variety of substrates present at sites of mineralization. We show that the implants contain high levels of TNAP capable of hydrolyzing p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP, ATP and PPi. The catalytic properties of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored, polidocanol-solubilized and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-released TNAP were compared using pNPP, ATP and PPi as substrates. While the enzymatic efficiency (k cat/Km remained comparable between polidocanol-solubilized and membrane-bound TNAP for all three substrates, the k cat/Km for the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-solubilized enzyme increased approximately 108-, 56-, and 556-fold for pNPP, ATP and PPi, respectively, compared to the membrane-bound enzyme. Our data are consistent with the involvement of MVs during ectopic calcification and also suggest that the location of TNAP on the membrane of MVs may play a role in determining substrate selectivity in this micro-compartment.

  2. Ontogeny and distribution of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the digestive system of California halibut larvae (Paralichthys californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias-Soto, Magali; Barón-Sevilla, Benjamín; Lazo, Juan P

    2013-10-01

    Studies aimed to assess the digestive physiology of marine fish larvae under culture conditions are important to further understand the functional characteristics and digestive capacities of the developing larvae. Most studies to date concentrate on intestinal lumen digestion and little attention to the absorption process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to histochemically detect and quantify some of the enzymes responsible for absorption and intracellular digestion of nutrients in the anterior and posterior intestine of California halibut larvae. Alkaline and acid phosphatases were detected from the first days post-hatch (dph). Alkaline phosphatase maintained a high level of activity during the first 20 dph in both intestinal regions. Thereafter, a clear intestinal regionalization of the activity was observed with the highest levels occurring in the anterior intestine. Acid phosphatase activity gradually increased in both intestinal regions during development, and a regionalization of the activity was not observed until late in development, once the ocular migration began. Highest levels were observed in the anterior intestine at the end of metamorphosis concomitant with the stomach development. The results from this study show some morphological and physiological changes are occurring during larval development and a clear regionalization of the absorption process as the larvae develops. These ontological changes must be considered in the elaboration of diets according to the digestive capacity of the larvae. PMID:23508366

  3. Evaluation of alkaline phosphatase levels and salivary hydroxyapatite ion activity in 6?12-year-old children with different caries severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loghman Rezaei- Soufi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salivary calcium and phosphate levels might have a relationship with dental caries severity. Evaluation of different indexes such as alkaline phosphatase, which increases salivary phosphate levels, and hydroxyapatite ion activity, which reflects salivary calcium and phosphate levels, might help determine the risk of dental caries. The aim of the present study was to compare salivary alkaline phosphatase activity and hydroxyapatite ion activity index in 6?12-year-old children with different rates of dental caries. Materials and methods: In this descriptive-analytical study the teeth were examined in 152 children, aged 6?12, by a dentist and were placed into three experimental groups according to the dental caries severity as follows: group 1: severe dental caries (DMFT ? 6; group 2: moderate dental caries rate (1 < DMFT < 6; and group 3: mild dental caries rate (DMFT ? 1. After collection of saliva, salivary alkaline phosphatase levels and hydroxyapatite ion activity were measured for each sample. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test (? = 0.05. Results: The means and standard deviations of alkaline phosphatase levels in groups 1 to 3 were 5.39 ± 2.96, 5.71 ± 3.68 and 5.83 ± 4.53 unit/dL, respectively. Hydroxyapatite ion activity rates were 25.80 ± 0.70, 28.28 ± 0.76 and 28.50 ± 0.56 in groups 1 to 3, respectively. The results of one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the experimental groups in alkaline phosphatase levels (p value = 0.830 and hydroxyapatite ion activity (p value = 0.065.Conclusion: According to the finding of the present study, alkaline phosphatase level and hydroxyapatite ion activity have no effect on tooth caries severity in 6?12-year-old children. Future studies are recommended. Key words: Alkaline phosphatase, Dental caries, Saliva

  4. A novel glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored alkaline phosphatase dwells in the hepatic duct of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-Ping; Wu, Yuan-Tai; Dai, Yi-Ping; Li, Qing; Zhang, Rong-Qing

    2007-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatases are ubiquitous enzymes involved in many important biological processes. Mammalian tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) has long been thought to play an important role in bone mineralization. In this study, we identified a full-length cDNA encoding a potential alkaline phosphatse from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata by RT-PCR and RACE and designated the encoded protein as PFAP. The sequence of PFAP shares an overall similarity of 67% with that of human TNAP. Prediction and analysis of its secondary and tertiary structure revealed that the PFAP contains two mammalian-specific regions, the crown domain, involved in collagen binding, and the calcium binding domain, which hint its potential ability to participate in biomineralization. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization showed that the PFAP mRNA distributes specifically in the hepatic duct of the digestive diverticula. These findings implied its possible role in calcium absorption and transportation. In vivo, PFAP could be specifically released by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC), suggesting it is glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored to the plasma membrane. Therefore, a human growth hormone-PFAP fusion was constructed to locate the cleavage/attachment site. Immunofluorescent labeling and immunoblotting showed that Asn-477 is the cleavage/attachment site and the 25-residue peptide COOH-terminal to Asn-477 is removed during glycophosphatidylinositol anchoring. This research will hopefully pave the way to illustrate the role PFAP plays in calcium transportation related to pearl biomineralization. PMID:17624576

  5. Functional significance of calcium binding to tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoylaerts, Marc F; Van Kerckhoven, Soetkin; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sheen, Campbell; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The conserved active site of alkaline phosphatases (AP) contains catalytically important Zn2+ (M1 and M2) and Mg2+-sites (M3) and a fourth peripheral Ca2+ site (M4) of unknown significance. We have studied Ca2+ binding to M1-4 of tissue-nonspecific AP (TNAP), an enzyme crucial for skeletal mineralization, using recombinant TNAP and a series of M4 mutants. Ca2+ could substitute for Mg2+ at M3, with maximal activity for Ca2+/Zn2+-TNAP around 40% that of Mg2+/Zn2+-TNAP at pH 9.8 and 7.4. At pH 7.4, allosteric TNAP-activation at M3 by Ca2+ occurred faster than by Mg2+. Several TNAP M4 mutations eradicated TNAP activity, while others mildly influenced the affinity of Ca2+ and Mg2+ for M3 similarly, excluding a catalytic role for Ca2+ in the TNAP M4 site. At pH 9.8, Ca2+ competed with soluble Zn2+ for binding to M1 and M2 up to 1 mM and at higher concentrations, it even displaced M1- and M2-bound Zn2+, forming Ca2+/Ca2+-TNAP with a catalytic activity only 4-6% that of Mg2+/Zn2+-TNAP. At pH 7.4, competition with Zn2+ and its displacement from M1 and M2 required >10-fold higher Ca2+ concentrations, to generate weakly active Ca2+/Ca2+-TNAP. Thus, in a Ca2+-rich environment, such as during skeletal mineralization at pH 7.4, Ca2+ adequately activates Zn2+-TNAP at M3, but very high Ca2+ concentrations compete with available Zn2+ for binding to M1 and M2 and ultimately displace Zn2+ from the active site, virtually inactivating TNAP. Those ALPL mutations that substitute critical TNAP amino acids involved in coordinating Ca2+ to M4 cause hypophosphatasia because of their 3D-structural impact, but M4-bound Ca2+ is catalytically inactive. In conclusion, during skeletal mineralization, the building Ca2+ gradient first activates TNAP, but gradually inactivates it at high Ca2+ concentrations, toward completion of mineralization. PMID:25775211

  6. Cloning of and complementation tests with alkaline phosphatase regulatory genes (phoS and phoT) of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Amemura, M.; Shinagawa, H.; Makino, K.; Otsuji, N.; Nakata, A.

    1982-01-01

    The regulatory genes of alkaline phosphatase, phoS and phoT, of Escherichia coli were cloned on pBR322, initially as an 11.8-kilobase EcoRI fragment. A restriction map of the hybrid plasmid was established. Deletion plasmids of various sizes were constructed in vitro, and the presence of phoS and phoT genes on the cloned DNA fragments was tested by introducing the plasmids into phoS64 and phoT9 strains for complementation tests. One set complemented only phoS64 but not phoT9; the other set co...

  7. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of phoP, the regulatory gene for alkaline phosphatase and phosphodiesterase in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, T.; Yoshikawa, H.; Takahashi, H.; Saito, H.

    1987-01-01

    Two DNA fragments which complement the alkaline phosphatase-negative mutation phoP of Bacillus subtilis were cloned from a B. subtilis chromosome with the prophage vector phi CM (a derivative of phi 105). One of the fragments contained the regulatory gene phoR in addition to phoP. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the phoP region revealed that the phoP gene product consists of 241-amino-acid residues and that the sequence of these amino acids is extensively homologous with the sequence of the p...

  8. A phoA structural gene mutation that conditionally affects formation of the enzyme bacterial alkaline phosphatase.

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, D. K.; Wanner, B. L.

    1990-01-01

    The phoA503 mutant was identified as a mutant that shows a novel phoA regulatory phenotype. The phoA503 allele dramatically reduces the synthesis of bacterial alkaline phosphatase activity during Pi starvation in an otherwise wild-type host and during the logarithmic growth phase in a phoR or phoU background. Near-normal amounts of enzyme activity are found in phoR phoA503 or phoU phoA503 mutants when starved for carbon, nitrogen, or sulfur or during the stationary phase, however. Marker resc...

  9. Joint effect of phosphorus limitation and temperature on alkaline phosphatase activity and somatic growth in Daphnia magna

    OpenAIRE

    Wojewodzic, Marcin W.; Kyle, Marcia; Elser, James J.; Hessen, Dag O.; Andersen, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a potential biomarker for phosphorus (P) limitation in zooplankton. However, knowledge about regulation of AP in this group is limited. In a laboratory acclimation experiment, we investigated changes in body AP concentration for Daphnia magna kept for 6 days at 10, 15, 20 and 25°C and fed algae with 10 different molar C:P ratios (95–660). In the same experiment, we also assessed somatic growth of the animals since phosphorus acquisition is linked to growth pro...

  10. Stability of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase in human saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in the presence of protease inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Nurfathiha Abu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF with and without the addition of protease inhibitor (PI at room temperature (RT; 25°C, 4°C and -20°C were investigated. AST, LDH, TRAP and ALP activities in saliva and GCF (n=9 with and without the addition of PI were assayed at 0 (control, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, one and two weeks. A paired t-test showed there were a significant differences (p<0.05 between LDH and TRAP activities in saliva, in the presence and without PI at all temperatures. ALP activity exhibited a significant difference in activity (p<0.05 in the presence and without PI at RT while no significant differences were observed at 4ºC and -20ºC. A significant difference (p<0.05 was observed in AST, LDH and TRAP activities (GCF at RT and 4ºC in the presence and without PI. We conclude that PI is essential for maintaining stable enzyme activities in saliva and GCF.

  11. Variations of alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of a shallow Chinese eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and P fractions in sediment cores and the relationship between them were studied in a shallow Chinese freshwater lake (Lake Taihu). Sediment cores were collected from four sites, characterized by different degrees of eutrophication in June 2004. Sediment P was fractionated into Fe/Al-P, Ca-P, organic P (OP), inorganic P (IP) and total P (TP). The former two species made the largest contribution to the sediment P pool. Results show that trophic status and hydrological conditions have great impact on the APA of the sediments. The order of the APA in sediments was conjectured to be: macrophyte dominated lake > transitional lake > algal dominated lake. APA profiles follow a similar downcore decreasing trend. There was a positive relationship between the APA and the TP, IP. The multiple linear regression equation of the APA and P fractions is: APA = -97 + 0.768TP - 0.985Fe/Al-P. - Characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of different trophic status lake were studied in Lake Taihu

  12. Mutants affected in alkaline phosphatase, expression: evidence for multiple positive regulators of the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, B L; Latterell, P

    1980-10-01

    The expression of alkaline phosphatase (the product of the phoA gene) in Escherichia coli is believed to be subject to both positive control by the phoB gene product and negative control by the phoR gene product. We have isolated a large number of PhoA- mutants in the phoR- genetic background. Among mutants altered in the positive control of alkaline phosphatase, some were phoB mutants; others had a mutation in a new gene, designated phoM. We believe that the phoM gene codes for a positive regulator that acts together with the phoB gene product in phoA gene expressions.--The phoM phenotype was found to be masked in phoR+ strains. This and other evidence support a positive regulatory role for the phoR gene product as well.--Our experiments demonstrate that phoA is under positive control by three different positive regulators: the product of the phoB, phoM and phoR genes. The phoB gene product is always needed together with either the phoR or phoM gene product. In addition, the phoR gene product acts as a negative regulator.--We describe a model for phoA gene expression consistent with this new evidence. PMID:7021308

  13. Prognostic role of serum prostatic acid phosphatase for 103Pd-based radiation for prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To establish the prognostic role of serum enzymatic prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in patients treated with palladium (103Pd) and supplemental external beam irradiation (EBRT) for clinically localized, high-risk prostate carcinoma. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients with Stage T2a-T3 prostatic carcinoma were treated from 1992 through 1995. Each patient had at least one of the following risk factors for extracapsular disease extension: Stage T2b or greater (100 patients), Gleason score 7-10 (40 patients), pretreatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) > 15 ng/ml (32 patients), or elevated serum PAP (25 patients). Patients received 41 Gy conformal EBRT to a limited pelvic field, followed 4 weeks later by a 103Pd boost (prescription dose 80 Gy). Biochemical failure was defined as a PSA greater than 1 ng/ml (normal < 4 ng/ml). Results: The overall, actuarial freedom from biochemical failure at 4 years after treatment was 79%. In Cox-proportional hazard multivariate analysis, the strongest predictor of failure was elevated pretreatment acid phosphatase (p = 0.02), followed by Gleason score (p = 0.1), and PSA (p = 0.14). Conclusion: PAP was the strongest predictor of long-term biochemical failure. It may be a more accurate indicator of micrometastatic disease than PSA, and as such, we suggest that it be reconsidered for general use in radiation-treated patients

  14. Exploitation of phosphorescent labelling reagent of fullerol-fluorescein isothiocyanate and new method for the determination of trace alkaline phosphatase as well as forecast of human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new phosphorescent labelling reagent consisting of fullerol, fluorescein isothiocyanate and N,N-dimethylaniline (F-ol-(FITC)n-DMA) was developed. The mode of action is based on the reactivity of the active -OH group in F-ol with the -COOH group of FITC to form an F-ol-(FITC)n-DMA complex containing several FITC molecules. F-ol-(FITC)n-DMA increased the number of luminescent molecules in the biological target of WGA-AP-WGA-F-ol-(FITC)n-DMA (WGA and AP are wheat germ agglutinin and alkaline phosphatase, respectively) which improved the sensitivity using solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) detection. The proposed method provided high sensitivity and strong specificity for WGA-AP. The limit of detection (LD) was 0.15 ag AP spot-1 for F-ol and 0.097 ag AP spot-1 for FITC in F-ol-(FITC)n-DMA, which was lower than the method using single luminescent molecules of F-ol-DMA and FITC-DMA to label WGA (0.20 ag AP spot-1 for F-ol-DMA and 0.22 ag AP spot-1 for FITC-DMA). Results for the determination of AP in human serum were in good agreement with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mechanism of F-ol-(FITC)n-DMA labelling of WGA was discussed.

  15. Treatment with bortezomib in multiple myeloma is associated with only a transient and brief increase of bone specific alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haidl, Felix; Plesner, Torben

    2012-01-01

    There are indications of a bone anabolic effect associated with bortezomib treatment. We present a study with long follow up, measuring bone specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP) for a year during and after treatment in an unselected cohort of myeloma patients treated with bortezomib, and assess factors of potential influence on the increase of bALP. Our main findings are that bALP increase is of short duration and declines significantly even during continued treatment with bortezomib. Only myeloma response was associated with a significant increase of bALP; whereas previous treatment with bortezomib, previous or concomitant treatment with zoledronic acid i.v., dose of bortezomib, line of treatment, or combination with other chemotherapy was not.

  16. Localization of Alkaline Phosphatase and Cathepsin D during Cell Restoration after Colchicine Treatment in Primary Cultures of Fetal Rat Hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cathepsin D (CAPD) in primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes was examined using double immunofluorescent staining in order to investigate the relationship between lysosome movement and the fate of ALP during cell restoration after microtubule disruption by colchicine. At 3 hr and 24 hr after colchicine treatment, numerous coarse dots containing ALP were observed throughout the cytoplasm, and some of these showed colocalization with CAPD. At 48 hr and 72 hr after colchicine treatment, although most of the dots containing ALP in the cytoplasm disappeared, dots containing CAPD remained. The present results suggest that the denatured ALP proteins remaining in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes during cell restoration after colchicine treatment are digested by lysosomes

  17. Real-time fluorescence assays of alkaline phosphatase and ATP sulfurylase activities based on a novel PPi fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhiyang; Ma, Xiaoyan; Wen, Jinghan; Geng, Zhirong; Wang, Zhilin

    2015-05-01

    An anthracene-armed tetraaza macrocyclic fluorescent probe 3-(9-anthrylmethyl)-3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene(l) for detecting Zn(2+) in aqueous medium was synthesized. L-Zn(2+) complex, showed selectivity toward pyrophosphate ion (PPi) by quenching the fluorescence in aqueous HEPES buffer (pH 7.4). Furthermore, L-Zn(2+) was also used to set up a real-time fluorescence assay for monitoring enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATPS). In the presence of ALP inhibitor Na3VO4 and ATPS inhibitor chlorate, two enzymes activities decreased obviously, respectively. PMID:25770619

  18. Nicotine inhibits collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity, but stimulates DNA synthesis in osteoblast-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of smokeless tobacco is associated with various oral lesions including periodontal damage and alveolar bone loss. This study was performed to test the effects of nicotine on bone-forming cells at concentrations that occur in the saliva of smokeless tobacco users. Confluent cultures of osteoblast-like cells isolated from chick embryo calvariae were incubated for 2 days with nicotine added to the culture medium (25-600 micrograms/ml). Nicotine inhibited alkaline phosphatase in the cell layer and released to the medium, whereas glycolysis (as indexed by lactate production) was unaffected or slightly elevated. The effects on medium and cell layer alkaline phosphatase were concentration dependent with maximal inhibition occurring at 600 micrograms nicotine/ml. Nicotine essentially did not affect the noncollagenous protein content of the cell layer, but did inhibit collagen synthesis (hydroxylation of [3H]proline and collagenase-digestible protein) at 100, 300, and 600 micrograms/ml. Release of [3H]hydroxyproline to the medium was also decreased in a dose-dependent manner, as was the collagenase-digestible protein for both the medium and cell layer. In contrast, DNA synthesis (incorporation of [3H]thymidine) was more than doubled by the alkaloid, whereas total DNA content was slightly inhibited at 600 micrograms/ml, suggesting stimulated cell turnover. Morphologic changes occurred in nicotine-treated cells including rounding up, detachmeated cells including rounding up, detachment, and the occurrence of numerous large vacuoles. These results suggest that steps to reduce the salivary concentration of nicotine in smokeless tobacco users might diminish damaging effects of this product on alveolar bone

  19. Formation of a vitamin B-12-serum complex on heating at alkaline pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of vitamin B-12 to serum proteins during heating at alkaline pH was investigated by gel filtration of serum supplemented with cyano[57Co]-cobalamin. Heating for 5 min at 1000C destroyed most of the vitamin B-12 binding activity of serum but, with further heating, the vitamin B-12 became incorporated into a complex that did not correspond in molecular size to the original vitamin B-12 binding proteins. Radioassay of vitamin B-12 in heated serum showed correspondingly first an increase then a progressive decrease in the apparent vitamin B-12 level suggesting that, on heating, vitamin B-12 was initially released then subsequently complexed by the serum. The formation of complexed vitamin B-12 was abolished by the presence of the reducing agent dithiothreitol during the heating step. (Auth.)

  20. Purification and Characterization of an Alkaline Phosphatase Induced by Phosphorus Starvation in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Morales; Natalia, Gutiérrez; Vanessa, Maya; Carmen, Parra; Eleazar, Martínez-Barajas; Patricia, Coello.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dos isoformas de fosfatasas obtenidas de raíz de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) mostraron un incremento en la actividad en respuesta a la deficiencia de fosfato. Una de ellas (APIII) se purificó a través de una cromatografía de intercambio iónico y una electroforesis preparativa. La masa molecular e [...] stimada para APIII fue de 35 kDa tanto por SDS-PAGE como por filtración molecular, sugiriendo que la enzima activa es monomérica. APIII se clasificó como una fosfatasa alcalina basada en sus requerimientos de pH 8 para catálisis. Esta enzima es activa sobre un amplio espectro de sustratos como polifosfato, glucose 1-fosfato y fosfoenolpiruvato, aunque muestra preferencia por pirofosfato. Su actividad se inhibe completamente por molibdato, vanadato y fosfato, aunque es inhibida parcialmente por fluoruro. Aún cuando los cationes divalentes no fueron escenciales para su actividad, la hidrólisis de pirofosfato se incrementó notablemente en presencia de Mg2+. Abstract in english Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular ma [...] ss of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-PAGE and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of pH 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phosphoenol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyrophosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate increased substantially in the presence of Mg2+.

  1. Kinetic comparison of tissue non-specific and placental human alkaline phosphatases expressed in baculovirus infected cells: application to screening for Down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grozdea Jean J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, there are four alkaline phosphatases, and each form exibits a characteristic pattern of tissue distribution. The availability of an easy method to reveal their activity has resulted in large amount of data reporting correlations between variations in activity and illnesses. For example, alkaline phosphatase from neutrophils of mothers pregnent with a trisomy 21 fetus (Down's syndrome displays significant differences both in its biochemical and immunological properties, and in its affinity for some specific inhibitors. Results To analyse these differences, the biochemical characteristics of two isozymes (non specific and placental alkaline phosphatases were expressed in baculovirus infected cells. Comparative analysis of the two proteins allowed us to estimate the kinetic constants of denaturation and sensitivity to two inhibitors (L-p-bromotetramisole and thiophosphate, allowing better discrimination between the two enzymes. These parameters were then used to estimate the ratio of the two isoenzymes in neutrophils of pregnant mothers with or without a trisomy 21 fetus. It appeared that the placental isozyme represented 13% of the total activity of neutrophils of non pregnant women. This proportion did not significantly increase with normal pregnancy. By contrast, in pregnancies with trisomy 21 fetus, the proportion reached 60–80% of activity. Conclusion Over-expression of the placental isozyme compared with the tissue-nonspecific form in neutrophils of mother with a trisomy 21 fetus may explain why the characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase in these cells is different from normal. Application of this knowledge could improve the potential of using alkaline phosphatase measurements to screen for Down's syndrome.

  2. Clinical usefulness of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity determination to evaluate bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnecchia, L; Minisola, S; Pacitti, M T; Carnevale, V; Romagnoli, E; Rosso, R; Mazzuoli, G F

    1991-10-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the clinical validity and usefulness of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity determined using an improved spectrophotometric assay. Enzyme activity was measured in 84 normal subjects and in 109 patients with common metabolic bone diseases. Mean values of serum TRAP activity in male subjects (n = 19; 10.4 +/- 2.15 U l-1) were not significantly different from those found in female subjects (n = 65; 10.8 +/- 1.8 U l-1). In the latter group mean values were significantly raised in post-menopausal subjects (10.5 +/- 2.0 U l-1; p less than 0.01) compared with mean values in pre-menopausal women (8.45 +/- 1.8 U l-1). We found a significant inverse correlation between serum TRAP activity values and bone mineral density (BMD) measured both at an ultradistal radial point (n = 33, r = -0.506; p less than 0.01), and at the lumbar spine (n = 57, r = -0.261; p less than 0.05). Mean serum TRAP activity values in patients with metabolic bone diseases were: primary hyperparathyroidism, n = 30: 14.2 +/- 4.89 U l-1, p less than 0.001 vs normal subjects; chronic maintenance haemodialysis, n = 19: 17.4 +/- 6.7, p less than 0.001; metastatic cancer, n = 13: 21.2 +/- 6.3, p less than 0.001; post-surgical hypoparathyroidism, n = 10: 9.9 +/- 1.8, NS; involutional osteoporosis, n = 20: 12.5 +/- 2.3 p less than 0.001; Paget's disease, n = 10: 16.8 +/- 3.5, p less than 0.001; osteomalacia, n = 7: 19.5 +/- 3.31, p less than 0.001.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1767245

  3. Enzymatic methods for the determination of pollution in seawater using salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin (StAP) proved to be active in seawater. • Activity of StAP is inhibited by very low concentrations of heavy metal. • A test to assess sea and fresh water quality has been developed basing on StAP. • For the first time a salt resistant alkaline phosphatase has been found in eukaryote. - Abstract: A new salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (StAP) has been shown to have a unique property to hydrolyze substrate in seawater without loss of enzymatic activity. The enzyme has pH optimum at 8.0–8.5. Model experiments showed various concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead added to seawater or a standard buffer mixture to inhibit completely the enzyme activity at the concentrations of 15–150 ?g/l. StAP sensitivity to the presence in seawater of metals, pesticides, detergents and oil products appears to be considerably less. Samples of seawater taken from aquatic areas of the Troitsy Bay of the Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea have been shown to inhibit the enzyme activity; the same was shown for the samples of fresh waters. The phosphatase inhibition assay developed proved to be highly sensitive, technically easy-to use allowing to test a great number of samples

  4. Aplicación del método inmunocitoquímico de la fosfatasa alcalina anti-fosfatasa alcalina para la clasificación inmunológica de las leucemias mieloides agudas Application of the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase immunocytochemical method for the immunological classification of acute myeloid leukemias

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    Bertha B Socarrás Ferrer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el inmunofenotipaje celular de 30 pacientes con el diagnóstico de leucemia mieloide aguda por el método inmunocitoquímico fosfatasa alcalina anti-fosfatasa alcalina (APAAP introducido en nuestro laboratorio. Los marcadores estudiados fueron: CD3, CD13, CD15, CD19, CD33 y CD41. Para el estudio se utilizaron extendidos de médula ósea o sangre periférica fijados en acetona pura e incubados con el respectivo anticuerpo monoclonal. Posteriormente se añadió la inmunoglobulina anti ratón obtenida en conejo ( Linking y por último, el complejo APAAP. Los períodos de incubación fueron de 30 minutos y se realizaron lavados con solución amortiguadora entre cada uno de los pasos. La lectura de las láminas se realizó en microscopio óptico y se consideró positivo cuando el número de células marcadas era mayor o igual a 20 %. De los pacientes estudiados, el 93,3 % y el 90 %, respectivamente, expresaron antígenos pan mieloides CD13 y CD33; 16 de ellos expresaron el CD15 (53,3 %; 3 el CD19 (10 % y 2 el CD41 (6,6 %. Se concluyó que el método APAAP es rápido y de bajo costo y puede ser aplicado con confiabilidad en la clasificación inmunológica de las leucemias mieloides agudasThe cellular immunophenotyping of 30 patients with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia was conducted by the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase immunocytochemical method (APAAP introduced in our laboratory. The markers studied were: CD3, CD13, CD15, CD19, CD33 y CD41. Specimens of bone marrow or peripheral blood fixed in pure acetone and incubated with the respective monoclonal antibody were used for the study. Later on, the anti-mouse immunoglobulin obtained in rabbit (Linking was added and, finally, the APAAP complex. The incubation periods were of 30 minutes and lavages with buffer solution were carried out between one step and the other. The reading of the slides was performed on the optical microscope and it was considered positive when the number of marked cells was higher than or equal to 20 %. Of the studied patients, 93.3 % and 90 %, respectively, expressed panmyeloid antigens CD13 and CD33; 16 of them expressed the CD15 (53.3 %; 3 the CD19 (10 %; and 2 the CD41 (6.6 %. It was concluded that the APAAP method is rapid and inexpensive and that it may be reliably applied in the immunological classification of the acute myeloid leukemias

  5. Comparison of Salivary Ion Activity Product for Hydroxyapatite (IPHA, Alkaline Phosphatase and Buffering Capacity of Adults According to Age and Caries Severity

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    Vahedi M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Tooth caries is influenced by different biochemical characteristics of saliva. As hydroxyapatite is the main component of enamel, salivary ion activity product for hydroxyapatite (IPHA as well as alkaline phosphatase may be attributed to dental caries. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to compare salivary buffering capacity, alkaline phosphatase and IPHA of adults according to the dental caries and age. Materials and Method: One hundred and twenty 19 to 44 years old male individuals were divided into four groups according to the dental caries rate and age: group 1: 19-35 years old low dental caries (DMFT <5; group 2: 19-35 years old high dental caries (DMFT 5<; group 3: 35-44 years old low dental caries (DMFT <11 and 35-44 years old high dental caries (DMFT 11<. Five millilitre of unstimulated saliva was collected, and then buffering capacity, the level of alkaline phosphatase activity and IPHA was determined for each sample. Data was analyzed by soft ware SPSS using two-way ANOVA, Friedman and Mann-Whitney tests.Results: Mean and standard deviation of buffering capacity of group 1 to 4 was 2.66±0.54, 2.64±0.56, 2.70±0.70 and 2.26±0.82, respectively. The difference was not significance (p= 0. 305. Mean and standard deviation of alkaline phosphatase activity of group 1 to 4 was 5.82±2.91, 5.30±1.52, 4.77±1.82 and 4.55±1.61, respectively. There was no significant difference (p= 0.692. Mean and standard deviation of IPHA of group 1 to 4 was 29.39±0.61, 29.51±0.76, 29.14±0.56 and 29.75±0.75, respectively. The difference was significant (p= 0.049.Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, buffering capacity and the level of alkaline phosphatase couldn’t affect dental caries, independently. However, the higher value of IPHA may be attributed to the higher dental caries rate. Ageing decreases alkaline phosphatase activity.

  6. Marked Transient Alkaline Phosphatemia Following Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Koneru, Baburao; Carone, Eduardo; Malatack, J. Jeffrey; ESQUIVEL, CARLOS O.; Starzl, Thomas E

    1989-01-01

    An isolated marked transient rise in serum alkaline phosphatase levels in otherwise healthy children is a well-documented occurrence. However, in children undergoing liver transplantation, elevated alkaline phosphatase values raise the possibility of biliary obstruction, rejection, or both. During a 6-year period, 6 of 278 children undergoing liver transplantation exhibited a similar phenomenon as an isolated abnormality. None had rejection, biliary obstruction, or other allograft dysfunction...

  7. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatha, S. S.; Malik, Ashish; Varik, Sandesh; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V. K.; Gauns, Mangesh U.; LokaBharathi, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the potential importance of phosphorus (P) as a limiting nutrient in marine ecosystem is increasing globally. Hence, the contribution of biotic variables in mobilizing this nutrient would be relevant especially in productive coastal waters. As alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) indicates the status of P for primary production in aquatic environments, we asked the following question: is the level of APA indicative of P sufficiency or deficiency in coastal waters, especially, where upwelling is a regular phenomenon? Therefore, we have examined the total APA, chlorophyll a along with phosphatase producing bacteria (PPB) and related environmental parameters from nearshore to offshore in coastal waters off Trivandrum and Kochi regions differently affected by upwelling during the onset of monsoon. Off Trivandrum, APA in the offshore waters of 5-m layer at 2.23 ?M P h- 1 was > 4 times higher than nearshore. Thus, low APA could be indicative of P sufficiency in coastal waters and higher activity suggestive of deficiency in offshore waters off Trivandrum. In contrast, there was less difference in APA between near and offshore surface waters off Kochi. Our results show that the regions differently affected by upwelling respond differently according to ambient P concentration, distance from shore or depth of water. These observations could apparently be applicable to other coastal systems as well, where gradients in upwelling and phosphate runoff have been noticed. Further studies on other transects would throw more light on the extent and direction of the relationship between APA and ambient P concentration. Such studies would help in understanding the level of control of this nutrient on the productivity of coastal waters.

  8. Cissus quadrangularis extract enhances biomineralization through up-regulation of MAPK-dependent alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisuthiman, Duenpim; Singhatanadgit, Weerachai; Dechatiwongse, Thaweephol; Koontongkaew, Sitthichai

    2009-01-01

    Cissus quadrangularis Linn. has been implicated as therapeutic agent for enhancing bone healing. Though its osteogenic activity has been suggested, the underlying mechanism still remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of ethanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQ-E) on osteoblast differentiation and function were analyzed using murine osteoblastic cells. The results indicated that mRNA expressions of osteoblast-related genes were not affected by the CQ-E treatment. However, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the extent of mineralized nodules were significantly increased in treated cells compared with controls. The addition of an extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 inhibitor, a Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2/3 inhibitor and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor resulted in significantly decreased ALP activity, preferentially by p38 MAPK inhibitor. These results suggested that CQ-E may regulate osteoblastic activity by enhancing ALP activity and mineralization process, and the increased ALP activity effect of CQ-E is likely mediated by MAPK-dependent pathway. PMID:19057968

  9. Antibodies against Echinococcus multilocularis alkaline phosphatase as markers for the specific diagnosis and the serological monitoring of alveolar echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarciron, E M; Bresson-Hadni, S; Mercier, M; Lawton, P; Duranton, C; Lenys, D; Petavy, A F; Vuitton, D A

    1997-02-01

    The immunological properties of the purified alkaline phosphatase (pAP) of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes have been investigated using alveolar echinococcosis (AE) patient sera in ELISA tests. A comparative study was done with EmC-Ag (crude antigen) and pAP-Ag (purified antigen). When the parasite purified enzyme pAP was used as antigen, the specificity of the ELISA was markedly increased since it reached 100% without any decrease of its sensitivity (100%). The serologic follow-up of AE patients was conducted during several months with these two antigens in three categories of patients: cured, stabilized and aggravated. There was a good correlation between clinical and serologic data when the pAP was used as antigen in ELISA tests. The anti-pAP antibodies titres did change more rapidly than anti-EmC antibodies titres when a recurrence occurred. Modifications of the anti-pAP antibodies levels were also observed during the patient's therapy: mebendazole, albendazole and Isoprinosine. These results suggest that pAP-Ag should be used for the diagnosis and the follow-up of AE patients. PMID:9076808

  10. A Phos-Tag-Based Fluorescence Quenching System for Activity Assay and Inhibitor Screening for Alkaline Phosphatase

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    Emiko Kinoshita-Kikuta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET is a distance-dependent interaction between the electronic excited states of two dye molecules. Here we introduce a novel FRET-based fluorescence quenching system for assaying the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP by using a phos-phate-binding tag molecule, Phos-tag {1,3-bis[bis(pyridine-2-ylmethylamino]propan-2-olato dizinc(II complex}, attached to a nonfluorescent 4-{[4-(dimethylaminophenyl]diazenyl}benzoyl (Dabcyl: ?max 475 nm dye group. The fluorogenic biomolecule riboflavin 5’-phosphate (FMN: ?em 525 nm was used as an AP substrate. The Dabcyl-labeled Phos-tag specifically captured FMN to form a stable 1:1 complex, resulting in efficient fluorescence quenching. The quenching efficiency was more than 95% for a mixture of 12 ?M FMN and 13.5 ?M Dabcyl-labeled Phos-tag in aqueous solution at pH 7.4 and 25°C. When FMN was dephosphorylated with AP, riboflavin was released into the solution and fluorescence from the flavin moiety appeared. By using this quenching system, we succeeded in detecting time- and dose-dependent dephosphorylation of FMN by AP under near-physiological conditions.

  11. Change in Localization of Alkaline Phosphatase and Mannosidase II by Colchicine Treatment of Primary Cultures of Fetal Rat Hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the changes in localization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mannosidase II (man II), a Golgi marker, after colchicine treatment of primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes, using double immunofluorescence staining and confocal laser microscopy. In hepatocytes cultured in basal medium, ALP was localized in the perinuclear cytoplasm, and man II was observed in the Golgi region of the cytoplasm. When hepatocytes were cultured in dexamethasone-supplemented medium, ALP was also localized in the plasma membrane surrounding the bile canaliculus-like structure that was formed between adjacent cells. In hepatocytes cultured in the same medium containing colchicine, the structure of microtubules in the cytoplasm was lost, man II exhibited granular distribution scattering throughout the cytoplasm, and ALP was localized in coarse granular sites of the cytoplasm. However, ALP was not colocalized at the same sites as man II. The present study indicated that colchicine inhibits the dexamethasone-promoted translocation of ALP to the plasma membrane surrounding the bile canaliculus-like structure in primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes by disassembling microtubules and discomposing the Golgi complex

  12. Fluorescence detection of adenosine-5?-triphosphate and alkaline phosphatase based on the generation of CdS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cd2+ reacts with S2? to generate fluorescent CdS QDs with ATP. • ATP can be hydrolyzed by the enzymatic dephosphorylation of ALP. • Fluorescent CdS QDs could not be generated in the presence of ALP. • The analysis system was successfully applied to assay ATP and ALP. - Abstract: We have developed an analytical method to detect adenosine-5?-triphosphate (ATP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) based on the generation of CdS quantum dots (QDs). We demonstrated that Cd2+ cation reacts with S2? anion to generate fluorescent CdS QDs in the presence of some certain amount of ATP. With increase in the ATP concentration, the fluorescence intensity of CdS QDs was also enhanced. ATP can be converted into adenosine by the dephosphorylation of ALP, so that the generation of CdS QDs would be inhibited in the presence of ALP. Therefore, this novel analysis system could be applied to assay ATP and ALP based on the growth of fluorescent CdS QDs

  13. Activities of Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase, Gamma-Glutamyltransferase, Alkaline Phosphatase in Plasma of Postpartum Holstein Cows

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    HuiFang Deng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Depressed appetite and reduced Dry Matter Intake (DMI and feeding energy-dense diets for a long time around parturition of cows may lead to excessive lipid mobilization which causes the liver damage. This study was meant to determine the effects of postpartun enzymes metabolic status in Holstein cows. In this study, blood samples were during the whole experimental period, obtained from the jugular venepuncture from each animal on 1 week prepartum (week 1, days delivery (week 0 and 1st 9 weeks postpartum (week 1-9. They were analyzed for examining Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, Gamma-Glutamyltransferase (GGT, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activity. The resultes showed a higher activity of AST which was determined in the 1-3 weeks than other’s. ALT activity indicated a statistically significant increase from the 5-7 weeks of lactation and activity in the 7th week postpartum periods significally reached to the peak. GGT activity in the antepartum 1 week until delivery day was significally lower in comparison with the first to reach the 9th weeks postpartum. ALP activity in the delivery day and 6-8 weeks significant increased in process. Therefore, the AST, ALT, GGT and ALP of enzyme activity which could be used significantly change in the blood plasma of Holstein.

  14. Disposable lateral flow-through strip for smartphone-camera to quantitatively detect alkaline phosphatase activity in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Shi, ZhuanZhuan; Fang, Can; Zhang, YuanYuan; Liu, YingShuai; Li, ChangMing

    2015-07-15

    A disposable lateral flow-through strip was developed for smartphone to fast one-step quantitatively detect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in raw milk. The strip comprises two functional components, a conjugation pad loaded with phosphotyrosine-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs@Cys-Try-p) and a testing line coated with anti-phosphotryosine antibody (anti-Tyr-p mAb). The dephosphorylation activity of ALP at the testing zone can be quantitatively assayed by monitoring the accumulated AuNPs-induced color changes by smartphone camera, thus providing a highly convenient portable detection method. A trace amount of ALP as low as 0.1UL(-1) with a linear dynamic range of 0.1-150UL(-1) (R(2)=0.999) in pasteurized milk and raw milk can be one-step detected by the developed flow-through strip within 10min, demonstrating the potential of smartphone-based portable sensing device for pathogen detection. This bio-hazards free lateral flow-through testing strip can be also used to fabricate rapid, sensitive and inexpensive enzyme or immunosensors for broad portable clinic diagnosis and food contamination analysis, particularly in point-of-care and daily food quality inspection. PMID:25771303

  15. A phage-displayed single domain antibody fused to alkaline phosphatase for detection of porcine circovirus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shunli; Shang, Youjun; Yin, Shuanghui; Wang, Di; Cai, Jianping; Gong, Zhenli; Serge, Muyldermans; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-03-01

    The fusion of single domain antibodies (sdAbs) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) has been demonstrated to be useful as an immunodiagnostic reagent. In this work, a porcine circovirus type-2 (PCV2) specific sdAb (psdAb) was expressed as fusion with an AP. The binding activity of psdAb-AP fusion was examined by Western blot, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). To assess the practicality of psdAb-AP fusion as a diagnostic reagent, the fusion was used in a Western blot, a direct ELISA, and an immunocytochemistry assay (ICC) for PCV2 detection. The results indicated that the binding activity and specificity of psdAb-AP fusion was similar with psdAb, but the functional affinity of psdAb-AP fusion was about 5 times greater than psdAb as determined by SPR. As a tracer, psdAb-AP fusion could detect PCV2 cap protein down to 0.01 ?g/lane and 0.05 ?g/ml in Western blot and direct ELISA respectively. When compared with a control indirect fluorescence assay (IFA), the ICC psdAb-AP fusion was more efficient, needed less operation steps and ended in a shorter time. The results demonstrate that the fusion of psdAb to AP provides a valuable route to the development of psdAb-based immuno-reagents, which offers a simple, convenient, and sensitive method for PCV2 detection. PMID:25512132

  16. CONSUMPTION OF PHOSPHORUS AND PRODUCTION OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE DUR-ING GROWTH OF Streptomyces coelicolor IN A RICH MEDIUM

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    Ismini Nakouti and Glyn Hobbs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Strteptomyces coelicolor in a complex medium containing yeast extract, malt extract and glucose exhibited a biphasic mode of biomass accumulation. The first phase was associated with rapid biomass formation, phosphorus utilisation and lack of pigment production. The second stage was marked by slower growth and pigment formation. The demarcation between these phases appeared to result from the depletion of phosphorus in the media, which in turn allowed the red prodigiosin-like pigment to be expressed. Biomass formation appeared to involve the accumulation of phosphorus in the cells reaching a maximum level of 3.7 % of the dry weight. The depletion of phosphorus provoked the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, which in turn produced a transient release of phosphorus into the medium, presumably from stored cellular phosphorus. Although glucose was consumed during growth, it did not constitute the only carbon source as the appearance of significant amounts of ammonium ions in the broth indicated deamination of amino compounds.

  17. Alkaline phosphatase, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 8 in the diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinoma from 148 pleura fluids specimens.

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    Temelli Ozlem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinomas are the most common cause of malignancy in pleura fluids. Usual primary sites include the lung, breast, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tracts. Predicting the site of origin of an adenocarcinoma can be difficult due to overlapping morphologic characteristics. We investigated the use of alkaline phosphatase (AP, Cytokeratin7 (CK7 Cytokeratin8 (CK8 to distinguish adenocarcinomas of lung in 148 body cavity fluid samples. Overall results for primary lung adenocarcinomas, demonstrated CK8 reactivity in 106 (72% of 148 cases. 95 primary lung carcinoma samples (65% were positive for CK7. AP was expressed in 81% of primary lung adenocarcinomas. Positive immunoreactivity for AP was characterized by a red, diffusely apical cytoplasmic staining in tumor cells that ocurred singly or in groups. There was a significant difference between AP, CK 7 and CK 8 expressions in primary lung adenocarcinomas (P=0.02; Chi-squared test. The sensitivity of AP, CK8, CK7 as a marker for primary lung adenocarcinomas were 82%, 72%, 64%, respectively. Thus the AP positive staining largely confirmed the cytologic diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma.

  18. Fungal pyrrolidine-containing metabolites inhibit alkaline phosphatase activity in bone morphogenetic protein-stimulated myoblastoma cells

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    Takashi Fukuda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP is a rare autosomal dominant congenital disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification in muscle tissues. A constitutively activated mutation of a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP receptor, ALK2, has been identified in patients with FOP. We report here that four structurally related compounds, lucilactaene, hydroxylucilactaene, NG-391 and NG-393, produced by fungal strain Fusarium sp. B88, inhibit BMP signaling in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker enzyme of osteoblastic differentiation, was decreased in C2C12 myoblasts stably expressing mutant ALK2 by treatment with those compounds with IC50 values of 5.7, 6.8, 6.9 and 6.1 ?M, respectively. Furthermore, NG-391 and NG-393 inhibited BMP-specific luciferase reporter activity, which is directly regulated by transcription factor Smads, with IC50 values of 1.4 and 2.1 ?M, respectively. These findings suggest that these fungal metabolites may provide a new direction in the development of FOP therapeutics.

  19. Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes: immunological and immunocytochemical analysis of the relationships between alkaline phosphatase and the Em2 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, P; Hemphill, A; Deplazes, P; Gottstein, B; Sarciron, M E

    1997-10-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes possess an alkaline phosphatase (EmAP) which has been extensively characterized at the biochemical level in previous studies. The apparent molecular weight of the enzyme monomer and its isoelectric point matched those originally described for the Em2 antigen, a reference antigen currently used for the immunodiagnosis of E. multilocularis infection. These observations raised questions about the molecular relationship between the two molecules. In order to investigate the relations between EmAP and the Em2 antigen, immunoblotting and ELISA were carried out using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies directed against EmAP and the Em2 antigen, respectively. In addition, the localization of EmAP and the Em2 antigen was compared by immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy in in vitro-generated E. multilocularis metacestodes. The results show that common epitopes between EmAP and Em2 exist, which are predominantly of a peptidic nature. Both antigens are localized in an acellular parasite structure, the laminated layer, with additional locations for the EmAP on the glycocalyx and in the central region of invaginated protoscoleces. These results suggest a putative functional relationship between the two antigens and that Em2 could originate from EmAP. PMID:9326889

  20. Aedes aegypti Membrane-Bound Alkaline Phosphatase Expressed in Escherichia coli Retains High-Affinity Binding for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba Toxin?

    OpenAIRE

    Thammasittirong, Anon; Dechklar, Manasave; Leetachewa, Somphob; Pootanakit, Kusol; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alkaline phosphatase (GPI-ALP) from the epithelial membrane of the larval midgut of Aedes aegypti was previously identified as a functional receptor of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin. Here, heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of the cloned ALP, lacking the secretion signal and GPI attachment sequences, and assessment of its binding characteristics were further investigated. The 54-kDa His tag-fused ALP overexpressed as an inclusion body was...

  1. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis ...

  2. Bacillus subtilis NhaC, an Na+/H+ Antiporter, Influences Expression of the phoPR Operon and Production of Alkaline Phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Prágai, Zoltán; Eschevins, Caroline; Bron, Sierd,; Harwood, Colin R.

    2001-01-01

    When Bacillus subtilis is subjected to phosphate starvation, genes of the Pho regulon are either induced or repressed. Among those induced are genes encoding alkaline phosphatases (APases). A set of isogenic mutants, with a ?-galactosidase gene transcriptionally fused to the inactivated target gene, was used to identify genes that influence the operation of the Pho regulon. One such gene was nhaC (previously yheL). In the absence of NhaC, growth and APase production were enhanced, while the ...

  3. Aspartic acid-484 of nascent placental alkaline phosphatase condenses with a phosphatidylinositol glycan to become the carboxyl terminus of the mature enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Micanovic, R; Bailey, C. A.; Brink, L.; Gerber, L; Pan, Y C; Hulmes, J D; Udenfriend, S.

    1988-01-01

    A carboxyl-terminal chymotryptic peptide from mature human placental alkaline phosphatase was purified by HPLC and monitored by a specific RIA. Sequencing and amino acid assay showed that the carboxyl terminus of the peptide was aspartic acid, representing residue 484 of the proenzyme as deduced from the corresponding cDNA. Further analysis of the peptide showed it to be a peptidoglycan containing one residue of ethanolamine, one residue of glucosamine, and two residues of neutral hexose. The...

  4. Changes in Expression of Connexin 32, Bile Canaliculus-Like Structures, and Localization of Alkaline Phosphatase in Primary Cultures of Fetal Rat Hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We devised an experimental design in primary cultures of fetal rat hepatocytes for studying hepatocyte differentiation over a short period. In the present study, hepatocytes were first cultured for 3 days in dexamethasone-supplemented medium and then for an additional 3 days in dexamethasone- or epidermal growth factor-supplemented medium. In hepatocytes cultured continuously in dexamethasone-supplemented medium, the expression of connexin 32 increased and bile canaliculus-like structures and localization of alkaline phosphatase in the plasma membrane around bile canaliculus-like structures were maintained. Few cells incorporated bromodeoxyuridine. On the other hand, in most of the hepatocytes cultured in epidermal growth factor-supplemented medium, the expression of connexin 32 was minimally recognized, bile canaliculus-like structures were shortened or eliminated, and alkaline phosphatase was localized as numerous fine spots throughout the cytoplasm. More than 20% of all hepatocytes incorporated bromodeoxyuridine. The present study suggests that in hepatocytes, there is a close relationship among connexin 32 expression, the maintenance of bile canaliculus-like structures, and the localization of alkaline phosphatase to the plasma membrane around the bile canaliculus-like structures, and this indicates that the present experimental model is useful for studying hepatocyte differentiation over a short period

  5. Evaluation of alkaline phosphatase activity and availability of various P fractions for bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in some calcareous soils amended with municipal sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raeisi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the relationship of various P fractions and alkaline phosphatase activity with bean indices growing in 10 calcareous soils, amended with municipal sewage sludge from Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province, a greenhouse research was carried out. Soil samples were incubated for one month with sludge at a rate equivalent to 1% (w/w. Then, the P fractions, including P adsorbed by Fe and Al oxides (]NaOH+CB]-P, occluded P (CBD-P and P absorbed by Ca (HCl-P, were determined by Olsen and Summers' sequential fractionation procedure. Furthermore, total P, organic P and residual P were determined. Also, alkaline phosphatase activity was measured. A pot experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications in the ten soils was done to evaluate the bean plant indices. The results showed that the amount of P fractions decreased in the following order: HCl-P>residual-P>]NaOH+CB]-P > OP>CBD-P. The results also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly correlated with CBD-P fraction, organic P and total P. In addition, significant correlations were found between ([NaOH+CB]-P and HCl-P and plant shoots. In general, the results of this research showed that P fractionation method appears to be a powerful tool to identify the P status and availability in the soils amended with sewage sludge.

