WorldWideScience
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Study protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4-10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. DISCUSSION: It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at elective caesarean section. Safe operative delivery is now a priority and a reality for many pregnant women. Obstetricians, obstetric anaesthetists, midwives and pregnant women need high quality evidence on which to base management approaches. The overall aim is to reduce maternal haemorrhagic morbidity and its attendant risks at elective caesarean section. TRIAL REGISTRATION: number: ISRCTN17813715.

Murphy, Deirdre J

2009-01-01

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Study Protocol. ECSSIT – Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon® Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon®) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4–10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. Methods and design A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. Discussion It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at elective caesarean section. Safe operative delivery is now a priority and a reality for many pregnant women. Obstetricians, obstetric anaesthetists, midwives and pregnant women need high quality evidence on which to base management approaches. The overall aim is to reduce maternal haemorrhagic morbidity and its attendant risks at elective caesarean section. Trial registration number: ISRCTN17813715 PMID:19703279

Murphy, Deirdre J; Carey, Michael; Montgomery, Alan A; Sheehan, Sharon R

2009-01-01

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Study protocol. ECSSIT - Elective Caesarean Section Syntocinon Infusion Trial. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of oxytocin (Syntocinon) 5 IU bolus and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5 IU bolus and 40 IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Caesarean section is one of the most commonly performed major operations in women throughout the world. Rates are escalating, with studies from the United States of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Republic of Ireland reporting rates between 20% and 25