  6. Prognostic significance of acid and alkaline phosphatases in head and neck cancer during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is an attempt to observe the prognostic value of ACP and ALP in head and neck cancer patients. This study has been carried out on 30 patients with proven malignancies of head and neck cancer stage II, III and IV, at Shree Bhagwan Mahaveer Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Jaipur. Patients of head and neck cancers were classified according to UICC classification. The blood samples were collected and serum ACP and ALP levels were estimated at three intervals during treatment i.e. before therapy, mid therapy (25-30 Gt exposure) and after completion (50-70 Gt exposure) of radiotherapy. The levels of levels of ACP and ALP before therapy in head and neck were higher which later declined during treatment and continued decreasing till the completion of the therapy

  7. Utilidad de la fosfatasa alcalina urinaria como marcador precoz de lesión tubular renal / Utility of urinary alkaline phosphatase as early marker of renal tubular failure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Beatriz, Di Carlo; Alejandra Gabriela, Gomez; Leticia Bibiana, Madalena; María Laura, Facio; Marco Antonio, Pizzolato; Gustavo Alberto, Negri.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina urinaria (FALur) para evaluar precozmente lesión tubular y su utilidad diagnóstica. Los pacientes estudiados fueron: 20 Controles (C), 11 hipertensos (HTA), 23 diabéticos (DBT) y 34 con insuficiencia renal de diverso or [...] igen (IRDO). Se realizaron las determinaciones de: creatinina, clearence de creatinina (Jaffé cinético), FAL sérica y urinaria (cinético DGKC), microalbuminuria (inmunoturbidimétrico), proteiunuria (turbidimétrico), uroproteinograma, SDS-PAGE (al 12,5%) e isoenzimograma de FAL. La FAL sérica hallada fue normal, sin diferencia entre grupos y sin relación con el aumento de la FALur. El valor de corte recomendado para FALur fue de 8 UI/L. La FALur estuvo elevada en HTA e IRDO y normal en individuos con DBT. Los aumentos de FALur en IRDO se relacionaron con la lesión tubular estructural y en pacientes con HTA podrían relacionarse con alteración tubular precoz. Se propone la determinación de FALur para la detección temprana de lesión tubular ante falla renal establecida o en individuos con riesgo de desarrollarla, y se establece su utilidad en pacientes: - con DBT y HTA para seguimiento (junto a microalbuminuria y clearence de creatinina), - internados en riesgo de insuficiencia renal aguda: para orientar tratamientos, - con insuficiencia renal crónica: como indicador de lesión y pronóstico. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the activity of urinary Alkaline Phosphatase (ALPur) to evaluate early tubular failure and its diagnostic usefulness. The patients studied were: 20 Controls (C), 11 with Hipertensión (HTA), 23 Diabetic (DBT) and 34 with renal Insufficiency of diverse orig [...] in (IRDO). The creatinine, creatinine clearence (kinetic Jaffé) serum and urinary ALP (kinetic DGKC), microalbuminuria (Immunoturbidimetric), proteiunuria (Turbidimetric), uroproteinogram, SDS-PAGE (12.5%) and ALP isoenzymes determinations were made. The results indicate that serum ALP was normal, without difference between groups, and no relation with the increase in ALPur. Recommended cut-off value of ALPur was 8 UI/L. ALPur was elevated in HTA and IRDO, and normal in DBT. Increases in ALPur in IRDO were related to the structural tubular injury, and those in HTA could be related to early tubular alteration. Determination of ALPur is proposed for early detection of tubular injury, before renal failure is established or when there is risk of developing it, establishing its usefulness in: - DBT and HTA patients: screening (together with microalbuminuria and creatinine clearence). - Hospitalized patients in risk of acute renal insufficiency: in order to orient treatments. - Patients with chronic renal insufficiency: as an indicator of injury and prognosis.

  8. Utilidad de la fosfatasa alcalina urinaria como marcador precoz de lesión tubular renal Utility of urinary alkaline phosphatase as early marker of renal tubular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beatriz Di Carlo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina urinaria (FALur para evaluar precozmente lesión tubular y su utilidad diagnóstica. Los pacientes estudiados fueron: 20 Controles (C, 11 hipertensos (HTA, 23 diabéticos (DBT y 34 con insuficiencia renal de diverso origen (IRDO. Se realizaron las determinaciones de: creatinina, clearence de creatinina (Jaffé cinético, FAL sérica y urinaria (cinético DGKC, microalbuminuria (inmunoturbidimétrico, proteiunuria (turbidimétrico, uroproteinograma, SDS-PAGE (al 12,5% e isoenzimograma de FAL. La FAL sérica hallada fue normal, sin diferencia entre grupos y sin relación con el aumento de la FALur. El valor de corte recomendado para FALur fue de 8 UI/L. La FALur estuvo elevada en HTA e IRDO y normal en individuos con DBT. Los aumentos de FALur en IRDO se relacionaron con la lesión tubular estructural y en pacientes con HTA podrían relacionarse con alteración tubular precoz. Se propone la determinación de FALur para la detección temprana de lesión tubular ante falla renal establecida o en individuos con riesgo de desarrollarla, y se establece su utilidad en pacientes: - con DBT y HTA para seguimiento (junto a microalbuminuria y clearence de creatinina, - internados en riesgo de insuficiencia renal aguda: para orientar tratamientos, - con insuficiencia renal crónica: como indicador de lesión y pronóstico.The objective of this study was to determine the activity of urinary Alkaline Phosphatase (ALPur to evaluate early tubular failure and its diagnostic usefulness. The patients studied were: 20 Controls (C, 11 with Hipertensión (HTA, 23 Diabetic (DBT and 34 with renal Insufficiency of diverse origin (IRDO. The creatinine, creatinine clearence (kinetic Jaffé serum and urinary ALP (kinetic DGKC, microalbuminuria (Immunoturbidimetric, proteiunuria (Turbidimetric, uroproteinogram, SDS-PAGE (12.5% and ALP isoenzymes determinations were made. The results indicate that serum ALP was normal, without difference between groups, and no relation with the increase in ALPur. Recommended cut-off value of ALPur was 8 UI/L. ALPur was elevated in HTA and IRDO, and normal in DBT. Increases in ALPur in IRDO were related to the structural tubular injury, and those in HTA could be related to early tubular alteration. Determination of ALPur is proposed for early detection of tubular injury, before renal failure is established or when there is risk of developing it, establishing its usefulness in: - DBT and HTA patients: screening (together with microalbuminuria and creatinine clearence. - Hospitalized patients in risk of acute renal insufficiency: in order to orient treatments. - Patients with chronic renal insufficiency: as an indicator of injury and prognosis.

  9. Variaciones de la enzima fosfatasa alcalina en la pulpa dental / Variations of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in the dental pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zoraida, Pons Pinillos; Nadia, Hernández Rodríguez.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas, numerosas investigaciones se han dedicado al estudio de los mecanismos potenciales implicados en el desarrollo de la caries dental y su prevención, sin embargo, a pesar de haber disminuido gradualmente el índice de caries en la población, son muchos los pacientes que necesita [...] n tratarse la caries dental, tal es así que continuamente se están utilizando diferentes materiales en la búsqueda de aquel que ante una agresión a la pulpa, ayude a una respuesta biológica de la misma, conservando de esta forma su integridad. De ahí la importancia de la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina de la pulpa en el proceso carioso, como una reacción ante el hidróxido de calcio que continuamente se está usando en toda la red docente-asistencial del país. Se seleccionaron 50 dientes monorradiculares, con pulpa viva y con caries de segundo, tercer y cuarto grado y 50 dientes sanos de pacientes de diferentes edades. Se extrajo la pulpa de cada diente y se realizaron improntas (3 por cada muestra), una de las cuales se procesó para obtener orientación morfológica, y las otras 2 para valorar la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina. Para esto se utilizaron 2 métodos: el de calcio cobalto y el de alpha naftol fosfato de Gomori. Como resultado, se obtuvo que la pulpa tiene más actividad enzimática en caries profunda y que la edad del paciente no determina el aumento o disminución de dicha actividad. Abstract in english In the last decades, numerous investigations have been made on the study of potential mechanisms involved in the development of dental caries and their prevention. However, in spite of the gradual reduction of dental caries in the population, a lot of patients need to have their dental caries treate [...] d and different materials are continuously used searching for one that before the aggression to the pulp helps it to give a biological response, conserving this way its integrity. That's why the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of the pulp in the caries process is important as a reaction to the calcium hydroxide that is constantly utilized in the teaching-health service network of the country. 50 monoradicular teeth with living pulp and with caries of second, third and fourth degree, and 50 sound teeth from patients of different ages were selected. The pulp of each tooth was extracted and impressions were made (3 per sample). One of them was processed to obtain morphological guidance and the other two to assess the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The cobalt calcium method and Gomori's alpha naphthol phosphate method were used to this end. As a result, it was proved that the pulp has a higher enzymatic activity in deep caries and that the age of the patient does not determine the increase or decrease of this activity.

  10. Variaciones de la enzima fosfatasa alcalina en la pulpa dental Variations of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in the dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Pons Pinillos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas, numerosas investigaciones se han dedicado al estudio de los mecanismos potenciales implicados en el desarrollo de la caries dental y su prevención, sin embargo, a pesar de haber disminuido gradualmente el índice de caries en la población, son muchos los pacientes que necesitan tratarse la caries dental, tal es así que continuamente se están utilizando diferentes materiales en la búsqueda de aquel que ante una agresión a la pulpa, ayude a una respuesta biológica de la misma, conservando de esta forma su integridad. De ahí la importancia de la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina de la pulpa en el proceso carioso, como una reacción ante el hidróxido de calcio que continuamente se está usando en toda la red docente-asistencial del país. Se seleccionaron 50 dientes monorradiculares, con pulpa viva y con caries de segundo, tercer y cuarto grado y 50 dientes sanos de pacientes de diferentes edades. Se extrajo la pulpa de cada diente y se realizaron improntas (3 por cada muestra, una de las cuales se procesó para obtener orientación morfológica, y las otras 2 para valorar la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina. Para esto se utilizaron 2 métodos: el de calcio cobalto y el de alpha naftol fosfato de Gomori. Como resultado, se obtuvo que la pulpa tiene más actividad enzimática en caries profunda y que la edad del paciente no determina el aumento o disminución de dicha actividad.In the last decades, numerous investigations have been made on the study of potential mechanisms involved in the development of dental caries and their prevention. However, in spite of the gradual reduction of dental caries in the population, a lot of patients need to have their dental caries treated and different materials are continuously used searching for one that before the aggression to the pulp helps it to give a biological response, conserving this way its integrity. That's why the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of the pulp in the caries process is important as a reaction to the calcium hydroxide that is constantly utilized in the teaching-health service network of the country. 50 monoradicular teeth with living pulp and with caries of second, third and fourth degree, and 50 sound teeth from patients of different ages were selected. The pulp of each tooth was extracted and impressions were made (3 per sample. One of them was processed to obtain morphological guidance and the other two to assess the activity of alkaline phosphatase. The cobalt calcium method and Gomori's alpha naphthol phosphate method were used to this end. As a result, it was proved that the pulp has a higher enzymatic activity in deep caries and that the age of the patient does not determine the increase or decrease of this activity.

  11. Arginine Coordination in Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer: Evaluation of the Effect of Arg166 Mutations in Escherichia Coli Alkaline Phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arginine residues are commonly found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer reactions. Numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments establish the importance of these residues for efficient catalysis, but their role in catalysis is not clear. To examine the role of arginine residues in the phosphoryl transfer reaction, we have measured the consequences of mutations to arginine 166 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase on hydrolysis of ethyl phosphate, on individual reaction steps in the hydrolysis of the covalent enzyme-phosphoryl intermediate, and on thio substitution effects. The results show that the role of the arginine side chain extends beyond its positive charge, as the Arg166Lys mutant is as compromised in activity as Arg166Ser. Through measurement of individual reaction steps, we construct a free energy profile for the hydrolysis of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate. This analysis indicates that the arginine side chain strengthens binding by ?3 kcal/mol and provides an additional 1-2 kcal/mol stabilization of the chemical transition state. A 2.1 (angstrom) X-ray diffraction structure of Arg166Ser AP is presented, which shows little difference in enzyme structure compared to the wild-type enzyme but shows a significant reorientation of the bound phosphate. Altogether, these results support a model in which the arginine contributes to catalysis through binding interactions and through additional transition state stabilization that mal transition state stabilization that may arise from complementarity of the guanidinum group to the geometry of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state

  12. A GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase is a functional midgut receptor of Cry11Aa toxin in Aedes aegypti larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Luisa E.; Aimanova, Karlygash G.; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2005-01-01

    A 65 kDa GPI (glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol)-anchored ALP (alkaline phosphatase) was characterized as a functional receptor of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin in Aedes aegypti midgut cells. Two (a 100 kDa and a 65 kDa) GPI-anchored proteins that bound Cry11Aa toxin were preferentially extracted after treatment of BBMV (brush boder membrane vesicles) from Ae. aegypti midgut epithelia with phospholipase C. The 65 kDa protein was further purified by toxin affinity chromatography. The 65 kDa protein showed ALP activity. The peptide-displaying phages (P1.BBMV and P8.BBMV) that bound to the 65 kDa GPI–ALP (GPI-anchored ALP) and competed with the Cry11Aa toxin to bind to BBMV were isolated by selecting BBMV-binding peptide-phages by biopanning. GPI–ALP was shown to be preferentially distributed in Ae. aegypti in the posterior part of the midgut and in the caeca, by using P1.BBMV binding to fixed midgut tissue sections to determine the location of GPI–ALP. Cry11Aa binds to the same regions of the midgut and competed with P1.BBMV and P8.BBMV to bind to BBMV. The importance of this interaction was demonstrated by the in vivo attenuation of Cry11Aa toxicity in the presence of these phages. Our results shows that GPI–ALP is an important receptor molecule involved in Cry11Aa interaction with midgut cells and toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae. PMID:16255715

  13. One-step immunoassay for tetrabromobisphenol a using a camelid single domain antibody-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Majkova, Zuzana; Bever, Candace R S; Yang, Jun; Gee, Shirley J; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-05-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a ubiquitous brominated flame retardant, showing widespread environmental and human exposures. A variable domain of the heavy chain antibody (VHH), naturally occurring in camelids, approaches the lower size limit of functional antigen-binding entities. The ease of genetic manipulation makes such VHHs a superior choice to use as an immunoreagent. In this study, a highly selective anti-TBBPA VHH T3-15 fused with alkaline phosphatase (AP) from E. coli was expressed, showing both an integrated TBBPA-binding capacity and enzymatic activity. A one-step immunoassay based on the fusion protein T3-15-AP was developed for TBBPA in 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), with a half-maximum signal inhibition concentration (IC50) of 0.20 ng mL(-1). Compared to the parental VHH T3-15, T3-15-AP was able to bind to a wider variety of coating antigens and the assay sensitivity was slightly improved. Cross-reactivity of T3-15-AP with a set of important brominated analogues was negligible (<0.1%). Although T3-15-AP was susceptible to extreme heat (90 °C), much higher binding stability at ambient temperature was observed in the T3-15-AP-based assay for at least 70 days. A simple pretreatment method of diluting urine samples with DMSO was developed for a one-step assay. The recoveries of TBBPA from urine samples via this one-step assay ranged from 96.7% to 109.9% and correlated well with a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) method. It is expected that the dimerized fusion protein, VHH-AP, will show promising applications in human exposure and environmental monitoring. PMID:25849972

  14. A comparative study of two different assay kits for the detection of secreted alkaline phosphatase in HPV antibody neutralization assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J; Matsui, Ken; Shelton, Gloriana; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Pinto, Ligia A

    2015-01-01

    To assess immunogenicity and development of antibodies in the context of vaccination, it is critical to quantify titers of neutralizing antibodies. We have been employing the 293TT cell-based neutralization assay system to quantify anti-HPV neutralizing antibodies. In this system, human papillomavirus (HPV) pseudovirion (PsV) particles encapsidating secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene are used to measure infection of 293TT cells in 72-hr cell-culture supernatants. SEAP has traditionally been measured by Great EscAPe™ SEAP Chemiluminescence Kit 2.0 (GE). To reduce the cost, and to potentially increase efficiency, we sought a cheaper kit with better detection capability. Performance characteristics of the newer chemiluminescence kit, ZiVa® Ultra SEAP Plus Assay (Ziva) and GE were compared using the 293TT system. Dose titration of HPV PsV 16 or 18 showed that signal-to-noise ratios at 48 and 72 hr post-infection were higher for ZiVa at nearly all doses. ZiVa was superior to GE as it was able to detect SEAP at 48 hr, as well as when lower numbers of 293TT cells were used. The ability of ZiVa to quantitate HPV-16 and -18 neutralizing antibody titers was tested using sera from Cervarix® immunized individuals. Spearman rank correlational analyses showed excellent correlations between the titers obtained with ZiVa and GE for anti-HPV16 (r = 0.9822, p < 0.0001) and anti-HPV18 (r = 0.9832, p < 0.0001) antibodies. We concluded that ZiVa is superior to GE in detecting SEAP, and the antibody titers in sera of vaccinated individuals were similar to those obtained with GE. Thus, Ziva is a suitable alternative to GE. PMID:25695397

  15. Association of Cry1Ac toxin resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with increased alkaline phosphatase levels in the midgut lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Ferré, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix ?-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  16. Introduction of a plasmid-encoded phoA gene for constitutive overproduction of alkaline phosphatase in three subsurface Pseudomonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Leigh G; Mills, Heath J; Palumbo, Anthony V; Zhang, Chuanlun; Delaney, Kelly; Sobecky, Patricia A

    2002-08-01

    Abstract Three bacterial isolates, Pseudomonas fluorescens F1, Pseudomonas rhodesiae R1 and Pseudomonas veronii V1 were genetically modified by introduction of a plasmid, pJH123, with a phoA hybrid gene that directed constitutive overproduction of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. The presence of the plasmid in the bacterial hosts elevated extracytoplasmic alkaline phosphatase production from 100- to 820-fold. The growth and survival of the plasmid-bearing hosts in sterilized soil slurries was comparable to parental control strains. In the absence of antibiotic selection, pJH123 was maintained in two of the three hosts (P. fluorescens F1 and P. veronii V1) during incubation in minimal medium. The effects of the genetically enhanced pseudomonads on the liberation of inorganic phosphate (PO(4) (3-)) were determined in sterilized soil slurries following the addition of an organophosphorus compound, glycerol-3-phosphate. A significant accumulation of PO(4) (3-) was measured in soil slurries amended with 10 mM glycerol-3-phosphate and any of the three phosphatase-enhanced pseudomonad isolates. In contrast, soil slurries containing unmodified parental strains did not exhibit significant PO(4) (3-) accumulation. Two of the three enhanced phosphate-liberating strains released sufficient PO(4) (3-) that cell-free supernatants from sterilized soil slurry incubations removed significant amounts of uranium (as much as 69%) from solution. PMID:19709245

  17. Effect of Zinc from Zinc Sulfate on Ewes` Weight, Milk Yield, Zn Concentrations in Serum and Serum Alkaline Phosphates Activity of Varamini Ewes

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zali; A. Nik-Khah; A. Zare Shahneh; K. Rezayazdi; M. Ganjkhanlou

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (0, 15 and 30 mg/kg) on ewes weight, milk production, Zn concentrations in serum and serum alkaline phosphates activity. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk production and lambs sex in a completely randomized design. Ewes were fed a basal diet containing alfalfa, wheat straw, cottonseed meal, b...

  18. The expression of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) and PLAP-like enzymes in normal and neoplastic human tissues. An immunohistological survey using monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen Jacques; Lou, H

    1990-01-01

    The immunohistological expression of placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) and PLAP-like enzyme was studied in frozen sections from a wide variety (n = 254) of normal and malignant tissues using monoclonal antibodies reactive with PLAP (H317) and PLAP/PLAP-like enzyme (H17E2; H315). PLAP/PLAP-like reactivity was seen in normal thymus, and foetal and neonatal testis, and in 21 out of 22 malignant germ cell tumours (GCTs), but was also found in normal endocervix, normal Fallopian tube and in 28 out of 167 non-GCTs (particularly in ovarian and proximal gastrointestinal tract tumours). Positivity for true PLAP (as demonstrated with H317) was seen in term placenta, in endocervix, and in Fallopian tube (but not in other normal tissues) and was commonly found in ovarian and proximal gastrointestinal tract tumours. Reactivity with H317 was unusual in malignant GCTs (2 out of 22 cases). These findings confirm that PLAP/PLAP-like positivity is a highly sensitive immunohistological marker for malignant GCTs, but one which by itself is of only moderate specificity. Furthermore, expression of true PLAP is rare in GCTs and favours instead an origin from the ovary or proximal gastrointestinal tract. The results also indicate that the predominant heat-stable alkaline phosphatase species in normal foetal and neonatal testis, and in thymus has a similar immunohistological profile to that found in malignant GCTs, and is a PLAP-like enzyme ("germ cell alkaline phosphatase") distinct from true PLAP. The occurrence of this marker in GCTs would appear to reflect increased eutopic production of an enzyme present in trace amount in corresponding normal tissues rather than a genuine example of ectopic expression.

  19. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone resorption ). ^ Back to top Ask a Laboratory Scientist Form temporarily unavailable Due to a dramatic increase ... Paget's Disease of Bone » See all Article Sources Article Sources « Return to Related Pages NOTE: This article ...

  20. Post-traumatic dynamic change of carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen, alkaline phosphatase and its isoenzymes as predictors for enhanced osteogenesis in patients with severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildburger, R; Zarkovic, N; Dobnig, H; Petek, W; Hofer, H P

    1994-01-01

    Patients suffering from severe head injury and fractures of long bones or large joints often show enhanced osteogenesis, with hypertrophic callus formation and/or heterotopic ossifications. The advantage of this phenomenon is early consolidation of the fractures. An extreme disadvantage is extensive periarticular calcification, resulting in complete ankylosis of the affected joint. In spite of numerous efforts aimed at clarifying the way in which severe head injury can influence osteogenesis at a distant site, this phenomenon is still not understood. The process, once started, seems irreversible, but if diagnosed in time, could be prevented with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs that inhibit development of heterotopic ossifications. The major prerequisite for testing this possibility is to define parameters of an early diagnosis of enhanced osteogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study was to test whether serum values of some parameters related to bone regeneration could allow an early prediction of enhanced ossification following bone fracture in patients with severe head injury. Samples of sera were obtained from three groups of injured patients: fractures of long bones or large joints only (n = 6), severe head injury only (n = 8), severe head injury and fractures of long bones and large joints (n = 7) and from a group of apparently healthy volunteers (n = 10). The values for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the bone isoenzyme, and the carboxy terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) were significantly higher (5-20 times as high) in patients with severe head injury and bone or joint fractures than in any other group. Significantly increased concentrations of PICP were already found in the 1st week after injury, and those of ALP and of the bone isoenzyme increased during the 2nd week after injury. Results show that these parameters are helpful for an early diagnosis of enhanced osteogenesis and heterotopic ossifications in patients with severe head injury and bone fractures. Further studies are necessary to verify these findings, while analysis of reasons for the specific patterns of dynamic change of these parameters could lead to better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the uncontrolled bone formation. PMID:7800934

  1. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant for the whole data set. Regulation of APA was demonstrated by an inverse hyperbolic relationship between bulk APA, specific APA, and DRP, with a transition from high to low activity occurring between 20 and 50 ?g L-1. This study provides a better understanding of how APA and P cycling change with nutrient perturbations in Lake Taihu system. The obtained results can help understanding the process of P cycling in water and providing a reference for nutrient control in the water transfer project.

  2. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibits the Translocation of Bacteria of Gut-Origin in Mice with Peritonitis: Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Shan-Wen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Chen, Guo-Wei; Liu, Yu-Cun; Wang, Peng-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Exogenous intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an enzyme produced endogenously at the brush edge of the intestinal mucosa, may mitigate the increase in aberrant intestinal permeability increased during sepsis. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the inhibitory effect of IAP on acute intestinal inflammation and to study the molecular mechanisms underlying IAP in ameliorating intestinal permeability. We used an in vivo imaging method to evaluate disease status and the curative effect of IAP. Two Escherichia coli (E.coli) B21 strains, carrying EGFP labeled enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and RFP labeled red fluorescent protein (RFP), were constructed as tracer bacteria and were administered orally to C57/B6N mice to generate an injection peritonitis (IP) model. The IP model was established by injecting inflammatory lavage fluid. C57/B6N mice bearing the tracer bacteria were subsequently treated with (IP+IAP group), or without IAP (IP group). IAP was administered to the mice via tail vein injections. The amount of tracer bacteria in the blood, liver, and lungs at 24 h post-injection was analyzed via flow cytometry (FCM), in vivo imaging, and Western blotting. Intestinal barrier function was measured using a flux assay with the macro-molecule fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran, molecular weight 40kD, (FD40). To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of IAP, we examined the levels of ERK phosphorylation, and the expression levels of proteins in the ERK-SP1-VEGF and ERK-Cdx-2-Claudin-2 pathways. We observed that IAP inhibited the expression of Claudin-2, a type of cation channel-forming protein, and VEGF, a cytokine that may increase intestinal permeability by reducing the levels of dephosphorylated ERK. In conclusion, exogenous IAP shows a therapeutic effect in an injection peritonitis model. This including inhibition of bacterial translocation. Moreover, we have established an imaging methodology for live-animals can effectively evaluate intestinal permeability and aberrant bacterial translocation in IP models. PMID:25946026

  3. Resveratrol Increases Bone Mineral Density and Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Obese Men : A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornstrup, Marie Juul; HarslØf, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Context: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with low-grade inflammation, which may harmfully affect bone. Resveratrol (RSV) possesses anti-inflammatory properties, and rodent studies suggest bone protective effects. Objective: This study sought to evaluate effects of RSV treatment on bone in men with MetS. Setting and Design: The study was conducted at Aarhus University Hospital as a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial assessing changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD), and geometry. Participants: The study population comprised 74 middle-aged obese men with MetS recruited from the general community, of which 66 completed all visits. Mean age of participants was 49.3 ± 6.3 years and mean body mass index was 33.7 ± 3.6 kg/m(2). Intervention: Oral treatment with 1.000 mg RSV (RSVhigh), 150mg RSV (RSVlow), or placebo daily for 16 weeks. Main Outcome Measure: Prespecified primary endpoint was change in bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP). Results: BAP increased dose dependently with RSV (R = 0.471, P < .001), resulting in a significantly greater increase in BAP in the RSVhigh group compared with placebo at all time-points (week 4, 16.4 ± 4.2%, P < .001; week 8, 16.5 ± 4.1%, P < .001; week 16, 15.2 ± 3.7%, P < .001). Lumbar spine trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (LS vBMDtrab) also increased dose dependently with RSV (R = 0.268, P = .036), with a significant increase of 2.6 ± 1.3% in the RSVhigh group compared with placebo (P = .043). In addition, changes in BAP and LS vBMDtrab were positively correlated (R = 0.281, P = .027). No consistent changes were detected in bone density at the hip. Conclusions: Our data suggest that high-dose RSV supplementation positively affects bone, primarily by stimulating formation or mineralization. Future studies of longer duration comprising populations at risk of osteoporosis are needed to confirm these results.

  4. Osteoblast response (initial adhesion and alkaline phosphatase activity following exposure to a barrier membrane/enamel matrix derivative combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangakumaran S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The enamel matrix derivative (EMD has been used in combination with barrier membranes to optimize regeneration in vertical osseous defects. However, the osteoblast response when exposed to the EMD/barrier membrane combination has not yet been evaluated. The osteoblast behavior when exposed to a combination of regenerative materials must be evaluated to fully understand their effect on bone regeneration. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to estimate the initial adhesion and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity of an osteoblast cell line (SaOS-2 when exposed to four commercially available resorbable membranes and determine if the addition of EMD had any modulatory effect on osteoblast behavior. Materials and Methods: 5 x 104 SaOS-2 cells between passages 7-10 were cultured in two 24-well culture plates. Plate A was used for the adhesion assay and Plate B was used for the ALP assay. A MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was done after 24 hours to determine the adhesion of the osteoblastic cells to four barrier membranes: 1 a non cross-linked porcine Type I and III collagen membrane (BG, 2 a weakly cross-linked Type I collagen membrane (HG, 3 a glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine Type I collagen (BM, and 4 a resorbable polymer membrane (CP. Osteoblast differentiation was studied using an ALP assay with p-nitro phenyl phosphate as the substrate at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 1 week. A total of 50 µg/ml of EMD dissolved in 10 mM acetic acid was added into each well and the entire experimental protocol outlined above was repeated. Results: The osteoblast adhesion to collagen barriers showed a statistically insignificant reduction following the addition of EMD. Adhesion to the polymer barrier, although significantly lower when compared with collagen barriers, was unaffected by the addition of EMD. ALP activity after 1 week among the various groups was as follows: EMD alone (75.59±2.5>EMD/BG(64.78±3.04>EMD/HG(55.40±3.89?EMD/BM(54.75±4.17>BG (51.32±2.76>HG(49.92±2.4>BM(48.14±1.4>Control(46.29±1.39>EMD/CP (37.46±3.54>CP(32.12±1.49 Conclusion: There was no additive effect on osteoblast adhesion/ALP activity following exposure to an EMD/polymer combination. EMD/collagen positively influences osteoblast differentiation in a time dependent manner.

  5. An evaluation on the activity level of Aspartate aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphatase nzymes in peri-implant sulcus fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknegad M. Assistant Professor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The correlation between the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes in gingival sulcular fluid (GCF with inflammation and periodontal attachment loss has been proved, however there are not adequate studies about dental implants. Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the presence and activity level of AST & ALP and their correlation with pocket depth (PD and bleeding of peri-implant slcular fluid (PISF, and to evaluate the possibility of using these assessments as a diagnostic index in oral implantology. Material and Methods: In this study, 41 implants as test group and 41 contralateral teeth as control group, in 21 patients were evaluated. At first visit, the general information about implants and the values of pocket probing depth (PPD, modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBl and modified plaque index (mPI were recorded. At the second visit, samples of GCF/PISF were collected. AST & ALP activity was determined spectrophotometrically and data were analyzed by "t", "Mann-Whitney" tests and Pearson Spearman correlation coefficient."nResults: The results showed that there was a significant difference in the activity of AST between two study groups (P<0.0001. The average activity of ALP in test group was more than control group but the difference was not significant. After elimination of the confounding variables, the average AST in test group was 54.6 (S£=2.3 and in control groups was 44.8 (SE=2.3 (P=0.004. The average ALP in test group (SE=2.2 and in control (SE=2.2 were 36.6 and 35.4, respectively. Values of AST and ALP were positively correlated with other clinical parameters such as PD and mSBI which was significant in test group."nConclusion: The present study suggests that PISF analysis could be considered as a proper diagnostic strategy in the evaluation of dental implant success.

  6. Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Is Activated via a Two-step Mechanism by Zinc Transport Complexes in the Early Secretory Pathway*

    OpenAIRE

    Fukunaka, Ayako; Kurokawa, Yayoi; Teranishi, Fumie; Sekler, Israel; Oda, Kimimitsu; Ackland, M. Leigh; Faundez, Victor; Hiromura, Makoto; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kambe, Taiho

    2011-01-01

    A number of enzymes become functional by binding to zinc during their journey through the early secretory pathway. The zinc transporters (ZnTs) located there play important roles in this step. We have previously shown that two zinc transport complexes, ZnT5/ZnT6 heterodimers and ZnT7 homo-oligomers, are required for the activation of alkaline phosphatases, by converting them from the apo- to the holo-form. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this activation. ZnT1 and ZnT4 expres...

  7. Aedes aegypti alkaline phosphatase ALP1 is a functional receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins

    OpenAIRE

    Jime?nez, Alan I.; Reyes, Esmeralda Z.; Cancino-rodezno, Angeles; Bedoya-pe?rez, Leidy P.; Caballero-flores, Gustavo G.; Muriel-millan, Luis F.; Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Bravo, Alejandra; Sobero?n, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subs. israelensis produces at least three Cry toxins (Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Aa) that are active against Aedes aegypti larvae. Previous work characterized a GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase (ALP1) as a Cry11Aa binding molecule from the gut of A. aegypti larvae. We show here that Cry4Ba binds ALP1, and that the binding and toxicity of Cry4Ba mutants located in loop 2 of domain II is correlated. Also, we analyzed the contribution of ALP1 towards the toxicity of Cry4Ba ...

  8. Cloning and Epitope Mapping of Cry11Aa-Binding Sites in the Cry11Aa-Receptor Alkaline Phosphatase from Aedes aegypti†

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Luisa E.; Martinez-Anaya, Claudia; Lira, Erandi; Chen, Jianwu; Evans, Amy; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Cry11Aa is the most active Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis toxin against Aedes aegypti larvae. Ae. aegypti alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was previously identified as a Cry11Aa receptor mediating toxicity. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of this Ae. aegypti Cry11Aa-ALP receptor. Of three ALP’s cDNA clones, the recombinant produced ALP1 isoform was shown to bind Cry11Aa and P1.BBMV peptide phage that specifically binds the midgut ALP-Cry11Aa receptor. An anti-ALP1 a...

  9. Effects of dietary vitamin E on mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities and on the amount of mucosal malonyldialdehyde in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hamid Farrokhifar; Ramezan Ali Jafari; Naeem Erfani Majd; Seyed Reza Fatemi Tabatabaee; Mansour Mayahi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin E levels on mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activities and on the amount of mucosal malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in broiler chickens were studied in the present study. One hundred and eighty of male day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 strain) were randomly assigned into five groups, each with three replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate. Chickens in group A were fed corn-soy- based diet, while those in groups B, C, D and E were fed the same die...

  10. Role of heat stable fraction of alkaline phosphatase as an adjunct to ca 125 in monitoring patients of epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, P. K.; Jain, A.; Goyal, P.; Chitra, R.

    2005-01-01

    Heat stable fraction (HSF) of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was evaluated as an adjunct to CA 125 as a tumour marker for epithelial ovarian cancer in a follow-up study. In our study group 63.4% of patients had elevated HSF levels (?10U/L) and 93.3% had elevated CA 125 levels (>35U/mL). The sensitivity of CA 125 and HSF was 93.3% and 63.3% respectively. The decline in the activity of HSF, over the pre-op levels was highly significant after the first (p=0.001) chemotherapy cycle and significant ...

  11. Identification of the genetic locus for the structural gene and a new regulatory gene for the synthesis of repressible alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Y.; Toh-e, A.; Oshima, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Two lines of evidence showed that the PHO8 gene encodes the structure of repressible, nonspecific alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: (i) the enzyme produced by a temperature-sensitive pho8 mutant at the permissive temperature (25 degrees C) was more thermolabile than that of the wild-type strain, and (ii) the PHO8 gene showed a gene dosage effect on the enzyme activity. The pho8 locus has been mapped on chromosome IV, 8 centimorgans distal to rna3. A new mutant carrying the pho...

  12. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. ? Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. ? Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. ? The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 oC or 65 oC, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  13. The value of prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen as serum markers in carcinoma of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akda?, A; Sim?ek, F; Ilker, Y; Türkeri, L; Ercan, H

    1993-01-01

    The value of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) as serum markers in carcinoma of the prostate (CaP) was investigated in this study. A group of 75 patients entered this trial, 25 with CaP, 25 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 25 with urologic disorders other than prostatic diseases. In the CaP group, PAP was above normal levels in 48% of the patients and PSA in 92%. In the BPH group these rates were 20% and 72%, respectively. No elevation was detected in the third group. In CaP patients with capsular invasion, PAP and PSA levels were above normal in 25 and 87.5%. In metastatic carcinoma, PAP was high in 75% and PSA in 100%. Our study reveals that neither of these markers is useful in the initial diagnosis of CaP. Though PSA seems to be more sensitive, it is not more specific than PAP. PMID:7693607

  14. A phage-displayed chicken single-chain antibody fused to alkaline phosphatase detects Fusarium pathogens and their presence in cereal grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A phage-displayed chicken scFv antibody, FvSG7, binds on the surface antigen of conidiospores and the mycelia of F. verticillioides. Its fusion with alkaline phosphatase (AP) through a 218 linker displayed a 4-fold higher affinity compared with the parent scFv antibody and efficiently detected toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. Highlights: ? Generation of a highly reactive scFv antibody against F. verticillioides. ? Localization of the antibody binding to the surface target of F. verticillioides. ? Expression of the antibody–alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion linked by a 218 linker. ? The antibody–AP fusion has a higher affinity than the parental antibody. ? The antibody–AP fusion detects toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. -- Abstract: Fusarium and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. A simple analytical method to detect pathogens is essential for forecasting diseases and controlling mycotoxins. This article describes a proposed method for convenient and sensitive detection of Fusarium pathogens that uses the fusion of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). A highly reactive scFv antibody specific to soluble cell wall-bound proteins (SCWPs) of F. verticillioides was selected from an immunized chicken phagemid library by phage display. The antibody was verified to bind on the surface of ungerminated conidiospores and mycelia of F. verticillioides. The scFv–AP fusion was constructed, and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed. Both the antibody properties and enzymatic activity were retained, and the antigen-binding capacity of the fusion was enhanced by the addition of a linker. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed that the fusion displayed 4-fold higher affinity compared with the fusion's parental scFv antibody. Immunoblot analyses showed that the fusion had good binding capacity to the components from SCWPs of F. verticillioides, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that the detection limit of the fungus was below 10?2 ?g mL?1, superior to the scFv antibody. The fusion protein was able to detect fungal concentrations as low as 10?3 mg g?1 of maize grains in both naturally and artificially contaminated samples. Thus, the fusion can be applied in rapid and simple diagnosis of Fusarium contamination in field and stored grain or in food

  15. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity as a molecular marker of enterotoxicity induced by single dose of 5-fluorouracil and protective role of orally administered glutamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajin-Kati? Katica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the critical limitations for the administration of the chemotherapy is the toxicity affecting normal tissue. The main target organs for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU toxicity in humans and experimental animals are the gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, and skin. The cytotoxic effects of antimetabolite chemotherapy are based on their role as substrates for the same transport processes and enzymes involved in anabolism and catabolism as the natural substrates. The main goal of our study was to analyze the dose-dependent antiproliferative effects of 5-FU on intestinal mucosa, enterotoxic potential of 5-FU in experimental animals and to test possible protective role of glutamine. Methods. In our study, we used Sprague Dawley rats. The control group of rats included 50 animals, while the groups where either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU alone or 5-FU and glutamine were administered included 200 animals. All experimental animals were further stratified according to the experimental model (25 animals in each of 8 experimental subgroups of animals. The 5-FU was administered by intraperitoneal application in single dose of 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg of 5-FU per kg of body weight. Water solution of 1% glutamine was prepared daily and administered orally, in volume of 200 ml, for 7 days continuously, after the 7th day of 5-FU administration. Experimental animals were sacrificed 7 days after the administration of 5-FU. The isolation of enterocytes was performed according to the method of Kralovansky et al. In cell homogenate obtained by described method, we determined the protein content using the Biuret method and the DNA content using the Burton reagent. The activities of enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were determined by kinetic method. All paraffin samples of the small intestine were stained by haematoxiline and eosine(HE method. All the experiments were done in duplicate and analyzed by standard statistical methods. All the experiments were done in duplicate and analyzed by standard statistical methods. Results: Our results of enterotoxicity induced by intraperitonealy administered 5-FU showed statistically significant decrease of DNA content in small intestine samples of experimental animals, decrease in activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase enzyme and the increase in glutathione-dependent enzymes. The glutamine supplementation reduced 5-FU intestinal toxicity. Conclusion: Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a good marker of the dose-dependent enterotoxicity induced by 5-fluorouracil.

  16. A phage-displayed chicken single-chain antibody fused to alkaline phosphatase detects Fusarium pathogens and their presence in cereal grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zu-Quan [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li, He-Ping [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing-Bo [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Huang, Tao [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Jin-Long; Xue, Sheng [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu, Ai-Bo [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1000 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Liao, Yu-Cai, E-mail: ycliao06@yahoo.com.cn [Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); National Center of Plant Gene Research, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-02-18

    Graphical abstract: A phage-displayed chicken scFv antibody, FvSG7, binds on the surface antigen of conidiospores and the mycelia of F. verticillioides. Its fusion with alkaline phosphatase (AP) through a 218 linker displayed a 4-fold higher affinity compared with the parent scFv antibody and efficiently detected toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. Highlights: ? Generation of a highly reactive scFv antibody against F. verticillioides. ? Localization of the antibody binding to the surface target of F. verticillioides. ? Expression of the antibody–alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion linked by a 218 linker. ? The antibody–AP fusion has a higher affinity than the parental antibody. ? The antibody–AP fusion detects toxigenic Fusarium pathogens in cereal grains. -- Abstract: Fusarium and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. A simple analytical method to detect pathogens is essential for forecasting diseases and controlling mycotoxins. This article describes a proposed method for convenient and sensitive detection of Fusarium pathogens that uses the fusion of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). A highly reactive scFv antibody specific to soluble cell wall-bound proteins (SCWPs) of F. verticillioides was selected from an immunized chicken phagemid library by phage display. The antibody was verified to bind on the surface of ungerminated conidiospores and mycelia of F. verticillioides. The scFv–AP fusion was constructed, and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed. Both the antibody properties and enzymatic activity were retained, and the antigen-binding capacity of the fusion was enhanced by the addition of a linker. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed that the fusion displayed 4-fold higher affinity compared with the fusion's parental scFv antibody. Immunoblot analyses showed that the fusion had good binding capacity to the components from SCWPs of F. verticillioides, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that the detection limit of the fungus was below 10{sup ?2} ?g mL{sup ?1}, superior to the scFv antibody. The fusion protein was able to detect fungal concentrations as low as 10{sup ?3} mg g{sup ?1} of maize grains in both naturally and artificially contaminated samples. Thus, the fusion can be applied in rapid and simple diagnosis of Fusarium contamination in field and stored grain or in food.

  17. Midgut GPI-anchored proteins with alkaline phosphatase activity from the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) are putative receptors for the Cry1B protein of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Erica Soares; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Queiroz, Paulo Roberto; Dumas, Vinicius Fiuza; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; de Souza Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner; Gomes, Ana Cristina Menezes Mendes; Sánchez, Jorge; Bravo, Alejandra; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2010-02-01

    Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used for insect control. They interact with specific receptors located on the host cell surface and are activated by host proteases following receptor binding resulting in midgut epithelial cells lysis. In this work we had cloned, sequenced and expressed a cry1Ba toxin gene from the B thuringiensis S601 strain which was previously shown to be toxic to Anthonomus grandis, a cotton pest. The Cry1Ba6 protein expressed in an acrystaliferous B. thuringiensis strain was toxic to A. grandis in bioassays. The binding of Cry1Ba6 toxin to proteins located in the midgut brush border membrane of A. grandis was analyzed and we found that Cry1Ba6 binds to two proteins (62 and 65kDa) that showed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. This work is the first report that shows the localization of Cry toxin receptors in the midgut cells of A. grandis. PMID:20079436

  18. Validation of an analytical procedure for the determination of alkaline and alkaline- earth metals in mices´serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between drugs or toxic substances with human body, and in particular those which transit natural barriers and get inside blood vessels, could to produce incorrect ions balance due to formation of aducts or for biological membrane damage and chemical alteration of ions in the surrounding. For this reason it is important to determine those elements in serum of test animals to establish experimental conditions for preclinic toxicological tests. In the present work, the results of design and validation of analytical procedures for the determination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium from NMRI mouse’s serum using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedures are recommended because they use a very little amount of serum sample, as well as their performance characteristics, like precision, trueness, sensibility and selectivity.

  19. Aedes aegypti membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase expressed in Escherichia coli retains high-affinity binding for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasittirong, Anon; Dechklar, Manasave; Leetachewa, Somphob; Pootanakit, Kusol; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2011-10-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alkaline phosphatase (GPI-ALP) from the epithelial membrane of the larval midgut of Aedes aegypti was previously identified as a functional receptor of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin. Here, heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of the cloned ALP, lacking the secretion signal and GPI attachment sequences, and assessment of its binding characteristics were further investigated. The 54-kDa His tag-fused ALP overexpressed as an inclusion body was soluble when phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) was supplemented with 8 M urea. After renaturation in a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) affinity column, the refolded ALP protein was able to retain its phosphatase activity. This refolded ALP also showed binding to the 65-kDa activated Cry4Ba toxin under nondenaturing (dot blot) conditions. Quantitative binding analysis using a quartz crystal microbalance revealed that the purified ALP immobilized on a gold electrode was bound by the Cry4Ba toxin in a stoichiometry of approximately 1:2 and with high affinity (dissociation constant [K(d)] of ?14 nM) which is comparable to that calculated from kinetic parameters (dissociation rate constant [k(off)]/binding constant [k(on)]). Altogether, the data presented here of the E. coli-expressed ALP from A. aegypti retaining high-affinity toxin binding support our notion that glycosylation of this receptor is not required for binding to its counterpart toxin, Cry4Ba. PMID:21856837

  20. Estado nutricional, consumo de lácteos y niveles séricos de calcio, fósforo y fosfatasas alcalinas en escolares de Mérida / Nutritional status, consumption of dairy products and levels sericos of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatases in schoolchildren of Mérida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lizbeth, Rojas; Gladys, Bastardo; Belquis, Sanz; G. Beatriz, Da Silva; Yurimay, Quintero de Rivas; Coromoto, Angarita; Maribel, Prada Briceño.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación de Campo de Tipo Descriptiva Correlacional y de corte transversal para determinar el estado nutricional, consumo de lácteos y niveles séricos de calcio, fósforo, y fosfatasas alcalinas en escolares del 1er, 3er y 5to grado de la U.E "Rafael Antonio González" de la comuni [...] dad de Mesa Bolívar en el año 2007. La población estuvo conformada por la matricula escolar de 171 estudiantes. Se determinó la muestra con el método estratificado aleatorio simple, obteniéndose 47% de la matricula escolar, correspondiendo 80 niños distribuidos por grado: 21 niños en 1ero, 28 en 3ero y 31 en 5to, en edades comprendidas entre 6 a 12 años. Se determinó la cantidad y la frecuencia de consumo de productos lácteos para lo cual, se diseñó un cuestionario "ad hoc" contentivo de 10 ítems relacionados con la frecuencia de consumo, cantidad y tipo de lácteos. Se realizó evaluación nutricional a través de la Combinación de Indicadores (Peso para la Talla y Talla para la Edad) utilizando las tablas de Evaluación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se determinaron los valores séricos de calcio, fósforo y fosfatasas alcalinas. Los escolares presentan 32,6% de malnutrición; tanto los niños (6-10 años y 11-12 años) como las niñas (8-12 años) presentaron un porcentaje de adecuación diario de calcio bajo (77,16%, 28,57% y 38,96%) respectivamente y 60% tienen hipocalcemia. Existe significancia estadística entre los niveles séricos de calcio y fósforo con el consumo diario promedio de calcio (p 0,05 y p 0,04). No hubo relación estadísticamente significativa entre el consumo de productos lácteos y el estado nutricional de los escolares. El estado nutricional de los escolares no depende del consumo diario de productos lácteos, sin embargo, dicho consumo si afecta los niveles séricos de calcio y fósforo. Abstract in english A cross-sectional descriptive correlational field research was conducted in order to determine the nutritional status, consumption of milk and serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase in students of 1st, 3rd and 5th grades of the "Rafael Antonio Gonzalez "school in Mesa Bolívar [...] in 2007. The population consisted of 171 students. We determined the sample with a simple random stratified method, yielding 47% of school enrollment, corresponding to 80 children distributed by grade: 21 children in 1st, 28 in 3rd, 31 in 5th, aged 6 to 12 years old. The amount and frequency of consumption of dairy products, with an "ad hoc" questionnaire designed containing 10 items related to the frequency of consumption, quantity and type of dairy product. Nutritional assessment was carried out by means of the combination of indicators (weight for height and height for age) using the tables of evaluation of the World Health Organization. Values were determined in serum calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. The students had 32,6% of malnutrition, both boys (6-10 years and 11-12 years) and girls (8-12 years) had an adequate percentage of low calcium daily intake(77.16%, 28. 57% and 38.96%, respectively) and 60% had hypocalcemia. There is statistical significance between serum calcium and phosphorus with an average daily intake of calcium (p 0.05 and p 0.04). There was no statistically significant relationship between dairy products consumption and nutritional status of schoolchildren. The nutritional status of schoolchildren does not depend on daily consumption of dairy products, however, that consumption does affect serum calcium and phosphorus.

  1. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotranferease (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT] of rats under this toxic insult. Male rats in groups (A, B, C and D were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/kg body weigh of PQ respectively on monthly basis. Subsequently, the subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were given orally, 200 mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups A1, B1, C1, and D1, received only water. Four animals per subgroup were decapitated on monthly basis and blood samples taken for enzyme assay. The parameters studied were - SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT - liver enzymes. The dose and time dependent PQ toxicity effect resulted in highly elevated Liver enzymes activities. The subgroups on vitamin C had significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the same subgroups on only PQ insult. But the values were high when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. These results were indication that vitamin C when given at moderate doses and maintained for a longer period could be a life saving adjunct to toxic insult.

  2. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT Activities in Selected Tissues of Rats Fed on Processed Atlantic Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoluwa T. Adeyemi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Trachurus trachurus (locally called kote is a table fish that has become increasingly important in the Nigerian diet because of its low price. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of processed kote on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in selected tissues of weaned male albino rats using standard methods. Chemical analyses were carried out on processed fillet, skin, head & bone (SHB diets under standard conditions. 40 male rats (40.76 ± 2.42 g were fed with processed fillet or SHB diets for 14 days to assay for the activities of ALP in harvested samples of brain, liver, kidney, heart, stomach, small intestine and spleen; ALT and AST in the liver and heart. All data were subjected to analysis of variance by Duncan’s multiple range test and considered significant at a minimum of p < 0.05. Levels of ALP & AST in the liver, heart, kidney and brain were reduced (p < 0.05 in rats fed on test diets compared with the controls, but within accepted limit. The level of ALT in the kidney, stomach and small intestine were elevated (p < 0.05 compared to the controls, but within the accepted limit. In conclusion, coal smoked fillet and SHB greatly improved healthy growth of the rats, followed by the wood smoked and poached diets. Results suggested that processed kote SHB could be a veritable source of valuable nutrients for human food and animal feed.

  3. Magnesium ions facilitate integrin alpha 2- and alpha 3-mediated proliferation and enhance alkaline phosphatase expression and activity in hBMSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Yea-Hyun; Lee, Kang-Sik; Kim, Jung-Hwa; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Chang, Jae-Suk; Lee, Dong-Ho

    2014-02-25

    Magnesium metal and its alloys have been proposed as a novel class of bone implant biomaterials because of their biodegradability and mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to determine whether magnesium ions, which are released abundantly from alloys, affect proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSCs). High levels of magnesium ions did not induce cytotoxicity in hBMSCs, but treatment with 2.5-10?mm magnesium ions for 48-72?h significantly increased hBMSC proliferation. The expression of integrins ?2 and ?3, but not ?1, was upregulated compared with the control and shifted from ?3 to ?2 in hBMSCs treated with magnesium ions. Knockdown of integrins ?2 and/or ?3 significantly reduced magnesium-induced proliferation of hBMSCs. Magnesium exposure profoundly enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene expression and activity even at a relatively low magnesium concentration (2.5?mm). Exposure to magnesium ions facilitated hBMSC proliferation via integrin ?2 and ?3 expression and partly promoted differentiation into osteoblasts via the alteration of ALP expression and activity. Accordingly, magnesium could be a useful biomaterial for orthopaedic applications such as bone implant biomaterials for repair and regeneration of bone defects in orthopaedic and dental fields. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24616281

  4. Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. and their inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Josline Y; Daniel, Enas N; Hifnawy, Mohamed S; Azzam, Shadia M; Shaheed, Iman B; Abdel-Latif, Sally M

    2011-01-01

    Graded concentrations (0.1-100 mg/mL reaction mixture) of the methanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., its water-soluble fraction as well as compounds isolated from this fraction were tested for their inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in vitro. Both the methanolic extract and its water-soluble fraction showed significant inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity in vitro. On screening the activity of the compounds isolated from the water-soluble fraction, its high inhibitory activity was attributed to the presence of quercetin-7-O-galactoside which showed a high potent inhibition of the enzyme activity reaching 100% at 100 mg/mL reaction mixture. Phytochemical investigations of the water-soluble fraction were also carried out and afforded ten polyphenolic compounds including two new natural compounds, namely kaempferol-7-O-[6'''-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-beta-D-glucosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] and scutellarein-6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside). The chemical structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral data. PMID:22191209

  5. Differences in growth and alkaline phosphatase activity between Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa in response to media with different organic phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang YU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella pyrenoidosa in three dissolved organic phosphorus sources (glucose-1- phosphate, adenosine triphosphate, cyclic-adenosine monophosphate were studied in cultures separated by a dialysis membrane. Results showed that M. aeruginosa and C. pyrenoidosa could utilize those three forms of organic phosphorus, but their growth rates and cell abundances were low in comparison with those in the orthophosphate control. M. aeruginosa had a higher growth rate than C. pyrenoidosa in glucose-1-phosphate, and then became dominate in the separate cultures. In contrast, those two algal species didn’t show any significant differences in the growth rate and cell abundance in the medium with adenosine triphosphate and cyclicadenosine monophosphate. Alkaline phosphatase was an important enzyme for hydrolyzing glucose-1-phosphate, adenosine triphosphate and cyclic-adenosine monophosphate, the activity of which was positively correlated with the growth rate of algae. Considering the big proportion of glucose-1-phosphate in the Lake Taihu, the capability of M. aeruginosa to efficiently utilize this type of organic phosphorus source might be one of reason that why M. aeruginosa is the dominant species in this hyper-eutrophic lake.

  6. Fluorescence detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate and alkaline phosphatase based on the generation of CdS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Siyu; Wang, Xinyan; Pang, Shu; Na, Weidan; Yan, Xu; Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Cd²? reacts with S²? to generate fluorescent CdS QDs with ATP. • ATP can be hydrolyzed by the enzymatic dephosphorylation of ALP. • Fluorescent CdS QDs could not be generated in the presence of ALP. • The analysis system was successfully applied to assay ATP and ALP. Abstract: We have developed an analytical method to detect adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) based on the generation of CdS quantum dots (QDs). We demonstrated that Cd²? cation reacts with S²?anion to generate fluorescent CdS QDs in the presence of some certain amount of ATP. With increase in the ATP concentration, the fluorescence intensity of CdS QDs was also enhanced. ATP can be converted into adenosine by the dephosphorylation of ALP, so that the generation of CdS QDs would be inhibited in the presence of ALP. Therefore, this novel analysis system could be applied to assay ATP and ALP based on the growth of fluorescent CdS QDs.

  7. One-Step Detection of Aflatoxin-B(1) Using scFv-Alkaline Phosphatase-Fusion Selected from Human Phage Display Antibody Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangnoi, Kuntalee; Jaruseranee, Nanthnit

    2011-01-01

    A unique human phage display library was used to successfully generate a scFv to the highly carcinogenic toxin aflatoxin B1. Such an antibody has major potential applications in therapy and diagnostics. To further exploit its analytical capacity, the scFv was genetically fused to alkaline phosphatase, thereby generating a novel and highly sensitive self-indicating reagent. The performance of this reagent was further characterized, demonstrating its efficacy. The sensitivity of scFv-AP fusion was three-fold better than that of the scFv form. The ability of this human library to generate antibodies to a small hapten was clearly demonstrated and this is linked to its intrinsic diversity, which exceeds many existing conventional human libraries. Our results indicate that demography may influence the diversity of the repertoire of the library in terms of its capacity to generate antibodies to specific targets. Equally, the approach demonstrated should also be applicable for other haptens and larger antigens.

  8. Aedes aegypti alkaline phosphatase ALP1 is a functional receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Alan I; Reyes, Esmeralda Z; Cancino-Rodezno, Angeles; Bedoya-Pérez, Leidy P; Caballero-Flores, Gustavo G; Muriel-Millan, Luis F; Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Gill, Sarjeet S; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subs. israelensis produces at least three Cry toxins (Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Aa) that are active against Aedes aegypti larvae. Previous work characterized a GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase (ALP1) as a Cry11Aa binding molecule from the gut of A. aegypti larvae. We show here that Cry4Ba binds ALP1, and that the binding and toxicity of Cry4Ba mutants located in loop 2 of domain II is correlated. Also, we analyzed the contribution of ALP1 toward the toxicity of Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins by silencing the expression of this protein though RNAi. Efficient silencing of ALP1 was demonstrated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blot. ALP1 silenced larvae showed tolerance to both Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa although the silenced larvae were more tolerant to Cry11Aa in comparison to Cry4Ba. Our results demonstrate that ALP1 is a functional receptor that plays an important role in the toxicity of the Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa proteins. PMID:22728570

  9. Functional expression in insect cells of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alkaline phosphatase from Aedes aegypti larval midgut: a Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba toxin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechklar, Manasave; Tiewsiri, Kasorn; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan; Pootanakit, Kusol

    2011-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis produces insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins which bind to cell surface receptors on the brush border membrane of susceptible midgut larvae. The toxin-receptor interaction generates pores in midgut epithelial cells resulting in cell lysis. Here, a cDNA encoding membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase from Aedes aegypti (Aa-mALP) midgut larvae, based on the sequence identity hit to Bombyx mori membrane-bound ALP, was amplified by RT-PCR and transiently expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells as a 58-kDa membrane-bound protein via the baculovirus expression system and confirmed by digestion with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and LC-MS/MS analysis. Immunolocalization results showed that Cry4Ba is able to bind to only Sf9 cells-expressing Aa-mALP. Moreover, these cells were shown to undergo cell lysis in the presence of 100 ?g/ml trypsin-treated toxin. Finally, trypan blue exclusion assay also demonstrated an increase in cell death in recombinant cells treated with Cry4Ba. Overall results indicated that Aa-mALP protein was responsible for mediating Cry4Ba toxicity against Sf9 cells, suggesting its role as a receptor for Cry4Ba toxin in A. aegypti mosquito larvae. PMID:21146607

  10. Development of a nanobody-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein and its application in a highly sensitive direct competitive fluorescence enzyme immunoassay for detection of ochratoxin A in cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Xu, Yang; Wan, De-bin; Xiong, Yong-hua; He, Zhen-yun; Wang, Xian-xian; Gee, Shirley J; Ryu, Dojin; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-01-20

    A rapid and sensitive direct competitive fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (dc-FEIA) for ochratoxin A (OTA) based on a nanobody (Nb)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The VHH (variable domain of heavy chain antibody) gene of Nb28 was subcloned into the expression vector pecan45 containing the AP double-mutant gene. The Nb28-AP construct was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)plysS, and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot. Both the Nb properties and AP enzymatic activity were validated by colorimetric and fluorometric analysis. The 50% inhibitory concentration and the detection limit of the dc-FEIA were 0.13 and 0.04 ng/mL, respectively, with a linear range of 0.06-0.43 ng/mL. This assay was compared with LC-MS/MS, and the results indicated the reliability of Nb-AP fusion protein-based dc-FEIA for monitoring OTA contamination in cereal. PMID:25531426

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod toxin counters tolerance associated with low cadherin expression but not that associated with low alkaline phosphatase expression in Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Isabel; Flores, Biviana; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2015-06-01

    To exert their toxic effect, Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin undergoes a sequential binding mechanism with different larval gut proteins including glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol anchored proteins like aminopeptidase-N (APN) or alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) and a transmembrane cadherin to form pre-pore structures that insert into the membrane. Cadherin binding induces oligomerization of the toxin by facilitating removal of the N-terminal region, while APN/ALP binding helps in oligomer membrane insertion. Cry1AbMod toxin was engineered to lack N-terminal region of the toxin and shown to counter resistance linked to cadherin mutations. In this manuscript we determined the toxicity of Cry1AbMod to Manduca sexta larvae silenced in the expression of cadherin, ALP or APN receptors. As previously reported Cry1Ab toxicity relied principally in ALP and cadherin in comparison to APN. Our data shows that Cry1AbMod counters resistance associated with low cadherin expression but was not effective against ALP silenced larvae. These results show that Cry1AbMod could be effective against resistance insects linked to mutations on binding molecules involved in toxin oligomerization but not against resistant insects linked to mutations on binding molecules involved in oligomer membrane insertion. PMID:25239508

  12. Alkaline phosphatase expression in cultured endothelial cells of aorta and brain microvessels: induction by interleukin-6-type cytokines and suppression by transforming growth factor betas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, H; Deguchi, M; Fujimoto, M; Fukushima, H

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is markedly high in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) type but absent from or low in those of the non-BBB type. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been identified as a glial cell line-derived factor that induces high ALP activity in cultured aortic endothelial cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-6-type cytokines and transforming growth factor betas (TGF-betas) on ALP expression in cultures of calf pulmonary aortic endothelial (CPAE) cells and porcine brain microvascular endothelial (PBME) cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and oncostatin M, which are known as IL-6-type cytokines, induced high ALP expression in the CPAE cells but not in the PBME cells. ALP levels in these cells were markedly suppressed by culture with TGF-betas. However, in cultured PBME cells, IL-6 and a derivative of cyclic adenosine monophosphate significantly increased ALP activity. Our findings raise the posibility that local concentrations of IL-6, IL-6-type cytokines, and TGF-betas affect the ALP levels in the endothelial cells of aorta and brain microvessels under normal development and also under inflammatory conditions. PMID:9366514

  13. Effect of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on aberrant crypt foci development, fecal steroids, and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activities in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleeswari, Muthaiyan; Deeptha, Kumaraswami; Sengottuvelan, Murugan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2006-08-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common malignancies in many regions of the world and is thought to arise from the accumulation of mutations in a single epithelial cell of the colon and rectum. Caraway (Carum carvi L. Umbelliferae) is a shrub with a long history as a medicinal plant since ancient times. The effect of different doses of caraway (CC) on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the levels of fecal bile acids, neutral sterols, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were studied in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in rats. Animals were randomized into 6 groups. Group 1 served as control, and group 2 received 90 mg/kg body weight caraway orally everyday. Groups 3-6 rats were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for the first 4 weeks to induce ACF. Rats in groups 4-6, in addition to DMH injections, received caraway at 30, 60, and 90 mg/kg body weight respectively p.o. everyday until the end of whole experimental period of 15 weeks. Caraway supplementation significantly reduced ACF development and also decreased the levels of fecal bile acids, neutral sterols, and tissue ALP activities. The histological alterations induced by DMH were also significantly improved. Overall, our results showed that all 3 doses of caraway inhibited tumorigenesis though the effect of the intermediary dose of 60 mg/kg body weight was more pronounced. PMID:16483625

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi: modification of alkaline phosphatase activity induced by trypomastigotes in cultured human placental villi Trypanosoma cruzi: alteração da atividade de fosfatase alcalina induzida por tripomastigotas em culturas de vilos placentários humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo E. Fretes; Sofía P. de Fabro

    1990-01-01

    Human term placental villi cultured ''in vitro" were maintained with bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma cruzi during various periods of time. Two different concentrations of the parasite were employed. Controls contained no T. cruzi. The alkaline phosphatase activity was determined in placental villi by electron microscopy and its specific activity in the culture medium by biochemical methods. Results showed that the hemoflagellate produces a significant decrease in enzyme activity as shown by ...

  15. BMP-2 vs. BMP-4 expression and activity in glucocorticoid-arrested MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts: Smad signaling, not alkaline phosphatase activity, predicts rescue of mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Luppen, Cynthia A.; Chandler, Ronald L.; Noh, Tommy; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Frenkel, Baruch

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacological glucocorticoids (GCs) inhibit bone formation, leading to osteoporosis. GCs inhibit bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) expression, and rhBMP-2 restores mineralization in GC-arrested osteoblast cultures. To better understand how GCs regulate BMPs, we investigated Bmp transcription, as well as rhBMP-induced Smad and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Bmp2 cis-regulatory regions were analyzed by reporter plasmids and LacZ-containing bacterial artificial chromosomes. We found th...

  16. Determination of trace alkaline phosphatase by affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry based on wheat germ agglutinin labeled with 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch and prediction of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Gao, Hui; Li, Fei-Ming; Shi, Xiu-Mei; Lin, Chang-Qing; Lin, Li-Ping; Wang, Xin-Xing; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2010-09-01

    The 8-quinolineboronic acid phosphorescent molecular switch (abbreviated as PMS-8-QBA. Thereinto, 8-QBA is 8-quinolineboronic acid, and PMS is phosphorescent molecular switch) was found for the first time. PMS-8-QBA, which was in the "off" state, could only emit weak room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on the acetyl cellulose membrane (ACM). However, PMS-8-QBA turned "on" automatically for its changed structure, causing that the RTP of 8-QBA in the system increased, after PMS-8-QBA-WGA (WGA is wheat germ agglutinin) was formed by reaction between -OH of PMS-8-QBA and -COOH of WGA. More interesting is that the -NH(2) of PMS-8-QBA-WGA could react with the -COOH of alkaline phosphatase (AP) to form the affinity adsorption (AA) product WGA-AP-WGA-8-QBA-PMS (containing -NH-CO- bond), which caused RTP of the system to greatly increase. Thus, affinity adsorption solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry using PMS-8-QBA as labelling reagent (PMS-8-QBA-AA-SSRTP) for the determination of trace AP was established. The method had many advantages, such as high sensitivity (the detection limit (LD) was 2.5zgspot(-1). For sample volume of 0.40mulspot(-1), corresponding concentration was 6.2x10(-18)gml(-1)), good selectivity (the allowed concentration of coexisting material was higher, when the relative error was +/-5%), high accuracy (applied to detection of AP content in serum samples, the result was coincided with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunoassay), which was suitable for the detection of trace AP content in serum samples and the forecast of human diseases. Meanwhile, the mechanism of PMS-8-QBA-AASSRTP was discussed. The new field of analytical application and clinic diagnosis technique of molecule switch are exploited, based on the phosphorescence characteristic of PMS-8-QBA, the AA reaction between WGA and AP, as well as the relation between AP content and human diseases. The research results promote the development and interpenetrate among molecule switch technique, lectin science and SSRTP. PMID:20452816

  17. Development of a single-chain variable fragment-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein and a sensitive direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detection of ractopamine in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie-Xian; Li, Zhen-Feng; Lei, Hong-Tao; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Ducancel, Frédéric; Xu, Zhen-Lin; Boulain, Jean-Claude; Yang, Jin-Yi; Shen, Yu-Dong; Wang, Hong

    2012-07-29

    A rapid, sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for ractopamine (RAC) based on a single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The scFv gene was prepared by cloning the heavy- and light-chain variable region genes (V(H) and V(L)) from hybridoma cell line AC2, which secretes antibodies against RAC, and assembling V(H) and V(L) genes with a linker by means of splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. The resulting scFv gene was inserted into the expression vector pLIP6/GN containing AP to produce the fusion protein in Escherichia coli strain BL21. The purified scFv-AP fusion protein was used to develop a direct competitive CLEIA (dcCLEIA) protocol for detection of RAC. The average concentration required for 50% inhibition of binding and the limit of detection of the assay were 0.25±0.03 and 0.02±0.004 ng mL(-1), respectively, and the linear response range extended from 0.05 to 1.45 ng mL(-1). The assay was 10 times as sensitive as the corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the same fusion protein. Cross-reactivity studies showed that the fusion protein did not cross react with RAC analogs. DcCLEIA was used to analyze RAC spiked pork samples, and the validation was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The results showed a good correlation between the data of dc-CLEIA and HPLC-MS (R(2)>0.99), indicating that the assay was an efficient analytical method for monitoring food safety. PMID:22769009

  18. Cadherin, alkaline phosphatase, and aminopeptidase N as receptors of Cry11Ba toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan in Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Chen, Jianwu; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2011-01-01

    Cry11Ba is one of the most toxic proteins to mosquito larvae produced by Bacillus thuringiensis. It binds Aedes aegypti brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) with high affinity, showing an apparent dissociation constant (K(d)) of 8.2 nM. We previously reported that an anticadherin antibody competes with Cry11Ba binding to BBMV, suggesting a possible role of cadherin as a toxin receptor. Here we provide evidence of specific cadherin repeat regions involved in this interaction. Using cadherin fragments as competitors, a C-terminal fragment which contains cadherin repeat 7 (CR7) to CR11 competed with Cry11Ba binding to BBMV. This binding was also efficiently competed by the CR9, CR10, and CR11 peptide fragments. Moreover, we show CR11 to be an important region of interaction with Cry11Ba toxin. An alkaline phosphatase (AaeALP1) and an aminopeptidase-N (AaeAPN1) also competed with Cry11Ba binding to Ae. aegypti BBMV. Finally, we found that Cry11Ba and Cry4Ba share binding sites. Synthetic peptides corresponding to loops ?8, ?2-?3 (loop 1), ?8-?9, and ?10-?11 (loop 3) of Cry4Ba compete with Cry11Ba binding to BBMV, suggesting Cry11Ba and Cry4Ba have common sites involved in binding Ae. aegypti BBMV. The data suggest that three different Ae. aegypti midgut proteins, i.e., cadherin, AaeALP1, and AaeAPN1, are involved in Cry11Ba binding to Ae. aegypti midgut brush border membranes. PMID:21037295

  19. A highly sensitive homogeneous electrochemical assay for alkaline phosphatase activity based on single molecular beacon-initiated T7 exonuclease-mediated signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianfang; Hou, Ting; Li, Haiyin; Li, Feng

    2015-06-21

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a class of enzymes that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of a variety of substrates, is one of the most commonly assayed enzymes in routine clinical practice, and an important biomarker related to many human diseases. Herein, a facile and highly sensitive homogeneous electrochemical biosensing strategy was proposed for the ALP activity detection based on single molecular beacon-initiated T7 exonuclease-assisted signal amplification. One 3'-phosphorylated and 5'-methylene blue (MB) labeled hairpin probe (HP) is ingeniously designed. In the presence of ALP, the dephosphorylation of HP, the subsequent Klenow fragment (KF) polymerase-catalyzed elongation and T7 exonuclease-catalyzed digestion of the duplex stem of HP take place, releasing MB-labeled mononucleotides and the trigger DNA (tDNA). tDNA then hybridizes with another HP and initiates the subsequent cycling cleavage process. As a result, a large amount of MB-labeled mononucleotides are released, generating a significantly amplified electrochemical signal toward the ALP activity assay. A directly measured detection limit as low as 0.1 U L(-1) is obtained, which is comparable to that of the fluorescence method and up to three orders of magnitude lower than that of the immobilization-based electrochemical strategy previously reported. In addition to high sensitivity and good selectivity, the as-proposed strategy also exhibits the advantages of simplicity and convenience, because the assay is carried out in the homogeneous solution phase and sophisticated electrode modification processes are avoided. Therefore, the homogeneous electrochemical method we proposed here is an ideal candidate for ALP activity detection in biochemical research and clinical practices. PMID:25924941

  20. Steady-state kinetic studies of the negative co-operativity and flip-flop mechanism for Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, R D; Leff, P; Bardsley, W G

    1977-12-01

    1. A study of variations in experimental error of velocity measurement with substrate concentration for alkaline phosphatase reveals that the standard error is not constant or strictly proportional to velocity, but obeys a more complex dependence. 2. By using an approach based on error estimates at each individual substrate concentration, we show that the double-reciprocal plots in general are curved, necessitating a high-degree rate equation. The curves are analysed according to a recent classification of possible curve shapes for the 3:3 function, which is shown to be the lowest-degree rate equation satisfying the experimental data. 4. Other workers have supposed the enzyme to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and it is shown that this assumption is approximately true at low temperatures in the absence of phosphate. 5. A study of the effects of phosphate concentration, pH and temperature on the kinetics shows that there is a gradual alteration in curve shape with these experimental variables, resulting in an apparent reduction in degree under certain special conditions, and particularly at low temperature. 6. It is shown that the steady-state kinetics do not require a flip-flop or half-of-sites reactivity mechanism as claimed, and a mechanism is proposed, a rate equation calculated and an analysis attempted. 7. An analysis of the product-inhibition effects for a linked two-sited Uni Bi enzyme is given. Alterations of asymptotic double-reciprocal slopes and limiting (1/nu) intercepts with products is discussed, and it is shown how the theory of product inhibition can be extended to complex kinetic situations to extract information as to molecular mechanism. 8. Deviations from Michaelis-Menten kinetics are expressed in terms of the magnitude of the appropriate Sylvester resultants. PMID:23764

  1. Evidence of Associations Between Feto-Maternal Vitamin D Status, Cord Parathyroid Hormone and Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, and Newborn Whole Body Bone Mineral Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status (25(OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP, and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC in the newborn are poorly characterized. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between maternal and cord 25(OHD, PTH, BALP, and WBBMC in newborns in a multiethnic population in Oakland, California and to evaluate the predictive value of the biochemical indices as indicators of WBBMC. Maternal and cord blood were collected from 80 mother-infant pairs and infant WBBMC was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry 8–21 days post-birth. Cord PTH and BALP were each inversely correlated with infant WBBMC (r = ?0.28, p = 0.01 and r = ?0.26, p = 0.02 and with cord 25(OHD (r = ?0.24, p = 0.03 and r = ?0.34, p = 0.002, while cord 25(OHD and unadjusted or weight-adjusted WBBMC were not significantly correlated with one other. In multivariate regression modeling, infant WBBMC was most strongly predicted by infant weight ( p < 0.0001, while either PTH or BALP contributed modestly but significantly to the model (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03 respectively. Cord 25(OHD was not a significant predictor of infant WBBMC. This study provides evidence of associations between feto-maternal 25(OHD, cord PTH and BALP, and early infant WBBMC, though neither feto-maternal 25(OHD nor the measured biochemical indices were suitable indicators of WBBMC.

  2. Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b activity as a prognostic marker of survival in breast cancer with bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hsin-Yi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b activity is a marker of osteoclast number and is elevated in breast cancer (BC patients with extensive bone metastasis, which might in turn reflect the tumour burden. We tested the hypothesis that baseline serum TRACP 5b activity and its interval change are potential prognostic markers of survival in BC patients with bone metastasis. Methods We analyzed the data from previous prospective studies. A total of 100 patients with newly diagnosed bone metastasis were included. Cox proportional regression model was used to evaluate the correlation between the overall survival time (OS and baseline serum TRACP 5b activity and its interval changes. The least significant change (LSC of TRACP 5b was calculated from data obtained from 15 patients with early BC. Results Estrogen receptor status (Hazard Ratio (HR = 0.397; p = 0.003 and visceral metastasis (HR = 0.492; p = 0.0045 were significantly correlated with OS. The OS was significantly shorter in those patients with higher baseline TRACP 5b activity based on a cut-off value to delineate the highest tertile (HR = 3.524; p p = 0.0015. Conclusions We found that TRACP 5b activity and its interval change after treatment bore a prognostic role in BC patients with bone metastasis and a high baseline serum TRACP 5b activity. Further prospective phase II study is necessary to confirm these results.

  3. Adsorption kinetics and dilatational rheological studies for the soluble and anchored forms of alkaline phosphatase at the air/water interface

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano, Caseli; Douglas C., Masui; Rosa Prazeres M., Furriel; Francisco Assis, Leone; Maria Elisabete D., Zaniquelli.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta aspectos de equilíbrio e dinâmicos da adsorção na interface ar/líquido de duas formas de fosfatase alcalina de placa óssea de ratos: DSAP, solubilizada com tensoativo não-iônico (C12E9), contendo uma âncora de glicosilfosfatidilinositol (GPI), e PLSAP, com a porção hidrofóbic [...] a da âncora clivada por fosfolipase-C. A tensão superficial dinâmica, gamadyn, e o módulo de elasticidade superficial dilatacional, épsilon, foram determinados para soluções de PLSAP, DSAP e C12E9 pelo método de oscilação harmônica e análise do formato da gota eixo-simétrica. Cinéticas de adsorção revelaram que DSAP adsorve trinta vezes mais rapidamente que PLSAP, apresentando um mínimo, e, para PLSAP, a tensão superficial cai continuamente. Para o sistema DSAP/C12E9, épsilon atinge um máximo na concentração crítica de agregação (CAC), mas para PLSAP, épsilon diminui continuamente com a concentração. Soluções de C12E9 apresentam épsilonmais elevados, decrescentes com a concentração. Um modelo, baseado na influência da âncora GPI, é proposto para explicar os resultados obtidos. Abstract in english This work presents equilibrium and dynamic aspects for the adsorption at the air/liquid interface of two rat osseous plate alkaline phosphatase forms: DSAP, solubilized by a surfactant, C12E9, and containing a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor; and PLSAP, resulting from phospholipase-C cleav [...] age of the hydrophobic portion of the GPI anchor. Dynamic surface tension, gammadyn, and surface elasticity modulus, epsilon, were determined for PLSAP, DSAP and pure C12E9 solutions using harmonic oscillation and axisymmetric drop shape analysis Adsorption kinetics studies revealed that DSAP adsorbs thirty times faster than PLSAP, presenting a minimum in the curve. For DSAP/ C12E9 mixed system, e increases with concentration and a maximum appears at the critical aggregation concentration (CAC). For PLSAP, a continuous decreasing with concentration for gammadyn and epsilon was observed. For pure C12E9 solution, the elasticity modulus increases with concentration and epsilon values are higher when compared to the mixed system. A model based on the influence of the GPI anchor is proposed.

  4. Development of a single-chain variable fragment-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein and a sensitive direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detection of ractopamine in pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Detection model of dc-CLEIA based on anti-RAC scFv-AP fusion protein. Highlights: ? The scFv-AP fusion protein against ractopamine (RAC) was produced. ? A dc-CLEIA for RAC was developed based on the purified scFv-AP fusion protein. ? The sensitivity of dc-CLEIA was 10 times as sensitive as dc-ELISA for RAC. ? Recovery tests from pork samples were studied. ? Good accuracy was obtained. - Abstract: A rapid, sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for ractopamine (RAC) based on a single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The scFv gene was prepared by cloning the heavy- and light-chain variable region genes (VH and VL) from hybridoma cell line AC2, which secretes antibodies against RAC, and assembling VH and VL genes with a linker by means of splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. The resulting scFv gene was inserted into the expression vector pLIP6/GN containing AP to produce the fusion protein in Escherichia coli strain BL21. The purified scFv-AP fusion protein was used to develop a direct competitive CLEIA (dcCLEIA) protocol for detection of RAC. The average concentration required for 50% inhibition of binding and the limit of detection of the assay were 0.25 ± 0.03 and 0.02 ± 0.004 ng mL?1, respectively, and the linear response range extended from 0.05 to 1.45 ng mL?1. The assay was 10 ti/sup>. The assay was 10 times as sensitive as the corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the same fusion protein. Cross-reactivity studies showed that the fusion protein did not cross react with RAC analogs. DcCLEIA was used to analyze RAC spiked pork samples, and the validation was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS). The results showed a good correlation between the data of dc-CLEIA and HPLC–MS (R2 > 0.99), indicating that the assay was an efficient analytical method for monitoring food safety.

  5. Development of a single-chain variable fragment-alkaline phosphatase fusion protein and a sensitive direct competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for detection of ractopamine in pork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Jiexian; Li Zhenfeng; Lei Hongtao; Sun Yuanming [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Ducancel, Frederic [CEA, iBiTec-S, Service de Pharmacologie et d' Immnoanalyse (SPI), CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Xu Zhenlin [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Boulain, Jean-Claude [CEA, iBiTec-S, Service de Pharmacologie et d' Immnoanalyse (SPI), CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Yang Jinyi; Shen Yudong [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Wang Hong, E-mail: gzwhongd@63.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2012-07-29

    Graphical abstract: Detection model of dc-CLEIA based on anti-RAC scFv-AP fusion protein. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The scFv-AP fusion protein against ractopamine (RAC) was produced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dc-CLEIA for RAC was developed based on the purified scFv-AP fusion protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensitivity of dc-CLEIA was 10 times as sensitive as dc-ELISA for RAC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovery tests from pork samples were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good accuracy was obtained. - Abstract: A rapid, sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for ractopamine (RAC) based on a single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The scFv gene was prepared by cloning the heavy- and light-chain variable region genes (V{sub H} and V{sub L}) from hybridoma cell line AC2, which secretes antibodies against RAC, and assembling V{sub H} and V{sub L} genes with a linker by means of splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. The resulting scFv gene was inserted into the expression vector pLIP6/GN containing AP to produce the fusion protein in Escherichia coli strain BL21. The purified scFv-AP fusion protein was used to develop a direct competitive CLEIA (dcCLEIA) protocol for detection of RAC. The average concentration required for 50% inhibition of binding and the limit of detection of the assay were 0.25 {+-} 0.03 and 0.02 {+-} 0.004 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively, and the linear response range extended from 0.05 to 1.45 ng mL{sup -1}. The assay was 10 times as sensitive as the corresponding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the same fusion protein. Cross-reactivity studies showed that the fusion protein did not cross react with RAC analogs. DcCLEIA was used to analyze RAC spiked pork samples, and the validation was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The results showed a good correlation between the data of dc-CLEIA and HPLC-MS (R{sup 2} > 0.99), indicating that the assay was an efficient analytical method for monitoring food safety.

  6. Control of bacterial alkaline phosphatase synthesis and variation in an Escherichia coli K-12 phoR mutant by adenyl cyclase, the cyclic AMP receptor protein, and the phoM operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Wanner, B. L.; Wilmes, M. R.; Young, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    Mutant phoR cells show a clonal variation phenotype with respect to bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP) synthesis. BAP clonal variation is characterized by an alternation between a Bap+ and Bap- phenotype. The switching is regulated by the phoM operon and the presence of glucose; the pho-510 mutant form of the phoM operon abolishes both BAP clonal variation and the effect of glucose (B.L. Wanner, J. Bacteriol. 169:900-903, 1987). In this paper we show that a mutation of the adenyl cyclase (c...

  7. Evaluation of Bone Remodeling in Hemodialysis Patients: Serum Biochemistry, Circulating Cytokines and Bone Histomorphometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, A.; Saraiva, M.; Behets, G.; Macedo, A.; Galva?o, M.; Haese, P.; Dru?eke, T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To optimize the noninvasive evaluation of bone remodeling, we evaluated, besides routine serum markers, serum levels of several cytokines involved in bone turnover. METHODS: A transiliac bone biopsy was performed in 47 hemodialysis patients. Serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH; 1-84), total alkaline phosphatases (tAP), calcium, phosphate and aluminum (Al) were measured. Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and soluble IL-6 ...

  8. Fosfatasa alcalina intestinal: una enzima con propiedades antiinflamatorias / Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: an enzyme with anti-inflammatory properties / Fosfatasse alcalina intestinal: uma enzima com propriedades anti-inflamatórias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jean-Paul, Lallès; Jaime Parra, Suescún.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Uma das principais funções da Fosfatasse Alcalina Intestinal (FAI) é a detoxificação dos lipopolissacarídeos (LPS) bacterianos para controlar a inflamação intestinal. Recentes publicações indicam que a FAI participa na detoxificação de outros compostos bacterianos (flagelina e motivos CpG do [...] DNA) e de muitos nucleotídeos libres (ATP, UDP). A FAI está involucrada de forma direita na recuperação tissular da inflamação pela Resolvina E1 (RvE1). A ação antiinflamatória da FAI melhora indiretamente a função da barreira intestinal e impacta a diversidade e a composição da microbiota. Diversas doenças intestinais, incluindo enterocolitis necrótica, doença celíaca e a inflamação crônica intestinal (inflammatory bowel disease, IBD) estão relacionados com diminuições na expressão e atividade da FAI. De outro jeito, uma elevada atividade da FAI no cólon é sinônimo de processos inflamatórios, devido a elevada concentração da isoforma tissular da Fosfatasse Alcalina não especifica (FANE), e a infiltração tissular pelos neutrófilos (que também contém FANE). A administração exógena da FAI reduz a inflamação intestinal/sistêmica (dependendo da via de administração) incluindo uns poucos testes no homem. Em conclusão, a homeostase intestinal e a preservação da saúde dependem em grande medida da capacidade da FAI para detoxificar os LPS e suprimir a inflamação metabólica induzida por estes. Embora, é preciso realizar pesquisas bem feitas sobre como os costumes alimentares podem modificar a detoxificação dos diferentes compostos proinflamatórios bacterianos e maximizar a Abstract in spanish Resumen Una de las principales funciones de la Fosfatasa Alcalina Intestinal (FAI) es la detoxificación de los lipopolisacáridos (LPS) bacterianos para controlar la inflamación intestinal. Recientes publicaciones indican que FAI participa en la detoxificación de otros compuestos bacterianos (flageli [...] na y motivos CpG de DNA) y de muchos nucleótidos libres (ATP, UDP). FAI está involucrada de manera directa en la recuperación tisular de la inflamación por la Resolvina E1. La acción antiinflamatoria de FAI mejora indirectamente la función de la barrera intestinal e impacta la diversidad y la composición de la microbiota. Diversas enfermedades intestinales, incluyendo enterocolitis necrótica, enfermedad celíaca y la inflamación crónica intestinal (o inflammatory bowel disease, IBD) están relacionadas con disminuciones en la expresión y actividad de FAI. Por otro lado, una elevada actividad de FAI en colon es sinónimo de procesos inflamatorios, debido a la elevada concentración de la isoforma tisular de Fosfatasa Alcalina no específica (FANE), y a la infiltración tisular por los neutrófilos (que también contienen FANE). En algunos ensayos en humanos se ha observado que la administración exógena de FAI reduce la inflamación intestinal/sistémica (dependiendo de la vía de administración). En conclusión, la homeóstasis intestinal y la preservación de la salud dependen en gran medida de la capacidad de FAI para detoxificar los LPS y suprimir la inflamación metabólica inducida por estos. Sin embargo, es necesario realizar investigaciones a fondo sobre como los hábitos alimenticios pueden modificar la detoxificación de los diferentes compuestos proinflamatorios bacterianos y maximizar la actividad de FAI Abstract in english Abstract One of the main functions of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (FAI) is to detoxify bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to control intestinal inflammation. Recent data indicate that FAI participates in the detoxification of other bacterial compounds (flagellin and DNA CpG motifs) and many fre [...] e nucleotides (ATP, UDP). FAI is directly involved in the resolution of tissue inflammation mediated by Resolvin E1. The anti-inflammatory action of FAI indirectly improves the intestinal barrier function and affects the diversity of microbiota. Various intestinal diseases, including necrotizing enterocolit

  9. Altered alkaline phosphatase activity in obese Zucker rats liver respect to lean Zucker and Wistar rats discussed in terms of all putative roles ascribed to the enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bertone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Biliary complications often lead to acute and chronic liver injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Bile composition and secretion depend on the integrated action of all the components of the biliary tree, starting from hepatocytes. Fatty livers are often discarded as grafts for OLT, since they are extremely vulnerable to conventional cold storage (CS. However, the insufficiency of donors has stimulated research to improve the usage of such marginal organs as well as grafts. Our group has recently developed a machine perfusion system at subnormothermic temperature (20°C; MP20 that allows a marked improvement in preservation of fatty and even of normal rat livers as compared with CS. We sought to evaluate the response of the biliary tree of fatty liver to MP20, and a suitable marker was essential to this purpose. Alkaline phosphatase (AlkP, EC 3.1.3.1, frequently used as marker of membrane transport in hepatocytes and bile ducts, was our first choice. Since no histochemical data were available on AlkP distribution and activity in fatty liver, we have first settled to investigate AlkP activity in the steatotic liver of fatty Zucker rats (fa/fa, using as controls lean Zucker (fa/+ and normal Wistar rats. The AlkP reaction in Wistar rats was in accordance with the existing data and, in particular, was present in bile canaliculi of hepatocytes in the periportal region and midzone, in the canals of Hering and in small bile ducts but not in large bile ducts. In lean ZR liver the AlkP reaction in Hering canals and small bile ducts was similar to Wistar rat liver but hepatocytes had lower canalicular activity and besides presented moderate basolateral reaction. The difference between lean Zucker and Wistar rats, both phenotypically normal animals, could be related to the fact that lean Zucker rats are genotypically heterozygous for a recessive mutated allele. In fatty liver, the activity in ductules and small bile ducts was unchanged, but most hepatocytes were devoid of AlkP activity with the exception of clusters of macrosteatotic hepatocytes in the mid-zone, where the reaction was intense in basolateral domains and in distorted canaliculi, a typical pattern of cholestasis. The interpretation of these data was hindered by the fact that the physiological role of AlkP is still under debate. In the present study, the various functions proposed for the role of the enzyme in bile canaliculi and in cholangiocytes are reviewed. Independently of the AlkP role, our data suggest that AlkP does not seem to be a reliable marker to study the initial step of bile production during OLT of fatty livers, but may still be used to investigate the behaviour of bile ductules and small bile ducts.

  10. Estudio de la fosfatasa ácida y alcalina en suelos de la Región Pampeana Norte del área sojera argentina / Study of acid and alkaline phosphatase in soils of the Pampean North Region from argentine soybean area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia Andrea, Fernández; Marcelo Antonio, Sagardoy; Marisa Anahí, Gómez.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La transformación de los compuestos de fósforo orgánico (Po) a fósforo inorgánico (Pi) soluble, es denominada mineralización y es llevada a cabo por un grupo de enzimas conocidas como fosfatasas. En este trabajo, se estudió la actividad fosfatasa de cinco lotes de la región pampeana norte del área s [...] ojera argentina, mediante: la evaluación de la actividad fosfatasa del suelo, y el recuento de las comunidades bacterianas y fúngicas con esa actividad, y de esta manera se obtuvo información sobre el potencial de los mismos para movilizar el Po. Se determinó el número de bacterias aeróbicas heterotróficas cultivables (BAHC) así como el de hongos cultivables (HC), además del número de productores de fosfatasas ácidas y alcalinas. El número de bacterias con actividad fosfatasa fue en promedio 6,85 10(5) UFC g-1 de suelo para la fosfatasa ácida; mientras que para la fosfatasa alcalina fue en promedio 5,80 10(5) UFC g-1 de suelo. En cambio, el valor medio de hongos con actividad fosfatasa ácida fue 1,78 10³ UFC g-1 de suelo y para la enzima alcalina 1,77 10³ UFC g-1 de suelo. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el número de bacterias y el de hongos con fosfatasa ácida o alcalina entre los distintos suelos. Por otro lado, el nivel de actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina osciló entre 5,72 y 15,5 mg p-nitrofenol kg-1 suelo h-1, mientras la ácida varió entre 27,4 y 105 mg p-nitrofenol kg-1 suelo h-1. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la actividad enzimática entre los cinco suelos, siendo mayor la actividad ácida que la alcalina. Los resultados de este trabajo demostraron que los suelos estudiados presentan una actividad mineralizadora de fuentes de Po que coincide con otros trabajos de suelos cultivados y que el recuento de los organismos productores de fosfatasas complementa la información obtenida a partir de la determinación de la actividad fosfatasa del suelo. Mediante la utilización de ambos métodos, es posible estudiar la fosfatasa ácida y alcalina de un suelo y obtener información sobre el potencial del mismo para movilizar Po. Abstract in english Transformation of organic phosphorus (Po) into soluble inorganic phosphorus (Pi) is called mineralization and is carried out by phosphatase enzymes. The present research focuses on the study of the phosphatase activity of five soils from the soybean area of the Northern Pampean region, by evaluating [...] the phosphatase activity in soil samples and the number of bacteria and fungi with that activity. Soil samples were collected and the total number and phosphatase activity of cultivated heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB) and cultivated fungi (CF) was assessed. No significant differences were observed in the numbers of CHAB and CH between the studied soils. The number of bacteria with acid phosphatase activity was 6.85 10(5) CFU g-1 soil, while alkaline activity was 5.80 10(5) CFU g-1 soil. In contrast, the number of fungi with acid phosphatase activity was 1.78 10³ CFU g-1 soil and with alkaline activity was 1.77 10³ CFU g-1 soil. No significant differences were observed in the number of bacteria and fungi with both enzymes. However, acid activity was higher than alkaline activity in soil samples. Alkaline phosphatase activity ranged from 5.72 to 15.5 mg p- nitrofenol kg-1 soil h-1 while acid activity varied from 27.4 to 10(5) mg p-nitrofenol kg-1 soil h-1. There were significant differences in phosphatase activity between the soybean soils. Our results show that the mineralization activities of Po sources are in agreement with other cultivated soils. On the other hand, the number of bacteria and fungi complements the information on soil phosphatase activity. Clearly, both methods allow the study of alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in soil and give information about the soil potential to mobilize Po.

  11. SERUM CHEMISTRIES OF COTURNIX JAPONICA GIVEN DIETARY MANGANESE OXIDE (MN3O4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma creatinine and inorganic phosphorus were increased in manganese oxide (Mn3O4)-treated adult male Coturnix quail, but BUN, BUN/creatinine ratio, uric acid, and total calcium were decreased. 2. Serum enzymes (alkaline phosphatase glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic p...

  12. Prostatic acid phosphatase in serum and semen of dogs / Fosfatasa ácida prostática en suero y semen de perros

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CRF, Gadelha; WRR, Vicente; APC, Ribeiro; M, Apparicio; GJ, Covizzi; ACN, Campos.

    Full Text Available La incidencia de cáncer de próstata ha incrementado el uso de los marcadores celulares para detectar el cáncer en este tejido. Antígenos específicos del tejido o antígenos de diferenciación se encuentran en la superficie de las células normales. Clínicamente, estos antígenos son importantes para el [...] diagnóstico de alteraciones en estos tejidos y para la inmunoterapia. Este estudio trata de evaluar la importancia de la fosfatasa ácida prostática en la próstata canina e investigar su concentración en el suero y en el plasma seminal de perros saludables de diferentes edades. La concentración de fosfatasa ácida prostática en el plasma seminal y en el suero fue evaluada por espectrofotometría, utilizando un kit comercial. Los niveles de la fosfatasa ácida prostática (PAP) no fueron diferentes de acuerdo con la edad y no presentaron correlación con la edad o con las dimensiones de las próstatas verificadas por ecografía. Los valores de concentración de PAP presentaron una gran variación en cada grupo. Sin embargo, son necesarios más estudios para evaluar el papel de la fosfatasa ácida prostática en la próstata canina y su importancia como una prueba de diagnóstico para los trastornos de la próstata. Abstract in english The incidence of prostatic malignancy has increased the use of tissue markers to detect cancer. Tissue specific antigens or differentiation antigens are found on the surface of normal cells. Clinically, these antigens are important to diagnose alterations in the tissues and for immunotherapy. The ob [...] jective of the present study was to evaluate the prostatic acid phosphatase concentration in blood and seminal plasma of intact and healthy dogs at different ages. The evaluation was carried out by spectrophotometer, using a commercial kit. The prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) levels did not differ according to the age and did not correlate with age or prostatic dimensions verified by ultrasonography. The PAP concentration values varied greatly within each group. However, more studies are necessary to evaluate the role of prostatic acid phosphatase in the canine prostate and its importance as a diagnostic test for prostate disorders.

  13. Application of Scharer's quantitative method for the determination of residual alkaline phosphatase activity in standard Minas / Aplicação do método modificado de Scharer para a determinação quantitativa da atividade de fosfatase alcalina residual em queijo minas padrão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.F., Soares; L.M., Fonseca; M.O., Leite; M.C.P.P., Oliveira.

    1223-12-01

    Full Text Available A pasteurização do leite é um ponto crítico na indústria de laticínios, e falhas nessa etapa comprometem a segurança do produto. O método enzimático de Scharer é tradicionalmente utilizado na verificação da eficiência da pasteurização e baseia-se na pesquisa da atividade de fosfatase alcalina residu [...] al em leite. Embora vários métodos estejam disponíveis para avaliar a eficiência da pasteurização, há um número reduzido de dados publicados baseados na quantificação da atividade da fosfatase alcalina em queijo. Neste estudo, o método modificado de Scharer foi utilizado para determinar os níveis de fosfatase alcalina residual em queijo minas padrão, antes e após 20 dias de maturação. Os queijos foram feitos com leite cru ou com leite pasteurizado com adição de diferentes concentrações de leite cru (0, 0,05%, 0,10%, 0,20% e 0,50%). Nas amostras de queijo fresco, o método apresentou sensibilidade apenas com 0,50% de adição de leite cru ao leite pasteurizado utilizado na fabricação de queijo. Em níveis de adição de até 0,20% de leite cru no leite pasteurizado, as concentrações de fenol se mostraram inferiores a 1?g de fenol/g de produto lácteo, que é o valor preconizado como indicador de pasteurização adequada. Abstract in english Milk pasteurization is a critical issue in the dairy industry, and failures in this process can affect final product safety. Scharer's enzymatic method is still traditionally used to verify pasteurization efficiency compliance, and it is based on screening for residual alkaline phosphatase in milk. [...] Although several methods are used to quantify enzymatic activity to assess milk pasteurization efficiency, there is a small amount of published data regarding the use of these methods to quantify alkaline phosphatase in cheese. In this study, the Scharer's modified method was used to determine the levels of residual alkaline phosphatase in standard minas cheese, before and after 20 days of ripening. The cheeses were made using raw or pasteurized milk with the addition of different concentrations of raw milk (0; 0.05%; 0.10%; 0.20%; and 0.50%). In the fresh cheese samples, the method showed a sensitivity of only 0.50% with the addition of raw milk to the pasteurized milk used to make cheese. In addition, levels of up 0.20% of raw milk in pasteurized milk, the concentrations of phenol was inferior to 1?g phenol/g of dairy product which is the preconized indicator value for adequate pasteurization.

  14. Experimental study on the usefulness of magnetotherapy in bone fractures (tibial osteotomy in the rat). Accumulation of 99 mTc MDP - tests of tensile strength - determination of alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-directional magnetic field therapy using a flux density of 60 G and a frequency of 25 Hz was carried out over 12 hours daily in rats in order to ascertain its influence on the healing process following osteotomy of the tibia with internal splint fixation of the fractured bone being carried out as an additional measure. The results thus achieved were compared to those seen in control animals, were no magnetotherapy was carried out, on the basis of scintiscan studies using 99 mTc MDP (degree of density in the callus formed around the fracture zone), the plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and tests of tensile strength. The follow-up observations of the healing process were additionally based on radiological and histological evaluations of the animals. Beneficial effects of magnetotherapy on the healing process could not be confirmed with any statistical significance. (TRV)

  15. The dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum secretes an EDTA-sensitive alkaline phosphatase on high-phosphate medium / O dermatófito Trichophyton rubrum secreta uma fosfatase alcalina EDTA-sensível em meio contendo alta concentração de fosfato

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monica S., Ferreira-Nozawa; Sérgio R., Nozawa; Nilce M., Martinez-Rossi; Antonio, Rossi.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta comunicação nós mostramos que o crescimento do isolado H6 do dermatófito T. rubrum em meio não tamponado e sob condição saturante de fosfato, é dependente do pH inicial de cultivo, com um ótimo aparente em pH 4,0. Além disto, independente do pH inicial, o pH do meio se altera durante o cultivo [...] alcançando valores que variam de 8,3 a 8,9. Verificou-se também que este isolado sintetiza e secreta quase os mesmos níveis de fosfatase alcalina, com um ótimo de atividade aparente entre os valores de pH 9,0 e 10,0, independentemente da concentração de fosfato no meio. Também mostramos que essa fosfatase alcalina é inibida por EDTA e ativada por Mg2+. Por outro lado, o nível dessa enzima retida no micélio cultivado em meio tamponado em pH 5,0-5,2 é baixo, sugerindo que ela seja codificada por um gene alcalino, isto é, um gene responsivo à sinalização pelo pH ambiente. Abstract in english In this communication, we show that the growth of isolate H6 of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum on non-buffered medium and under saturating phosphate conditions is dependent on the initial growth pH, with an apparent optimum at pH 4.0. In addition, irrespective of the initial growth pH, the pH [...] of the medium alteredduring cultivation reaching values that ranged from 8.3 to 8.9. Furthermore, this isolate synthesized and secreted almost the same levels of an alkaline phosphatase with an apparent optimum pH ranging from 9.0 to 10.0 when grown on both low- and high-phosphate medium. Also, this alkaline phosphatase is activated by Mg2+ and is EDTA-sensitive. On the other hand, the very low levels of the enzyme retained by the mycelium grown on buffered medium at pH 5.0-5.2 suggest that this enzyme is encoded by an alkaline gene, i.e., a gene responsive to ambient pH signaling.

  16. A study on serum enzyme levels in various liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Mahaboob R, Jayarami Reddy U.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases are asymptomatic or have only vague non-specific symptoms. Effective medical treatments for chronic liver disease (before cirrhosis is established) are becoming increasingly available and since abnormal LFTs may be the only indication of these diseases. Aims: Enzymes study of various liver diseases. Discussion: serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Gamma Glutamyl transferase (Gamma GT), Alanine and Aspartate amino transferases were estimated in viral Hepatiti...

  17. A chronoamperometric screen printed carbon biosensor based on alkaline phosphatase inhibition for W(IV) determination in water, using 2-phospho-L-ascorbic acid trisodium salt as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Gámez, Ana Lorena; Alonso-Lomillo, María Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a chronoamperometric method to determine tungsten in water using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles and cross linked alkaline phosphatase immobilized in the working electrode. Enzymatic activity over 2-phospho-l-ascorbic acid trisodium salt, used as substrate, was affected by tungsten ions, which resulted in a decrease of chronoamperometric current, when a potential of 200 mV was applied on 10 mM of substrate in a Tris HCl buffer pH 8.00 and 0.36 M of KCl. Calibration curves for the electrochemical method validation, give a reproducibility of 5.2% (n = 3), a repeatability of 9.4% (n = 3) and a detection limit of 0.29 ± 0.01 µM. Enriched tap water, purified laboratory water and bottled drinking water, with a certified tungsten reference solution traceable to NIST, gave a recovery of 97.1%, 99.1% and 99.1% respectively (n = 4 in each case) and a dynamic range from 0.6 to 30 µM. This study was performed by means of a Lineweaver-Burk plot, showing a mixed kinetic inhibition. PMID:25621602

  18. A Chronoamperometric Screen Printed Carbon Biosensor Based on Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibition for W(VI) Determination in Water, Using 2-Phospho-l-Ascorbic Acid Trisodium Salt as a Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Gámez, Ana Lorena; Alonso-Lomillo, María Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a chronoamperometric method to determine tungsten in water using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles and cross linked alkaline phosphatase immobilized in the working electrode. Enzymatic activity over 2-phospho-l-ascorbic acid trisodium salt, used as substrate, was affected by tungsten ions, which resulted in a decrease of chronoamperometric current, when a potential of 200 mV was applied on 10 mM of substrate in a Tris HCl buffer pH 8.00 and 0.36 M of KCl. Calibration curves for the electrochemical method validation, give a reproducibility of 5.2% (n = 3), a repeatability of 9.4% (n = 3) and a detection limit of 0.29 ± 0.01 ?M. Enriched tap water, purified laboratory water and bottled drinking water, with a certified tungsten reference solution traceable to NIST, gave a recovery of 97.1%, 99.1% and 99.1% respectively (n = 4 in each case) and a dynamic range from 0.6 to 30 ?M. This study was performed by means of a Lineweaver–Burk plot, showing a mixed kinetic inhibition. PMID:25621602

  19. BMP-2 vs. BMP-4 expression and activity in glucocorticoid-arrested MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts: Smad signaling, not alkaline phosphatase activity, predicts rescue of mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUPPEN, CYNTHIA A.; CHANDLER, RONALD L.; NOH, TOMMY; MORTLOCK, DOUGLAS P.; FRENKEL, BARUCH

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological glucocorticoids (GCs) inhibit bone formation, leading to osteoporosis. GCs inhibit bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp2) expression, and rhBMP-2 restores mineralization in GC-arrested osteoblast cultures. To better understand how GCs regulate BMPs, we investigated Bmp transcription, as well as rhBMP-induced Smad and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Bmp2 cis-regulatory regions were analyzed by reporter plasmids and LacZ-containing bacterial artificial chromosomes. We found that GCs inhibited Bmp2 via a domain >50 kb downstream of the coding sequence. Bmp expression was evaluated by RT-PCR; whereas GCs strongly inhibited Bmp2, Bmp4 was abundantly expressed and resistant to GCs. Both rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-4 restored mineralization in GC-arrested cultures; rhBMP-2 was 5-fold more effective when dosing was based on ALP activation, however, the rhBMPs were equipotent when dosing was based on Smad transactivation. In conclusion, GCs regulate Bmp2 via a far-downstream domain, and activation of Smad, not ALP, best predicts the pro-mineralization potential of rhBMPs. PMID:19021035

  20. The intestinal epithelial cell differentiation marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPi) is selectively induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in colon cancer cells in a Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5)-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joongho; Carr, Azadeh; Corner, Georgia A; Tögel, Lars; Dávaos-Salas, Mercedes; Tran, Hoanh; Chueh, Anderly C; Al-Obaidi, Sheren; Chionh, Fiona; Ahmed, Naseem; Buchanan, Daniel D; Young, Joanne P; Malo, Madhu S; Hodin, Richard A; Arango, Diego; Sieber, Oliver M; Augenlicht, Leonard H; Dhillon, Amardeep S; Weber, Thomas K; Mariadason, John M

    2014-09-01

    The histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate promotes differentiation of colon cancer cells as evidenced by induced expression and enzyme activity of the differentiation marker intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPi). Screening of a panel of 33 colon cancer cell lines identified cell lines sensitive (42%) and resistant (58%) to butyrate induction of ALP activity. This differential sensitivity was similarly evident following treatment with the structurally distinct HDACi, MS-275. Resistant cell lines were significantly enriched for those harboring the CpG island methylator phenotype (p = 0.036, Chi square test), and resistant cell lines harbored methylation of the ALPi promoter, particularly of a CpG site within a critical KLF/Sp regulatory element required for butyrate induction of ALPi promoter activity. However, butyrate induction of an exogenous ALPi promoter-reporter paralleled up-regulation of endogenous ALPi expression across the cell lines, suggesting the presence or absence of a key transcriptional regulator is the major determinant of ALPi induction. Through microarray profiling of sensitive and resistant cell lines, we identified KLF5 to be both basally more highly expressed as well as preferentially induced by butyrate in sensitive cell lines. KLF5 overexpression induced ALPi promoter-reporter activity in resistant cell lines, KLF5 knockdown attenuated butyrate induction of ALPi expression in sensitive lines, and butyrate selectively enhanced KLF5 binding to the ALPi promoter in sensitive cells. These findings demonstrate that butyrate induction of the cell differentiation marker ALPi is mediated through KLF5 and identifies subsets of colon cancer cell lines responsive and refractory to this effect. PMID:25037223

  1. Maternal Antibiotic-Induced Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Colonic Permeability and Inducible Heat Shock Proteins, and Digesta Concentrations of Alkaline Phosphatase and TLR-Stimulants in Swine Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Erridge, Clett; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP) are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB) amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11). Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP) and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic digesta AP. In conclusion, our data suggest that early ATB-induced changes in bacterial colonization modulate important aspects of colonic physiology in the short- and long-terms. PMID:25689154

  2. Maternal antibiotic-induced early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate colonic permeability and inducible heat shock proteins, and digesta concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and TLR-stimulants in swine offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Erridge, Clett; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Elevated intake of high energy diets is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases and obesity. High fat diets cause alterations in colonic microbiota composition and increase gut permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and subsequent low-grade chronic inflammation in mice. Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing worldwide and may involve alterations in microbiota-host dialog. Metabolic disorders appearing in later life are also suspected to reflect changes in early programming. However, how the latter affects the colon remains poorly studied. Here, we hypothesized that various components of colonic physiology, including permeability, ion exchange and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP) are influenced in the short- and long-terms by early disturbances in microbial colonization. The hypothesis was tested in a swine model. Offspring were born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic (ATB) amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11). Offspring were slaughtered between 14 and 42 days of age to study short-term effects. For long-term effects, young adult offspring from the same litters consumed a normal or a palm oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age. ATB treatment transiently modified maternal fecal microbiota although the minor differences observed for offspring colonic microbiota were nonsignificant. In the short-term, consistently higher HSP27 and HSP70 levels and transiently increased horseradish peroxidase permeability in ATB offspring colon were observed. Importantly, long-term consequences included reduced colonic horseradish peroxidase permeability, and increased colonic digesta alkaline phosphatase (AP) and TLR2- and TLR4-stimulant concentrations in rectal digesta in adult ATB offspring. Inducible HSP27 and HSP70 did not change. Interactions between early ATB treatment and later diet were noted for paracellular permeability and concentrations of colonic digesta AP. In conclusion, our data suggest that early ATB-induced changes in bacterial colonization modulate important aspects of colonic physiology in the short- and long-terms. PMID:25689154

  3. Introducción del método inmunocitoquímico de la fosfatasa alcalina-antifosfatasa alcalina para la clasificación inmunológica de los Síndromes Linfo y Mieloproliferativos Agudos Introduction of the alkaline phosphatase-alkaline antiphosphatase immunocytochemical method for the immunological classification of the acute lympho-and myeloproliferative syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta B Socarrás Ferrer

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el inmunofenotipaje celular en 30 pacientes con el diagnóstico de síndromes linfo y mieloproliferativos agudos por el método inmunoenzimático fosfatasa alcalina-antifosfatasa alcalina (APAAp introducido en nuestro laboratorio. Los marcadores estudiados fueron: CD3, CD5, CD7, CD10, CD13, CD15, CD22, CD33, CD34 y CD41 mediante los anticuerpos monoclonales correspondientes, según cada caso. De las leucemias agudas, 16 resultaron ser leucemias linfoides (LLA (53,3 % y 12 mieloides (LMA (40 %. Entre las LLA, el 50 % fue del fenotipo B y del resto, 1 caso del tipo T (LLA-T (3,33 %. Un paciente se diagnosticó como leucemia aguda híbrida (LAH (3,33 % y el otro se clasificó como leucemia aguda indiferenciada (LAI (3,33 %. Se concluye que el APAAP es un método más rápido y tan eficaz como otros métodos enzimáticos para la clasificación inmunológica de los síndromes linfo y mieloproliferativosThe cellular immunophenotyping was carried out in 30 patients with the diagnosis of acute lympho- and myeloproliferative syndromes by the alkaline phosphatase-alkaline antiphosphatase immunoenzimatic method (APAA introduced in our laboratory. The CD3, CD5, CD7, CD10; CDl3, CDl5, CD22, CD33 and CD41 markers were studied by using the corresponding monoclonal antibodies, according to each case. Of the acute leukemias, 16 were lymphoid leukemias (ALL (53.3 % and 12 were myeloid leukemias (AML (40 %. Among the ALL, 50 % were phenotype B and of the rest, 1 case was type T (ALL-T (3.33 %. A patient was diagnosed acute hybrid leukemia (AHL (3.33 % and the other was classified as acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL (3.33 %. It is concluded that the APAA is faster and as efficient as other enzimatic methods for the immunologic classification of the lympho- and myeloproliferative syndromes

  4. Efecto del tratamiento con praziquantel sobre la actividad de la fosfatasa alcalina, fosfatasa acida, superoxido dismutasa en extractos crudos y productos de excreción-secreción de gusanos de Schistosoma mansoni / Effect of Treatment with Praziquantel on the activity of alkaline phosphatase acid phosphatase, superoxide dismutase in Crude Extracts and Excretion-secretion Products of Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emilia E, Barrios; Jesús, Rodríguez; Naim, Richani; Wolfan, Araque; Juan F, Quintana; Lisset, Sánchez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela se encuentra entre los países sudamericanos afectados por la esquistosomiasis y la quimioterapia con praziquantel (PZQ) es la principal estrategia de control. Se determino el efecto cuantitativo del tratamiento con praziquantel sobre la actividad de la Fosfatasa Alcalina (ALP), Fosfatasa A [...] cida (ACP) y Superoxido Dismutasa (SOD), en antígenos solubles (ASG) y productos de excreción-secreción (PESG) de gusanos hembras y machos condición control (ASGHc, ASGMc, PESGHc and PESGMc) o incubados con PZQ in vitro (ASGMpzq, ASGHpzq, PESGMpzq and PESGHpzq). Las proteínas totales se determinaron por colorimetría, la SOD y ACP mediante espectrofotometría y la ALP por fluorometría. Se encontró una mayor concentración de proteínas en las ASG de gusanos no tratados, y en las preparaciones obtenidas luego de la incubación con PZQ in vitro, en los PESG, un incremento en la actividad ACP en los ASG y PESG preparados con gusanos no-tratados, y una disminución de dicha actividad en los ASG y PESG tratados. La SOD, evidenció en los ASG una disminución estadísticamente significativa en los gusanos tratados. La concentración de la ALP disminuyó significativamente en los ASG y PESGH de gusanos tratados en relación a los gusanos no tratados. En conclusión, se observó una disminución en las proteínas totales, actividades enzimáticas ACP y SOD, y concentración de ALP, en ASG y PESG obtenidos con gusanos tratados. Abstract in english Venezuela is among South American countries affected by schistosomiasis and chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ) is the main control strategy. We determined the quantitative effect of treatment with PZQ on alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in [...] soluble antigens of worms (SWAP) and excretion-secretion products (EEP) of male and female worms (SMWAPc, SFWAPc, ESPWMc and ESPWHc) or incubated with PZQ in vitro (SMWAP PZQ, SFWAP PZQ, ESPWM PZQ and ESPWH PZQ). Total proteins were determined by colorimetry, SOD and ACP by spectrophotometry and fluorometry ALP. There was higher protein concentration in the untreated worms EG, and the preparations obtained after incubation with PZQ in vitro, in the EG, an increase in ACP activity in the EG and PG prepared with non-treated worms and a decrease of such activity on the EG and treated PG. On the other hand, SOD activity, the EG showed statistical significance in the treated worms. In the PG showed the same behavior, but those differences were not statistically significant. Similarly, there was a decrease in the concentration of ALP noticeable in the EG and worm PGh treated worms relative to untreated statistically significant. In conclusion, we observed a decrease in total protein, ACP and SOD enzyme activities and concentration of ALP, and EG in PG treated worms.

  5. Serum osteocalcin in metabolic bone diseases: what is its real significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minisola, S; Carnevale, V; Pacitti, M T; Romagnoli, E; Scarnecchia, L; Rosso, R; Minisola, G; Mazzuoli, G F

    1993-04-01

    This study has been carried out in order to elucidate the clinical significance of serum osteocalcin measurement. The changes of this marker paralleled those of serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker of bone formation) following parathyroidectomy in hyperparathyroid patients with skeletal involvement. Furthermore, the percentage decrease of serum osteocalcin levels in respect to basal values (85 +/- 12), and the percentage decrease of serum alkaline phosphatase activity levels (82 +/- 7) were significantly lower (p < 0.001) in respect to that of the 24-h hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (42 +/- 14) one week after parathyroid surgery. Instead, changes of serum osteocalcin levels were similar to those of serum free hydroxyproline (considered to be a marker of bone resorption) following acute calcitonin infusion in normal subjects. These results imply that the antibody used in our assay might recognize not only the entire osteocalcin molecule, but also small epitopes released during the process of bone matrix resorption. Alternatively, if we consider serum osteocalcin only as a marker related to some processes of bone formation, the experiment carried out on normal subjects strongly supports the evidence of calcitonin receptors in osteoblastic surfaces. PMID:8514983

  6. THE POSSIBLE EFFECT OF SILDENAFIL CITRATE AND FENUGREEK SEED POWDER ON ENHANCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVELS IN ADULT MALE ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sildenafil citrate is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5) that increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) which improves vasodilatation and there is a hypothesis that fenugreek seeds have 3 mechanisms by which it may enhance serum testosterone levels. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate and fenugreek seeds alone or in combination on serum testosterone levels in normal adult male albino rats. Besides, total protein, albumin, globulin, bilirubin levels and alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities were evaluated. The present study claimed that single or combined treatment with sildenafil and fenugreek seed powder (FSP) may enhance serum testosterone levels in adult male albino rats

  7. Atividade da fosfatase alcalina no lavado broncoalveolar de equinos de policiamento montado no Estado do Rio de Janeiro / Alkaline phosphatase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage of police horses in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Luisa Lorêdo Abreu, Jorge; Vanessa, Viscardi; Katia Moreira, Silva; Juliana Nabuco Pereira, Otaka; Nayro Xavier de, Alencar; Rodolpho de Almeida, Torres Filho; Daniel Augusto Barroso, Lessa.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilidade da determinação das atividades enzimáticas no trato respiratório posterior como ferramenta diagnóstica já foi demonstrada em várias espécies. Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a atividade da Fosfatase Alcalina (FAL) no lavado broncoalveolar (LBA) de equinos da Po [...] lícia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, comparando animais sadios com portadores assintomáticos de doença inflamatória das vias aéreas (DIVA). Para tal, foram avaliados 28 animais adultos, machos, sem histórico de doença respiratória nos dois meses anteriores ao estudo, com os resultados dos exames físicos e laboratoriais (FAL sanguínea, hematócrito, leucograma, proteína total e fibrinogênio plasmáticos) dentro dos parâmetros fisiológicos. Os equinos foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o resultado da citologia broncoalveolar. A determinação da atividade da FAL foi realizada por meio de espectrofotometria a partir de alíquotas do sobrenadante do LBA preservadas em nitrogênio líquido. Para a estimativa do fluido epitelial pulmonar e da atividade da FAL neste, foi realizada a correção da diluição provocada pelo lavado. Os equinos com contagem diferencial de tipos celulares compatível com DIVA apresentaram atividade de FAL no LBA menor, quando comparados aos animais sadios, podendo essa dosagem ser utilizada como complementação do diagnóstico da DIVA. Abstract in english The use of determining the enzymatic activities in the posterior respiratory tract as a diagnostic tool has already been demonstrated in several species. In this context, this paper aims to determine the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of horses from the Mi [...] litary Police of the State of Rio de Janeiro, comparing healthy animals with asymptomatic carriers of an inflammatory airway disease (IAD). Twenty-eight adult male animals with no history of respiratory diseases in the last two months prior to the study were studied. Physical exam and blood laboratory test results (ALP, hematocrit, leukogram, total protein and plasma fibrinogen) were within physiological parameters. The equines were separated into two groups according to the results of the bronchoalveolar cytology. The determination of ALP was done by spectrophotometry with aliquots of the supernatant of the BAL preserved in liquid nitrogen. To estimate pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and ALP activity, correction of the dilution caused by the lavage was done. The horses with a cell type differential count compatible with IAD presented a lower ALP activity in BAL when compared to healthy animals, therefore this dosage can be used as a complement in the diagnosis of IAD.

  8. Serum and urinary measurements of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) in dogs / Mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática e antígeno prostático específico em cães

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.L., Amorim; V.M.B.D., Moura; G.W., Di Santis; E.P., Bandarra; C., Padovani.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se mensurações sérica e urinária de fosfatase ácida prostática (PAP) e antígeno prostático específico (PSA) de 20 cães. Os testes de PAP e PSA foram feitos em um equipamento automatizado, com o uso de kits comerciais para humanos. A média de PAP sérico foi de 0,7U/l e urinário 0,U/l. As m [...] édias do PSA sérico e urinário foram 0,005ng/dL e 0,004ng/dl, respectivamente. A determinação do dois biomarcadores in vivo é uma nova opção de diagnóstico na medicina veterinária e os valores obtidos devem ser correlacionados com a lesão morfológica da próstata. Abstract in english Serum and urinary prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) from 20 dogs were measured. PAP and PSA tests were carried out in authomatized equipment with commercial kits used for humans. Mean PAP serum value was 0.7U/l and urinary 0.1U/l. Mean serum and urinary PSA were 0 [...] .005ng/dl and 0.004ng/dl, respectively. In vivo determination of these two biomarkers in dogs is a new form of diagnosis in veterinary medicine and these values should be correlated with the morphological lesion of the prostate gland.

  9. Crucial role of alkaline sphingomyelinase in sphingomyelin digestion: a study on enzyme knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yao; Cheng, Yajun

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase) hydrolyses sphingomyelin (SM) to ceramide in the gut. To evaluate the physiological importance of the enzyme, we generated alk-SMase knockout (KO) mice by the Cre-recombinase-Locus of X-over P1(Cre-LoxP) system and studied SM digestion. Both wild-type (WT) and KO mice were fed ³H-palmitic acid labeled SM together with milk SM by gavage. The lipids in intestinal content, intestinal tissues, serum, and liver were analyzed by TLC. In KO mice, nondigested ³H-SM in the intestinal content increased by 6-fold and the formation of ³H-ceramide decreased markedly, resulting in 98% reduction of ³H-ceramide/³H-SM ratio 1 h after gavage. The absorbed ³H-palmitic acid portion was decreased by 95%. After 3 h, a small increase in ³H-ceramide was identified in distal intestine in KO mice. In feces, ³H-SM was increased by 243% and ceramide decreased by 74% in the KO mice. The KO mice also showed significantly decreased radioactivity in liver and serum. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase activity in the mucosa was reduced by 50% and histological comparison of two female littermates preliminarily suggested mucosal hypertrophy in KO mice. This study provides definite proof for crucial roles of alk-SMase in SM digestion and points to possible roles in regulating mucosal growth and alkaline phosphatase function.

  10. Effects of Supplemental Zinc on Growth, Serum Glucose, Cholesterol, Enzymes and Minerals in Broilers

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    Fatma Uyanik

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zinc supplementation on growth and serum parameters were investigated in Ross PM3 broiler chicks. 60 day old chicks were assigned to four treatments of 0, 20, 40, 80 ppm supplemental zinc. Blood from wing vein was analyzed for serum glucose, cholesterol, enzymes and minerals. Zinc supplementation had no significant effect on live weight and 80 ppm zinc lowered the serum glucose concentrations. Cholesterol levels slightly decreased in zinc supplemented groups. Serum alanine aminotrasferase activity remained unchanged but aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased and alkaline phosphatase activity was decreased in zinc supplemented chicks. Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity was also decreased in all supplemented groups. Significant reductions occurred in serum calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphorus levels. None of the supplemental zinc levels had significant effect on iron and copper concentrations.

  11. Clinical significance of serum glycochlicacid detection in diagnosis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) occurred in the middle and later phase of pregnancy. ICP had considerable effect on the perinatal babies. To further study the effect of serum glycochlicacid in diagnosis of ICP, serum glycochlicacid was measured by radio-immunoassay in normal pregnancy women and ICP pregnant women. The determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were taken as contrast. Serum glycochlicacid is significantly higher (P < 0.01) in ICP pregnant women than in normal pregnant women. The positive rate of serum glycochlicacid was 100%, the positive rate of ALT was 80%, the positive rate of ALP was 40%. Serum glycochlicacid is the most sensitive serologic index in diagnosis of ICP

  12. Investigations of serum HPL during pregnancy using two different radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interassay investigations showed that it is absolutely necessary to standardize the HPL antisera as well as the standard sera, as it is otherwise impossible to compare and interpret the findings of different HPL radioimmunoassays. The investigations have shown that in addition to conventional clinical examinations and laboratory test methods (urine estriol determination, DHEAS-dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate test-, urine pregnandiol determination, and determination of heat-resisting alkaline serum phosphatase), HPL concentration determination is a parameter of the nutritive function of the placenta. (orig.)

  13. Effects of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Cissus populnea on Some Serum Enzymes in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

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    M.A. Geidam

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the effect of 100 mg kg-1 body weight of aqueous stem bark extract of Cissus populnea on serum enzyme levels in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The four weeks experimental protocol involving intragastric administration of the extract revealed a significant increase (P<0.05 in the level of serum alkaline and total acid phosphatase only as a result of diabetes induction. The treatment with Cissus has also revealed a significant increase (P<0.05 in the level of serum acid phosphatase. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of aspartate and alanine aminotranferases as a result of both diabetes induction and Cissus populnea treatment.

  14. Effect of Corn Oil on Liver Glycogen Content and Blood Glucose-6-phosphatase Dehydrogenase in Toads Treated with DMBA

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    N.E. Abdelmeguid

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of several types of cancer, this discovery has led to a great deal of interest in the role of diet in cancer etiology. Fed the Egyptian toad with 0.5 ml corn oil and 0.2 mg DMBA toad/3, 3 times/week increased the incidence of liver tumor (22 out of 50 cases in comparison with toads treated with DMBA alone (16 out of 50 cases. On the ultrastructural level, corn oil increased (a the depletion of glycogen, (b accumulation of fat and lysosomes in toad liver tumor. The biochemical data indicated that glucose-6 phosphatase dehydrogenase in the blood, acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes activities were increased in serum of toads treated with DMBA and corn oil than animals treated with DMBA alone.

  15. Serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of human type I procollagen in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: studies in basal conditions and after parathyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minisola, S; Romagnoli, E; Scarnecchia, L; Rosso, R; Pacitti, M T; Scarda, A; Mazzuoli, G

    1994-06-01

    This study was carried out in order to evaluate serum carboxy-terminal propeptide of human type I procollagen (PICP) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and to examine its changes following parathyroidectomy. Seventeen patients (four males and 13 famels, aged 53.8 +/- 3.1 SEM years) were studied in basal conditions; six patients also were investigated after successful parathyroid surgery. Mean serum PICP values of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (194.5 +/- 27 SEM micrograms/l) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) with respect to those found in normal subjects. However, deviations from the norm (Z score values) were significantly less with respect to deviations of serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio. Following parathyroidectomy, it was possible to observe a discrepancy between markers of bone resorption and those of bone formation. The former tend to decrease, while the latter either do not show any significant change (serum alkaline phosphatase and serum osteocalcin) or increase (serum procollagen). The results of our investigation indicate that in basal conditions the assay of serum procollagen may be of clinical value but it would be better to use it in combination with other biomarkers of skeletal remodelling. The results obtained after parathyroidectomy are the opposite of those obtained following parathyroid hormone infusion and should be ascribed to the effect of acute hormone deficiency on collagen synthesis. The positive biochemical uncoupling following surgery might lend support to the rise of bone mineral density consistently reported in the first few months following parathyroidectomy. PMID:8205259

  16. Hemograma, bioquímica sérica e histologia da biópsia hepática de bovinos após administração de polpa cítrica / Hemogram, serum biochemistry and hepatic histologic features in cattle after administration of citrus pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.J.F., Oliveira; M.M., Melo; L.A., Lago; E.F., Nascimento.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Hemogram and serum biochemistry (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamiltransferase, total protein, urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus) were performed weekly in five crossbreed bovine after consumption of a diet containing citrus pulp pellets (40%), for 43 days. Per [...] cutaneous hepatic biopsy and histologic evaluation were performed in each animal before and after consumption of the citrus pulp diet. Hemogram, the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamiltransferase, urea and creatinine had normal levels at the end of the experiment. No histologic lesions were observed in liver samples before or after citrus pulp consumption. However, there was an increase of serum phosphorus and reduction of serum calcium (p

  17. Phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere and root of mycorrhizal teak seedlings with three levels of NPK fertilization

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    CORRYANTI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To examine the phosphatase alkaline activity of VA mycorrhizal fungi in the rizhosphere and in root, teak seedlings inoculated spores of VA mycorrhizal fungi were grown in sterilized soils. Teak seedlings were fertilized with NPK fertilizer consisting three levels, i.e. 0; 0.0625; 0.125 g per seedling. Phosphatase alkaline in rizhosphere was measured in terms of pNP on soil dry weight basis, meanwhile alkaline phosphatase activity in roots were quantified in using method developed by Tisserant. The results showed that alkaline phosphatase activity increased on inoculated seedlings compare to with uninoculated. NPK fertilization of 0.0625 g per seedling and inoculation on teak seedlings showed alkaline phosphatase activity in range 90-201 EU, and in roots indicated in range 14-72%. Gigaspora sp inoculation on teak seedlings was showing the highest of alkaline phosphatase activity. Increasing phosphatase alkaline activity relevant to hyphae growth, and increasing of root infection decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation increased seedling dry weight.

  18. Clinical Significance of Detection of Serum TBA and ALP in Diagnosis of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the clinical value of serum total bile acid (TBA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in diagnosis of intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), the serum levels of TBA, ALP and cholyglycine (CG) in 47 cases with intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy and 60 normal pregnant women were tested by biochemistry analysis and radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the serum levels of TBA and ALP in patients with intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy were significantly higher than that of normal pregnancy women. There was a positively correlation between TBA and ALP with CG. The combined determination of serum TBA and ALP could be useful in the diagnosis of intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Automatic biochemistry analysis of TBA and ALP is more simple and rapid than CG detected by radioimmunoassay,and it is suitable for clinical laboratory application. (authors)

  19. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

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    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  20. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.V., Munekata; M.T.R.A., Terreri; O.A.B., Peracchi; C., Len; M., Lazaretti-Castro; R.O.S., Sarni; M.O.E., Hilario.

    2013-01-11

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], serum calcium, serum phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and parathormone (PTH) in patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and to associate them with disease duration and act [...] ivity, bone mineral density and use of medications. In a cross-sectional and controlled study, 30 patients with polyarticular JIA were evaluated and compared to 30 healthy individuals matched for age and gender. Clinical status, anthropometry, laboratory markers in both patients and controls, and bone mineral density, only in the patients, were measured. Of the 30 patients included in the study, 23 (76.7%) were female and 16 (53.3%) non-Caucasian; mean age was 14 years (range = 4 to 20 years). Mean disease duration was 5 years (range = 1 to 12 years). The mean concentrations of serum albumin-corrected calcium (9.04 ± 0.41?mg/dL) and alkaline phosphatase (153.3 ± 100.1 IU) were significantly lower in patients with JIA than in controls (P

  1. Hemograma, bioquímica sérica e histologia da biópsia hepática de bovinos após administração de polpa cítrica Hemogram, serum biochemistry and hepatic histologic features in cattle after administration of citrus pulp

    OpenAIRE

    N.J.F. Oliveira; M. M. Melo; L.A. Lago; E.F Nascimento

    2005-01-01

    Hemogram and serum biochemistry (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamiltransferase, total protein, urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus) were performed weekly in five crossbreed bovine after consumption of a diet containing citrus pulp pellets (40%), for 43 days. Percutaneous hepatic biopsy and histologic evaluation were performed in each animal before and after consumption of the citrus pulp diet. Hemogram, the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glu...

  2. Correlation of Serum Parathormone With Hypertension in Chronic Renal Failure Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

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    Baradaran, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To consider the effect of serum parathormone on severity of hypertension in end-stage renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis treatment. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkalene phosphatase, serum albumin and intact PTH levels were measured. Stratification of hypertensive patients was performed from stage one to three. A stage of zero means the absence of hypertension. Stages of hypertension were measured before treatment and at the beginning of the first hemodialysis treatment. Results: The total number of patients was 73 (F=28 M=45, including 58 non-diabetic (F=22 M=36 and 15 diabetic hemodialysis patients (F=6 M=9. The mean age of patients was 46.5±16 years. The mean period of time that patients had spent on hemodialysis was 21.5±23.5 months. Serum iPTH of total patients was 309±349 pg/ml and serum alkaline phosphatase of total patients was 413±348 IU/L. There was a significant positive correlation between the stages of hypertension and serum iPTH levels (r=0.200; p=0.045. There was no significant correlation between the stages of hypertension and serum alkalene phosphatase levels (r=0.135; p=0.128. A significant positive correlation between stages of hypertension with Ca x P products of patients (r = 0.231; p=0.027 was also seen. Conclusion: The relationship between serum iPTH and severity of hypertension in this group requires further research on nontraditional causes of hypertension in hemodialysis patients. Hypertension and secondary hyperparathyroidism both interact in the process of accelerated atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients. This combination may aggravate the rapid progressive athrosclerosis process

  3. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a biomarker of bone turnover in dog / Fosfatase ácida resistente ao tartarato como biomarcador do metabolismo ósseo no cão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.P, Sousa; F, Nery; J.T, Azevedo; C.A, Viegas; M.E, Gomes; I.R, Dias.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os valores da atividade da fosfatase ácida resistente ao tartarato (FART) e avaliou-se a sua variabilidade biológica. Neste estudo, foram utilizados nove cães adultos e saudáveis de raça Podengo Português para as determinações das atividades da FART, da fosfatase alcalina total, da i [...] soenzima óssea da fosfatase alcalina e da concentração dos minerais séricos - cálcio, fósforo e magnésio. A atividade sérica obtida da FART foi de 2,19±0,56 UI/mL, com uma variação intra-individual de 18,3% e interindividual de 25,6%. Foram observadas correlações significativas ao longo do tempo entre FART e cálcio (r=-0,3431; P Abstract in english Values of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase ( TRAP) activity were obtained in adult dogs and its biological variability was assessed. Nine healthy skeletally mature Portuguese Podengo dogs were used for the determination of TRAP, total and bone alkaline phosphatase serum activities, and also [...] to study their relationship with serum minerals, namely calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), and magnesium (Mg). The serum TRAP activity was 2.19±0.56IU/mL, with intra-individual variation of 18.3% and inter-individual variation of 25.6%. Significant correlations were observed between serum TRAP activity and Ca (r=-0.3431; P

  4. Detection of phosphatase activity in aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacterial strains

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    Babi? Olivera B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, as highly adaptable microorganisms, are characterized by an ability to survive in different environmental conditions, in which a significant role belongs to their enzymes. Phosphatases are enzymes produced by algae in relatively large quantities in response to a low orthophosphate concentration and their activity is significantly correlated with their primary production. The activity of these enzymes was investigated in 11 cyanobacterial strains in order to determine enzyme synthesis depending on taxonomic and ecological group of cyanobacteria. The study was conducted with 4 terrestrial cyanobacterial strains, which belong to Nostoc and Anabaena genera, and 7 filamentous water cyanobacteria of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Microcystis genera. The obtained results showed that the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases strongly depended on cyanobacterial strain and the environment from which the strain originated. Higher activity of alkaline phosphatases, ranging from 3.64 to 85.14 ?molpNP/s/dm3, was recorded in terrestrial strains compared to the studied water strains (1.11-5.96 ?molpNP/s/dm3. The activity of acid phosphatases was higher in most tested water strains (1.67-6.28 ?molpNP/s/dm3 compared to the activity of alkaline phosphatases (1.11-5.96 ?molpNP/s/dm3. Comparing enzyme activity of nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, it was found that most nitrogen fixing strains had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatases. The data obtained in this work indicate that activity of phosphatases is a strain specific property. The results further suggest that synthesis and activity of phosphatases depended on eco-physiological characteristics of the examined cyanobacterial strains. This can be of great importance for the further study of enzymes and mechanisms of their activity as a part of cyanobacterial survival strategy in environments with extreme conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002

  5. Serum Zinc Values in Adult Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation

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    M Hadjibabaie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Zinc (Zn deficiency can cause significant defects in cellular immunity. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT patients usually experience serious deficiencies of all components of the immune system. Therefore, the maintenance of a normal Zn status may be important in this group of patients. "nPatients and Methods: Serum Zn levels were analyzed in 55 patients during the HSCT period. As Zn-related factors, serum copper (Cu levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity were also measured. "nResults: There was decrease in Zn values immediate post-transplant period (at day +10 when compared to pre-HSCT levels (P=0.06. In patients who developed hypozincemia, adverse events appeared to occur more frequently. "nConclusion: This study suggests that maintaining a normal Zn status can be important in HSCT patients and Zn deficiency may be a risk factor causing adverse effects.

  6. Correlation of Serum Parathormone with Hypertension in Chronic Renal Failure Patients Treated with Hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To consider the correlation of serum parathromone on severity of hypertension in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis (HD). A cross-sectional study was done on patients with ESRD on treatment with maintenance HD. Levels of serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, albumin and intact parathormone (iPTH) were measured. Stratification of hypertensive patients was done from stage one to three. The total number of patients studied was 73 (Females=28, Males=45), consisting of 58 non-diabetic (F=22, M=36) and 15 diabetic patients (F=6, M=9). The mean age of the study patients was 46.5+-16 years. The mean duration on HD of the study patients was 21.5+-232.5 months. The mean serum PTH of the study patients was 309+-349 pg/ml and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was 413+-348 IU/L. There was a significant positive correlation between the stage of hypertension and serum PTH levels (r=0.200, p=0.045). Also, there was a significant positive correlation between stage of hypertension and calcium-phosphorus product (r=0.231, p=0.027). There was no significant correlation between stage of hypertension and serum ALP (r=0.135, p=0.128). Relationship between serum PTH and severity of hypertension in patients on HD needs to be studied in more detail. Hypertension and secondary hyperparathyroidism interact in the process of accelerated atherosclerosis in HD patients thus warranting appropriate measures to control hyperparathyrodism vigorously. (author)arathyrodism vigorously. (author)

  7. Highly elevated serum levels of CA 19-9 in choledocholithiasis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Marcouizos, Georgios; Ignatiadou, Eleftheria; Papanikolaou, Georgios E; Ziogas, Dimosthenis; Fatouros, Michail

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old woman admitted to our hospital with pain in the right upper abdominal quadrate radiated to the back, jaundice, fever and chills. The laboratory tests showed serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels of 99.070 U/ml (normal values: 0-37 U/ml). The rest of the biochemistry showed alkaline phosphatase of 550 IU/l, direct bilirubin: 17.5 mg/dl, total bilirubin: 28.4 mg/dl. Abdominal sonography demonstrated dilated common bile duct. Two weeks postoperatively, the car...

  8. Dietary fishmeal versus soyabean meal: an assessment of serum and liver enzyme response in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletor, V A

    1990-05-01

    In a five-week feeding trial, 90 broiler chicks were used to study the response of serum and liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase following the replacement of varying levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 per cent) of fishmeal protein by soyabean meal protein. The results showed that both serum ALT and AST activities increased significantly (P less than 0.01) with the increasing levels of substitution of soyabean meal for fishmeal. Regression analysis showed a significant (P less than 0.01) positive correlation between ALT and AST activities and the level of soyabean meal substitution with correlation coefficient, r, of 0.93 and 0.98, respectively. The liver ALT and AST tended to increase with the increasing proportion of soyabean meal although such increases were not significant (P greater than 0.01). Serum and liver SDH and alkaline phosphatase activities were not significantly influenced by diet. PMID:2359876

  9. The synthesis of Phosphate-repressible alkaline phosphatase do not appear to be regulated by ambient pH in the filamentous mould Neurospora crassa A síntese da fosfatase alcalina Pi-repressível não parece ser regulada pelo pH ambiente no fungo filamentoso Neurospora crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. Nozawa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate further the adaptive response of moulds to ambient pH, we have measured by ELISA the pho-2-encoded Pi-repressible alkaline phosphatase synthesised by Neurospora crassa. We showed that the 74A and pho-2A strains of this mould secrete similar amounts of the pho-2-encoded enzyme irrespective of ambient pH, when both the preg and pgov genes are not functional, i.e., in strains nuc-2+ growing under Pi-starvation. This suggests that pho-2, which is responsive to Pi starvation via the action of genes nuc-2, preg, pgov and nuc-1, is not a gene responsive to ambient pH and that the differential glycosylation observed for the Pi-repressible alkaline phosphatase retained by the mycelium at pH 5.6 or secreted into the growth medium at pH 8.0 is the genetic response to ambient pH sensing in N. crassa.Para investigar a resposta adaptativa ao pH ambiente em fungos, foram determinados por ELISA os níveis de fosfatase alcalina Pi-repressível expressada pelo gene pho-2 de Neurospora crassa. Foi mostrado que as linhagens 74A e pho-2A deste fungo secretam quantidades semelhantes da fosfatase alcalina Pi-repressível independentemente do pH ambiente, quando ambos os genes preg e pgov não são funcionais, isto é, quando a linhagem nuc-2+ cresce em condições de limitação em fosfato inorgânico (Pi. Isto sugere que o gene pho-2, o qual é regulado pela ação hieráquica dos genes nuc-2, preg, pgov e nuc-1, é reprimido pelo fosfato inorgânico, mas não responde ao pH ambiente, e que a diferença na glicosilação observada para a fosfatase alcalina Pi-repressível (APase retida no micélio em pH 5,6 ou APase secretada no meio de cultura em pH 8,0 é a resposta genética para o monitoramento do pH ambiente em N. crassa.

  10. Correlation of serum prostate specific antigen levels and Tc-99m mdp bone scintigraphy in newly diagnosed patients with prostrate cancer (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and bone scintigraphy in newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer patients. The probability of a positive bone scan for metastases was analyzed for different threshold values of prostate specific antigen (PSA), acid phosphastase and alkaline phosphates. Fifty four newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer patients (mean age, 67 years range, 41 to 94) were included in this study. In each case serum PSA, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase measurements were performed followed by whole body Technetium-99m MDP bone scan. The positive predictive value of serum PSA level for bone metastases at the threshold of 10 ng/ml was 70% whereas the same threshold level of PSA gave a negative predictive value of 100%. We used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to examine the power of predictive value of each serum test, in predicting the results of the bone scan. We also applied regression analysis for the assessment of correlation between the levels of tumor markers and the extent of bone pathology. It was concluded that bone scintigraphy seems to be unnecessary in evaluation of newly diagnosed untreated prostate cancer in patients with no clinical signs of bone pathology and serum PSA levels of equal to or less than 10 ng/ml. (author)

  11. Blood serum components and serum protein test of Hybro-PG broilers of different ages

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    PRL Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood serum samples of HYBRO PG broilers were analyzed, with 30 samples collected from 21-day-old broilers (G1, 30 from 35-day-old birds (G2, and 30 from 42-day-old birds (G3, with the aim of establishing normal values of some blood serum parameters. The activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum levels of total calcium, calcium ion, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and indirect and direct bilirubin, and electrophoretic profile of serum proteins in acrylamide (SDS-PAGE and agarose gel were determined. There was no influence of age on total bilirubin and albumin levels. All the other evaluated parameters presented differences in at least one age group. Protein electrophoretic profile also changed as a function of age. The obtained results can be considered as normal for the studied ages, and therefore be used as references for the interpretation of laboratory exams of broilers of this genetic line in the evaluated ages.

  12. Blood serum components and serum protein test of Hybro-PG broilers of different ages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PRL, Silva; OC, Freitas Neto; AC, Laurentiz; OM, Junqueira; JJ, Fagliari.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood serum samples of HYBRO PG broilers were analyzed, with 30 samples collected from 21-day-old broilers (G1), 30 from 35-day-old birds (G2), and 30 from 42-day-old birds (G3), with the aim of establishing normal values of some blood serum parameters. The activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl-t [...] ransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum levels of total calcium, calcium ion, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and indirect and direct bilirubin, and electrophoretic profile of serum proteins in acrylamide (SDS-PAGE) and agarose gel were determined. There was no influence of age on total bilirubin and albumin levels. All the other evaluated parameters presented differences in at least one age group. Protein electrophoretic profile also changed as a function of age. The obtained results can be considered as normal for the studied ages, and therefore be used as references for the interpretation of laboratory exams of broilers of this genetic line in the evaluated ages.

  13. Serum MDA, Antioxidant Vitamins and Erythrocytic Antioxidant Enzymes in Chronic Alcoholic Liver Disease – A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Pujar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the changes in the serum levels of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA, non-enzymatic antioxidants: vitamin A, E and C and erythrocyte enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase(CAT in chronic alcoholic liver disease. Background: Alcohol consumption accounts for about 50% of patients death from end stage liver disease in India. The increased free radical and their metabolites decrease the plasma antioxidants status in chronic alcoholic liver disease (CALD. Method: The study comprised of 100 healthy persons as controls and 100 diagnosed patients of chronic alcoholic liver disease as cases. The estimation of serum MDA, vitamin A, E, C and erythrocyte enzymatic antioxidants SOD and CAT, were carried out along with liver function parameters like serum aspartate amino transferase (AST, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP, serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, serum total protein, serum albumin, prothrombin time (PT and serum bilirubin. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired “t” test. Result: The levels of serum MDA were significantly increased in patients with CALD (P<0.01 while antioxidants were significantly reduced as compared to controls (P<0.01. Conclusion: Increased levels of lipid peroxides and reduced antioxidants suggest that, oxidative stress plays a vital role in pathogenesis of chronic alcoholic liver disease

  14. Serum Levels of Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) and Adipose Tissue Expression Levels of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) are Increased in Obese Men Resident in North East of Scotland Without Any Changes in Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Response Marker Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggard, N; Agouni, A; Mody, N; Delibegovic, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine identified as a marker of insulin resistance in mice and humans. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) expression levels, as well as other genes involved in the endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response, are increased in adipose tissue of obese, high-fat diet fed mice. In this study, we investigated if serum- and/or adipose-tissue RBP4 protein levels, and expression levels of PTP1B and other ER stress-response genes, are altered ...

  15. The relationship between the degree of liver fibrosis and serum markers in patient with hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the relationship between the degree of liver fibrosis and serum markers in patients with hepatic diseases, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLO), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), procollagen type III (PIIINP), hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN) and collagen type IV in 114 patients with different causes hepatic disease were determined. The liver puncture biopsy was also carried out to determine the stages of liver fibrosis. The results showed that the serum albumin, globulin, platelet, prothrombin time, PIIINP, HA, collagen type IV had significant difference in different stages of liver fibrosis. The serum platelets and albumin levels were negatively correlated with the degree of liver fibrosis. The serum PT and GLO levels were positively correlated with time course of liver fibrosis. The serum PIIINP, HA and collagen type IV levels were positively correlated with degree of liver fibrosis. The serum albumin, globulin, prothrombin time, platelets, PIIINP, HA, collagen type IV were correlated with the progress of the liver fibrosis. The prothrombin time and platelets have directive significance in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and also used to judge the stage of liver fibrosis in some extent. The serum PIIINP, HA and collagen type IV levels may better reflect the process of liver fibrosis.er reflect the process of liver fibrosis. (authors)

  16. PHOSPHATASE EXPRESSION BY CHLORELLA VULGARIS (CHLOROPHYCEAE) IS MEDIATED BY INTERNAL PHOSPHORUS LEVELS AND EXTERNAL PH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultures of Chlorella vulgaris were grown in custom photobioreactors in acid (pH 5.5) and alkaline (pH 7.5) media under phosphate replete and starved conditions. Analysis of differential phosphatase expression indicates that cultures of C. vulgaris grown under alkaline conditions derepressibly expr...

  17. Efecto de concentraciones crecientes de Fósforo Fítico sobre la actividad de las enzimas fitasa y fosfatasa alcalina en el epitelio intestinal de ovinos jóvenes. / Effect of Incresing Concentrations of Phytic Phosphorus on the Activity of the Phytase and Alkaline Phosphatase Enzymes in the Intestinal Epithelium of Young Sheep.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Pizzani; Susmira, Godoy; Milagro, León; Emma, Rueda; María Virginia, Castañeda; Adelis, Arias.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer el efecto del suministro de concentraciones crecientes de fósforo fítico sobre la actividad de las enzimas fitasa y fosfatasa alcalina en el epitelio intestinal de ovinos jóvenes, se realizó un experimento con concentraciones crecientes de fósforo fítico: 0% (T1), 40% (T2) [...] , 60% (T3) y 80% (T4). Los animales consumieron las dietas a razón del 4% del peso vivo durante cuatro semanas. Transcurrido este período, se sacrificaron todos los animales del ensayo, y se determinó la actividad de las enzimas en homogenados del epitelio de las diferentes secciones del intestino delgado (duodeno, yeyuno e ileon). Los resultados muestran valores de actividad fitásica a nivel del duodeno de: 1,43; 1,85; 1,82 y 0,69 (nmoles/min/mg de proteína) para concentraciones de T1, T2, T3 y T4, respectivamente, con una disminución significativa (P Abstract in english With the objective to know the effect of supply in growing concentrations of phytic phosphorus on the activity of the enzymes phytase and alkaline phosphatase in the intestinal epithelium of young sheep, it was carried out an experiment with incresing concentration of phytic phosphorus: 0% (T1), 40% [...] (T2), 60% (T3), and 80% (T4). The animals consumed the diets as for 4% of the body weight during four weeks. Lapsed this period, all the animals of the rehearsal were sacrificed, and the activity of the enzymes was determined in homogenates of the epithelium of the different sections of the thin intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum). The results showed values of phytase activity at level of the duodenum of: 1.43; 1.85; 1.82 and 0.69 nmoles/min/mg protein for concentrations of T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively, with a significant decrease (P

  18. Hematological and Serum Chemical Characteristics of Open-Cervix and Closed-Cervix Pyometra in Bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Jeoung Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate hematological and serum chemical characteristics of Open-Cervix Pyometra (OCP and Closed-Cervix Pyometra (CCP in bitches. In terms of hematologic characteristics, bitches with OCP had mild normocytic, normochromic anemia and less leukocytosis. With regard to serum chemistry, a disproportionate increase in Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN was seen in CCP (BUN:creatinine ratios >30:1. The most prominent finding was the alkaline phosphatase level in CCP (307.5 u L-1. A mildly elevated glucose concentration was seen in OCP (147.9 mg L-1. The present study provides valuable characteristics of open-cervix and closed-cervix pyometra in bitches.

  19. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin associated with decreased serum PTH and elevated bone resorption markers in otherwise healthy men subjected to long-term immobilization.

  20. Restoration of parathyroid function after change of phosphate binder from calcium carbonate to lanthanum carbonate in hemodialysis patients with suppressed serum parathyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Masaaki; Okuno, Senji; Nagayama, Harumi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Ishimura, Eiji; Imanishi, Yasuo; Shoji, Shigeichi

    2015-03-01

    Control of phosphate is the most critical in the treatment of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Because calcium-containing phosphate binder to CKD patients is known to induce adynamic bone disease with ectopic calcification by increasing calcium load, we examined the effect of lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a non-calcium containing phosphate binder, to restore bone turnover in 27 hemodialysis patients with suppressed parathyroid function (serum intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH] ? 150 pg/mL). At the initiation of LaC administration, the dose of calcium-containing phosphate binder calcium carbonate (CaC) was withdrawn or reduced based on serum phosphate. After initiation of LaC administration, serum calcium and phosphate decreased significantly by 4 weeks, whereas whole PTH and iPTH increased. A significant and positive correlation between decreases of serum calcium, but not phosphate, with increases of whole PTH and iPTH, suggested that the decline in serum calcium with reduction of calcium load by LaC might increase parathyroid function. Serum bone resorption markers, such as serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen increased significantly by 4 weeks after LaC administration, which was followed by increases of serum bone formation markers including serum bone alkaline phosphatase, intact procollagen N-propeptide, and osteocalcin. Therefore, it was suggested that LaC attenuated CaC-induced suppression of parathyroid function and bone turnover by decreasing calcium load. In conclusion, replacement of CaC with LaC, either partially or totally, could increase parathyroid function and resultant bone turnover in hemodialysis patients with serum iPTH ? 150 pg/mL. PMID:25556148

  1. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase as a biomarker of bone turnover in dog Fosfatase ácida resistente ao tartarato como biomarcador do metabolismo ósseo no cão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P Sousa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Values of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase ( TRAP activity were obtained in adult dogs and its biological variability was assessed. Nine healthy skeletally mature Portuguese Podengo dogs were used for the determination of TRAP, total and bone alkaline phosphatase serum activities, and also to study their relationship with serum minerals, namely calcium (Ca, phosphorous (P, and magnesium (Mg. The serum TRAP activity was 2.19±0.56IU/mL, with intra-individual variation of 18.3% and inter-individual variation of 25.6%. Significant correlations were observed between serum TRAP activity and Ca (r=-0.3431; PDeterminaram-se os valores da atividade da fosfatase ácida resistente ao tartarato (FART e avaliou-se a sua variabilidade biológica. Neste estudo, foram utilizados nove cães adultos e saudáveis de raça Podengo Português para as determinações das atividades da FART, da fosfatase alcalina total, da isoenzima óssea da fosfatase alcalina e da concentração dos minerais séricos - cálcio, fósforo e magnésio. A atividade sérica obtida da FART foi de 2,19±0,56 UI/mL, com uma variação intra-individual de 18,3% e interindividual de 25,6%. Foram observadas correlações significativas ao longo do tempo entre FART e cálcio (r=-0,3431; P<0,05, entre FART e magnésio (r=0,3974; P<0,05 e entre cálcio e magnésio (r=-0,787; P<0,01. Os resultados indicam que este marcador de reabsorção óssea pode ser de grande valor na prática clínica e na investigação e, ainda, ser utilizado como um método auxiliar não invasivo para avaliação do metabolismo ósseo

  2. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF CLOVE OIL AND 2-PHENOXY ETHANOL ON SERUM BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES IN CHANNAPUNCTATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Chelladurai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate thecomparison of effect of clove oil and 2-phenoxy ethanol for Channapunctatus and using values of serum biochemical profile and histological tissue studies ,to assess the effects of fish exposure to that anaesthetic:A total of 60 C.punctatus of 60.23±5.02g were divided in to five groups (12 fish per each:1st treatment as control (no anaesthetic,2nd 0.2ml/1 2-phenoxy ethanol ,3rd 0.3ml/1 2-phenoxy ethanol ,4th 30mg/1 clove oil and 5th 40mg/1 clove oil.Biochemical blood profile of C.puntatus were taken 15 min and 24 hrs. After Anaesthesia induction ,the factors used to evaluate the serum biochemical profile included the glucose (GLU, total protein (TP, albumin (ALB,total globulin (GLOP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP,serum Glutamic oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, histological tissue examination of tissue like gills ,ten minutes exposure to 2-phenoxy ethanol and clove oilcaused an increase in concentration of glucose and alkaline phosphatase 15 min after Anaesthesiainduction.Histological examination showed.Capillary ectasia of gill filaments immediately after clove oil and 2-phenoxy ethanol,showed  swelling of primary and secondary lamella .Twenty –four hours after anaesthesia ,no ectasia was observed .No histopathological changes were demonstrated in gills:Our result showed that The 2-phenoxy ethanol at 0.20ml/1and clove oil at 30mg/1 concentration may be used as an efficient and safe anaesthetic for Channapunctatus. Key words: Clove oil, 2-Phenoxy ethanol,Channapunctaus,Serum biochemical profile, histological examination of tissues.

  3. Concentrations of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin in the serum as well as comparisons of sensitivity between radioimmunoassays and enzyme assays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase in the presence of carcinomas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between carcinomas of the prostate and the plasma levels of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin as well as the possible influence of these neoplasms on the testosterone binding capacity and free testosterone index are investigated for various tumour stages and degrees of histological differentiation, in connection with several forms of local therapy as well as a variety of contrasexual methods. The sensitivity of enzyme assays and radioimmunoassays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase is evaluated within the framework of this study. (MBL)

  4. Alginate-hydroxypropylcellulose hydrogel microbeads for alkaline phosphatase encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karewicz, A; Zasada, K; Bielska, D; Douglas, T E L; Jansen, J A; Leeuwenburgh, S C G; Nowakowska, M

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using proteins as therapeutics agents. Unfortunately, they suffer from limited stability and bioavailability. We aimed to develop a new delivery system for proteins. ALP, a model protein, was successfully encapsulated in the physically cross-linked sodium alginate/hydroxypropylcellulose (ALG-HPC) hydrogel microparticles. The obtained objects had regular, spherical shape and a diameter of ?4?µm, as confirmed by optical microscopy and SEM analysis. The properties of the obtained microbeads could be controlled by temperature and additional coating or crosslinking procedures. The slow, sustained release of ALP in its active form with no initial burst effect was observed for chitosan-coated microspheres at pH?=?7.4 and 37?°C. Activity of ALP released from ALG/HPC microspheres was confirmed by the occurance of effectively induced mineralization. SEM and AFM images revealed formation of the interpenetrated three-dimensional network of mineral, originating from the microbeads' surfaces. FTIR and XRD analyses confirmed formation of hydroxyapatite. PMID:23834314

  5. Isolation and characterization of gingival fibroblasts positive for alkaline phosphatase in patients with chronic periodontitis and drug-induced gingival hyperplasia / Isolamento e caracterização de fibroblastos gengivais positivos para fosfatase alcalina de pacientes portadores de periodontite crônica e hiperplasia gengival medicamentosa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vagner Rodrigues, Santos; Rafael Tomaz, Gomes; Maurício, Resende; Oslei Paes de, Almeida; Ricardo Della, Colleta.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a expressão da atividade de fosfatase alcalina (ALP) em fibroblastos gengivais de sujeitos com periodontite crônica (PC) e hiperplasia gengival medicamentosa (HGM) induzida por difenilhidantoína. METODOLOGIA: Os fragmentos gengivais foram obtidos de 13 pacientes (8 mulheres e 5 [...] homens, 22 a 74 anos), sendo 4 fragmentos procedentes de gengiva clinicamente normal (GN), 5 de biópsias de bolsas periodontais com PC e 4 de HGM induzida pela difenilhidantoína. Através de digestão enzimática, suspensões de células gengivais foram preparadas contendo fibroblastos ALP-positivos sem afetar a atividade da enzima ALP. Análises citoquímica e histoquímica foram realizadas. RESULTADOS: Fibroblastos de GN apresentaram fraca positividade para ALP quando comparados com PC e HGM. PC e HGM exibiram níveis elevados e intermediários, respectivamente, de ALP. Observou-se menor proliferação celular na cultura de células em PC e HGM que em GN. Entretanto, a quantidade de células recuperadas das sub-culturas foi similar à quantidade recuperada na cultura inicial para as três linhagens. CONCLUSÕES: A expressão de ALP na PC e na HGM encontra-se aumentada e ocorre baixa proliferação de fibroblastos na PC e na HGM. Isto sugere que a inflamação periodontal e a difenilhidantoína podem influenciar a expressão de ALP e a multiplicação de fibroblastos gengivais humanos. Outros estudos são necessários para melhor avaliar a importância de ALP no desenvolvimento e na progressão de PC e HGM. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in gingival fibroblasts from individuals with chronic periodontitis (CP) and drug-induced gingival hyperplasia (DGH) induced by diphenylhydantoin. METHODS: Gingival fragments were obtained from 13 patients (8 women and 5 m [...] en, from 22 to 74 years of age), with 4 fragments from clinically normal gingiva (NG), 5 from biopsy of periodontal pockets with CP, and 4 from DGH induced by diphenylhydantoin. Using an enzymatic digestion procedure, gingival cell suspensions containing ALP-positive fibroblasts were prepared without affecting ALP activity. Cytochemistry and histochemistry analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fibroblasts from NG presented low levels of ALP when compared to CP and DGH, which showed elevated and intermediate levels of ALP, respectively. Little cell proliferation was observed for fibroblasts from CP and DGH as compared to NG. However, the quantity of cells recovered from the subcultures was similar to the quantity recovered from the initial cell culture for the three sources. CONCLUSION: The expression of ALP is increased in CP and DGH, and fibroblasts in CP and DGH show low proliferation. This suggests that periodontal inflammation and diphenylhydantoin may influence ALP expression and human gingival fibroblast expansion. Other studies are necessary to better assess the importance of ALP in the development and progression of CP and DGH.

  6. Isolation and characterization of acid phosphatase mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To-E, A; Ueda, Y; Kakimoto, S I; Oshima, Y

    1973-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain H-42 seems to have two kinds of acid phosphatase: one which is constitutive and one which is repressible by inorganic phosphate. The constitutive enzyme was significantly unstable to heat inactivation, and its K(m) of 9.1 x 10(-4)m for p-nitrophenylphosphate was higher than that of the repressible enzyme (2.4 x 10(-4)m). The constitutive and the repressible acid phosphatases are specified by the phoC gene and by the phoB, phoD, or phoE gene, respectively. Results of tetrad analysis suggested that the phoC and phoE genes are linked to the lys2 locus on chromosome II. Since both repressible acid and alkaline phosphatases were affected simultaneously in the phoR, phoD, and phoS mutants, it was concluded that these enzymes were under the same regulatory mechanism or that they shared a common polypeptide. The phoR mutant produced acid phosphatase constitutively, and the phoR mutant allele was recessive to its wild-type counterpart. The phoS mutant showed a phenotype similar to that of a mutant defective in one of the phoB, phoD, or phoE genes. However, the results of genetic analysis of the phoS mutant clearly indicated that the phoS gene is not a structural gene for either of the repressible acid and alkaline phosphatases, but is a kind of regulatory gene. According to the proposed model, the phoS gene controls the expression of the phoR gene, and inorganic phosphate would act primarily as an inducer for the formation of the phoR product which represses phosphatase synthesis. PMID:4570606

  7. Hematological and serum biochemical analyses in experimental caprine besnoitiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazifi, Saeed; Oryan, Ahmad; Namazi, Fatemeh

    2011-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the hematological and biochemical changes in experimentally infected goats with Besnoitia caprae from the time of infection till 360 days post-infection (PI). Six male goats were inoculated subcutaneously with 13 × 10(7) bradyzoites of B. caprae, and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. The total erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, hematocrit value, and differential leukocyte counts were determined. Serum biochemical analysis, including the total protein, albumin, total globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, chloride, testosterone, calcium (Ca(2+)), inorganic phosphorus, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), iron (Fe(2+)), glucose, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase, was undertaken. Skin biopsy from the limbs were collected at weekly intervals and histologically examined for Besnoitia cysts. Cysts were present in the skin biopsies of the leg of the infected goats from day 28 PI. There were variations in hematological analyses, but no significant difference was seen. From day 30 to 360 PI, results showed that SAA, Hp, fibrinogen, and ceruloplasmin concentrations increased, whereas testosterone concentrations decreased. Infected goats exhibited decrease of albumin and increase of serum total protein and globulin concentrations. By contrast, there were no significant differences in the remained analyses concentrations. PMID:21738268

  8. Pattern of serum vitamin d in opd patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the prevalence of Vitamin-D deficiency in conditions other than osteomalcia and rickets in our part of the world. Only those patients were included who had any structural or biochemical changes in the body. Serum Vitamin-D level of all patients was sent for estimation from a single reputable laboratory, apart from serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and routine blood investigations. All data was collected and processed on SPSS Version 10. Of the total 79 patients, 58(73%) were females and 21(27%) males. Minimum age was one year and maximum 90 years, with a mean age of 41.91 and standard deviation of 19.1. Majority of the patients were seen in the 4th, 5th and 6th decades of life, and most of them were house wives. The serum Vitamin-D level was found low in 73(92%) patients and the most severe form of deficiency was seen in patients with tuberculosis. Vitamin-D deficiency was seen in 92% of our patients, belonging to all age groups and suffering from different diseases. (author)

  9. Comparison of serum and plasma for determination of blood biochemical values in Malaysian flying foxes (Pteropus vampyrus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Darryl J; Ruiz, Michele M; Harr, Kendal E

    2006-09-01

    The effects of the anticoagulant sodium heparin and time of centrifugation on 20 biochemical analytes in the blood of Malaysian flying foxes (Pteropus vampyrus) were evaluated. Paired plasma and serum samples were centrifuged at 1 hr and 6 hr postcollection. Heparinization and time of centrifugation did not significantly affect albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides, amylase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransaminase, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, sodium, and total carbon dioxide levels. Plasma was associated with higher globulin and lower potassium values. Glucose and chloride levels decreased significantly over time, whereas phosphorus levels increased. Serum creatine kinase activity at 6 hr postcollection was significantly higher than the other creatine kinase means. Sodium levels were not significantly affected by sodium heparin as used as an anticoagulant in this study. PMID:17319121

  10. Biochemical analysis of serum and synovial fluid in clinically normal young camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Al-Rukibat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the reference range values of various biochemical components in serum and synovial fluid in clinically normal young camels (Camelus dromedarius. One-hundred serum samples and 100 synovial fluid samples were collected from clinically, radiographically and cytologically normal carpal, tarsal and fetlock joints. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, glucose, sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, albumin and the activities of creatine kinase, alanine aminotransfearse, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined using commercially available kits. The concentration and activities of all measured parameters were significantly lower in the synovial fluid than in the serum except for the ALP and phosphorus, which were similar in both serum and synovial fluids. No significant difference was found in any of the measured biochemical parameters in different joints except in ALP activity, which was higher in the tarsal joint in comparison with the carpal and fetlock joint and the BUN concentration, which was higher in the tarsal joint in comparison with the carpal joint. Baseline values for biochemical components of normal camel synovial fluid and their serum counterparts have been generated. Such data can be used in the clinical investigation of camel’s joint diseases.

  11. Elevated serum liver enzymes in obesity: a dilemma during clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, A; Rubio, A; Weintraub, M; Byrne, L

    1991-12-01

    We found that 17 out of 60 (28.3 percent) obese, otherwise healthy volunteers had elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) or alkaline phosphatase (AP) at least once in the course of a 12 week clinical trial. ALAT was the most commonly elevated serum aminotransferase occurring in 16 out of the 17 participants. Its range of elevation, as a percentage of the upper limit of normal (ULN) at screening was 102-164 percent (mean +/- s.d.; 127 percent +/- 18.4). Three participants had slight elevations of AP (112 percent, 113 percent, 119 percent of ULN). One participant had a minor elevation of ASAT (107 percent of ULN at screening). Of the 17 participants with elevated aminotransferases and AP, six were randomized to placebo, seven were treated with the low dose and four with the high dose of the new medication. Study participants having elevated enzymes had higher ideal body weight (IBW) than the group with normal values at screening (162 +/- 10 percent IBW, 152 +/- 11 percent IBW respectively), and at week 8 (152 +/- 3 percent IBW, 146 +/- 2 percent respectively) (P less than 0.05). The corresponding body mass index (BMI) values are 36.8 +/- 2.8 for the participants with elevated liver enzymes vs 34.2 +/- 2.6 (P less than 0.001) for the participants with normal values at screening and 34.9 +/- 3.1 and 32.8 +/- 2.8 (P = 0.02) respectively at week 8. Males (46 percent) were more likely than females (21 percent) to have elevated aminotransferases. We found no evidence for hepatic disease during the study period. Slightly elevated and fluctuating serum aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase concentrations are a more frequent finding in healthy obese populations than previously established. In studies of anti-obesity agents investigators should broaden the entry criteria since elevated aminotransferase levels rarely interfere with the safe conduct of clinical trials in obesity. PMID:1794921

  12. The development of determining human prostatic acid phosphatase by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We purified human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) from prostatic tissues by affinity chromatography, DEAE cellulose and gel filtration and also examined physicochemical properties of highly purified PAP. We developed a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for hPAP in serum, with use of antiserum raised in rabbit against highly purified PAP. The antiserum did not cross react with acid phosphatase from platelets and red blood cells. Experimental detail are outlined to assess the reproducibility and reliability of the method under various conditions. The upper limit of the serum PAP levels in the present assay was set at 3.0 ng/ml by 162 determinations of samples. The serum PAP levels of 2 untreated patients with prostatic carcinoma were higher than 3.0 ng/ml and 39 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were an average value of 1.9 ng/ml. (author)

  13. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Labrune Philippe; Gajdos Vincent; Eberschweiler Pascale; Hubert-Buron Aurélie; Petit François; Vianey-Saban Christine; Boudjemline Alix; Piraud Monique; Froissart Roseline

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, betw...

  14. A contribution for the definition of serum chemistry values in captive adults Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F M O; Vergara-Parente, J E; Gomes, J K N; Teixeira, M N; Lima, R P

    2007-04-01

    Serum chemistry analyses represents a fundamental tool for the diagnosis and understanding of diseases in marine mammals. Although several studies are being conducted within the field of clinical pathology, haematological and serum chemistry data for Antillean manatees are deficient. The purpose of this study was to determine serum chemistry values for captive Antillean manatees within the CMA/Ibama facility in Brazil. Serum samples were obtained from five captive adult Antillean manatees fed with seagrass and analysed for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, urea, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, phosphate, chloride, calcium and uric acid. Blood chemistry parameters were determined using a semi-automatic analyzer. Maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviations were calculated for each serum chemistry parameter. Differences on the values of males and females were verified using an unpaired Student's t-test. All the parameters analysed were similar between sexes, with exception of AP, which was higher in females (191.43 +/- 31.86 U/l). Alanine aminotransferase and uric acid values for Trichechus manatus manatus are reported for the first time in this paper. This study is the first to report serum chemistry parameter values for long-term captive male and female Antillean manatees. Therefore, the lower values of albumin, phosphate, chloride, cholesterol and triglycerides obtained here highlight the importance of clinical pathology during health monitoring of captive marine mammals. PMID:17381673

  15. A clinical assessment of the relationship between bone scintigraphy and serum biochemical markers in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal osteodystrophy is a metabolic bone disease and a common complication of end-stage chronic renal failure and maintenance dialysis treatment. In this study, we examined the correlation between quantifying bone scintigraphy and serum biochemical markers in hemodialysis patients. Bone scintigraphy with technetium-99m-hydroxy-methylene-diphosphonate (99mTc-HMDP) was performed on 28 patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Bone scintigraphy was performed using a standard protocol and was quantified by setting regions of interest (ROIs) over selected regions. The bone-to-soft-tissue ratio (B/ST ratio) at each region was calculated in all patients. The B/ST ratios were then compared with serum biochemical markers. The B/ST ratio for the skull correlated well with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) (r=0.735, p<0.001), serum deoxypyridinoline (DPD) (r=0.806, p<0.001) and intact parathyroid hormone (intact PTH) (r=0.701, p<0.001). The B/ST ratio for the lumbar spine correlated with intact PTH (r=0.387, p<0.05) but not with serum BAP or serum DPD. The B/ST ratio for the femoral neck correlated with serum DPD (r=0.431, p<0.05) and intact PTH (r=0.449, p<0.05) but not with serum BAP. Our data suggest that quantitative bone scintigraphy is a sensitive and useful method for evaluating bone metabolism in hemodialysis patients. The B/ST ratio for the skull may reflect changes of bone metabolism in hemodialysis patients. (author). (author)

  16. Growth and extracellular phosphatase activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae as influenced by soil organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Jakobsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were set up to investigate the influence of soil organic matter on growth of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphae and concurrent changes in soil inorganic P, organic P and phosphatase activity. A sandy loam soil was kept for 14 months under two regimes (outdoor where surplus precipitation leached through the soil, or indoor at constant moisture) with or without 9% (w/w) chopped wheat straw plus mineral N. Then the soils were partially sterilized and placed in two-compartment pots where mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants were grown in one root compartment (RC), and soils differing in organic matter were placed in six parallel hyphal compartments (HC) separated from the RC with a 37 mu m mesh. In the first experiment, using Glomus caledonium, hyphal length densities were measured in the HC after 31 days. Added straw increased hyphal length densities by 34 and 62% for soil kept outdoors and indoors, respectively. In the second experiment, using G. invermaium and only soil kept outdoors,three treatments were included: soil with no added straw with or without a new addition of 0.5% (w/w) of ground clover leaves, and soil with 9% straw plus mineral N. After 41 days hyphal length density was twice as high in soil with added straw compared to the two other treatments. Mycorrhizal colonization resulted in lower activity of acid phosphatase in the HC for two out of three treatments. Alkaline phosphatase activity was only decreased by mycorrhiza in soil without organic matter additions. In soil with added clover alkaline phosphatase activity increased due to the presence of mycorrhizal hyphae. We suggest that mycorrhizas may influence the exudation of acid phosphatase by roots. Hyphae of G. invermaium did apparently not excrete extracellular phosphatases, but their presence may have influenced alkaline phosphatase excreted by other microorganisms, probably through competition for nutrients. Phosphatase activity was not correlated with the concentration of labile organic P in soil extracts.

  17. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane pe lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of free radical processes and thus reduces the radiation damages in testes of Swiss albino mice. (author)

  18. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of free radical processes and thus reduces the radiation damages in testes of Swiss albino mice. (author)

  19. Nuclear medicine diagnostic experience for 25 patients with parathyroid disease accompanied elevated serum PTH level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore nuclear medicine diagnostic method for parathyroid disease accompanied elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. Methods: The images of 25 patients with parathyroid disease were obtained by SPECT 99Tcm-MIBI double-phase parathyroid imaging and 99Tcm-methylene diphosphonate (99Tcm-MDP) whole-body static bone imaging. All subject were measured serum PTH, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. Results: (1) Serum PTH level increased to varying degrees in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). (2) PHPT and SHPT showed significant change before and after surgery (t=6.24 and t=6.85, P99Tcm-MIBI were above 90%. (4) Whole-body bone imaging results of SHPT patients showed complex and diverse caused by high background, increased uptakes mainly. 99Tcm-MIBI dual-phase parathyroid imaging showed hyperparathyroidism in varying degree, up to 56% or more. Conclusion: Determination of serum PTH combined SPECT for parathyroid and whole-body bone imaging showed high clinical value in diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid disease. (authors)

  20. Effects of bisphenol A administration to pregnant mice on serum Ca and intestinal Ca absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Hinako; Sugimoto, Miki; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Kume, Shinichi

    2012-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen commonly used in food storage plastics. The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of BPA administration to pregnant mice on serum calcium (Ca) and Ca metabolism of the gut and kidney. From 6.5 to 16.5?days post coitus (dpc), pregnant mice were administered at 2?mg or 20?mg/kg body weight/day of BPA. Serum Ca was decreased in mice treated with 20?mg BPA at 17.5?dpc, but no remarkable differences were detected in the alkaline phosphatase activity and vitamin D receptor protein expression in the duodenum and jejunum. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of calcium binding protein (CaBP-9k) and active vitamin D synthesis enzyme (CYP27B1) in the kidney were increased in mice treated with 20?mg BPA. The mRNA expressions of occludin and junction adherence molecular A (JAM-A) in the duodenum and ileum, which regulate paracellular transport, were increased in mice treated with 20?mg BPA. However, the administration of 2?mg BPA had no effect on serum Ca and mRNA expressions of relative genes in Ca metabolism. These results imply that BPA administration at 20?mg/kg body weight/day during pregnancy decreases serum Ca in pre-delivery mice, which may be partly due to decreased paracellular Ca absorption. PMID:22435627

  1. Association of helicobacter pylori infection with serum magnesium in kidney transplant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, Massoud; Mardani, Saeed; Borhani, Ali; Ahmadi, Ali; Nasri, Parto; Nasri, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies are available regarding the various promoting factors of H. pylori infection in kidney disease patients especially renal transplant individuals. Objectives: This study was therefore conducted to examine the association of serum magnesium with H. pylori infection among kidney transplant patients. This cross-sectional investigation was conducted on a group of stable kidney transplant patients. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis after an overnight fast, Also urea breath test (UBT) was conducted for patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 cases was enrolled to the study. Mean serum magnesium value of the patients was 1.98 ± 0.62 mg/dl. Serum magnesium level in positive H. pylori patients was more than negative H. pylori patients (p=0.0005). In this study population, there was no significant difference in serum intact PTH, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, albumin levels and body mass index (BMI) between males and females or H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative subjects (p>0.5). Conclusion: It is possible that, magnesium aggravates H. pylori infection in kidney transplant patients through the mechanisms like hemodialysis, which we had reported previously. However, more studies are necessary to prove the association of magnesium with H. pylori infection in renal transplant patients and finding the clinical relevance of our findings. PMID:25610889

  2. Characterization and site-directed mutagenesis of Wzb, an O-phosphatase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Christophe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversible phosphorylation events within a polymerisation complex have been proposed to modulate capsular polysaccharide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Similar phosphatase and kinase genes are present in the exopolysaccharide (EPS biosynthesis loci of numerous lactic acid bacteria genomes. Results The protein sequence deduced from the wzb gene in Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 9595 reveals four motifs of the polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP superfamily of prokaryotic O-phosphatases. Native and modified His-tag fusion Wzb proteins were purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Extracts showed phosphatase activity towards tyrosine-containing peptides. The purified fusion protein Wzb was active on p-nitrophenyl-phosphate (pNPP, with an optimal activity in presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA 1% at pH 7.3 and a temperature of 75°C. At 50°C, residual activity decreased to 10 %. Copper ions were essential for phosphatase activity, which was significantly increased by addition of cobalt. Mutated fusion Wzb proteins exhibited reduced phosphatase activity on p-nitrophenyl-phosphate. However, one variant (C6S showed close to 20% increase in phosphatase activity. Conclusion These characteristics reveal significant differences with the manganese-dependent CpsB protein tyrosine phosphatase described for Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as with the polysaccharide-related phosphatases of Gram negative bacteria.

  3. Serum total and bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities for the assessment of bone fracture healing in dogs Fosfatase alcalina total, isoenzima óssea da fosfatase alcalina e fosfatase ácida resistente ao tartarato na monitorização da cicatrização de fraturas ósseas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o padrão de variação da atividade sérica da fosfatase alcalina total (tALP, da isoenzima óssea da fosfatase alcalina (BALP e da fosfatase ácida resistente ao tartarato (TRAP, assim como a variação da concentração dos minerais séricos durante o processo de cicatrização de fraturas ósseas no cão. A variação sérica destes marcadores do metabolismo ósseo foi avaliada em nove cães com fraturas diafisárias fechadas de ossos longos, submetidas a tratamento cirúrgico para osteosíntese. Durante o período pós-operatório, sete animais evoluíram no sentido de uma normal união óssea, sendo que dois deles desenvolveram um processo de não união óssea. Foram observados, relativamente à BALP, valores de actividade sérica mais elevados e com diferença estatística (P<0,05 no grupo de animais que evoluiu no sentido de uma normal união óssea, comparativamente ao grupo de animais que evoluiu no sentido do processo de não união. No grupo de animais que evoluiu para a completa união óssea foram, adicionalmente, observados valores diminuidos (P<0,05 da atividade sérica da TRAP, até ao dia 60 do período pós-operatório seguido de uma elevação estatisticamente significativa após este período. Em conclusão, os biomarcadores do metabolismo ósseo poderão vir a constituir um método auxiliar de diagnóstico na monitorização do processo de cicatrização de fracturas ósseas, possibilitando, a detecção precoce de complicações pós-operatórias.

  4. Serum fluoride and sialic acid levels in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, R; Lal, H; Kundu, Z S; Kharb, S

    2011-12-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor most commonly occurring in children and young adults presenting with painful swelling. Various etiological factors for osteosarcoma are ionizing radiation, family history of bone disorders and cancer, chemicals (fluoride, beryllium, and vinyl chloride), and viruses. Status of fluoride levels in serum of osteosarcoma is still not clear. Recent reports have indicated that there is a link between fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma. Glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans are an integral part of bone and prolonged exposure to fluoride for long duration has been shown to cause degradation of collagen and ground substance in bones. The present study was planned to analyze serum fluoride, sialic acid, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in 25 patients of osteosarcoma and age- and sex-matched subjects with bone-forming tumours other than osteosarcoma and musculo-skeletal pain (controls, 25 each). Fluoride levels were analyzed by ISE and sialic acid was analyzed by Warren's method. Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups. The mean value of flouride in patients with other bone-forming tumors was approximately 50% of the group of osteosarcoma; however, it was significantly higher when compared with patients of group I. Serum sialic acid concentration was found to be significantly raised in patients with osteosarcoma as well as in the group with other bone-forming tumors as compared to the group of controls. There was, however, no significant difference in the group of patients of osteosarcoma when compared with group of patients with other bone-forming tumors. These results showing higher level of fluoride with osteosarcoma compared to others suggesting a role of fluoride in the disease. PMID:19390788

  5. FOSFATASA ALCALINA (ALP) Y RUNX2 EN CULTIVOS CELULARES DE OSTEOBLASTOS ESTIMULADOS CON CAMPO ELÉCTRICO / ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (ALP) AND RUNX2 IN CELL CULTURES STIMULATED OSTEOBLASTS ELECTRIC FIELD / FOSFATASE ALCALINA (ALP) E RUNX2 EM CULTIVOS CELULARES DE OSTEOBLASTOS ESTIMULADOS COM CAMPO ELÉTRICO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JORGE ARTURO, REY CUBILLOS; LEONARDO, LAREO; SANDRA, GUTIÉRREZ; MARCELA, GODOY CORREDOR.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objeto deste estudo foi identificar o estímulo elétrico que deve ser aplicado em cultivos celulares de osteoblastos (Ob) para aumentar a expressão do gene da Fosfatase Alcalina (ALP) e o fator de transcrição Runx2. Foram cultivados Ob da American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Ref. CRL 11372. Os c [...] ultivos foram estimulados a partir do quinto dia, quando as células apresentaram confluência, até o oitavo dia. O estímulo aplicado a cada grupo experimental foi de 100mV, 200mV, 300mV, 400mV e 500mV respectivamente, cultivou-se um grupo de controle não estimulado com cada grupo experimental. O campo elétrico foi gerado com corrente alternada (CA) e aplicou-se mediante duas placas de alumínio localizadas de forma lateral e paralela aos frascos de cultivo de 25cm2. Os níveis de expressão de mRNA foram medidos com a técnica quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Com a aplicação do campo gerado com AC aumentou a expressão do fator de transcrição RunX2 em proporção direta ao aumento da voltagem aplicada. A expressão do gene de ALP foi inversamente proporcional à aplicação do estímulo e identificou-se uma diferença significativa entre a presença e ausência do estímulo, sendo maior na ausência do estímulo. O campo elétrico gerou um sinal que pode aumentar ou diminuir a expressão dos genes que mediam a formação de tecido ósseo. No caso de Runx2, favoreceu a diferenciação de células mesenquimais a Ob com a consequente atividade de remodelação e formação do tecido ósseo. Abstract in spanish El objeto de este estudio fue identificar el estímulo eléctrico que debe aplicarse en cultivos celulares de osteoblastos (Ob) para aumentar la expresión del gen de Fosfatasa Alcalina (ALP) y el factor de transcripción Runx2. Se cultivaron Ob de la American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Ref. CRL 113 [...] 72. Los cultivos se estimularon del día cinco, cuando las células presentaron confluencia, hasta el día ocho. El estímulo aplicado a cada grupo experimental fue de 100mV, 200mV, 300mV, 400mV y 500mV respectivamente, se cultivó un grupo control no estimulado con cada grupo experimental. El campo eléctrico se generó con corriente alterna (AC) y se aplicó mediante dos placas de aluminio ubicadas de forma lateral y paralela a los frascos de cultivo de 25cm2. Los niveles de expresión de mRNA se midieron con la técnica quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Con la aplicación de campo generado con AC aumentó la expresión del factor de transcripción RunX2 en proporción directa al aumento del voltaje aplicado. La expresión del gen de ALP fue inversamente proporcional a la aplicación del estímulo y se identificó una diferencia significativa entre la presencia y ausencia del estímulo, siendo mayor en ausencia del estímulo. El campo eléctrico generó una señal que puede aumentar o disminuir la expresión de los genes que median la formación de tejido óseo. En el caso de Runx2, favoreció la diferenciación de células mesenquimales a Ob con la consecuente actividad de remodelación y formación del tejido óseo. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to identify the electrical fields to be applied in osteoblast (Ob) cell cultures, in order to increase the expression of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) gene and the transcription factor Runx2. Ob cultured where from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Ref CRL 11372. [...] Cell Cultures received stimulation at day five, when they showed a confluent monolayer organization until day eight. The stimulus applied to each experimental group was 100mV, 200mV, 300mV, 400mV and 500mV respectively, a control group was cultured without stimulation. The electric field is generated with altern current (AC) and applied with two aluminum plates located parallel to 25cm2 culture flasks. The mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription quantitative technique polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Aplication of AC increased expression of

  6. Serum biochemical and histopathological changes in liver and kidney in lambs after zinc oxide nanoparticles administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ganjealidarani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential co-factor for many enzymatic activities and its deficiency may produce clinical signs of parakeratosis, loss and failure of growth of wool and hair in sheep. Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of zinc oxide nano-particles (instead conventional zinc oxide on serum biochemical factors and histopathological changes in liver and kidney of lambs. Materials and Methods: One group of lamb (4 lambs each group received zinc oxide nano-particles suspension daily for 25 day. Whole blood sample and serum were collected at the start and the end of study. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine aminotransferas (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and creatinine (CR were measured in serum of lambs. Sections of liver and kidney were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined by light microscopy. Results: Activity of ALP (p=0.011 was significantly decreased and creatinine level (p=0.002 was significantly increased by zinc oxide nano-particles. Cell swelling, eosinophilic necrosis of hepatocytes, and multifocal interstitial nephritis was observed during histopatological examination. Conclusion: Results of study suggest that zinc oxide nano-particles may be toxic for use in sheep in zinc deficiency status. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 534-537

  7. [False positive serum des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takagi, Kazumi; Iida, Takayasu; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Mizokami, Masashi

    2007-04-01

    Measurements of serum concentrations of des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin (PIVKA-II) are widely used for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, when we evaluated the correlation of PIVKA-II between two commercially available PIVKA-II immunoassay kits (Lumipulse f vs. Picolumi) to introduce it in our hospital, false high values of PIVKA-II were observed in Lumipulse assay. Four(4%) of 100 serum samples showed false high values, and all of them were obtained from patients less than 2 month after curative resection of HCC. Examining additional 7 patients with HCC resection, serum samples from the 5 patients had the same trend. To elucidate the non-specific reaction by Lumipulse assay which utilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymatic reaction, inhibition assays by various absorbents such as inactive ALP and IgM antibodies were performed. Excess of inactive ALP reduced the high values of PIVKA-II. Note that anti-bleeding sheets (fibrinogen combined drug), which included bovine thrombin, were directly attached on liver of all patients with HCC resection in this study. As the sheets also contaminate ALP and probably produce IgM antibodies to ALP, the IgM may cross-react with anti-PIVKA-II antibodies directly. Taken together, it was suggested that produced antibodies against ALP derived from anti-bleeding sheets led false high values of PIVKA-II in the patients with HCC resection. PMID:17511263

  8. Higher serum C-reactive protein concentration and hypoalbuminemia are poor prognostic indicators in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: We evaluate if C-reactive protein (CRP) is an objective biomarker of esophageal cancer in patients undergoing radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Between November 2002 and July 2007, 123 patients undergoing radiotherapy for newly diagnosed esophageal cancer were enrolled. Serum CRP concentration was measured before the initiation of treatment. The relationship between serum CRP levels and other relevant variables such as body mass index, white blood cell count, platelet count, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholesterol, hemoglobin, and albumin levels was also analyzed. Results: Eighty-one patients of the 123 patients enrolled (65.9%) had elevated CRP levels (?5 mg/L). The 2-year survival for patients with CRP ?5 mg/L was 7.8% compared to 78.4% for patients with CRP <5 mg/L. Hypoalbuminemia (albumin <3.5 g/dL) was also related to shorter survival using univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only higher serum CRP concentration and hypoalbuminemia were independent prognostic indicators for survival of patients with esophageal cancer. Conclusions: Pretreatment serum levels of CRP and albumin are objective, easily measurable biomarkers which can be used in combination with conventional staging to accurately predict survival in patients with esophageal cancer treated with radiotherapy.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed by G6PC (GSDIa or SLC37A4 (GSDIb gene analysis, and the indications of liver biopsy to measure G6P activity are getting rarer and rarer. Differential diagnoses include the other GSDs, in particular type III (see this term. However, in GSDIII, glycemia and lactacidemia are high after a meal and low after a fast period (often with a later occurrence than that of type I. Primary liver tumors and Pepper syndrome (hepatic metastases of neuroblastoma may be evoked but are easily ruled out through clinical and ultrasound data. Antenatal diagnosis is possible through molecular analysis of amniocytes or chorionic villous cells. Pre-implantatory genetic diagnosis may also be discussed. Genetic counseling should be offered to patients and their families. The dietary treatment aims at avoiding hypoglycemia (frequent meals, nocturnal enteral feeding through a nasogastric tube, and later oral addition of uncooked starch and acidosis (restricted fructose and galactose intake. Liver transplantation, performed on the basis of poor metabolic control and/or hepatocarcinoma, corrects hypoglycemia, but renal involvement may continue to progress and neutropenia is not always corrected in type Ib. Kidney transplantation can be performed in case of severe renal insufficiency. Combined liver-kidney grafts have been performed in a few cases. Prognosis is usually good: late hepatic and renal complications may occur, however, with adapted management, patients have almost normal life span. Disease name and synonyms Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency or G6P deficiency or glycogen storage disease type I or GSDI or type I glycogenosis or Von Gierke disease or Hepatorenal glycogenosis.

  10. Specific activity of cell-surface acid phosphatase in different bacterioplankton morphotypes in an acidified mountain lake.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedoma, Ji?í; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 7 (2006), s. 1271-1279. ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA6017202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : alkaline phosphatase * bacterial morphorypes * acidified lake Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.630, year: 2006

  11. Phosphate solubilization potential and phosphatase activity of rhizospheric Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kapri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma sp., a well known biological control agent against several phytopathogens, was tested for its phosphate (P solubilizing potential. Fourteen strains of Trichoderma sp. were isolated from the forest tree rhizospheres of pinus, deodar, bamboo, guava and oak on Trichoderma selective medium. The isolates were tested for their in-vitro P-solubilizing potential using National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate (NBRIP broth containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP as the sole P source, and compared with a standard culture of T. harzianum. All the cultures were found to solubilize TCP but with varying potential. The isolate DRT-1 showed maximum amount of soluble phosphate (404.07 µg.ml-1, followed by the standard culture of T. harzianum (386.42 µg.ml-1 after 96 h of incubation at 30+1(0C. Extra-cellular acid and alkaline phosphatases of the fungus were induced only in the presence of insoluble phosphorus source (TCP. High extra-cellular alkaline phosphatase activity was recorded for the isolate DRT-1 (14.50 U.ml-1 followed by the standard culture (13.41 U.ml-1 at 72h. The cultures showed much lesser acid phosphatase activities. Under glasshouse conditions, Trichoderma sp. inoculation increased chickpea (Cicer arietinum growth parameters including shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight of shoot as well as roots, in P-deficient soil containing only bound phosphate (TCP. Shoot weight was increased by 23% and 33% by inoculation with the isolate DRT-1 in the soil amended with 100 and 200 mg TCP kg-1 soil, respectively, after 60 d of sowing. The study explores high P-solubilizing potential of Trichoderma sp., which can be exploited for the solubilization of fixed phosphates present in the soil, thereby enhancing soil fertility and plant growth.

  12. Phosphate solubilization potential and phosphatase activity of rhizospheric Trichoderma spp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anil, Kapri; Lakshmi, Tewari.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma sp., a well known biological control agent against several phytopathogens, was tested for its phosphate (P) solubilizing potential. Fourteen strains of Trichoderma sp. were isolated from the forest tree rhizospheres of pinus, deodar, bamboo, guava and oak on Trichoderma selective medium. [...] The isolates were tested for their in-vitro P-solubilizing potential using National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate (NBRIP) broth containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the sole P source, and compared with a standard culture of T. harzianum. All the cultures were found to solubilize TCP but with varying potential. The isolate DRT-1 showed maximum amount of soluble phosphate (404.07 µg.ml-1), followed by the standard culture of T. harzianum (386.42 µg.ml-1) after 96 h of incubation at 30+1(0)C. Extra-cellular acid and alkaline phosphatases of the fungus were induced only in the presence of insoluble phosphorus source (TCP). High extra-cellular alkaline phosphatase activity was recorded for the isolate DRT-1 (14.50 U.ml-1) followed by the standard culture (13.41 U.ml-1) at 72h. The cultures showed much lesser acid phosphatase activities. Under glasshouse conditions, Trichoderma sp. inoculation increased chickpea (Cicer arietinum) growth parameters including shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight of shoot as well as roots, in P-deficient soil containing only bound phosphate (TCP). Shoot weight was increased by 23% and 33% by inoculation with the isolate DRT-1 in the soil amended with 100 and 200 mg TCP kg-1 soil, respectively, after 60 d of sowing. The study explores high P-solubilizing potential of Trichoderma sp., which can be exploited for the solubilization of fixed phosphates present in the soil, thereby enhancing soil fertility and plant growth.

  13. Dickkopf-1 and sclerostin serum levels in patients with systemic mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Maurizio; Viapiana, Ombretta; Zanotti, Roberta; Tripi, Gaia; Perbellini, Omar; Idolazzi, Luca; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Adami, Silvano; Gatti, Davide

    2015-05-01

    Bone involvement, mainly osteoporosis but also osteosclerosis, is frequent in patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM). The recent characterization of the canonical Wnt/?-catenin pathway in the regulation of bone remodeling provided important insights for our understanding of the pathophysiology of a number of conditions. The regulation of Wnt pathway in bone is predominantly driven by the production of receptor inhibitors such as Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and sclerostin (SOST). This study aimed to explore if the various bone involvements in patients with ISM might be explained by variations in serum levels of DKK1 and SOST. This is a cross-sectional study in an adult ISM cohort (13 men and 13 women with diagnosed ISM) and fifty-two healthy sex and age-matched controls. Early morning, fasting and venous sampling was obtained in all subjects. The main outcome measures were serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP), C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagene (CTX), DKK1, SOST, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone mineral density, and prevalent vertebral fractures. Mean DKK1 serum levels were about two-folds higher in patients, than in controls (65,0 ± 43.3 vs. 33.1 ± 19.4 pmol/L, respectively; p PTH and both CTX and bALP. Mean SOST serum levels were not significantly different in patients versus controls, and we did not observe any significant correlation between SOST and any available clinical or laboratory parameters, with the only exception of a positive correlation with age. In conclusion, in our study, we observed that DKK1, but not SOST, serum levels significantly increased in ISM patients with various bone involvements, and correlated with PTH and bone turnover markers. Our results suggest that the Wnt/?-catenin pathway is not primarily involved in the pathophysiology of the array of bone involvement in ISM. PMID:25694360

  14. Effect of serum fibroblast growth factor-23, matrix Gla protein and Fetuin-A in predicting osteoporosis in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Xiao, Dong-Mei; Fan, Wei-Feng; Ye, Xian-Wu; Niu, Jian-Ying; Gu, Yong

    2014-10-01

    This study is aimed at exploring the role of serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), matrix Gla (MGP) and Fetuin-A in the calcium-phosphate metabolism and estimate the value of serum FGF-23, MGP and Fetuin-A levels in predicting osteoporosis in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This study included 64 patients who receive hemodialysis in our hospital. The serum FGF-23, MGP and Fetuin-A were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELlSA). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The 64 patients (30 males, 34 females, 60.6 ± 11.3 years of age) received an average of 6.88 ± 2.94 years of dialysis. Body mass index (BMI), Kt/V, dialysis vintage, patient age, serum levels of FGF-23, Fetuin-A, bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (ALP-B), and calcium were different in statistical significance among the three groups of patients in terms of normal bone mass (N = 10), osteopenia (N = 24), or osteoporosis (N = 30). BMI, Kt/V, ALP-B, dialysis vintage and serum Fetuin-A level were identified as independent variables of femoral neck BMD by stepwise multiple regression analysis. The area under ROC curve showed that serum Fetuin-A was useful for identifying osteoporosis in MHD patients. The cutoff value corresponding to the highest Youden's index was serum Fetuin-A ? 89 ?g/mL, which was defined as the optimal predictor of osteoporosis. Its sensitivity/specificity was 71%/77.8%. The incidence of osteoporosis is high in MHD patients. Serum Fetuin-A level is closely correlated with osteoporosis and it may serve as a predictor of osteoporosis. PMID:25196492

  15. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  16. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  17. Seasonal study of extracellular phosphatase expression in the phytoplankton of a eutrophic reservoir.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrojsová, Alena; Vrba, Jaroslav; Nedoma, Ji?í; Komárková, Jaroslava; Znachor, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 38, ?. 4 (2003), s. 295-306. ISSN 0967-0262 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6017202; GA AV ?R KSK6005114; GA AV ?R IBS6017004; GA ?R GA206/02/0003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : alkaline phosphatase * ELF97 phosphate * species-specific activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.446, year: 2003

  18. Extracellular phosphatases in a Mediterranean reservoir: seasonal, spatial and kinetic heterogeneity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedoma, Ji?í; García, J.C.; Comerma, M.; Šimek, Karel; Armengol, J.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 51, ?. 7 (2006), s. 1264-1276. ISSN 0046-5070 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/99/0028 Grant ostatní: SICST(ES) HID96-1374-CO2; ICST(ES) 1997SGR-122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : alkaline phosphatase * eutrophication * P limitation Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.502, year: 2006

  19. Structure-function Analysis of the 3? Phosphatase Component of T4 Polynucleotide Kinase/Phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hui; Smith, Paul; Wang, Li Kai; Shuman, Stewart

    2007-01-01

    T4 polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (Pnkp) exemplifies a family of bifunctional enzymes with 5?-kinase and 3?-phosphatase activities that function in nucleic acid repair. T4 Pnkp is a homotetramer of a 301-aa polypeptide, which consists of an N-terminal kinase domain of the P-loop phosphotransferase superfamily and a C-terminal phosphatase domain of the DxD acylphosphatase superfamily. The homotetramer is formed via pairs of phosphatase-phosphatase and kinase-kinase homodimer interfaces....

  20. Protective effect of irradiated licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) on ethanol-induced serum lipid changes and liver Injury In rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water extract of licorice roots irradiated with gamma rays at dose level of 20 KGy has been evaluated for hepato protective and hypolipidaemic effects against chronic ethanol mediated toxicity in rats.Ethanol administration to rats (7.9 g/kg/day) for 45 days resulted in significant elevated levels of serum total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Meanwhile, significant reductions in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), total protein, albumin and glucose were noticed in comparison to those of control group, whereas, serum Na+ , K+ and globulin were kept unchanged. Co administration of raw and irradiated licorice roots (3 g/l in drinking water) with the daily dose of ethanol caused significant improvement in all the above mentioned parameters except serum glucose level. On the other hand, results showed that licorice roots water extract induced significant decrease in K+ level with increased Na+ level. There was non-significant difference between non-irradiated and irradiated licorice. Thus, it could be concluded that irradiated licorice roots has not affected its physiological functions. Moreover, supplementation with licorice roots water extract can offer protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress in hepa radical mediated oxidative stress in hepatotoxicity

  1. The study of chemiluminescence immunoassay for determination of human serum true insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop a highly sensitive CLIA to detect human serum true insulin, two specific monoclonal antibodies having different and distinct epitopes on insulin molecule were used in this study: one was coated on microtiter plate as the solid phase antibody and the other was labeled with alkaline phosphatase. Adamantine derivate was used as the substrate. The results showed that the sensitivity was 0.06 ?IU/mL, and the linear calibrator was in the range of 1.0-150 ?IU/mL. The CV of intra-and interbatches were 5.0% and 7.8%, respectively, and the mean recovery rate was 94.4%. According to measurement results of 200 samples (100 men and 100 women) the determination range was 0.52%-11.23 ?IU/mL for males, 0.75-10.66 ?IU/mL for females, and the mean value was 3.86, 3.62 ?IU/mL. There was no obvious difference between men and women. Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) is a simple and convenient, and can reflect truly the level of serum insulin. CLIA of insulin has application value in diagnosis and pathological research of diabetes mellitus. (authors)

  2. Seasonal hematology and serum chemistry of wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Stephanie A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Burek, Kathy A; Quakenbush, Lori T; Cornick, Leslie A; Romano, Tracy A; Spoon, Tracey; Miller, Woutrina; Beckett, Laurel A; Hobbs, Roderick C

    2012-01-01

    We collected blood from 18 beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), live-captured in Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA, in May and September 2008, to establish baseline hematologic and serum chemistry values and to determine whether there were significant differences in hematologic values by sex, season, size/age, or time during the capture period. Whole blood was collected within an average of 19 min (range=11-30 min) after the net was set for capture, and for eight animals, blood collection was repeated in a later season after between 80-100 min; all blood was processed within 12 hr. Mean hematocrit, chloride, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in May than they were in September, whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, monocytes, phosphorous, magnesium, blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, ?-glutamyltranspeptidase, and creatinine kinase were significantly higher. Mean total protein, white blood cell count, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were significantly higher early in the capture period than they were later. No significant differences in blood analyte values were noted between males and females. Using overall body length as a proxy for age, larger (older) belugas had lower white blood cell, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts as well as lower sodium, potassium, and calcium levels but higher creatinine levels than smaller belugas. These data provide values for hematology and serum chemistry for comparisons with other wild belugas. PMID:22247370

  3. Researches Concerning Reference Values Assessment of Serum Biochemical Parameters in some Fish Species from Acipenseridae, Cyprinidae, Esocidae and Salmonidae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess reference values of serum biochemical indices (enzymes, metabolites and minerals in some representative fish species belonging to Acipenseridae, Cyprinidae, Esocidae and Salmonidae family in order to establish a baseline data which will serve to monitoring nutritional-metabolic balance and healthy condition of these species from aquatic biocenosis or intensive exploitations. Serum samples were analyzed for glucose, total proteins, albumine, urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, ALT, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, total bilirubin, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, using a FullyVet automated chemical analyser. The obtained results were compared with those from other papers regarding serum biochemical profile of fresh water fish species. Serum biochemical reference intervals were as follows: glucose, 28.41±0.80–64.00±1.41 mgdL-1; total proteins, 2.78±0.21-4.05±0.20 gdL-1; albumine, 0.67±0.12–1.59±0.11 gdL-1; urea nitrogen, 12.16±0.78–18.30±0.27 mgdL-1; creatinine, 0.06±0.01–0.27±0.00 mgdL-1; uric acid, 1.00±0.00–1.66±0.09 mgdL-1; triglycerides, 46.00±1.29– 351.3±12.3 mgdL-1; cholesterol, 123.00±2.12–198.00±0.91±mgdL-1; ALT, 15.00±0.91–32.00±1.29 IU L-1; AST, 30.00±0.91–92.00±1.47 IU L-1; GGT, 4.00±0.00–6.33±0.46 IU L-1; alkaline phosphatase, 60.33±1.20–109.50±3.05 IU L-1; amylase, 28.08±0.93 – 36.00±0.91 IU L-1; total bilirubin, 0.00±0.00–0.03±0.00 mgdL-1; Ca, 7.63±0.40– 12.36±0.50 mgdL-1; P, 11.83±0.35-30.48±0.26 mgdL-1; Mg, 1.80±0.14–3.88±0.21mgdL-1; Fe, 57.60±3.48–120.00± 1.08 ?gdL-1. The wide intra- and interspecific variability of our data requires subsequent studies of the endo- and exogenous factors (living condition, season, age, gender, origin, breeding system, physiological and nutritional status, genetic of each individual, etc. that can induce variations of the propound parameter.

  4. Advances in alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Uwe; Antonius, Christina; Bäuerlein, Peter

    Alkaline rechargeable battery systems have been under development for more than 100 years yet. Different electrochemical couples of positive and negative materials have been subject of research and development, but only the nickel-cadmium system (NiCd) and, since about 10 years, the nickel-metal hydride system (NiMH) have achieved the stage of large volume production. Particularly, sealed NiCd and NiMH cells have been established in a variety of applications. Recent advances with the NiMH system have brought about portable batteries with energy storing capabilities coming close to those of alkaline primary cells. Although representing a technically interesting solution even for electric vehicles, relatively high cost will limit the use of rechargeable alkaline batteries to small high power batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Basic technological developments for materials suitable for high energy and high power design are described.

  5. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short review on the fundamental and technological issues relevant to water electrolysis in alkaline and proton exchange membrane (PEM) devices is given. Due to price and limited availability of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts they currently employ, PEM electrolyzers have scant possibilities of being employed in large-scale hydrogen production. The importance and recent advancements in the development of catalysts without PGMs are poised to benefit more the field of alkaline electrolysis rather than that of PEM devices. This paper presents our original data which demonstrate that an advanced alkaline electrolyzer with performances rivaling those of PEM electrolyzers can be made without PGM and with catalysts of high stability and durability. Studies on the advantages/limitations of electrolyzers with different architectures do show how a judicious application of pressure differentials in a recirculating electrolyte scheme helps reduce mass transport limitations, increasing efficiency and power density.

  6. Effects of High Dietary Fluoride on Serum Biochemistry and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubing Deng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high dietary fluoride (F on serum biochemistry and oxidative damage in broiler chickens. 280 one-day-old healthy avian broiler chickens were randomly allotted into four equal groups and fed with a corn-soybean basal diet containing 22.6 mg·F/kg (control group or same basal diets supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg·F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. At 42 days of age, the serum F content was markedly higher in the three high F groups than that in the control group. From 28 to 42 days of age, the contents of serum total protein (TP and albumin (ALB were significantly lower in the three high F groups. From 14 to 42 days of age, the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and the creatinine (Crea contents in the serum showed a marked increase in the three high F groups; aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity and uric acid (Ua content were significantly increased, and a significant increase in the content of malondialdehyde (MDA along with marked decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, the glutathione (GSH content and the ability to inhibit hydroxyl radical were observed in the high F groups II and III. In conclusion, F has accumulated in the blood circulatory system and dietary F in the range of 800 - 1200 mg/kg could significantly induce abnormalities of bone, liver and kidney, inhibit the synthesis of protein, enhance lipid peroxidation and disturb the antioxidative system of broiler chickens.

  7. Increased serum osteoprotegerin in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency receiving conventional hydrocortisone substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichna, M; Zurawek, M; Fichna, P; Gryczynska, M; Nowak, J; Ruchala, M

    2012-12-01

    Patients treated for primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) are at risk of steroid over-replacement, which may affect their skeleton. The study was aimed to investigate the effect of steroid substitution on serum osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-beta ligand (RANKL) levels in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) in PAI. Eighty patients (mean age 47.2±14.5 years, mean hydrocortisone dose 0.49±0.14 mg/kg/day) and 63 healthy subjects were included. Serum osteoprotegerin, RANKL, 25-hydroxyvitamin D?, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathormone, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels were evaluated in patients and controls. BMD was assessed in affected subjects using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mean osteoprotegerin concentration in PAI patients appeared significantly higher vs. controls (p=0.002), while RANKL levels were similar (p=0.430). Serum osteoprotegerin increased with age (p<0.001), but showed no correlation with daily hydrocortisone dose. Osteoprotegerin was negatively correlated with serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (p=0.008) and with BMD at the lumbar spine (p<0.001) and femoral neck (p=0.003). RANKL correlated negatively with PAI duration (p=0.029) and positively with daily hydrocortisone dose (p=0.018). Lumbar spine osteoporosis and osteopenia were found in 12 and 31 patients, respectively, whereas in femoral neck: in 5 and 33 individuals. Patients with osteoporosis displayed higher osteoprotegerin levels, but after the age-adjustment the correlation was lost. In conclusion, increased osteoprotegerin in PAI might reflect a compensatory response to enhanced bone resorption due to exogenous steroid excess and/or result from a deficit in adrenal androgens. RANKL levels remain within normal range on standard steroid replacement. PMID:23388484

  8. The Influence of Sunlight Exposure on Serum Vitamin D Concentration and Bone Turnover; a controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ataie-Jafari

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Sunlight exposure is one of the ways for vitamin D synthesis. However, its effect on vitamin D status via experimental studies is poorly understood. This study was undertaken to address the possibility that sunlight exposure may increase the levels of serum vitamin D, and alter bone turnover in healthy young girls."nMethods: In a controlled clinical trial, young girls were assigned to the test group (n= 45 or control group (n= 80. An out­door swimming pool was considered for this project and the test group was required to participate in these sessions at least for 8 sessions and to expose to direct sunlight at least for 20 minutes in each session. They were not allowed to use sun­screen during this time. Control group continued their usual manner of sun exposing. Serum levels of vitamin D, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, osteocalcin and crossLaps were measured before and after duration of the study in both groups and compared between them."nResults: Subjects aged 27.46±8.78 years. Serum levels of vitamin D and bone markers were constant during the study in both groups. Changes of these variables were not significant between the groups after the study. Serum vitamin D in sub­jects with white skin color correlated with total time of direct sun exposing after the study (P= 0.002."nConclusion: Sunlight exposure did not affect the serum vitamin D and bone turnover in healthy young girls. However, sub­jects with bright skin complexion benefit from sunlight exposing more than those with a dark skin color in the case of vita­min D improvement.  

  9. The application of radionuclide bone scintigraphy, serum PSA and ALP measurement in diagnosis of bone metastasis in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of radionuclide bone scintigraphy, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) measurement in the diagnosis of bone metastasis(BM) in prostate cancer patients. Methods: The results of bone scans, serum PSA and ALP levels were reviewed in 37 patients with prostate cancer. Correlation analysis was performed between PSA, ALP levels and BM grade. Results: The incidence rate of osseous metastasis was 70.3% (26/37), the most common involved parts were spine and pelvis. The serum PSA level in 18 untreated patients with BM was all >20 ng/ml, which was significantly different with those in 9 untreated patients without BM(NBM) (P0.05), but significant difference could be received when the cutoff value is 0.4 ng/ml(P>0.05). There was a positive correlation between serum ALP levels and BM degree(r=0.752, P=0.01). The levels of PSA in untreated and treated patients also had positive correlation with BM grade (r=0.508, P=0.01; r=0.515, P=0.05). Conclusion: Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is major method in diagnosis of bone metastasis in prostate cancer patients currently. The levels of PSA ?20% ng/ml in Patients with newly diagnosed and untreated prostate cancer should undergo bone scintigraphy. For those treated patients, bone scintigraphy should be performed when the PSA is ?0.4 ng/mle performed when the PSA is ?0.4 ng/ml. The diagnostic efficacy of ALP is better than that of PSA in untreated patients. The level of serum ALP is also correlates with the degree of BM. (authors)

  10. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 5. Hematology and serum chemistry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    The hematologic and serum chemistry responses in three generations of miniature swine chronically exposed to a 30-kV/m, 60-Hz electric field have been assessed in a series of screening experiments. Based on comprehensive analyses and sequential statistical evaluation of the data, there are no significant differences in any hematologic parameters in either the F/sub 0/ or F/sub 1/ generations when the exposed and sham-exposed groups are compared. In F/sub 2/ swine, at 42 days of age reticulocyte values were significantly higher in both sexes exposed to the electric field than in the control group. In addition, the exposed males at 42 days had significantly lower values for erythrocytes, hemoglobin and volume of packed red cells than the control males. Other values were comparable between exposed and control groups. Serum chemistry evaluations between exposed and control groups also showed no consistent statistical differences. A few parameters did show occasional differences between groups in the F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ generations, including: higher levels of urea nitrogen, triglyceride and alkaline phosphatase in exposed F/sub 1/ piglets; significantly lower serum protein levels in exposed F/sub 2/ males; and fewer serum globulins in both sexes of the F/sub 2/ generation. In summary, when hematologic and serum chemistry parameters were compared in exposed and sham-exposed groups of swine, some sporadic effects were evident. These effects, however, failed to replicate consistently at subsequent sampling periods or across generations and were not present as statistical trends when appropriate multivariate analyses were performed. 28 refs., 89 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Microrganismos do solo produtores de fosfatases em diferentes sistemas agrícolas / Soil microorganisms phosphatase producers in different agricultural systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ely, Nahas.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se que uma forma de prover fosfato disponível para as plantas é através da atividade mineralizadora microbiana do fósforo orgânico, avaliou-se a influência da planta (braquiária, guandu e sem planta), dos fertilizantes (superfosfato simples, fosfato de rocha e sem adubo) e da calagem (c [...] om e sem calcário) nas populações de microrganismos produtores de fosfatases ácida e alcalina. Do total de bactérias, 70,6% apresentaram atividade de fosfatase alcalina e 58,2% de fosfatase ácida e dos fungos, 64,3% e 84,7% respectivamente. Esses dados mostram número significativo de microrganismos com habilidade de mineralização do fósforo orgânico. Observou-se efeito restritivo do guandu sobre as bactérias e fungos produtores de fosfatases alcalina e ácida, cujos números foram sempre inferiores aos obtidos com a cultura de braquiária ou com as parcelas sem cultivo. Maior número de bactérias produtoras de fosfatase alcalina foi obtido nos tratamentos com superfosfato e controle do que com fosfato de rocha. Ao contrário, para os fungos, encontrou-se maior número nas parcelas não fertilizadas que as adubadas com fosfato. O número de fungos com atividade de fosfatase ácida diminuiu por efeito da calagem, enquanto o das bactérias aumentou. Finalmente, o número de bactérias produtoras de fosfatase alcalina superou o de fungos. Abstract in english Considering that one way for providing available phosphate to plants is by the microbial activity for the mineralization of organic phosphorus, the influence of plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis, Cajanus cajan and control), fertilizers (superphosphate, rock phosphate and control) and liming (with and w [...] ithout lime) was evaluated in the microorganisms populations of the acid and alkaline phosphatase producers. Among bacteria, 70,6% showed alkaline phosphatase activity and 58,2% acid phosphatase activity and among fungi, 64,3% and 84,7%, respectively. These numbers show that a significant population of microorganisms shows ability for organic phosphorus mineralization. Restrictive effect of the C. cajan was observed on the bacteria and fungi producers of the alkaline and acid phosphatases whose numbers always were lower to those obtained with the B. ruziziensis or with the plots without cultivation. Larger number of alkaline phosphatase bacterial producers was obtained in the treatments with superphosphate and control than that with rock phosphate. On the opposite, for fungi, a larger number was found in the plots with no fertilizer compared to the ones with fertilizer. The population of fungi having acid phosphatase activity decreased in the limed plots whereas the bacterial population increased. Finally, the alkaline phosphatase bacterial producers showed higher enzymatic activity than those of the fungi.

  12. LIPID PHOSPHATE PHOSPHATASES FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, George M.; Wu, Wen-I

    2007-01-01

    DPP1-encoded and LPP1-encoded lipid phosphate phosphatases are integral membrane proteins in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They catalyze the Mg2+-independent dephosphorylation of bioactive lipid phosphate molecules such as diacylglycerol pyrophosphate and phosphatidate. These enzymes possess a three-domain lipid phosphatase motif that is localized to the hydrophilic surface of the membrane. The lipid phosphate phosphatase activities of DPP1-encoded and LPP1-encoded enzymes are measured ...

  13. Plant species richness increases phosphatase activities in an experimental grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Nina; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Plant species richness has been shown to increase aboveground nutrient uptake requiring the mobilization of soil nutrient pools. For phosphorus (P) the underlying mechanisms for increased P release in soil under highly diverse grassland mixtures remain obscure because aboveground P storage and concentrations of inorganic and organic P in soil solution and differently reactive soil P pools are unrelated (Oelmann et al. 2011). The need of plants and soil microorganisms for P can increase the exudation of enzymes hydrolyzing organically bound P (phosphatases) which might represent an important release mechanism of inorganic P in a competitive environment such as highly diverse grassland mixtures. Our objectives were to test the effects of i) plant functional groups (legumes, grasses, non-leguminous tall and small herbs), and of (ii) plant species richness on microbial P (Pmic) and phosphatase activities in soil. In autumn 2013, we measured Pmic and alkaline phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities in soil of 80 grassland mixtures comprising different community compositions and species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 60) in the Jena Experiment. In general, Pmic and enzyme activities were correlated (r = 0.59 and 0.46 for phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities, respectively; p

  14. Development of electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilisation of alkaline fosfatase for the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilisation of alkaline phosphatase was developed for the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The biosensor was constructed from the immobilization of alkaline phosphatase enzyme onto a screen-printed electrode (SPE). The ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P) was used as substrate for the enzymic reaction. The enzyme was entrapped in a hybrid sol-gel/ chitosan material with certain fixed composition. The determination of toxicity of 2,4-D pesticides quantitatively and qualitatively could be carried out by the inhibition of the alkaline phosphatase. A potential of +600 mV was suitable to be used for the oxidation of the products from the enzyme-substrate reaction, where the reaction pH was at 8.5. The linear response range of the biosensor to the AA2P substrates was 10 ?M - 80 ?M. The inhibition of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme of the 2,4-D biosensor was maximum at 80 ppm 2,4-D (50 % inhibition). (author)

  15. Acid phosphatase purified from Mycoplasma fermentans has protein tyrosine phosphatase-like activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, K.; Noda, M.; Sawa, Y.; Watanabe, T.

    1994-01-01

    Acid phosphatase purified from Mycoplasma fermentans dephosphorylated phosphotyrosine-containing lysozyme and Raytide, a peptide substrate for protein tyrosine phosphatases. The optimum pH for Raytide was about 5.5. Raytide phosphatase activity was inhibited by potassium fluoride, sodium molybdate, and sodium orthovanadate and was found to exist in some mycoplasmas.

  16. Detection of extracellular phosphatase activity at the single-cell level by Enzyme-Labeled Fluorescence and flow cytometry: The importance of time kinetics in ELFA labeling.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duhamel, S.; Gregori, G.; Van Wambeke, F.; Nedoma, Ji?í

    75A, ?. 2 (2009), s. 163-168. ISSN 1552-4922 Grant ostatní: MŠMT(CZ) PAI Barrande 2005-06-009-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : alkaline phosphatase * ELF phosphate * heterotrophic bacteria Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.032, year: 2009

  17. P depletion and activity of phosphatases in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joner, E.J.; Magid, J.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was set up to test the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots and hyphae to produce extracellular phosphatases and to study the relationship between phosphatase activity and soil organic P (P-o). Non-mycorrhizal cucumber and cucumber in symbiosis with either of two mycorrhizal fungi were grown in a sandy loam-sand mixture in three-compartment pots. Plant roots were separated from two consecutively adjoining compartments, first by a 37 m mesh excluding roots and subsequently by a 0.45 m membrane excluding mycorrhizal hyphae. Soil from the two root-free compartments was sectioned in a freezing microtome and analyzed for extracellular acid (pH 5.2) and alkaline (pH 8.5) phosphatase activity as well as depletion of NaHCO-3-extractable inorganic P (P-i) and P-o. Roots and mycorrhizal hyphae depleted the soil of P-i but did not influence the concentration of P-o in spite of increased phosphatase activity in soil influenced by roots. Phosphatase activity at both pH values was highest in soil influenced by uncolonized roots, but this was attributed to higher root length densities as compared to mycorrhizal roots. Mycorrhizal hyphae showed no influence on soil phosphatase activity in spite of high hyphal length densities ( gt 22 m cm-3). Hyphae were also able to deplete soil of P-i beyond the membrane interface.

  18. Alkaline reaction powder concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Alekseevich Shishkin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current state of construction science causes during the construction of unique buildings, and construction of complex structures and their repair, high-strength binders and concretes based on them. High-strength concrete appeared in foreign practice in the early 60-ies different countries on an industrial scale started using concrete strength greater than 40 MPa. Particularly promising obtained at the end of the 80-ies of the twentieth century, the so-called reactive powder concrete - Reactive powder concretes (RPC. Concrete powder as reaction components due to the high dispersity and increased amounts of hydraulically active materials. At the same time, there exists a long form as slag-alkaline cementations binder, the activity of which, even without the use of special techniques used to improve the strength portland cement concrete, described above, up to 80 MPa. Fixed effect of the interaction between sodium silicate and iron salts and the resulting so-called slag slurry binder is a mixture of granulated blast furnace slag waste mining and processing (iron-bearing mineral complex, mixed with water. These two positions were the basis for a new type of concrete, a so-called slag-alkaline reactive powder concrete, which is a mixture of granulated blast furnace slag to iron- mineral complex, mixing an aqueous solution of the alkaline component with the addition of a polyalcohol. This type of binder has a compressive strength reaching 110 MPa.

  19. Biomineralization of Uranium by PhoY Phosphatase Activity Aids Cell Survival in Caulobacter crescentus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, M C [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jiao, Y [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-22

    Caulobacter crescentus is known to tolerate high levels of uranium [U(VI)], but its detoxification mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that C. crescentus is able to facilitate U(VI) biomineralization through the formation of U-Pi precipitates via its native alkaline phosphatase activity. The U-Pi precipitates, deposited on the cell surface in the form of meta-autunite structures, have a lower U/Pi ratio than do chemically produced precipitates. The enzyme that is responsible for the phosphatase activity and thus the biomineralization process is identified as PhoY, a periplasmic alkaline phosphatase with broad substrate specificity. Furthermore, PhoY is shown to confer a survival advantage on C. crescentus toward U(VI) under both growth and nongrowth conditions. Results obtained in this study thus highlight U(VI) biomineralization as a resistance mechanism in microbes, which not only improves our understanding of bacterium-mineral interactions but also aids in defining potential ecological niches for metal-resistant bacteria.

  20. Reduced serum levels of carboxy-terminal propeptide of human type I procollagen in a family with type I-A osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minisola, S; Piccioni, A L; Rosso, R; Romagnoli, E; Pacitti, M T; Scarnecchia, L; Mazzuoli, G

    1994-10-01

    We measured serum levels of total alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal propeptide of human type I procollagen (PICP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity (TRAP), and the fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (OHPr/Cr) in seven affected members (four men, three women; age, 43.3 +/- 16.6 years [mean +/- SD]) of a family with clinically diagnosed type I-A osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and in eight (five men, three women) normal age-matched (38.2 +/- 10.3) relatives. Three boys with OI and three normal girls of the same family were also studied, although they were excluded from statistical analysis. Bone mineral density was also determined at four different skeletal sites. Serum levels of PICP were measured with a radioimmunoassay (Farmos Diagnostica, Turku, Finland). There were no significant differences in mean values of the biomarkers studied between OI patients and normal relatives, with the only exception being serum levels of PICP (35 +/- 7.5 v 219 +/- 107.5 micrograms/L, P < .001). A significant reduction of BMD was found in OI patients compared with normal relatives at the lumbar (L) spine (680 +/- 61 v 1,128 +/- 92 mg/cm2, P < .001), at the ultradistal radius ([UDR] 323 +/- 85 v 458 +/- 76, P < .006), at the femoral neck ([F] 494 +/- 140 v 791 +/- 104, P < .001), and at the junction of the distal and middle third of the radius ([MR] 639 +/- 71 v 717 +/- 52, P < .029).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7934978

  1. Development of a high-throughput, indirect antibody immobilization format chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for the determination of progesterone in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shiqi; Wang, Xu; Lin, Zhen; Li, Zhenjia; Ying, Xitang; Chen, Guonan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2008-01-01

    A high-throughput and simple chemiluminescence (CL) enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for the determination of progesterone (P) in human serum was developed, with the highly sensitive 4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamantane) (AMPPD)-alkaline phosphatase (ALP) system as the CL detection system. The results showed that the indirect immobilization of rabbit anti-progesterone polyclonal antibody (RAPA) through secondary antibody exhibited apparent advantages over direct coating in terms of antibody saving and improvement of the coating stability and uniformity. The direct analysis of P in human serum without extraction was realized by using 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulphonic acid (ANS) to displace P from its binding proteins. The effect of several relevant parameters of the immunoreaction were examined and optimized. Compared with some commercial progesterone kits, the presented CLEIA has higher sensitivity with detection limitation as low as 0.06 ng/mL. The recoveries were 95.9-101%. The coefficient of variation was <8.4% and 9.9% for intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of P in human serum. PMID:18452138

  2. Fasted and postprandial response of serum physiological response, hepatic antioxidant abilities and HSP70 expression in Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed different dietary carbohydrate levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chuanpeng, Zhou; Xianping, Ge; Bo, Liu; Jun, Xie; Ruli, Chen.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) level on serum physiological response, hepatic antioxidant abilities and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression of Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) was studied. Two isonitrogenous (28.56% crude protein) and isolipidic (5.28% crude lipid) diets were [...] formulated to contain 30% or 53% wheat starch. Diets were fed for 90 days to fish in triplicate tanks (28 fish per tank). At the end of feeding trial, significantly higher serum triglyceride level, insulin level, cortisol level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were observed in fish fed the 53% CHO diet, while significantly lower serum total protein content, alkaline phosphatase activity, superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidative capacity were found in fish fed the 53% CHO diet compared with those fed the 30% diet. The relative level of hepatic heat shock protein 70 mRNA was significantly higher in the 53% CHO group than that in the 30% CHO at 6, 12 and 48 h after feeding. Ingestion of 53% dietary CHO impacts the nonspecific immune ability and causes metabolic stress in Megalobrama amblycephala.

  3. Análisis del resultado de pruebas hepáticas en pacientes psoriáticos tratados con metotrexato: Estudio retrospectivo / Serum liver tests in patients treated with methotrexate: A retrospective analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernán, Correa G; Natalia, Paredes S.

    1002-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Methotrexate is one of the best systemic treatments for psoriasis. However it has significant adverse effects such as myelotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Aim: To evaluate serum liver test in psoríatic patients treated with methotrexate. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of medical [...] records of psoríatic patients treated with methotrexate between the years 2000 and 2005. All patients received a minimum of 7.5 mg weekly of methotrexate, for at ¡east 4 weeks. Results: Sixty three patients were included. Mean cumulative dose of methotrexate was 576 mg. Thirty two percent had alterations in liver tests, but only 9% had values that duplicated the upper limit of normal range of aminotransferases or alkaline phosphatases or a serum bilirubin over 2 mg/dl. We did not find a direct relationship between the dose of methotrexate and the magnitude of liver test alterations. Only one patient exceeded 1.5 g as cumulative dose. A liver biopsy performed to him, did not show signs of fibrosis. Conclusions: This retrospective study does not show a direct relationship between weekly doses, cumulated dose and length of treatment with methotrexate, and the degree of alteration of serum liver tests (Rev Méd Chile 2007; 135: 1002-8)

  4. Serum biomarkers for acute hepatotoxicity of Echis pyramidum snake venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmari, Abdulrahman K Al; Khan, Haseeb A; Banah, Faisal A; Buraidi, Ahmed A Al; Manthiri, Rajamohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Echis pyramidum is a venomous viper responsible for most cases of envenomation in Arabian Peninsula. We determined the acute phase (3-6 h) changes in serum markers of liver function including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and bilirubin in adult male Sprague Dawley rats injected with Echis pyramidum venom (EPV) in the doses of 0.00 (control), 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/kg bodyweight. We also analyzed markers of oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total thiols (T-SH) and thiobarbituric acids reactive substances (TBARS) in liver. The results showed significant and dose- and time-dependent increases in serum ALT, ALP and GGT activities after a single injection of EPV. Serum bilirubin was significantly increased by medium and high doses of EVP after 3 h post-injection and then decreased at 6 h. The low dose of EPV neither affected the activity of SOD nor altered the levels of liver T-SH and TBARS, however, it significantly decreased the activity of CAT at 6 h post-injection of EPV. The medium dose of EPV significantly reduced liver SOD activity after 6 h whereas the high dose significantly reduced the SOD activity at 3 h and 6 h post-dosing. Both medium and high doses of EPV caused significant as well as dose- and time-dependent reductions in liver CAT activities. The high dose significantly reduced T-SH and increased TBARS in rat liver. Further studies are warranted to test the pharmacological potential of early phase antioxidant therapy for neutralizing the toxic effects of EPV. PMID:25785140

  5. Serum Proteins and Some Biochemical Parameters in Broiler Chickens Fed with Raw and Treated Bitter Vetch (Vicia ervilia Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Sadeghi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of bitter vetch seeds on serum proteins and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 1320 one-day old broiler chicks of a commercial breed were placed in 64 pens. Treatments were included raw and four different processed bitter vetch seeds in three levels (150, 300 and 450 g kg-1 and a corn-soybean based diet as control. Each treatment group consisted of four replicates. Processing methods were included soaked in water for 12 h, autoclaved, then dried at room temperature (SAD; ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD; ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSCD and ground, soaked at 1% acetic acid solution for 24 h at 60°C (AA. Feeding raw, AA and GSAD seeds decreased serum albumin significantly (p<0.05 in 21 days old chicks. Chickens that fed with raw and treated bitter vetch seed had lower ?1 and ? globulins than control (p<0.05. Increasing raw and treated bitter vetch seeds from 15 to 30 and 45% decreased albumin, ?1 and ? globulins and increased ?2 and ? globulins significantly (p<0.05. In 14 days old chicks feeding raw and treated biter vetch had no effect on serum urea, but uric acid concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05. Feeding SAD seeds increased serum urea significantly (p<0.05, but uric acid concentration did not change with feeding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds in 42 day old chicks. Adding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds to diet increased T4 and decreased T3 concentrations in all ages. At 28 days old chicks, feeding raw and treated biter vetch seeds decreased alkaline phosphatase concentration significantly than control. Results showed that raw bitter vetch seeds have some toxic effects on metabolism in broiler chickens and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of this seed.

  6. Protein tyrosine phosphatases as potential therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2014-10-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample therapeutic targets, and drug discovery efforts to date have brought over two dozen kinase inhibitors to the clinic. Accordingly, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are considered next-generation drug targets. For instance, PTP1B is a well-known targets of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and recent studies indicate that it is also a promising target for breast cancer. SHP2 is a bona-fide oncoprotein, mutations of which cause juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. In addition, LYP is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes and many other autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent findings on several highly recognized PTP family drug targets, including PTP1B, Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2(SHP2), lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), CD45, Fas associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1), striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatases (STEP), mitogen-activated protein kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), phosphatases of regenerating liver-1 (PRL), low molecular weight PTPs (LMWPTP), and CDC25. Given that there are over 100 family members, we hope this review will serve as a road map for innovative drug discovery targeting PTPs. PMID:25220640

  7. Bioprecipitation of uranium from alkaline waste solutions using recombinant Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Deinococcus radiodurans was genetically engineered to overexpress alkaline phosphatase (PhoK). • Deino-PhoK bioprecipitated U efficiently over a wide range of input U concentration. • A maximal loading of 10.7 g U/g of biomass at 10 mM input U was observed. • Radioresistance and U precipitation by Deino-PhoK remained unaffected by ? radiation. • Immobilization of Deino-PhoK facilitated easy separation of precipitated U. -- Abstract: Bioremediation of uranium (U) from alkaline waste solutions remains inadequately explored. We engineered the phoK gene (encoding a novel alkaline phosphatase, PhoK) from Sphingomonas sp. for overexpression in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. The recombinant strain thus obtained (Deino-PhoK) exhibited remarkably high alkaline phosphatase activity as evidenced by zymographic and enzyme activity assays. Deino-PhoK cells could efficiently precipitate uranium over a wide range of input U concentrations. At low uranyl concentrations (1 mM), the strain precipitated >90% of uranium within 2 h while a high loading capacity of around 10.7 g U/g of dry weight of cells was achieved at 10 mM U concentration. Uranium bioprecipitation by Deino-PhoK cells was not affected in the presence of Cs and Sr, commonly present in intermediate and low level liquid radioactive waste, or after exposure to very high doses of ionizing radiation. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the extracellular nature of bioprecipitated U, while X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis identified the precipitated uranyl phosphate species as chernikovite. When immobilized into calcium alginate beads, Deino-PhoK cells efficiently removed uranium, which remained trapped in beads, thus accomplishing physical separation of precipitated uranyl phosphate from solutions. The data demonstrate superior ability of Deino-PhoK, over earlier reported strains, in removal of uranium from alkaline solutions and its potential use in bioremediation of nuclear and other waste

  8. Bioprecipitation of uranium from alkaline waste solutions using recombinant Deinococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Sayali; Ballal, Anand; Apte, Shree Kumar, E-mail: aptesk@barc.gov.in

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Deinococcus radiodurans was genetically engineered to overexpress alkaline phosphatase (PhoK). • Deino-PhoK bioprecipitated U efficiently over a wide range of input U concentration. • A maximal loading of 10.7 g U/g of biomass at 10 mM input U was observed. • Radioresistance and U precipitation by Deino-PhoK remained unaffected by ? radiation. • Immobilization of Deino-PhoK facilitated easy separation of precipitated U. -- Abstract: Bioremediation of uranium (U) from alkaline waste solutions remains inadequately explored. We engineered the phoK gene (encoding a novel alkaline phosphatase, PhoK) from Sphingomonas sp. for overexpression in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. The recombinant strain thus obtained (Deino-PhoK) exhibited remarkably high alkaline phosphatase activity as evidenced by zymographic and enzyme activity assays. Deino-PhoK cells could efficiently precipitate uranium over a wide range of input U concentrations. At low uranyl concentrations (1 mM), the strain precipitated >90% of uranium within 2 h while a high loading capacity of around 10.7 g U/g of dry weight of cells was achieved at 10 mM U concentration. Uranium bioprecipitation by Deino-PhoK cells was not affected in the presence of Cs and Sr, commonly present in intermediate and low level liquid radioactive waste, or after exposure to very high doses of ionizing radiation. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the extracellular nature of bioprecipitated U, while X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis identified the precipitated uranyl phosphate species as chernikovite. When immobilized into calcium alginate beads, Deino-PhoK cells efficiently removed uranium, which remained trapped in beads, thus accomplishing physical separation of precipitated uranyl phosphate from solutions. The data demonstrate superior ability of Deino-PhoK, over earlier reported strains, in removal of uranium from alkaline solutions and its potential use in bioremediation of nuclear and other waste.

  9. Serum osteoprotegerin levels in patients after liver transplantation and correlation to bone turnover, bone mineral density and fracture status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrleitner, Astrid; Prenner, Günther; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Iberer, Florian; Tscheliessnigg, Karl-Heinz; Piswanger-Sölkner, Claudia; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Leb, Georg; Dobnig, Harald

    2002-08-30

    The aim of this cross sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis, vertebral fracture status and possible risk factors of bone loss including serum osteoprotegerin, a novel key regulator of osteoclast proliferation and activity in the posttransplantation period. We investigated 15 patients (10 male, 5 female) 20 +/- 6 (SE) months after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). All patients received immunosuppressive therapy and non were on calcium and/or vitamin D supplements at the time of admission to our osteoporosis outpatient clinic. Examinations included a bone densitometry measurement at the femoral neck, a standardized spinal X-ray and a morning blood sample. According to WHO criteria, osteoporosis at the femoral neck was present in 67% (10/15) of the patients with a mean T-score of -2.55 +/- 0.35. Vertebral fractures were seen in 33% and the mean number of fractures was 2.4 per patient. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (33%), vitamin D deficiency (53%) as well as impaired renal function (47%) were frequent findings in the patients. Low serum calcium was associated with elevated PTH- (r = -0.75, p = 0.001), serum cross laps- (r = -0.61, p = 0.01), osteocalcin levels (r = -0.49, p = 0.05), was an independent predictor of femoral neck bone mass (r = 0.57, p = 0.02) and accounted for 36% of this variance. Similarly, serum magnesium levels were also independently correlated to femoral neck Z-scores (r = -0.68, p = 0.0005). Two-thirds of the patients had elevated serum cross-laps, osteocalcin and bone specific alkaline phosphatase levels reflecting increased bone turnover. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) in liver transplant recipients was not significantly different when compared to healthy, matched controls (84.7 +/- 6.6 vs. 97.3 +/- 9.4 pg/ml, p = 0.50) and similar when fractured/non-fractured or osteoporotic/non-osteoporotic patients were compared. Serum OPG was, however, significantly correlated to serum cross laps (r = 0.71, p = 0.003), osteocalcin (r = 0.63, p = 0.01), serum parathyroid hormone (r = 0.61, p = 0.01) and serum creatinine levels (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) and showed only a weak and non-significant correlation to femoral neck Z-scores (r = -0.38, p = 0.16). Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum OPG was correlated independently of PTH, serum calcium and creatinine to serum cross-laps concentrations (r = 0.63, p = 0.04). In summary, we found a high prevalence of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures in liver transplant recipients with many of the patients showing evidence of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism and accelerated bone turnover. We conclude that secondary hyperparathyroidism and possibly serum magnesium seems to contribute significantly to the changes in bone mass during the posttransplantation period. Serum OPG was not correlated to bone mass or fracture status in this cross sectional setting but was elevated together with other bone resorption and -formation markers. PMID:12602117

  10. Evaluation of the toxic effect of star fruit on serum biochemical parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Z

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effect of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit juice at different storage conditions in Sprague Dawley (SD rats. Twenty female rats weighing 180 ± 20 g were randomly assigned into four groups with five rats per group (n = 5. First group served as the control group, fed with distilled water (vehicle. Second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with juice of A. carambola stored for 0, 1 and 3 h respectively for 14 days. Cage-side observations were done daily after each treatment. Body weight, food consumption and water intake were recorded on day-0, day-3, day-7 and day-14. All rats were fasted overnight prior to blood collection through cardiac puncture on day-15. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, urea and creatinine in blood serum were measured. Data were analyzed using Dunnett?s test. From the results obtained, there was no lethality found and LD 50 could not be determined. Increment of ALT levels (P < 0.05 was reported in those rats treated with A. carambola juice stored for 3 h. On the basis of these results, we can conclude that A. carambola juice stored for 0 hand 1 h are safe to be consumed. However, juice stored for 3 h exerts toxic effect on rat liver at hepatocellular level.

  11. [Evaluation of serum PIVKA-II by Lumipulse PrestoII assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takagi, Kazumi; Kani, Satomi; Goto, Takaaki; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Moriyama, Kazushige; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Sachiko; Mizokami, Masashi

    2009-03-01

    Measurements of serum concentrations of Des-gamma-carboxy Prothrombin (PIVKA-II) are widely used for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, in Lumipulsef assay, it was reported that antibodies against alkaline phosphatase (ALP) derived from anti bleeding sheets led false high values of PIVKA-II in the patients with HCC resection. To improve the previous issue, newly developed Lumipulse PrestoII assay was examined. (1) The assay was reliable and positively correlated with the previous assays (Lumipulse f and Picolumi, R = 0.997 and 0.994 (n=115), respectively). (2) Eleven cases, which had false high values of PIVKA-II by the Lumipulsef assay, were examined by the PrestoII assay with excess of inactive ALP. The false high values of 10 cases were improved, but only one was still high. False reactivity of this case was stronger than other cases, more effective adsorption was required. (3) Comparing the absorbent activity of inactive ALP among 6 different kinds, we found inactive ALP with much higher adsorbent activity. When this inactive ALP was applied to assay, false high values of PIVKA-II were improved in all 11 cases. In conclusion, the PrestoII assay, which applies the inactive ALP with high activity, is reliable and useful for clinical screening. PMID:19363989

  12. Silica in alkaline brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B F; Rettig, S L; Eugster, H P

    1967-12-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO(2) can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO(2) with concentration of Na and total CO(2) support this interpretation. Addition of more-dilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica. PMID:17801858

  13. Usefulness of serum bone metabolic markers for the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer with bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Bone metabolic markers (BMM) are biochemical substances that reflect bone resorption or formation. Some of them have been found to be useful in the diagnosis and management of bone metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of two bone resorption markers: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and N-terminal procollagen propeptides of type I collagen (PINP), as well as two bone formation markers: cross linked N and C terminal telepeptides of type I collagen (NTX and CTX) in the detection of bone metastasis in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods: There were sixty-three DTC patients in this study, 33 cases with clinically confirmed bone metastases and 30 cases with no bone metastases. The extents of bone metastases (or extents of the disease, EOD) were classified into four grades (0, I, II and III) according to the clinical and imaging findings including 99Tcm-MDP, 131I whole body scans and others. Serum BMM levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay for B-ALP, radioimmunoassay for PINP, ELISA for NTX and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for CTX. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test, grade correlation analysis and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve were applied to analyze the correlation between BMM and DTC patients with bone metastases. Results: The serum levels of B-ALP, NTX and CTX were significantly higher in DTC patients with bone metastases than th DTC patients with bone metastases than those in patients with no bone metastases (all P0.05). The serum levels of all markers were correlated with EOD grades (rs=0.371-0.558, all P<0.01). B-ALP level was found to have significant difference between EOD 0 to I (P=0.012). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of B-ALP for detecting DTC with bone metastases were 71.1% and 76.7% respectively by ROC curve analysis, which were higher than those of the other three markers. Conclusions: Serum BMM levels of B-ALP, NTX and CTX were useful for the evaluation of DTC with bone metastases. Furthermore, serum B-ALP level might have potential role for early detection of DTC with bone metastases. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  15. The cathodic behavior of titanium: Serum effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    The cathodic behavior of titanium was investigated in inorganic buffer solutions and in fetal bovine serum through potential sweep techniques. Under cathodic polarization, the oxygen reduction and the hydrogen evolution reactions were observed. It was found that the activity of the electrode toward the electron transfer increased with decreasing the electrode surface charge. The polarization curves recorded in serum displayed the same features as those observed in inorganic buffered solutions. However, organic molecules were likely adsorbed onto the titanium surface and the adsorption reactions were potential dependant. Additionally, it was noticed that the buffer capacity of serum could be overwhelmed by the progressive interface alkalinization during cathodic polarization. Furthermore, serum affected the corrosion current of the implant materials and the effect was pH-dependent. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 100B: 544-552, 2011. PMID:22120993

  16. Immunoglobulin G Determination in Human Serum and Milk Using an Immunosensor of New Conception Fitted with an Enzyme Probe as Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tomassetti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To completely overcome the problem of the presence of urea in the serum, which can be the cause (especially at low immunoglobulin G concentrations of a small but non negligible interference in the enzyme reaction of the enzymatic marker, when the measurement was performed by a potentiometric immunosensor that we constructed and characterized in previous work, and which used urease as marker, we have now constructed an entirely different and highly innovative immunosensor. This new device uses the enzyme alkaline phosphatase as marker, sodium phenylphosphate as substrate but above all, a tyrosinase biosensor obtained by coupling a Clark type gas diffusion amperometric electrode and the tyrosinase enzyme, immobilized in a cellulose triacetate membrane, as transducer. After optimizing the ‘competitive’ measurement procedures, the new immunosensor was used to determine both HIgG and the anti-HIgG, with a limit of detection (LOD of the order of 3x10-11 M. Clearly this highly innovative construction geometry makes the immunosensor extremely selective. This makes it possible to determine immunoglobulin G both in human serum and milk without the slightest interference by any urea present in these biological matrixes.

  17. The effect of benzene on serum hormones and the activity of some enzymes in different tissues of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dere Egemen D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a 100 mg.kg -1 dose of benzene, an occupational and environmental toxicant, were investigated on serum, estradiol and testosterone concentrations as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST, and pyruvate kinase (PK activities in the liver and kidney of rats after 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 72 hours. Benzene was given intraperitoneally to Rat rattus norvegicus and the control groups were injected with physiological saline. Liver tissue LDH, AST, ALT and kidney tissue LDH, ALP, AST, ALT activities were lower in the benzene treated group when compared to those in the control group (p<0.05. A tendency for an increase in the liver tissue ALP activity was observed, which was significant at 8 and 16 hours (p<0.05. There were significant increases in ALT in the liver and LDH, AST, and ALT enzyme activities in the kidney tissue at the beginning of the experiment in both groups and these activities were found to be nearly the same. Pyruvate kinase enzyme activities in rats given benzene were slightly increased in kidney tissues but lower in liver tissues. Differences between the groups tended to disappear towards the end of the experimental period. However, serum estradiol concentrations in the serum diverged significantly (p<0.05. Consequently, it was found that benzene administration led to some changes (increases then decreases in LDH, ALP, ALT, AST, and PK activity and estradiol, testosterone concentrations in different tissues of rats. Possible causes of the increases and decreases in enzyme activities and hormone levels are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Changes of Factors Related to Liver Function in Serum of Horse by Administration of Cichorium intybus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Najafzadeh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chicory (Cichorium intybus is a plant that is cultured in some area of Iran, including Khozestan. All of parts of the chicory especially its leave and root have medicinal properties. It is traditionally used for treatment icterus, renal failure, gout and arthritis in human. Important side effects were not reported from this plant. Excretion substances like uric acid are clinically important in some pathological conditions such as urecemia and icterus in horse. However the pharmacological effect of chicory was not evaluated in horses. The present study was conducted for evaluation effect of leave of chicory on changes of factors related to liver function in serum of horse. In this study, 8 Arabian horses were selected. They had 10-20 years and were clinically in normal conditions. The horses were fed routine diet. The dried leave of chicory was daily added to food of horses at 0.5 g/kg for 15 days. The blood of horses was daily collected before, during and 6 days after chicory administration. The serum was isolated and uric acid, Alanine Transferase (ALT, Aspartate Transferase (AST, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH, conjugated and total billirubin, total protein and albumin concentrations were measured. The mean of these factors were statistically compared. Chicory consumption did not statistically change concentration of above factors. Thus, chicory dose not affect concentration of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, conjugated and total billirubin, total protein and albumin and uric acid in serum of horse in normal condition; but it may be benefit in pathological conditions.

  19. Evaluation of carbohydrate antigen 50 in human serum using magnetic particle-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Lin, Jin-Ming; Ying, Xitang

    2007-08-29

    A magnetic particles (MPs)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) with high sensitivity, specificity, rapidity, and reproducibility was proposed for the evaluation of tumor marker, carbohydrate antigen 50 (CA50) in human serum. The immunomagnetic particles coated with anti-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) antibody was used as dispersed solid phase for the immunoassay, which was based on a sandwich immunoreaction of FITC-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, CA50 antigen, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, and was based on a subsequent chemiluminescence reaction of ALP with 4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphate-phenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-adamantane) (AMPPD) solution. The CL emission intensity was directly proportional to the amount of analyte present in a sample solution. The effects of several physicochemical parameters, including the concentration of FITC-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, the dilution ratio of ALP-labeled anti-CA50 antibody, the volume of MPs and substrate, the immunoreaction time and other relevant variables upon the immunoassay were studied and optimized. The proposed method exhibited advantages in a lower minimum detectable concentration of 1.0 U mL(-1) with comparison to the commercially available immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), and showed a larger linear range of 0 to 300 U mL(-1), as well as less total assay time of only 50 min with comparison to both IRMA and microplate CLEIA. The coefficient of variation was less than 7 and 11% for intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the evaluation of CA50 in human serum with recoveries from 82 to 112%, and showed a good correlation with the commercially available CA50 IRMA. PMID:17719901

  20. Sex steroids in serum of prepubertal male and female horses and correlation with bone characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemazurier, Emmanuel; Toquet, Marie Pierre; Fortier, Guillaume; Séralini, Gilles Eric

    2002-04-01

    We used radioimmunoassay (RIA) to measure monthly serum levels of unconjugated and conjugated sex steroids (testosterone T, androstenedione A, estradiol E(2), and estrone E(1)) in 4 male and 4 female foals during their first year of life. Maximal production of sex steroids was detected from April to August with hormonal peaks, corresponding to the natural breeding season in adults. In males, only A levels were more steady. Total estrogens (unconjugated plus conjugated E(2) and E(1)) were the major steroids in immature males in contrast to adults. Estrogens generally peaked in young females before males; the major estrogen was E(1), and total estrogens overtook total androgens (unconjugated and conjugated T and unconjugated A). We also sampled 3 male and 3 female foals with bone alterations in adulthood. For all animals, serum levels of four bone formation markers were obtained: osteocalcin (O), hydroxyproline (HP), and alkaline phosphatase (AP), and a radiographic score was determined. Only male foals with normal skeletal frame (good radiographic score GRS) in adulthood showed a correlation (P < 0.01) between the distribution frequency of each bone formation marker and unconjugated E(2) or E(1) levels; this finding highlighted the role of unconjugated estrogens in bone maturation in horses, since this was not found in the groups with bone alterations. In females, the threshold of estrogen synthesis and sensitivity was probably sufficient to be a nonlimiting factor at this stage of development. Our results strongly suggest a differential regulation of the estrogen/androgen balance in horses according to sex, sexual maturation, and photoperiod. Moreover, estrogens appear to be crucial for skeletal development in male colts, and these steroids are good modulators of skeletal frame characteristics in adulthood. PMID:11958792

  1. Low serum vitamin D among community-dwelling healthy women in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahinda Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although hypovitaminosis D is prevalent among healthy adults in Asia and other regions, available data among Sri Lankans are not consistent with this finding. We studied vitamin D level among healthy community-dwelling women and examined its effects on parathyroid hormone (PTH level and bone mineral status. Methods: Females of 20-40 years (n = 434 who were employed in southern Sri Lanka were recruited to the study. Bone mineral density and content (pBMD and pBMC of the middle phalanx of the middle finger of the non-dominant hand were measured in all subjects and 5.0 ml of venous blood was collected from each subject after an overnight fast for biochemical assessment of serum vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and total alkaline phosphatase. Results: Mean (SD pBMD of the women studied was 0.493 (0.060 g/cm2 and pBMC was 1.49 (0.28 g. Severe vitamin D deficiency (jects, whereas 19.1% subjects had moderate (12.5-25.0 nmol/L and 15.7% had mild (25.1 -35.0 nmol/L vitamin D deficiency. Serum vitamin D showed significant positive correlations with pBMD (r = 0.13, p = 0.008 and pBMC (r = 0.12, p = 0.01. In regression analysis, vitamin D showed a positive association with pBMD (regression coefficient 0.0003, SEM 0.0001, p = 0.007. Conclusions: Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency is prevalent among healthy young and middle-aged women in this study group selected from southern Sri Lanka. The accompanying rise of PTH indicates the biological significance of low vitamin D level. The negative effects observed on bone mineral status suggest the clinical importance of this finding.

  2. Crevicular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity During Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Canine Retraction Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Asma, A. A. A.; Rohaya, M. A. W.; Shahrul Hisham, Z. A.

    2008-01-01

    To observe pattern of ALP activity in Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) during canine retraction stage of fixed orthodontic treatment. Ten patients age between 15 to 27 years old with moderate upper labial segment crowding were recruited from postgraduate orthodontic clinic. The tested canines were distalized using nickel titanium push coil spring. The level of ALP at week 0 acted as the baseline. Samples were taken at day 0, at week 1, 4, 8 and 12. The activities of ALP were measured usi...

  3. Alkaline phosphatases and aminopeptidases are altered in a Cry11Aa resistant strain of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Bum; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is widely used for the biological control of mosquito populations. However, the mechanism of Bti toxins is still not fully understood. To further elucidate the mechanism of Bti toxins, we developed an Aedes aegypti resistant strain that shows high-level resistance to Cry11Aa toxin. After 27 selections with Cry11Aa toxin, the larvae showed a 124-fold resistance ratio for Cry11Aa (strain G30). G30 larvae showed cross-resistance to Cry4Aa (66-fold resistance), less to Cry4Ba (13-fold), but not to Cry11Ba (2-fold). Midguts from these resistant larvae did not show detectable difference in the processing of the Cry11Aa toxin compared to that in susceptible larvae (WT). Brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant larvae bound slightly less Cry11Aa compared to WT BBMV. To identify potential proteins associated with Cry11A resistance, not only transcript changes in the larval midgut were analyzed using Illumina sequencing and qPCR, but alterations of previously identified receptor proteins were investigated using immunoblots. The transcripts of 375 genes were significantly increased and those of 208 genes were down regulated in the resistant larvae midgut compared to the WT. None of the transcripts for previously identified receptors of Cry11Aa (Aedes cadherin, ALP1, APN1, and APN2) were altered in these analyses. The genes for the identified functional receptors in resistant larvae midgut did not contain any mutation in their sequences nor was there any change in their transcript expression levels compared to WT. However, ALP proteins were expressed at reduced levels (? 40%) in the resistant strain BBMV. APN proteins and their activity were also slightly reduced in resistance strain. The transcript levels of ALPs (AAEL013330 and AAEL015070) and APNs (AAEL008158, AAEL008162) were significantly reduced. These results strongly suggest that ALPs and APNs could be associated with Cry11Aa resistance in Ae. aegypti. PMID:25242559

  4. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and alkaline phosphatase activity in coastal waters off Trivandrum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mamatha, S.S.; Gobika, A.; Janani, P.

    2012-01-01

    .7106 *Phaeopig - - -0.5259 Bottom layers (n=18) *Temp 0.4621 - - *PO - - 0.4932 4 * **Without star-almost significant, with star significant ( p<0.05 and p<0.01) Pertinent relationships of APA and PSB to environmental parameters. 92 Journal of Coastal...

  5. Alkaline phosphatase predicts relapse in chronic hepatitis C patients with end-of-treatment response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Bodlaj, Rainer Hubmann, Karim Saleh, Tatjana Stojakovic, Georg Biesenbach, Jörg Berg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate relapse predictors in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients with end-of-treatment response (ETR, after pegylated interferon-? (PegIFN-? and ribavirin treatment.METHODS: In a retrospective study we evaluated a spectrum of predictors of relapse after PegIFN-? and ribavirin treatment in 86 CHC patients with ETR. Viral loads were determined with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Hepatitis C virus genotyping was performed by sequencing analysis. Patients with genotype 1 were treated for 48 wk with 180 ?g PegIFN-?2a or 1.5 ?g/kg PegIFN-?2b once weekly plus ribavirin at a dosage of 1000 mg/d for those under 75 kg or 1200 mg/d for those over 75 kg. Patients with genotypes 2 and 3 were treated for 24 wk with 180 ?g PegIFN-?2a or 1.5 ?g/kg PegIFN-?2b once weekly plus ribavirin at a dosage of 800 mg/d.RESULTS: In all ETR patients, binary logistic regression analysis identified absence of complete early virological response (cEVR (OR 27.07, 95% CI: 3.09-237.26, P 26 kg/m2 (OR: 8.27, 95% CI: 2.22-30.84, P < 0.005 as independent predictors of relapse. When cEVR patients were analyzed exclusively, ALP prior to therapy < 75 U/L remained the only predictor of relapse.CONCLUSION: Lower levels of ALP prior to, during and after therapy seem to be associated with a higher risk of relapse in CHC patients with ETR.

  6. Method of metabolic staining of the ERM - alkaline phosphatase and NADH diaphorase.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vosátka, Miroslav

    Uppsala : Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 1998 - (Kling, M.), s. 19-20 [ICOM 2 Workshop. Uppsala (SE), 01.07.1998-04.07.1998] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK2017602 Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  7. Alkaline phosphatases in microbialites and bacterioplankton from Alchichica soda lake, Mexico.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valdespino-Castillo, P.M.; Alcantara-Hernandez, R.J.; Alcocer, J.; Merino-Ibarra, M.; Macek, Miroslav; Falcon, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 90, ?. 2 (2014), s. 504-519. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dissolved organic phosphorus utilization * extracellular enzymes * microbial functional diversity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology Impact factor: 3.568, year: 2014

  8. Effect of Lead stress on phosphatase activity and reducing power assay of Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrelay, U; Agnihotri, R K; Shrotriya, S; Sharma, R

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic heavy metal for both plants and animals; the environment is increasingly polluted with heavy metals and reduces crop productivity. Plants possess homeostatic mechanisms that allow them to keep correct concentrations of essential metal ions in cellular compartments and to minimize the damaging effects of an excess of nonessential ones. One of their adverse effects on plants are the generation of harmful active oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress and the antioxidative activity seems to be of fundamental importance for adaptive response of plant against environmental stress. The present study explores the effects of lead (soil treated twice/ week) with (10, 30 and 60 mM) on the specific activities of phosphatases which might lead to reducing power assay in (Triticum aestivum PBW344) seedling. A significant decrease in the redox potential of shoot compared to root was observed at the similar concentration of lead. A similar trend on leaves was also noted. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in roots than in shoot at all the three concentration of lead i.e. 10, 30 and 60 mM, compared to controls. The above mentioned changes were more pronounced at 60 mM concentration of lead than two other concentrations. These results lead us to suggest that increased lead concentration in soil might lead to adverse effects on plant growth and phosphatase activities. PMID:26107501

  9. AKAP Phosphatase Complexes in The Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, John M.; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    Directed protein phosphorylation is indisputably critical for a multitude of cellular processes. A growing body of research demonstrates A Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs) to mediate a significant number of phosphorylation events in the heart. By acting as molecular tethers for the regulatory subunit of PKA, AKAPs focus the kinase's actions onto specific substrates. In the time since their discovery, the AKAP model has evolved in appreciation of the broader role these scaffolds play in coordinating multiple signaling enzymes in order to efficiently regulate dynamic cellular processes. The focus of this review is on the emerging role of AKAPs in regulating the three main cardiac phosphatases: Protein Phosphatase 1 by AKAP18 and Yotiao, and Protein Phosphatases 2A and 2B by mAKAP. PMID:21562429

  10. Interaction of alkali and alkaline earth ions with Ochratoxin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of alkali and alkaline earth ions on the chemical equilibrium of mono- and dianionic forms of the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A (OTA) and their bonding onto the surface of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization techniques. Our results show that alkali metal ions shift the chemical equilibrium towards formation of dianionic form of OTA. Furthermore, the alkaline earth ions can compete with BSA for binding to OTA when these ions are present in millimolar concentrations. Our data also highlight the possibility that the “free” fraction of OTA (not bound onto the surface of albumin) or at least a part of it is present in cation-bound form in body fluids. These observations are supported by stability constants and quantum-chemical calculations. Among the studied alkaline metal ions magnesium showed the highest affinity towards OTA under physiological conditions. Further research is required to analyze the potential significance of Mg2+–OTA complex in cellular uptake and/or elimination of the toxin in the human body. - Highlights: ? Fluorescence spectroscopy reveals cation–Ochratoxin A (OTA) interactions. ? Alkali ions shift the equilibrium of OTA to formation of a dianionic structure. ? Alkaline earth ions directly bind to OTA in the order: Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+. ? Quantum chemical calculations and logK values support our experimental data. experimental data.

  11. Creatine kinase serum activity in feline hyperthyroidism / Atividade sérica da creatinina quinase no hipertireoidismo felino

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauro José Lahm, Cardoso; Fabiano Séllos, Costa; Luciane, Holsback; Thais Helena Constantino, Patelli; Maíra, Melussi; Ademir, Zacarias Júnior; Rafael, Fagnani.

    2236-22-01

    Full Text Available O hipertireoidismo é uma doença endócrina comum em gatos, resultante da excessiva secreção dos hormônios tireoidianos (tiroxina-T4 e triiodotironina-T3), possui caráter multissistemico e provoca várias alterações nos parametros bioquímicos. A creatina quinase (CK) é uma enzima que tem sua atividade [...] sérica aumentada em diversas enfermidades e, na medicina veterinária, é principalmente utilizada para avaliar lesões no músculo esquelético, músculo cardíaco e tecido hepático. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência da atividade sérica da CK em gatos com hipertireoidismo e suas associações com alterações clínico-patológicas e com a tiroxina total (TT4) e livre (FT4). A atividade sérica da CK foi avaliada em 19 gatos com hipertireodismo espontâneo, com TT4 variando de 34,88-294,98nmol L-1 e FT4 variando de 2,83-52,9nmol L-1. Sua atividade estava elevada em 47,3% dos gatos (?250U L-1) e apresentou diferença estatística (P Abstract in english The aim of this study is to determine the occurrence of creatine kinase (CK) serum activity in cats with hyperthyroidism and its associations with clinical-pathological alterations and with total (TT4) and free (FT4) thyroxin. CK serum activity was evaluated in 19 cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidi [...] sm, with TT4 ranging from 34.88-294.98nmol L-1 and FT4 ranging from 2.83-52.9pmol L-1 and also by serum biochemical analysis, including the activity of CK, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), cholesterol and bile acids. The reference value for CK considered in this study was of 110-250U L-1. CK serum activity was evaluated in 19 cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism, with TT4 ranging from 34.88-294.98nmol L-1 and FT4 ranging from 2.83-52. 9pmol L-1. Its activity CK was elevated in 47.3% of cats (?250U L-1) and presented statistical difference (P

  12. Regulation of phosphatidate phosphatase activity by inositol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Morlock, K R; Lin, Y P; Carman, G. M.

    1988-01-01

    Regulation of phosphatidate phosphatase (EC 3.1.34) activity was examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells supplemented with phospholipid precursors. Addition of inositol to the growth medium of wild-type cells resulted in a twofold increase in phosphatidate phosphatase activity. The increase in phosphatidate phosphatase activity was not due to soluble effector molecules, and inositol did not have a direct effect on enzyme activity. The phosphatidate phosphatase activity associated with the ...

  13. Normal Concentrations of Twenty Serum Biochemical Parameters of She-camels, Cows and Ewes in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    T.E.A. Osman; K. A. Al-Busadah

    2003-01-01

    The activities of enzymes of clinical significance and the concentrations of certain electrolytes, minerals and blood constituents were determined in sera of she-camels, cows and ewes. The activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamm-glutamyltransferase were measured. The concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, iron, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides,...

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type ? is a JAK phosphatase and negatively regulates leukocyte integrin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirenda, Michela; Toffali, Lara; Montresor, Alessio; Scardoni, Giovanni; Sorio, Claudio; Laudanna, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    Regulation of signal transduction networks depends on protein kinase and phosphatase activities. Protein tyrosine kinases of the JAK family have been shown to regulate integrin affinity modulation by chemokines and mediated homing to secondary lymphoid organs of human T lymphocytes. However, the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in leukocyte recruitment is still elusive. In this study, we address this issue by focusing on protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type ? (PTPRG), a tyrosine phosphatase highly expressed in human primary monocytes. We developed a novel methodology to study the signaling role of receptor type tyrosine phosphatases and found that activated PTPRG blocks chemoattractant-induced ?2 integrin activation. Specifically, triggering of LFA-1 to high-affinity state is prevented by PTPRG activation. High-throughput phosphoproteomics and computational analyses show that PTPRG activation affects the phosphorylation state of at least 31 signaling proteins. Deeper examination shows that JAKs are critically involved in integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion and that PTPRG activation leads to JAK2 dephosphorylation on the critical 1007-1008 phosphotyrosine residues, implying JAK2 inhibition and thus explaining the antiadhesive role of PTPRG. Overall, the data validate a new approach to study receptor tyrosine phosphatases and show that, by targeting JAKs, PTPRG downmodulates the rapid activation of integrin affinity in human monocytes, thus emerging as a potential novel critical regulator of leukocyte trafficking. PMID:25624455

  15. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author)

  16. Voltage-Sensing Phosphatase: Its Molecular Relationship With PTEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mr. Yasushi Okamura (Osaka University Department of Physiology)

    2011-02-01

    Voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatase (VSP) contains voltage sensor and cytoplasmic phosphatase domains. A unique feature of this protein is that depolarization-induced motions of the voltage sensor activate PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 phosphatase activities. VSP exhibits remarkable structural similarities with PTEN, the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10. These similarities include the cytoplasmic phosphatase region, the phosphoinositide binding region, and the putative membrane interacting C2 domain.

  17. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves / Transferência de imunidade passiva e constituintes séricos de bezerros mestiços

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thaís G., Rocha; Ricardo P., Nociti; Alexandre A.M., Sampaio; José Jurandir, Fagliari.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da transferência de imunidade passiva (TIP) é uma ferramenta essencial para manutenção de bezerros saudáveis nos primeiros meses de vida. Uma vez que há influência do número de lactações e da raça de vacas nos teores de imunoglobulinas do colostro, o presente estudo foi conduzido com o o [...] bjetivo de avaliar a TIP de vacas Canchim primíparas e pluríparas aos seus bezerros. Amostras de sangue dos bezerros foram coletadas antes da ingestão de colostro e 1, 2, 7, 15 e 30 dias após o nascimento e amostras de colostro das vacas foram coletadas imediatamente após o parto. As atividades de gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e as concentrações de proteína total, albumina, globulinas, imunoglobulina A (IgA) e imunoglobulina G (IgG), cálcio total e ionizado, fósforo, magnésio, sódio e potássio foram avaliadas no soro dos bezerros e as atividades de GGT e ALP e as concentrações de proteína total, IgA e IgG foram avaliadas no soro colostral. A concentração de imunoglobulinas foi avaliada por meio de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. As avaliações bioquímicas do soro sanguíneo dos bezerros revelaram aumento nas atividades das enzimas gamaglutamiltransferase e fosfatase alcalina e nos teores de proteína total, globulinas, imunoglobulina A e imunoglobulina G após a ingestão do colostro. Apenas os teores de proteína total e imunoglobulina G de cadeia leve no soro colostral foram influenciados pelo número de lactações das vacas. Os teores de fósforo e magnésio aumentaram após a ingestão de colostro, enquanto as concentrações de sódio e potássio oscilaram no decorrer do período experimental. A TIP foi influenciada pelo número de lactações das vacas, no entanto mostrou-se eficiente em ambos os grupos. Abstract in english Passive immunity transfer (PIT) evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and mul [...] tiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  18. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves Transferência de imunidade passiva e constituintes séricos de bezerros mestiços

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís G. Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.A avaliação da transferência de imunidade passiva (TIP é uma ferramenta essencial para manutenção de bezerros saudáveis nos primeiros meses de vida. Uma vez que há influência do número de lactações e da raça de vacas nos teores de imunoglobulinas do colostro, o presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a TIP de vacas Canchim primíparas e pluríparas aos seus bezerros. Amostras de sangue dos bezerros foram coletadas antes da ingestão de colostro e 1, 2, 7, 15 e 30 dias após o nascimento e amostras de colostro das vacas foram coletadas imediatamente após o parto. As atividades de gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT, fosfatase alcalina (ALP e as concentrações de proteína total, albumina, globulinas, imunoglobulina A (IgA e imunoglobulina G (IgG, cálcio total e ionizado, fósforo, magnésio, sódio e potássio foram avaliadas no soro dos bezerros e as atividades de GGT e ALP e as concentrações de proteína total, IgA e IgG foram avaliadas no soro colostral. A concentração de imunoglobulinas foi avaliada por meio de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. As avaliações bioquímicas do soro sanguíneo dos bezerros revelaram aumento nas atividades das enzimas gamaglutamiltransferase e fosfatase alcalina e nos teores de proteína total, globulinas, imunoglobulina A e imunoglobulina G após a ingestão do colostro. Apenas os teores de proteína total e imunoglobulina G de cadeia leve no soro colostral foram influenciados pelo número de lactações das vacas. Os teores de fósforo e magnésio aumentaram após a ingestão de colostro, enquanto as concentrações de sódio e potássio oscilaram no decorrer do período experimental. A TIP foi influenciada pelo número de lactações das vacas, no entanto mostrou-se eficiente em ambos os grupos.

  19. Alkaline hydrolysis of polyacrylamide (PAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almayev, R.Kh.; Gubina, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    A study is made of the alkaline hydrolysis of polyacrylamide. In order to reveal the effect of different parameters on the degree of hydrolysis, the results of experiments are mathematically processed. New results are obtained which have theoretical and practical value.

  20. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David B. (Ithaca, NY); Lao, Guifang (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  1. Effect of non-phytate phosphorus levels and phytase sources on the growth performance, serum biochemical and tibial parameters of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian R. Jiang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 3×3 fattorial arrangement with dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP levels and phytase sources (3- and 6-phytase was conducted to evaluate the effects of NPP levels, phytase sources and their possible interactions on growth performance, serum biochemical and tibia parameters of broiler chickens from hatch to 42 days of age. A total of 540 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into nine dietary treatments, each containing 5 replicates pens with 12 birds per pen. Interaction was statistically significant in the performance till day 21 of trial, supplementation of low NPP diet decreased body weight (BW (P<0.001, depressed average daily gain (ADG (P<0.001 and deteriorated average daily feed intake (ADFI (P<0.001 over day 42. During the 8-to-21-day period, even if interaction between NPP levels and phytase sources was significant (P<0.01, BW, ADG and ADFI always increased due to dietary supplementation of phytase, with source not differing. Dietary high NPP enhanced serum calcium and P concentrations on day 21 and 42 (linear contrast, P<0.01, while decreased alkaline phosphatase (AKP activity on day 42 (linear contrast, P<0.001, and interaction was not significant. Both dietary sources of phytase decreased serum AKP activities on day 42 (P<0.001, and urea nitrogen content on day 21 (P<0.01 and 42 (P<0.001. Both phytase improved ash percentage on day 21 and P content in tibia at 21 and 42 days of age (P<0.001. The results confirmed that dietary supplementation of phytase may enhance P availability during the 8-to-21-day period. Nevertheless, no difference between the two phytase sources was observed.

  2. Targeting phosphatase-dependent proteoglycan switch for rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Karen M; Stanford, Stephanie M; Sacchetti, Cristiano; D Svensson, Mattias N; Coles, Charlotte H; Mitakidis, Nikolaos; Kiosses, William B; Bartok, Beatrix; Fos, Camille; Cory, Esther; Sah, Robert L; Liu-Bryan, Ru; Boyle, David L; Arnett, Heather A; Mustelin, Tomas; Corr, Maripat; Esko, Jeffrey D; Tremblay, Michel L; Firestein, Gary S; Aricescu, A Radu; Bottini, Nunzio

    2015-05-20

    Despite the availability of several therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that target the immune system, a large number of RA patients fail to achieve remission. Joint-lining cells, called fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), become activated during RA and mediate joint inflammation and destruction of cartilage and bone. We identify RPTP?, a transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase, as a therapeutic target for FLS-directed therapy. RPTP? is reciprocally regulated by interactions with chondroitin sulfate or heparan sulfate containing extracellular proteoglycans in a mechanism called the proteoglycan switch. We show that the proteoglycan switch regulates FLS function. Incubation of FLS with a proteoglycan-binding RPTP? decoy protein inhibited cell invasiveness and attachment to cartilage by disrupting a constitutive interaction between RPTP? and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-4. RPTP? mediated the effect of proteoglycans on FLS signaling by regulating the phosphorylation and cytoskeletal localization of ezrin. Furthermore, administration of the RPTP? decoy protein ameliorated in vivo human FLS invasiveness and arthritis severity in the K/BxN serum transfer model of RA. Our data demonstrate that FLS are regulated by an RPTP?-dependent proteoglycan switch in vivo, which can be targeted for RA therapy. We envision that therapies targeting the proteoglycan switch or its intracellular pathway in FLS could be effective as a monotherapy or in combination with currently available immune-targeted agents to improve control of disease activity in RA patients. PMID:25995222

  3. Two potential fish glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, James A

    2015-06-01

    Winter-acclimated rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax Mitchill) produce high levels of glycerol as an antifreeze. A common pathway to glycerol involves the enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), but no GPP has yet been identified in fish or any other animal. Here, two phosphatases assembled from existing EST libraries (from winter-acclimated smelt and cold-acclimated smelt hepatocytes) were found to resemble a glycerol-associated phosphatase from a glycerol-producing alga, Dunaliella salina, and a recently discovered GPP from a bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recombinant proteins were generated and were found to have GPP activity on the order of a few ?Mol Pi/mg enzyme/min. The two enzymes have acidic pH optima (~5.5) similar to that previously determined for GPP activity in liver tissue, with about 1/3 of their peak activities at neutral pH. The two enzymes appear to account for the GPP activity of smelt liver, but due to their reduced activities at neutral pH, their contributions to glycerol production in vivo remain unclear. Similar enzymes may be active in a glycerol-producing insect, Dendroctonus ponderosae. PMID:25832176

  4. Raloxifene preserves phenytoin and sodium valproate induced bone loss by modulating serum estradiol and TGF-?3 content in bone of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Md Jamir; Radhakrishna, K V; Sharma, Abhay; Vohora, Divya

    2014-10-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)-induced adverse consequences on bone are now well recognized. Despite this, there is limited data on the effect of anti-osteoporotic therapies on AEDs-induced bone loss. We hypothesize that estrogen deprivation following phenytoin (PHT) and sodium valproate (SVP) therapy could lead to adverse bony effects. Both PHT and SVP inhibit human aromatase enzyme and stimulate microsomal catabolism of oestrogens. Estrogen deficiency states are known to reduce the deposition of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?3), a bone matrix protein, having anti-osteoclastic property. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of raloxifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, in comparison with calcium and vitamin D3 (CVD) supplementation, on PHT and SVP-induced alterations in bone in mice and to unravel the role of estradiol and TGF-?3 in mediation of bony effects by either AEDs or raloxifene. Further, the effect of raloxifene on seizures and on the antiepileptic efficacy of PHT and SVP was investigated. Swiss strains of female mice were treated with PHT (35 mg/kg, p.o.) and SVP (300 mg/kg, p.o.) for 120 days to induce bone loss as evidenced by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone turnover markers (BTMs) in lumbar bones (alkaline phosphatase, tartarate resistant acid phosphatase, hydroxyproline) and urine (calcium). The bone loss was accompanied by reduced serum estradiol levels and bone TGF-?3 content. Preventive and therapeutic treatment with raloxifene ameliorated bony alterations and was more effective than CVD. It also significantly restored estradiol and TGF-?3 levels. Deprived estrogen levels (that in turn reduced lumbar TGF-?3 content) following PHT and SVP, thus, might represent one of the various mechanisms of AEDs-induced bone loss. Raloxifene preserved the bony changes without interfering with antiepileptic efficacy of these drugs, and hence raloxifene could be a potential therapeutic option in the management of PHT and SVP-induced bone disease if clinically approved. PMID:24880111

  5. Preventing Effects of Wheat Germ Oil on Sex Hormones, Liver Enzymes, Lipids and Proteins in Rat Serum Following Treatment with p-Nonylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soleimani Mehranjani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the preventing effect of wheat germ oil as a rich source of vitamin E on the serum biochemical factors in the rats exposed to para-nonylphenol. Four groups (n = 6 of male Wistar rats was orally given para-nonylphenol (200 mg kgG-1dayG-1 for 70 days. After treatment the blood samples were obtained and LH, FSH, testosterone, progesterone and estrogen, transaminases, phosphatases, LDH, triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-cholestrol and protein analysis were carried out. Para-nonylphenol caused a significant increase in LH level where other hormones remained unchanged. In addition a significant reduction was found in AST, ALT and LDH level while alkaline phosphatase increased significantly following treatment with para-nonylphenol. There was no change in the level of lipids and proteins in this study with respect to para-nonylphenol treatment. Co-administration of wheat germ oil with para-nonylphenol compensated the imbalance of the LH, AST, ALT and LDH caused by para-nonylphenol to the control level. However treatment of the rats with only wheat germ oil caused a significant reduction in the level of the hormones except for progesterone. Administration of wheat germ oil in any case caused a reduction in triglyceride level. Co-administration of wheat germ oil with para-nonylphenol eliminated the effect of para-nonylphenol on LH hormone as well as enzymes. It seems that daily used of wheat germ oil may have some benefits to the para-nohnylphenol exposure, however more clinical studies are needed to find more information.

  6. Effect of excess dietary L-valine on laying hen performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Dai, L; Zou, X T

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance of laying hens for an excessive L-valine (L-val) supply on laying performance, egg quality, serum free amino acids, immune function and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 720 HyLine Brown hens were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 24 hens, from 40 to 47 weeks of age. Graded amounts of L-val were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 g/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. 3. Supplementing the diet with L-val did not affect egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) or egg quality. The average daily feed intake response to supplemental L-val was quadratic and was maximised at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. No differences were observed for total protein, total amino acids, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), Ca and P concentrations among the treatments. 4. Serum albumin concentration increased significantly in response to supplemental L-val and was also maximised at 2.0 g/kg. In addition, serum glucose increased quadratically to peak at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. Serum free valine increased as L-val concentration increased to 2.0 g/kg diet and then decreased linearly. 5. Supplementation of L-val did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). L-val supplementation did not affect the concentrations of immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and complements (C3 and C4). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) increased significantly at 2.0 g L-val/kg diet. 6. It is concluded that high concentrations of L-val are tolerated and can be successfully supplemented into diets without detrimental effects on laying performance or immune function of laying hens. PMID:25409658

  7. Phosphatase activity of Poa pratensis seeds. I. Preliminary studies on acid phosphatase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2 was extracted with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer pH 5.1 from Poa pratensis seeds, and separated into three fractions by chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The highest activity was found in fraction Il-b (acid phosphatase II. The activity of the enzyme was optimal at pH 4.9. It hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl phosphate most readily among the various phosphomonoesters examined. Acid phosphatase II showed also a high activity toward ?-naphtyl phosphate and phenyl phosphate, very low activity towards ?-glycero phosphate, 5'-GMP and no activity with glucose-1 phosphate. The enzyme was inhibited by Ca2+ and fluoride, but activated by Mg2+. EDTA had no influence on the activity of the enzyme.

  8. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  9. Milk-derived proteins and minerals alter serum osteocalcin in prepubertal boys after 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, A.B.; Hoppe, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that at equal protein content, milk, but not meat, decreased bone turnover in boys. This suggested that milk-derived components are important for bone metabolism. In the present study, we hypothesized that milk-derived proteins (whey and casein) affect bone turnover during growth depending on the content of milk minerals (calcium and phosphorus). This was a randomized, parallel, double-blind study. Eight-year-old boys (n = 57) received 1 of 4 milk drinks: whey protein with low or high content of minerals, or casein protein with low or high content of minerals. The amount of whey and casein was identical to their content in 1.5 L of milk. We measured serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (immunoassay) and estimated dietary intake (3-day weighed food record) at baseline and after 7 days. Only sOC was significantly affected by the treatments (P <.05). There was a significant interaction between milk-derived proteins and minerals with regard to sOC (P = .01). The intake of milk drinks containing whey increased sOC at the low content of minerals, whereas it decreased sOC at the high content of minerals (P <.05). In contrast, milk drinks containing casein increased sOC both at the low and at the high contents of minerals. In conclusion, whey and casein (corresponding to their content in 1.5 L of milk) differently affect sOC in 8-year-old boys depending on the content of milk minerals, but do not seem to affect other markers for bone turnover.

  10. Changes of serum osteocalcin, calcium, and potassium in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Wang, Xian Mo; Yang, Tao; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Zhong Gui; Ding, Jun; Xu, Chen; Xiong, Chang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Changes in serum levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), Ca phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and osteocalcin (BGP) were assessed in a model of type 2 diabetes in 8-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Throughout the study, the animals in Group A consumed high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet and were administered two intraperitoneal injections of streptozocin (STZ) at 4 (25 mg/kg) and 8 (40 mg/kg) weeks after diet initiation. Animals in Group B received similar diet but intraperitoneal injections with citrate buffer. The control group rats (Group C) were fed normal diet and received citrate buffer injections. The Ca levels in Group A were significantly decreased at 12 and 16 weeks, while P levels were significantly lower at 8, 12, and 16 weeks after the first STZ injection (p < 0.05 vs. Groups B and C). The Ca phosphate levels in Group A were significantly lower at 16 weeks (p < 0.05 vs. Groups B and C). There was a discrepancy in kinetics of AKP and BGP levels in Group A, such that the former showed a significant surge at 8 weeks (p < 0.05 vs. Groups B and C) followed by a decline at 16 weeks (p < 0.05 vs. Groups B and C), while the levels of the latter consistently decreased and became significantly decreased at 12 and 16 weeks (p < 0.05 vs. Groups B and C). In conclusion, these findings may lead to better understanding of the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in diabetic rats. PMID:25185647

  11. Chromogranin A as Serum Marker for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Single Center Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph J. Auernhammer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the clinical sensitivities of the tumor markers chromogranin A (CgA, urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA and alkaline phosphatase (AP in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs of the GastroEnteroPancreatic-(GEP- system depending on tumor primary location and metastatic spread. In a retrospective single-center series, sensitivities were evaluated in serum samples from 110 patients with midgut (n = 62 and pancreatic (n = 48 NETs. CgA levels were analyzed by a commercially-available immunoradiometric assay (CIS-bio during routine follow-up in the years 2000–2009. CgA showed a higher sensitivity for midgut (68% than pancreatic (54% NETs. A higher CgA sensitivity and significantly higher median CgA values were found in patients with liver metastases than in those without, and in patients with hepatic and additionally extra-hepatic metastases than in those with hepatic and nodal metastases alone, respectively. We found an overall sensitivity for elevated 5HIAA excretion of 69% for midgut NETs and a significant correlation between median CgA and 5-HIAA values. The sensitivity of AP and the correlations of AP/CgA-data-pairs were low in both midgut and pancreatic NETs, although highest for metastatic pancreatic NETs. The sensitivity of CgA measurement depends on the NET primary location and spread of disease. 5-HIAA and CgA showed comparable sensitivity in midgut NETs, while AP does not seem to be useful as a tumor marker in GEP-NETs.

  12. Interaction of alkali and alkaline earth ions with Ochratoxin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poor, Miklos [Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Kunsagi-Mate, Sandor; Matisz, Gergely; Li, Yin; Czibulya, Zsuzsanna [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Janos Szentagothai Research Center, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Peles-Lemli, Beata [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary); Koszegi, Tamas, E-mail: koszegit@freemail.hu [Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pecs, Pecs H-7624 (Hungary)

    2013-03-15

    The effect of alkali and alkaline earth ions on the chemical equilibrium of mono- and dianionic forms of the mycotoxin Ochratoxin A (OTA) and their bonding onto the surface of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization techniques. Our results show that alkali metal ions shift the chemical equilibrium towards formation of dianionic form of OTA. Furthermore, the alkaline earth ions can compete with BSA for binding to OTA when these ions are present in millimolar concentrations. Our data also highlight the possibility that the 'free' fraction of OTA (not bound onto the surface of albumin) or at least a part of it is present in cation-bound form in body fluids. These observations are supported by stability constants and quantum-chemical calculations. Among the studied alkaline metal ions magnesium showed the highest affinity towards OTA under physiological conditions. Further research is required to analyze the potential significance of Mg{sup 2+}-OTA complex in cellular uptake and/or elimination of the toxin in the human body. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence spectroscopy reveals cation-Ochratoxin A (OTA) interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkali ions shift the equilibrium of OTA to formation of a dianionic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline earth ions directly bind to OTA in the order: Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum chemical calculations and logK values support our experimental data.

  13. Lead Dysregulates Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatases in Human Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Abdur; Brew, Bruce J.; Guillemin, Gilles J.

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that lead (Pb) exposure in humans leads to learning and memory impairment. However, the biological and molecular mechanisms are still not clearly understood. When over activated, serine/threonine protein phosphatases are known to function as a constraint on learning and memory. Activation of these phosphatases can also result in cytoskeletal changes that will adversely affect learning and memory. We investigated the effects of Pb exposure on these phosphatases in primar...

  14. The glucose-6-phosphatase system in human development

    OpenAIRE

    Burchell, A.; Hume, R.

    1995-01-01

    The classical role of glucose-6-phosphatase in liver and kidney is the production of glucose for release into blood. In liver, glucose-6-phosphatase catalyses the terminal step of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Abnormally low hepatic glucose-6- phosphatase activity is found in human genetic deficiencies i.e. glycogen storage disease type 1 and in cases of developmental delay, found predominantly in preterm infants. In contrast, abnormally high liver gl...

  15. A Global Protein Kinase and Phosphatase Interaction Network in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Breitkreutz, A.; Choi, H.; J. R. Sharom; Boucher, L.; V. Neduva; Larsen, B.; Lin, Z. Y.; Breitkreutz, B. J.; Stark, C.; G. Liu; Ahn, J; D. Dewar-Darch; Reguly, T.; Tang, X.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, 100049, People's Republic of China); Almeida, R.

    2010-01-01

    The interactions of protein kinases and phosphatases with their regulatory subunits and substrates underpin cellular regulation. We identified a kinase and phosphatase interaction (KPI) network of 1844 interactions in budding yeast by mass spectrometric analysis of protein complexes. The KPI network contained many dense local regions of interactions that suggested new functions. Notably, the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc14 associated with multiple kinases that revealed roles for Cdc14 in mitogen...

  16. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for prostate-specific acid phosphatase in prostatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are compared with those of a standard radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection and quantitation of prostate-specific acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) in serum. Control subjects, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and patients in all four clinical stages of prostatic adenocarcinoma were tested. The upper limit of normal (95%of the population) by the ELISA was 2.0 ?g/L, and by the RIA was 2.2 ?g/L. In prostatic a denocarcinoma stage I (not detectable by digital rectal examination), ELISA was slightly more sensitive than RIA, but sensitivity was still relatively low (20%). As tumor mass increased (stages II through IV), the frequency of increased concentrations of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum also increased. We confirmed this increase in circulating enzyme in some cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia and suggest that this finding is related to either acinar cytolysis or an increase in acini size and number. Although prostate-specific acid phosphatase is not a cancer-specific enzyme, we conclude that its measurement may be of considerable value in monitoring prostatic disease

  17. Enhancing effects of serum-rich and cytokine-supplemented culture conditions on developing blastocysts and deriving porcine parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Chan-Lan; Lee, Joo-Hyeong; You, Jin-Young; Lee, Eun-Song; Lim, Jeong-Mook; Yun, Seon Jong; Song, Jae-Young; Cha, Sang-Ho

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to develop an effective method for establishment of porcine parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (ppESCs) from parthenogenetically activated oocyte-derived blastocysts. The addition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the medium on the 3rd day of oocyte culturing improved the development of blastocysts, attachment of inner cell masses (ICMs) onto feeder cells, and formation of primitive ppESC colonies. ICM attachment was further enhanced by basic fibroblast growth factor, stem cell factor, and leukemia inhibitory factor. From these attached ICMs, seven ppESC lines were established. ppESC pluripotency was verified by strong enzymatic alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotent markers OCT3/4, Nanog, and SSEA4. Moreover, the ppESCs were induced to form an embryoid body and teratoma. Differentiation into three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) was confirmed by the expression of specific markers for the layers and histological analysis. In conclusion, data from the present study suggested that our modified culture conditions using FBS and cytokines are highly useful for improving the generation of pluripotent ppESCs. PMID:24962410

  18. Physiological Signaling Specificity by Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Soulsby (Yale University Pharmacology)

    2009-10-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are now recognized to be involved in a multitude of signaling events that control fundamental biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and cell movement. PTPs, which were initially thought to be less discriminating in their actions compared with their protein tyrosine kinase counterparts, are now known to regulate these various biological processes in a precise manner. This review will focus on the concept that PTPs exhibit remarkable signaling specificity through intrinsic differences between their PTP domains and through various modes of regulation that endows them with the capacity to promote unique physiological responses.

  19. Probing protein phosphatase substrate binding : affinity pull-down of ILKAP phosphatase 2C with phosphopeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjlys-Larsen, Kim B; SØrensen, Kasper K

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics and high throughput analysis for systems biology can benefit significantly from solid-phase chemical tools for affinity pull-down of proteins from complex mixtures. Here we report the application of solid-phase synthesis of phosphopeptides for pull-down and analysis of the affinity profile of the integrin-linked kinase associated phosphatase (ILKAP), a member of the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) family. Phosphatases can potentially dephosphorylate these phosphopeptide substrates but, interestingly, performing the binding studies at 4 °C allowed efficient binding to phosphopeptides, without the need for phosphopeptide mimics or phosphatase inhibitors. As no proven ILKAP substrates were available, we selected phosphopeptide substrates among known PP2C? substrates including the protein kinases: p38, ATM, Chk1, Chk2 and RSK2 and synthesized directly on PEGA solid supports through a BAL type handle. The results show that phosphopeptides tethered to a flexible solid support bind with high affinity and specificity to ILKAP, which is pulled down from lysates of cells transfected with ILKAP cDNA. Phosphorylation on Ser or Thr residues is important for binding of ILKAP, but sequences around the phosphorylated residue are important for the binding affinity of ILKAP. We conclude that solid-phase affinity pull-down of proteins from complex mixtures can be applied in phosphoproteomics and systems biology.

  20. Zinc ions and alkaline pH alter the phosphorylation state of human erythrocyte membrane proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennell, R.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Since the phosphorylation state of the red cell membrane proteins in vitro is likely to be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, this research was carried out to investigate the possible role of membrane-bound phosphatase activities. These studies were conducted with red blood cell ghosts and IOVs from normal individuals and from an individual with hereditary spherocytosis. In vitro phosphorylation with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P) ATP was conducted in the presence and the absence of Zn{sup ++}, or erythrocyte ghosts and IOVs were pretreated for 30 minutes at 37{degree}C and pH 7-11 in the presence and the absence of calf intestine alkaline phosphatase. The resulting phosphoproteins were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, stained with Coomassie blue, and fluorographed. In the presence of Zn{sup ++}, the red blood ghosts, with or without pretreatment, demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation of membrane proteins, including band 4.2. Preincubation at pH 10 in the presence of absence of exogenous phosphatase further stimulates phosphorylation of these proteins. Under similar conditions, the erythrocyte membranes also demonstrated the ability to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate and to remove {sup 32}P from red blood cell phosphoproteins.

  1. Zinc ions and alkaline pH alter the phosphorylation state of human erythrocyte membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the phosphorylation state of the red cell membrane proteins in vitro is likely to be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, this research was carried out to investigate the possible role of membrane-bound phosphatase activities. These studies were conducted with red blood cell ghosts and IOVs from normal individuals and from an individual with hereditary spherocytosis. In vitro phosphorylation with (?-32P) ATP was conducted in the presence and the absence of Zn++, or erythrocyte ghosts and IOVs were pretreated for 30 minutes at 37 degree C and pH 7-11 in the presence and the absence of calf intestine alkaline phosphatase. The resulting phosphoproteins were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, stained with Coomassie blue, and fluorographed. In the presence of Zn++, the red blood ghosts, with or without pretreatment, demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation of membrane proteins, including band 4.2. Preincubation at pH 10 in the presence of absence of exogenous phosphatase further stimulates phosphorylation of these proteins. Under similar conditions, the erythrocyte membranes also demonstrated the ability to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate and to remove 32P from red blood cell phosphoproteins

  2. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  3. Biogeochemical drivers of phosphatase activity in salt marsh sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Joana; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Although nitrogen has become a major concern for wetlands scientists dealing with eutrophication problems, phosphorous represents another key element, and consequently its biogeochemical cycling has a crucial role in eutrophication processes. Microbial communities are a central component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes on coastal systems, since most of the processes in sediments are microbial-mediated due to enzymatic action, including the mineralization of organic phosphorus carried out by acid phosphatase activity. In the present work, the authors investigate the biogeochemical sediment drivers that control phosphatase activities. Authors also aim to assess biogeochemical factors' influence on the enzyme-mediated phosphorous cycling processes in salt marshes. Plant rhizosediments and bare sediments were collected and biogeochemical features, including phosphatase activities, inorganic and organic phosphorus contents, humic acids content and pH, were assessed. Acid phosphatase was found to give the highest contribution for total phosphatase activity among the three pH-isoforms present in salt marsh sediments, favored by acid pH in colonized sediments. Humic acids also appear to have an important role inhibiting phosphatase activity. A clear relation of phosphatase activity and inorganic phosphorous was also found. The data presented reinforces the role of phosphatase in phosphorous cycling.

  4. Phosphoglucan phosphatase function sheds light on starch degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Dylan M; Kötting, Oliver; Moorhead, Greg B G

    2014-07-01

    Phosphoglucan phosphatases are novel enzymes that remove phosphates from complex carbohydrates. In plants, these proteins are vital components in the remobilization of leaf starch at night. Breakdown of starch is initiated through reversible glucan phosphorylation to disrupt the semi-crystalline starch structure at the granule surface. The phosphoglucan phosphatases starch excess 4 (SEX4) and like-SEX4 2 (LSF2) dephosphorylate glucans to provide access for amylases that release maltose and glucose from starch. Another phosphatase, LSF1, is a putative inactive scaffold protein that may act as regulator of starch degradative enzymes at the granule surface. Absence of these phosphatases disrupts starch breakdown, resulting in plants accumulating excess starch. Here, we describe recent advances in understanding the biochemical and structural properties of each of these starch phosphatases. PMID:24534096

  5. A convenient and label-free fluorescence "turn off-on" nanosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity for acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziping; Lin, Zihan; Liu, Linlin; Su, Xingguang

    2015-05-30

    In this study, we reported a convenient label-free fluorescence nanosensor for rapid detection of acid phosphatase on the basis of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) and enzymolysis approach. The selectivity nanosensor was based on the fluorescence "turn off-on" mode, which possessed high sensitivity features. The original strong fluorescence intensity of CuInS2 QDs was quenched by sodium hexametaphosphate (NaPO3)6. The high efficiency of the quenching was caused by the non-covalent binding of positively charged CuInS2 QDs to the negatively charged (NaPO3)6 through electrostatic interactions, aggregating to form a CuInS2 QDs/(NaPO3)6 complex. Adding acid phosphatase caused intense fluorescence of CuInS2 QDs/(NaPO3)6 to be recovered, and this was because of enzymolysis. (NaPO3)6 was hydrolyzed into small fragments and the high negative charge density decreased, which would weaken the strong electrostatic interactions. As a result, the quenched fluorescence "turned on". Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between I/I0 (I and I0 were the fluorescence intensity of CuInS2 QDs/(NaPO3)6 system in the presence and absence of acid phosphatase, respectively) and acid phosphatase concentration in the range of 75-1500nUmL(-1) with the detection limit of 9.02nUmL(-1). The proposed nanosensor had been utilized to detect and accurately quantify acid phosphatase in human serum samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25998462

  6. Proteínas tirosina fosfatases: propriedades e funções biológicas / Protein tyrosine phosphatases: properties and biological functions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hiroshi, Aoyama; Telma Maria Araújo, Silva; Márcio André, Miranda; Carmen Veríssima, Ferreira.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation catalyzed by the opposing and dynamic action of protein kinases and phosphatases probably, is the most crucial chemical reaction taking place in living organisms. Protein phosphatases are classified according to their substrate specificity and sensitivity to [...] inhibitory or activator agents, into two families of protein phosphatases: serine/threonine phosphatases and tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). PTPs can be divided into 3 groups: tyrosine specific phosphatases, dual and low molecular weight phosphatases. The role of tyrosine phosphorylation in mitogenic signaling is well documented, and one would predict that vanadate, pervanadate and other oxidant agents (protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors) may act as a growth stimulator.

  7. Evolution of the multifunctional protein tyrosine phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pils, Birgit; Schultz, Jörg

    2004-04-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family plays a central role in signal transduction pathways by controlling the phosphorylation state of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues. PTPs can be divided into dual specificity phosphatases and the classical PTPs, which can comprise of one or two phosphatase domains. We studied amino acid substitutions at functional sites in the phosphatase domain and identified putative noncatalytic phosphatase domains in all subclasses of the PTP family. The presence of inactive phosphatase domains in all subclasses indicates that they were invented multiple times in evolution. Depending on the domain composition, loss of catalytic activity can result in different consequences for the function of the protein. Inactive single-domain phosphatases can still specifically bind substrate and protect it from dephosphorylation by other phosphatases. The inactive domains of tandem phosphatases can be further subdivided. The first class is more conserved, still able to bind phosphorylated tyrosine residues and might recruit multiphosphorylated substrates for the adjacent active domain. The second has accumulated several variable amino acid substitutions in the catalytic center, indicating a complete loss of tyrosine-binding capabilities. To study the impact of substitutions in the catalytic center to the evolution of the whole domain, we examined the evolutionary rates for each individual site and compared them between the classes. This analysis revealed a release of evolutionary constraint for multiple sites surrounding the catalytic center only in the second class, emphasizing its difference in function compared with the first class. Furthermore, we found a region of higher conservation common to both domain classes, suggesting a new regulatory center. We discuss the influence of evolutionary forces on the development of the phosphatase domain, which has led to additional functions, such as the specific protection of phosphorylated tyrosine residues, substrate recruitment, and regulation of the catalytic activity of adjacent domains. PMID:14739250

  8. Effects of serum containing Fructus Cnidii and Psoralea corylifolia on highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231BO and bone marrow stromal cell line ST-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of different proportions of Fructus Cnidii (Shechuangzi and Psoralea corylifolia (Buguzhi on highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231BO and bone marrow stromal cell line ST-2 in vitro.Methods: Thirty-six female SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups to prepare the drug-medicated sera by administering with different proportions of Fructus Cnidii and Psoralea corylifolia, including 4?0 group, 3?1 group, 1?1 group, 1?3 group, 0?4 group and control group. MDA-MB-231BO cells and ST-2 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium containing drug-medicated serum. Inhibition rates of MDA-MB-231BO cells and ST-2 cells were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT method; migration ability of MDA-MB-231BO cells was tested by a cell migration experiment; alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP of ST-2 cells was measured by using 4-nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt, and mineralized nodule formation of ST-2 cells was measured by alizarin red staining.Results: Sera contaning different proportions of Fructus Cnidii and Psoralea corylifolia inhibited the migration activity of MDA-MB-231BO cells as compared with the blank serum, and serum contaning Fructus Cnidii and Psoralea Corylifolia at proportion of 1?1 had the best function (P<0.01. Fructus Cnidii and Psoralea corylifolia at ratio of 1?1 also enhanced the ALP activity of ST2 cells (P<0.05 and increased the number of mineralized nodules of ST2 cells (P<0.01.Conclusion: Kidney-warming recipe of Fructus Cnidii and Psoralea corylifolia can inhibit proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231BO cells and increase the activity of ST-2 cells.

  9. Valores bioquímicos séricos de tilapia del nilo (oreochromis niloticus) en cultivo intensivo / Serum biochemical values for nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) cultured under an intensive system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro, Z. Crivelenti; Sofia, Borín; José Javier, M. Socha; Antonio V, Mundim.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se a avaliação dos parâmetros bioquímicos séricos de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), linhagem tailandesa Chitralada, produzidas em sistema de piscicultura intensiva e capturadas por tarrafeamento. Amostras sanguíneas de 40 exemplares, pesando em média 453 ± 52 g, foram obtidas po [...] r venopunção caudal e posteriormente analisadas quanto às concentrações séricas de proteína total, albumina, globulinas, ácido úrico, creatinina, ureia, cálcio, fósforo inorgânico, relação Ca/P, magnésio e fosfatase alcalina. Em um contexto geral, os resultados evidenciaram parâmetros semelhantes aos estabelecidos para peixes de escama, com exceção do ácido úrico. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar los parámetros bioquímicos séricos de tilapias del Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), linaje tailandés chitralada, producidas en un sistema de piscicultura intensiva y capturadas con atarraya. Se tomaron muestras de sangre a 40 ejemplares por punción de la vena caudal. [...] Los peces tenían un peso de 453 ± 52 g. Se determinó proteína total, albúmina, globulinas, ácido úrico, creatinina, urea, calcio, fósforo inorgánico, relación Ca/P, magnesio y fosfatasa alcalina. En un contexto general, los resultados mostraron parámetros semejantes a los establecidos para peces de escama, con excepción del ácido úrico. Abstract in english The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum biochemical parameters of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Thai Chitralada lineage, raised under an intensive pisciculture system and captured by the cast net technique. Blood samples from 40 individuals were obtained by caudal venopuncture. Me [...] an body weight was 453 ± 52 g. The serum biochemical parameters evaluated were total protein, albumin, globulins, acid uric, creatinine, urea, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, Ca/P ratio, alkaline phosphatase, and magnesium. In general, the data showed similar parameters in comparison to those established for scale fish, exception of the acid uric.

  10. Serum amyloid A isoforms in serum and synovial fluid from spontaneously diseased dogs with joint diseases or other conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens; Christensen, Michelle B.

    2007-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein in dogs. However, knowledge of qualitative properties of canine SAA and extent of its synthesis in extrahepatic tissues is limited. The aim of the study was to investigate expression of different SAA isoforms in serum and synovial fluid in samples obtained from dogs (n = 16) suffering from different inflammatory or non-inflammatory conditions, which were either related or unrelated to joints. Expression of SAA isoforms was visualized by denaturing isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum amyloid A was present in serum from all dogs with systemic inflammatory activity, and up to four major isoforms with apparent isoelectric points between 6.1 and 7.9 were identified. In synovial fluid from inflamed joints one or more highly alkaline SAA isoforms (with apparent isoelectric points above 9.3) were identified, with data suggesting local production of these isoforms in the canine inflamed joint.

  11. Inositol monophosphate phosphatase genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Tanya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacteria use inositol in phosphatidylinositol, for anchoring lipoarabinomannan (LAM, lipomannan (LM and phosphatidylinosotol mannosides (PIMs in the cell envelope, and for the production of mycothiol, which maintains the redox balance of the cell. Inositol is synthesized by conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-1-phosphate, followed by dephosphorylation by inositol monophosphate phosphatases (IMPases to form myo-inositol. To gain insight into how Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesises inositol we carried out genetic analysis of the four IMPase homologues that are present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. Results Mutants lacking either impA (Rv1604 or suhB (Rv2701c were isolated in the absence of exogenous inositol, and no differences in levels of PIMs, LM, LAM or mycothiol were observed. Mutagenesis of cysQ (Rv2131c was initially unsuccessful, but was possible when a porin-like gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis was expressed, and also by gene switching in the merodiploid strain. In contrast, we could only obtain mutations in impC (Rv3137 when a second functional copy was provided in trans, even when exogenous inositol was provided. Experiments to obtain a mutant in the presence of a second copy of impC containing an active-site mutation, in the presence of porin-like gene of M. smegmatis, or in the absence of inositol 1-phosphate synthase activity, were also unsuccessful. We showed that all four genes are expressed, although at different levels, and levels of inositol phosphatase activity did not fall significantly in any of the mutants obtained. Conclusions We have shown that neither impA, suhB nor cysQ is solely responsible for inositol synthesis. In contrast, we show that impC is essential for mycobacterial growth under the conditions we used, and suggest it may be required in the early stages of mycothiol synthesis.

  12. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3M) of sodium azide (NaN3) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M2

  13. Alkaline rocks and the occurrence of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many alkaline complexes contain uranium and other minerals in low concentrations and are regarded as constituting valuable potential reserves. Certain complex metallurgical problems, however, remain to be solved. Alkaline rocks occur in a number of forms and environments and it is noted that they are generated during periods of geological quiescence emplaced mainly in stable aseismic areas. Many occur along the extensions of oceanic transform faults beneath the continental crust and the application of this concept to areas not currently known to host alkaline complexes may prove useful in identifying potential target areas for prospecting operations

  14. A rapid and sensitive bioassay for the simultaneous measurement of multiple bone morphogenetic proteins. Identification and quantification of BMP4, BMP6 and BMP9 in bovine and human serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inman Gareth J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are pleiotropic members of the TGF-beta superfamily which regulate many biological processes during development and adult tissue homeostasis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases. Their involvement in both normal and aberrant physiology creates a need for rapid, sensitive and methodologically simple assays to evaluate their activity from a variety of biological samples. Previously alkaline phosphatase based assays, ELISA and luciferase based bioassays have been developed to evaluate either individual or total BMP activity. In this paper, we describe a highly sensitive, rapid and specific cell based assay for the simultaneous quantification of total and isoform specific BMP activity from biological samples. Results A C2C12 cell line stably transfected with a reporter plasmid consisting of the BMP response element (BRE from the Id1 promoter fused to a luciferase reporter gene was generated. Exposure of this cell line to human recombinant BMP2, BMP4, BMP6, BMP7, BMP9 and BMP10 induced the expression of luciferase which was quantified using a luminometer. This assay was specific for BMP activity as the other TGF-? superfamily members TGF-? 1, Nodal and Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS did not induce the reporter. Pretreatment of samples with isoform specific BMP blocking antibodies coupled with isoform specific titration analysis allowed the simultaneous identification and quantification of BMP4, BMP6 and BMP9 in serum samples. Conclusion The assay is rapid (

  15. Displacement affinity chromatography of protein phosphatase one (PP1) complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Gourlay Robert; Campbell David G; De Wever Veerle; Nimick Mhairi; Trinkle-Mulcahy Laura; Moorhead Greg BG; Lam Yun; Lamond Angus I

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Protein phosphatase one (PP1) is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates target protein serine and threonine residues. PP1 is localized to its site of action by interacting with targeting or regulatory proteins, a majority of which contains a primary docking site referred to as the RVXF/W motif. Results We demonstrate that a peptide based on the RVXF/W motif can effectively displace PP1 bound proteins from PP1 retained on the ph...

  16. Haptoglobin, acid phosphatase and demographic factors: obesity risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Maria Do Rosa?rio; Carolino, Elisabete; Oliveira, Teresa; Silva, A. P.; Carvalho, R.; Bicho, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the risk of obesity posed by two genetic factors: haptoglobin phenotype and acid phosphatase phenotype, one enzymatic activity: acid phosphatase activity (ACP1), age and gender. Haptoglobin (Hp) is a protein of the immune system, and three phenotypes of Hp are found in humans: Hp1-1, Hp2-1, and Hp2-2. This protein is associated with a susceptibility to common pathological conditions, such as obesity. ...

  17. Regulation of protein phosphatase 1 by intrinsically disordered proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, Meng S.; Page, Rebecca; Peti, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    PP1 (protein phosphatase 1) is an essential serine/threonine phosphatase that plays a critical role in a broad range of biological processes, from muscle contraction to memory formation. PP1 achieves its biological specificity by forming holoenzymes with more than 200 known regulatory proteins. Interestingly, most of these regulatory proteins (?70%) belong to the class of IDPs (intrinsically disordered proteins). Thus structural studies highlighting the interaction of these IDP regulatory p...

  18. Folding of Intrinsically Disordered Protein Phosphatase 1 Regulatory Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Peti, Wolfgang; Nairn, Angus C.; Page, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered but biologically active proteins, commonly referred to as IDPs, are readily identified in many biological systems and play critical roles in multiple protein regulatory processes. While disordered in their unbound states, IDPs often, but not always, fold upon binding with their protein interaction partners. Here, we discuss how a class of IDPs directs the targeting, specificity and activity of Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1). PP1 is major ser/thr phosphatase that plays a ...

  19. Acid phosphatases in seeds and developing of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    1994-01-01

    Changes in protein content and acid phosphatase activity were followed during germination (imbition through seedlings development) in extracts from cotyledons of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia). It has been shown that the activity of acid phosphatase was initially low and than increased to a maximum after 6 days of imbition. Acid phosphates were isolated from cotyledons of seeds and from 6-, 10- and 22-days old seedlings by extraction the proteins with 0.1 M acetate buffer pH 5.1, precipitation ...

  20. Control of autophagy initiation by phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase jumpy

    OpenAIRE

    Vergne, Isabelle; Roberts, Esteban; Elmaoued, Rasha A.; Tosch, Vale?rie; Delgado, Mo?nica A.; Proikas-cezanne, Tassula; Laporte, Jocelyn; Deretic, Vojo

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies on autophagy, a cytoplasmic homeostatis pathway of broad biological and medical significance, have been hitherto focused on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases as the regulators of autophagy. Here, we addressed the reverse process driven by phosphoinositide phosphatases and uncovered a key negative regulatory role in autophagy of a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) phosphatase Jumpy (MTMR14). Jumpy associated with autophagic isolation membranes and early autophago...

  1. The relation of prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen with tumour grade in prostatic adenocarcinoma: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersev, A; Ersev, D; Turkeri, L; Ilker, Y; Simsek, F; Kullu, S; Akdas, A

    1990-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the presence of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in tissue, the serum PAP and PSA levels and tumour grade in prostatic adenocarcinoma. Thirty-three tumours were studied by the indirect immunoperoxidase method for PAP and PSA production. Thirty-one of them were stained positive for both markers. The remaining two which previous histopathological studies suggested were transitional cell carcinoma, stained negative. In primary tumours there was a weak trend for poor immunoreactivity in high grade neoplasms but the correlation was not significant. The elevated serum PAP and PSA levels did not correlate with the intensity of staining in the tissue. PMID:1699237

  2. Distribution of actinomycetes in different soil ecosystems and effect of media composition on extracellular phosphatase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ghorbani-Nasrabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are widely distributed in different habitats and involved in important processes. Therefore, evaluation of their distribution is important in understanding their ecological role. Ninety seven samples were taken from different soil ecosystems (forest, pasture, rain-fed and irrigated cultivated land located in various climatic zones in the province of Golestan, Northeast Iran. The number of actinomycetes as well as pH value, organic carbon (OC and soil salinity expressed as electrical conductivity (EC showed significant differences in the soil ecosystems under investigation. The number of actinomycetes decreased from 2.86 * 10 6cfu g-1 in irrigated cultivated land to 7* 10(5 cfu g-1 in pasture (p<0.01. In pastures, the number of actinomycetes was negatively correlated with EC (r=-0.60, n=15, p<0.001 and pH (r=-0.59, n=15, p<0.001. In other soil ecosystems under investigation no significant correlations between soil pH, OC and EC and the number of actinomycetes could be found. In forest soils, the number of actinomycetes was significantly dependent (p<0.05 on climate. A significantly higher population was observed under semi-arid conditions compared to all other climatic zones (humid, sub-humid, Mediterranean. Because many soil microorganisms are able to transform different forms of insoluble organic and inorganic phosphorus into a soluble form suitable for plant uptake, the capacity of the isolated actinomycetes to secrete phosphatase activity was determined under laboratory conditions. A huge variation in the capacities to produce acid and alkaline phosphatases among the different isolates was observed. These enzyme activities and the capacities to hydrolyze phytate in the fermentation broth were significantly dependent on medium composition. In general, substitution of arginine and glycerol in the modified glycerol arginine medium (MGA with other nitrogen and carbon sources resulted in a significant reduction of phytate dephosphorylation.

  3. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are w...

  4. Adrenal glucocorticoid permissive regulation of muscle glycogenolysis: action on protein phosphatase(s) and its inhibitor(s).

    OpenAIRE

    Green, G. A.; Chenoweth, M.; Dunn, A.

    1980-01-01

    Adrenal glucocorticoids exert a permissive action on the glycogen phosphorylase cascade. Epinephrine activation of muscle phosphorylase and phosphorylase b kinase is depressed in adrenalectomized rats. Phosphorylase phosphatase activity is increased by steroid lack, and normal epinephrine inhibition of the enzyme does not occur. Phosphorylase b kinase phosphatase activity is also increased; epinephrine, however, does not inhibit activity in muscle from normal or adrenalectomized rats. Protein...

  5. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR promotes R7 photoreceptor axon targeting by a phosphatase-independent signaling mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeyer, Kerstin; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2009-01-01

    Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) control many aspects of nervous system development. At the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), regulation of synapse growth and maturation by the RPTP LAR depends on catalytic phosphatase activity and on the extracellular ligands Syndecan and Dally-like. We show here that the function of LAR in controlling R7 photoreceptor axon targeting in the visual system differs in several respects. The extracellular domain of LAR important for this proc...

  6. Mutations in a protein tyrosine phosphatase gene (PTP2) and a protein serine/threonine phosphatase gene (PTC1) cause a synthetic growth defect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, T.; A. Y. Tsai; SAITO, H.

    1993-01-01

    Two protein tyrosine phosphatase genes, PTP1 and PTP2, are known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the functions of these tyrosine phosphatases are unknown, because mutations in either or both phosphatase genes have no clear phenotypic effects. In this report, we demonstrate that although ptp2 has no obvious phenotype by itself, it has a profound effect on cell growth when combined with mutations in a novel protein phosphatase gene. Using a colony color sectoring assay, we isolated 25 mut...

  7. Biochemical Characterization of the Phosphatase Domain of the Tumor Suppressor PH Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) directly dephosphorylates and inactivates Akt and protein kinase C and is therefore a prime target for pharmacological intervention of two key signaling pathways, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and diacylglycerol signaling pathways. Here we report on the first biochemical characterization of the phosphatase domain of a PHLPP family member. The human PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 phosphatase domains were expressed and purified from bacteria or insect cells and their activities compared to that of full-length proteins immunoprecipitated from mammalian cells. Biochemical analyses reveal that the PHLPP phosphatase domain effectively dephosphorylates synthetic and peptidic substrates, that its activity is modulated by metals and lipophilic compounds, and that it has relatively high thermal stability. Mutational analysis of PHLPP2 reveals an unusual active site architecture compared to the canonical architecture of PP2C phosphatases and identifies key acidic residues (Asp 806, Glu 989, and Asp 1024) and bulky aromatic residues (Phe 783 and Phe 808) whose mutation impairs activity. Consistent with a unique active site architecture, we identify inhibitors that discriminate between PHLPP2 and PP2C?. These data establish PHLPP as a member of the PP2C family of phosphatases with a unique active site architecture. PMID:24892992

  8. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR promotes R7 photoreceptor axon targeting by a phosphatase-independent signaling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyer, Kerstin; Treisman, Jessica E

    2009-11-17

    Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) control many aspects of nervous system development. At the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), regulation of synapse growth and maturation by the RPTP LAR depends on catalytic phosphatase activity and on the extracellular ligands Syndecan and Dally-like. We show here that the function of LAR in controlling R7 photoreceptor axon targeting in the visual system differs in several respects. The extracellular domain of LAR important for this process is distinct from the domains known to bind Syndecan and Dally-like, suggesting the involvement of a different ligand. R7 targeting does not require LAR phosphatase activity, but instead depends on the phosphatase activity of another RPTP, PTP69D. In addition, a mutation that prevents dimerization of the intracellular domain of LAR interferes with its ability to promote R7 targeting, although it does not disrupt phosphatase activity or neuromuscular synapse growth. We propose that LAR function in R7 is independent of its phosphatase activity, but requires structural features that allow dimerization and may promote the assembly of downstream effectors. PMID:19889974

  9. Green/red dual fluorescence detection of total protein and alkaline phosphate-conjugated probes on blotting membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, K P; Hatleberg, G; Berggren, K N; Ryan, D; Kemper, C; Haugland, R P; Patton, W F

    2001-03-01

    A two-color fluorescence detection method is described based upon covalently coupling the succinimidyl ester of BODIPY FL-X to proteins immobilized on poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) membranes, followed by detection of target proteins using the fluorogenic substrate 9H-(1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one-7-yl(DDAO)-phosphate in combination with alkaline-phosphatase-conjugated reporter molecules. This results in all proteins in the profile being visualized as green signal while those detected specifically with the alkaline-phosphatase conjugate appear as red signal. The dichromatic detection system is broadly compatible with a wide range of analytical imaging devices including UV epi- or transilluminators combined with photographic or charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, xenon-arc sources equipped with appropriate excitation/emission filters, and dual laser gel scanners outfitted with a 473 nm second-harmonic generation or 488 nm argon-ion laser as well as a 633 nm helium-neon or 635 nm diode laser. The dichromatic detection method permits detection of low nanogram amounts of protein and allows for unambiguous identification of target proteins relative to the entire protein profile on a single electroblot, obviating the need to run replicate gels that would otherwise require visualization of total proteins by silver staining and subsequent alignment with chemiluminescent or colorimetric signals generated on electroblots. PMID:11332758

  10. Perfil bioquímico e nutricional do ácido glutâmico e da vitamina K no soro e no fígado de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade / Biochemical and nutritional profile of glutamic acid and vitamin K in serum and liver of broilers from 1 to 21 days

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cibele Silva, Minafra; George Henrique Kling de, Moraes; Ana Cláudia Peres, Rodrigues; Fernanda Alvares da, Silva; José Henrique, Stringhini; Cíntia Silva Minafra e, Rezende.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigados os efeitos nutricionais de dois níveis de ácido L-glutâmico (L-Glu) combinados a quatro níveis de vitamina K (vit. K) no soro e no fígado de pintos de corte machos, Hubbard, de 1 dia de idade, criados em baterias aquecidas recebendo dieta básica purificada suplementada com 6,25 e [...] 12,5% de ácido glutâmico combinados a 0,02; 0,2; 2,0 e 20,0 mg de vit. K/kg. Duzentas e cinqüenta e seis aves foram distribuídas em esquema fatorial 2 × 4, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de oito aves. As concentrações de cálcio e a fosfatase alcalina (FA) no soro não diferiram aos 7, 14 e 21 dias de idade. Os níveis séricos de fósforo diferiram aos 21 dias de idade e foram maiores com 12,5% de ácido glutâmico. O peso de fígado foi maior nas aves alimentadas com a dieta com 6,25% de ácido glutâmico e 12,5% de ácido glutâmico + 0,02 mg vit. K/kg. Os níveis séricos de proteínas totais mantiveram-se muito abaixo do normal. As concentrações da enzima glutamato-piruvato transaminase (GPT) foram elevadas nas aves alimentadas com ácido glutâmico e vit. K nos níveis avaliados. A enzima alanina aminotransferase foi encontrada em concentração muito superior aos níveis considerados normais para aves alimentadas com dietas contendo ácido glutâmico e vitamina K nos níveis avaliados. Os níveis de vit. K estudados não afetaram a absorção de cálcio e fósforo e da enzima fosfatase alcalina nem o metabolismo do tecido ósseo. O nível de nitrogênio não-específico (ácido glutâmico) de 6,25% das dietas alterou o metabolismo do tecido ósseo, como resultado da maior concentração de fosfatase alcalina no soro das aves. Abstract in english Nutritional effects of two levels of L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) combined with four levels of vitamin K (vit. K) in serum and the liver of chicks of day-old broilers, male, Hubbard, raised in brooded batteries, receiving basic purified diet supplemented with 6.25 and 12.5% of L-Glu combined with 0.02, 0 [...] .2, 2.0 and 20.0 mg vit. K/kg. Two hundred and fifty birds were allotted to completely randomized design an in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement, with four replications of eight birds each. Calcium and alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme concentrations in serum did not differ at 7, 14 and 21 days old. Serum phosphorus levels differed at 21 days and were higher with 12.5% L-Glu. Liver weight was higher in birds fed diet with 6.25% L-Glu and 12.5% L-Glu + 0.02 mg vit. K/kg. Total serum protein remained far below normal levels. Concentrations of the alanine aminotransferase enzyme were high in birds fed L-Glu and vit. K in the evaluated levels. Serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase enzyme was much higher than that levels considered normal for birds fed diets containing L-Glu and vit. K, in the evaluated levels. Vitamin K levels affected nor the absorption of calcium and phosphorus and the AP enzyme neither the bone tissue metabolism. No-specific nitrogen level (glutamic acid) of 6.25% of the diets changed the metabolism of bone tissue, as a result of the higher concentration of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in the serum of birds.

  11. Perfil bioquímico e nutricional do ácido glutâmico e da vitamina K no soro e no fígado de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade Biochemical and nutritional profile of glutamic acid and vitamin K in serum and liver of broilers from 1 to 21 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Silva Minafra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigados os efeitos nutricionais de dois níveis de ácido L-glutâmico (L-Glu combinados a quatro níveis de vitamina K (vit. K no soro e no fígado de pintos de corte machos, Hubbard, de 1 dia de idade, criados em baterias aquecidas recebendo dieta básica purificada suplementada com 6,25 e 12,5% de ácido glutâmico combinados a 0,02; 0,2; 2,0 e 20,0 mg de vit. K/kg. Duzentas e cinqüenta e seis aves foram distribuídas em esquema fatorial 2 × 4, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de oito aves. As concentrações de cálcio e a fosfatase alcalina (FA no soro não diferiram aos 7, 14 e 21 dias de idade. Os níveis séricos de fósforo diferiram aos 21 dias de idade e foram maiores com 12,5% de ácido glutâmico. O peso de fígado foi maior nas aves alimentadas com a dieta com 6,25% de ácido glutâmico e 12,5% de ácido glutâmico + 0,02 mg vit. K/kg. Os níveis séricos de proteínas totais mantiveram-se muito abaixo do normal. As concentrações da enzima glutamato-piruvato transaminase (GPT foram elevadas nas aves alimentadas com ácido glutâmico e vit. K nos níveis avaliados. A enzima alanina aminotransferase foi encontrada em concentração muito superior aos níveis considerados normais para aves alimentadas com dietas contendo ácido glutâmico e vitamina K nos níveis avaliados. Os níveis de vit. K estudados não afetaram a absorção de cálcio e fósforo e da enzima fosfatase alcalina nem o metabolismo do tecido ósseo. O nível de nitrogênio não-específico (ácido glutâmico de 6,25% das dietas alterou o metabolismo do tecido ósseo, como resultado da maior concentração de fosfatase alcalina no soro das aves.Nutritional effects of two levels of L-glutamic acid (L-Glu combined with four levels of vitamin K (vit. K in serum and the liver of chicks of day-old broilers, male, Hubbard, raised in brooded batteries, receiving basic purified diet supplemented with 6.25 and 12.5% of L-Glu combined with 0.02, 0.2, 2.0 and 20.0 mg vit. K/kg. Two hundred and fifty birds were allotted to completely randomized design an in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement, with four replications of eight birds each. Calcium and alkaline phosphatase (AP enzyme concentrations in serum did not differ at 7, 14 and 21 days old. Serum phosphorus levels differed at 21 days and were higher with 12.5% L-Glu. Liver weight was higher in birds fed diet with 6.25% L-Glu and 12.5% L-Glu + 0.02 mg vit. K/kg. Total serum protein remained far below normal levels. Concentrations of the alanine aminotransferase enzyme were high in birds fed L-Glu and vit. K in the evaluated levels. Serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase enzyme was much higher than that levels considered normal for birds fed diets containing L-Glu and vit. K, in the evaluated levels. Vitamin K levels affected nor the absorption of calcium and phosphorus and the AP enzyme neither the bone tissue metabolism. No-specific nitrogen level (glutamic acid of 6.25% of the diets changed the metabolism of bone tissue, as a result of the higher concentration of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in the serum of birds.

  12. Cellular phosphatases facilitate combinatorial processing of receptor-activated signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Zaved

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although reciprocal regulation of protein phosphorylation represents a key aspect of signal transduction, a larger perspective on how these various interactions integrate to contribute towards signal processing is presently unclear. For example, a key unanswered question is that of how phosphatase-mediated regulation of phosphorylation at the individual nodes of the signaling network translates into modulation of the net signal output and, thereby, the cellular phenotypic response. Results To address the above question we, in the present study, examined the dynamics of signaling from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR under conditions where individual cellular phosphatases were selectively depleted by siRNA. Results from such experiments revealed a highly enmeshed structure for the signaling network where each signaling node was linked to multiple phosphatases on the one hand, and each phosphatase to several nodes on the other. This resulted in a configuration where individual signaling intermediates could be influenced by a spectrum of regulatory phosphatases, but with the composition of the spectrum differing from one intermediate to another. Consequently, each node differentially experienced perturbations in phosphatase activity, yielding a unique fingerprint of nodal signals characteristic to that perturbation. This heterogeneity in nodal experiences, to a given perturbation, led to combinatorial manipulation of the corresponding signaling axes for the downstream transcription factors. Conclusion Our cumulative results reveal that it is the tight integration of phosphatases into the signaling network that provides the plasticity by which perturbation-specific information can be transmitted in the form of a multivariate output to the downstream transcription factor network. This output in turn specifies a context-defined response, when translated into the resulting gene expression profile.

  13. Reduced levels of membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase are common to lepidopteran strains resistant to Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of insect resistance is one of the main concerns with the use of transgenic crops expressing Cry toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Biomarkers for development of sensitive DNA-based methods to detect and monitor evolution of resistance to Bt toxins are currently needed. ...

  14. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mamatha, S.S.; Malik, A; Varik, S.; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V.K.; Gauns, M.; LokaBharathi, P.A

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the potential importance of phosphorus (P) as a limiting nutrient in marine ecosystem is increasing globally. Hence, the contribution of biotic variables in mobilizing this nutrient would be relevant especially in productive...

  15. Association of Cry1Ac Toxin Resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with Increased Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in the Midgut Lumen

    OpenAIRE

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J.; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J.; Jurat-fuentes, Juan Luis; Ferre?, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix ?-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval mid...

  16. Simultaneous in vivo monitoring of regulatory and effector T lymphocytes using secreted Gaussia luciferase, Firefly luciferase, and secreted alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Grant K; Magee, Ciara N; Mounayar, Marwan; Tannous, Bakhos A; Azzi, Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are amongst the most widely studied cells in a variety of immune-mediated conditions, including transplantation and Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD), cancer and autoimmunity; indeed, there is great interest in the tolerogenic potential of Treg-based therapy. Consequently, the need to establish the mechanisms that determine Treg survival and longevity, in addition to developing new tools to monitor these parameters, is paramount. Using both a mouse model of GVHD and a mouse model of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), we describe herein a dual reporter system based on Gluc and multiplexed with SEAP and non-secreted Firefly luciferase (Fluc), which permits simultaneous imaging and noninvasive tracking of two different T-cell populations (CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs and CD4(+)CD25(-) Tcon cells) in vivo by transducing the cells with different lentiviruses bearing distinct color signatures. This new technology promises to overcome the limitations of the conventional methods currently available to study lymphocyte survival in vivo. Furthermore, this novel technique has applications not only in autoimmunity and alloimmunity, but also in the wider field of immunology. PMID:24166380

  17. Effects of Various Dental Materials on Alkaline Phosphatase Extracted from Pulp: An Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lorin R.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that demonstrates the effects of various dental materials on a representative enzyme from the pulp is outlined. The experiment encourages students to consider the effects that various restorative materials and techniques might have on enzymes in the living pulp. (Author/MLW)

  18. Protein phosphorylation and oocyte maturation. I. Induction of starfish oocyte maturation by intracellular microinjection of a phosphatase inhibitor, alpha-naphthylphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondaven, P; Meijer, L

    1986-04-01

    Oocyte maturation (meiosis re-initiation) in starfish is induced by the natural hormone 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde). Following hormonal stimulation of the oocyte, an intracellular Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF) appears in the cytoplasm which triggers nuclear envelope breakdown and maturation divisions. alpha-Naphthylphosphate (alpha-NP), a widely used phosphatase inhibitor/substrate, was found to induce oocyte maturation when microinjected intracellularly (50% maturation of 3.5 mM; 100% above 6mM, final intracellular concentration) into oocytes of Marthasterias and Asterias but not of Astropecten. As 1-MeAde, alpha-NP triggers a complete maturation, i.e. germinal vesicle breakdown, extrusion of the two polar bodies and formation of the female pronucleus. The kinetics of alpha-NP-induced maturation (35-45 min) is, however, longer than the kinetics of 1-MeAde-induced maturation (18-20 min). The addition of alpha-NP externally to oocytes does not trigger maturation. Among several reported phosphatase inhibitors, including two natural protein phosphatase inhibitors and several products structurally related to alpha-NP, only alpha-NP was found capable of inducing maturation when microinjection into oocytes. alpha-NP triggers the appearance of MPF activity in the cytoplasm of oocytes into which it has been injected. Although alpha-NP-induced maturation is insensitive to inhibitors whose action is known to be restricted to the hormone-dependent period (such as the protease inhibitor leupeptin), it is blocked by inhibitors of MPF action (such as nicotinamide and lithium). Finally it was found that alpha-NP-induced maturation is inhibited by simultaneous microinjection of protein phosphatase-2A; also, alpha-NP, classically used as an inhibitor of acid and alkaline phosphatases, is able to inhibit protein phosphatases, is able to inhibit protein phosphatases 1 and 2 A. The addition of alpha-NP to oocytes increases the level of phosphorylated proteins. These results constitute direct evidence that an elevated level of phosphorylated proteins is sufficient to trigger MPF activity and to induce maturation. PMID:3007182

  19. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  20. Serum Alanine Transaminase Total Bilirubin Concentrations Predict CYP3A Activity as Measured by Midazolam and 1?-Hydroxylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rui; Li, Yuhong; Ruan, Jinguang

    2015-01-01

    Background Microsomal enzyme P450 (CYP450) plays an important role in metabolism of most xenobiotics. The activity of CYP3A decreases in patients with liver dysfunction. However, whether serum concentrations of liver enzymes reflect the activity of CYP3A is unclear. We aimed to search for a new clue to predict the activity of CYP3A and guide clinical medication. Material/Methods Forty-five patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in the study, including 15 cases with normal liver function (Group N), 15 cases with moderate fatty liver according to both the results of ultrasonic diagnosis of moderate fatty liver and the laboratory results of elevated alanine transaminase less than 3 times the normal (Group M), and 15 cases with end-stage liver disease (Group S). Each patient received a single dose of 5 mg midazolam intravenously. CYP3A activity was measured by plasma 1?hydroxymidsazolam/midazolam (1?-OH-MDZ/MDZ) ratio at 2 h after administration of midazolam. Results They was no significant difference in CYP3A activity between the patients with normal liver function and moderate fatty liver (P=0.332). The activity of CYP3A in Group S was lower than in Group N and Group M (P=0.000). Multiple linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant linear relationship between the activity of CYP3A and alanine transaminase (ALT, R2=0.682, P=0.000), and total bilirubin (TB, R2=0.519, P=0.002). There were no other factors, including albumin (ALB, P=0.881) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, P=0.497), correlated with the activity of CYP3A. Conclusions We conclude that the activity of CYP3A in patients with end-stage liver disease decreased. The decrease in the activity of CYP3A was determined by the increase in the serum concentration of ALT and TB and not by patient’s age or body weight. ALT and TB therefore might have predictive value for the activity of CYP3A. An abnormal liver function test likely gives the clinician a hint about dosage adjustment. PMID:25648948

  1. Ginsing Pre-Treatment Lessens The Acute Testis Injury Of Rats Induced By Thioacetamide

    OpenAIRE

    Nehal, A.Moustafa & Amera Tohamey

    2002-01-01

    This work aimed to elucidate the protective action of panax ginseng roots against hazardous effects of thioacetamide{TA} intoxication .Oral administration of thioacetamide (300mg/kg)dissolved in drinking water for 12 weeks greatly affected liver and testis .This appeared from significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase ,serum total acid phosphatase and serum prostate acid phosphatase . Previous starvation for 48 and 72 hrs immediately prior to TA administration strongly potentiated the...

  2. Association of erythrocyte acid phosphatase phenotypes with myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himabindu P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase is a polymorphic nonspecific orthophosphate monoesterase which catalyses the cleaving of phosphoric acid and subsequent breakdown of several monophosphoric esters under acidic pH conditions. Acid phosphatase has a physiologic function as a flavin mononucleotide phosphatase (FMN and regulates the intracellular concentrations of flavin coenzymes that are electron carriers in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Myopia or nearsightedness is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. Myopic eyes when subjected to excessive oxidative stress results in retinal detachments .In the present study there is a significant elevation of AA phenotype in myopes when compared to controls. The AA phenotype is more susceptible to oxidative stress and its lower enzyme activity is known to be associated with increased intrauterine growth that further results in increased axial length in progressive myopia. The AA phenotype also confers risk for myopia development in males, early age group and cases with parental consanguinity.

  3. Phosphatases in the cellular response to DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Alyson K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last fifteen years, rapid progress has been made in delineating the cellular response to DNA damage. The DNA damage response network is composed of a large number of proteins with different functions that detect and signal the presence of DNA damage in order to coordinate DNA repair with a variety of cellular processes, notably cell cycle progression. This signal, which radiates from the chromatin template, is driven primarily by phosphorylation events, mainly on serine and threonine residues. While we have accumulated detailed information about kinases and their substrates our understanding of the role of phosphatases in the DNA damage response is still preliminary. Identifying the phosphatases and their regulation will be instrumental to obtain a complete picture of the dynamics of the DNA damage response. Here we give an overview of the DNA damage response in mammalian cells and then review the data on the role of different phosphatases and discuss their biological relevance.

  4. Alkaline reactivity of arsenical natrojarosite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iván A., Reyes; Francisco, Patiño; Isauro, Rivera; Mizraím U., Flores; Martín, Reyes; Juan, Hernández.

    2260-22-01

    Full Text Available Jarosites são compostos que podem sofrer substituições com vários elementos de importância ambiental (tais como As5+) durante a precipitação. Arsênico integrado na estrutura poderia influenciar a solubilidade da jarosita, potencialmente estabilizando a estrutura em uma ampla gama de condições que sã [...] o toleradas pela jarosita pura. A reatividade álcali é caracterizada pela remoção de íons sulfato e sódio da rede e a formação de um gel composto de hidróxido de ferro com arseniato adsorvido. As curvas de decomposição mostram um período de indução seguida por um período de conversão. O período de indução é independente do tamanho das partículas e decresce exponencialmente com o aumento da temperatura. O período de conversão é caracterizado pela criação de um halo de hidróxidos em torno de um núcleo de natrojarosita arsênica não reagido. Dados cinéticos são consistentes com o controle químico do processo. A expressão obtida em meio NaOH para as concentrações de [OH-] que vão desde 3,84 × 10-3 para 1,08 × 10-1 mol L-1 é: r0/-v[1 - (1 - x)1/3] = 3,11 × 10(9) exp(-57,110/RT) [OH-]0.7 t. A expressão em meio Ca(OH)2 para as concentrações de [OH-] que vão desde 2,21 × 10-2 para 6,98 × 10-2 mol L-1 é: r0/-v[1 - (1 - x)1/3] = 9,22 × 10(11) exp(-48,610/RT) [OH-]1.51 t. Abstract in english Jarosites are compounds that can undergo substitutions with several elements of environmental importance (such as As5+) during precipitation. Arsenic integrated in the structure could influence the solubility of the jarosite, potentially stabilizing the structure under a wide range of conditions tha [...] t are tolerated by pure jarosite. Alkaline reactivity is characterized by the removal of sulfate and sodium ions from the lattice and by the formation of a gel consisting of iron hydroxides with adsorbed arsenate. The decomposition curves show an induction period, followed by a conversion period. The induction period is independent from the particle size and decreases exponentially as the temperature increases. The conversion period is characterized by the formation of a hydroxide halo around an unreacted arsenical natrojarosite core. The kinetic data are consistent with the chemical control of the process. The expression obtained in NaOH medium for [OH-] concentrations ranging from 3.84 × 10-3 to 1.08 × 10-1 mol L-1 is the following: r0/-v[1 - (1 - x)1/3] = 3.11 × 10(9) exp(-57.110/RT) [OH-]0.7 t. The expression in Ca(OH)2 medium for [OH-] concentrations ranging from 2.21 × 10-2 to 6.98 × 10-2 mol L-1 is the following: r0/-v[1 - (1 - x)1/3] = 9.22 × 10(11) exp(-48.610/RT) [OH-]1.51 t.

  5. Human lysosomal acid phosphatase: cloning, expression and chromosomal assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Pohlmann, Regina; Krentler, Christiane; Schmidt, Bernhard; Schro?der, Wolfgang; Lorkowski, Gerhard; Culley, Jan; Mersmann, Guenther; Geier, Carola; Waheed, Abdul; Gottschalk, Stephen; Grzeschik, Karl-heinz; Hasilik, Andrej; Figura, Kurt Von

    1988-01-01

    A 2112-bp cDNA clone (lambda CT29) encoding the entire sequence of the human lysosomal acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) was isolated from a lambda gt11 human placenta cDNA library. The cDNA hybridized with a 2.3-kb mRNA from human liver and HL-60 promyelocytes. The gene for lysosomal acid phosphatase was localized to human chromosome 11. The cDNA includes a 12-bp 5' non-coding region, an open reading frame of 1269 bp and an 831-bp 3' non-coding region with a putative polyadenylation signal 25 bp...

  6. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  7. Degradation of halogenated carbons in alkaline alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,1,2-Trichloro-trifluoroethane, 1,2-dibromo-tetrafluoroethane, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole were dissolved in alkaline isopropyl alcohol and irradiated with 60Co gamma rays after purged with pure nitrogen gas. The concentration of the hydroxide ions and the parent molecules decreased with the dose, while that of the halide ions and the organic products, with less halogen atoms than the parent, increased. Chain degradation will occur in alkaline isopropyl alcohol.

  8. Mineralogical, petrological and geochemical aspects of alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite associations from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, L.; Gomes, C. B.; Beccaluva, L.; Brotzu, P.; Conte, A. M.; Ruberti, E.; Traversa, G.

    1995-12-01

    A general description of Mesozoic and Tertiary (Fortaleza) Brazilian alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite districts is presented with reference to mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and geochronology. It mainly refers to scientific results obtained during the last decade by an Italo-Brazilian research team. Alkaline occurrences are distributed across Brazilian territory from the southern (Piratini, Rio Grande do Sul State) to the northeastern (Fortaleza, Ceará State) regions and are mainly concentrated along the borders of the Paraná Basin generally coinciding with important tectonic lineaments. The most noteworthy characteristics of these alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite suites are: (i) prevalence of intrusive forms; (ii) abundance of cumulate assemblages (minor dunites, frequent clinopyroxenites and members of the ijolite series) and (iii) abundance of evolved rock-types. Many data demonstrate that crystal fractionation was the main process responsible for magma evolution of all Brazilian alkaline rocks. A hypothesis is proposed for the genesis of carbonatite liquids by immiscibility processes. The incidence of REE and trace elements for different major groups of lithotypes, belonging both to carbonatite-bearing and carbonatite-free districts, are documented. Sr and preliminary Nd isotopic data are indicative of a mantle origin for the least evolved magmas of all the studied occurrences. Mantle source material and melting models for the generation of the Brazilian alkaline magma types are also discussed.

  9. Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.A.B., Peracchi; M.T.R.A., Terreri; R.V., Munekata; C.A., Len; R.O.S., Sarni; M., Lazaretti-Castro; M.O.E., Hilário.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in children and adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and associated them with disease duration and activity, use of medication (chloroquine and glucocorticoids), vitamin D intake, calcium and alkaline phosphata [...] se levels, and bone mineral density. Thirty patients with JSLE were evaluated and compared to 30 healthy individuals, who were age and gender matched. Assessment was performed of clinical status, disease activity, anthropometry, laboratory markers, and bone mineral density. The 30 patients included 25 (83.3%) females and 16 (53.3%) Caucasians, with a mean age of 13.7 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 10.5 years and mean disease duration was 3.4 years. Mean levels of calcium, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly lower in patients with JSLE compared with controls (P

  10. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline ph Diet Benefits Health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pub med was searched looking for articles on ph, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine

  11. Bone Mineral Density Measurements, Bone Markers and Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in Men with Chronic Non-Cirrhotic Untreated Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Luciana G. S.; Pinheiro, Marcelo M.; Castro, Charlles H. M.; Silva, Antônio E. B.; Szejnfeld, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and its consequent cirrhosis has been associated with bone fragility. Whether CHC may cause bone and mineral abnormalities in the absence of hepatocellular dysfunction is still unknown. In this study we aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures and low BMD measurements in men with non-cirrhotic CHC. Risk factors for low BMD and fractures were also investigated. Methods Morphometric vertebral fractures and BMD measurements were performed in 60 non-cirrhotic untreated men with CHC and 59 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, weight and current smoking. Serum CTx, calcium, phosphate, intact PTH, alkaline phosphatase and vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were measured in all participants. Clinical risk factors for low BMD and fractures were evaluated by a structured questionnaire as well as details regarding HCV infection. Results Trochanter and total femur BMD were significantly lower in CHC patients as compared to healthy men (p?=?0.04). In men 50 years and older, the prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher among CHC patients (p?=?0.01). Lower levels of physical activities and more often report of prolonged immobilization were observed among CHC patients (p<0.05). Liver inflammation and fibrosis, viral load and genotype did not correlate with BMD measurements. Bone markers and 25OHD concentrations were similar in both groups. Only a few vertebral fractures were observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that non-cirrhotic untreated CHC patients have lower BMD at the femur as compared to healthy men in spite of the absence of significant bone and mineral abnormalities. PMID:24312334

  12. Effects of Dietary Furundu (Fermented Hibiscus sabdariffa Seed Supplementation on the Performance, Some Blood and Serum Parameters and Histopathology of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warda S. Abdelgadir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to obtain information on the effects of various dietary doses of the fermented Hibiscus sabdariffa seed (Furundu on Wistar rats. Emphasis was put on changes on growth, lesions, alteration in hematology and serobiochemical constituents and histopathology of treated rats. Fermented Hibiscus sabdariffa seed product (Furundu was fed to Wistar rats at 10, 15 and 20%, respectively of the standard diet for 12 weeks. Incorporation in the diet of the three doses of both was toxic but not fatal. Depression in growth and hepatonephrotoxicity were observed in rats that had been given 10, 15 and 20% Furundu, respectively for 12 weeks. These findings were accompanied by leukocytosis, macrocytic normochromic anaemia in rats fed on 20% Furundu and macrocytic hypochromic, normocytic hypochromic anaemia in those fed on 10 and 15% Furundu respectively, in addition to alterations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and albumin, globulin, bilirubin and cholesterol concentrations. At the end of the experimental period (12 weeks, the total protein of all the test groups and the globulin concentration of group 2 fed on 15% Furundu decreased significantly (p<0.05, albumin concentration of all the test groups and the urea concentration of group 3 fed on 15% Furundu remained unchanged. Histopathological examination showed Fatty cytoplasmic vacuolation of the centrilobular hepatocytes and lymphocytic infiltration, desquamation of the intestinal epithelium and intestinal congestion were noticed in rats fed on 20% Furundu. Fermented Hibiscus sabdariffa seed product Furundu is considered enterohepatonephrotoxic to Wistar rats at dietary levels of 10, 15 and 20%, respectively.

  13. Effect of Turmeric and Carrot Seed Extracts on Serum Liver Biomarkers and Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Total Antioxidant Status in Rats

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    Adel Rezaei-Moghadam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pathogenic role of free radicals are well known in various metabolic diseases. They originate from internal and external sources of body. Essential roles of antioxidant defense system for cellular redox regulation and free radical scavenging activity were described in this study. Many in vitro investigations have shown that turmeric (TE and carrot seed extract (CSE exhibits to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potentials of ethanolic TE and CSE based on in vivo experiment in the rats. Methods: Animals were assigned to six groups: the 1st and 2nd groups were control groups and 2nd group received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulphoxide as vehicle treated group; other four experimental groups received different doses of TE (100, 200 mg/kg b.w. and CSE (200, 400 mg/kg b.w. by gavages, respectively for a period of one month. The indicators of oxidative stress, lipids peroxidation, markers of hepatocyte injury and biliary function markers were measured. Results: The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly stimulated in the hepatic tissue of treatment groups. The malondialdehyde contents of liver tissue were significantly reduced in the groups fed with TE and CSE. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, in treated groups were found to be significantly decreased, whereas albumin and total protein increased as compared to the control groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: this study showed that the regular intake of TE and CSE through the diet can improve antioxidant status and inhibit peroxidation activity in the liver tissue so that using these extracts may protect tissue oxidative stress.

  14. Modification of fos proteins: phosphorylation of c-fos, but not v-fos, is stimulated by 12-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and serum.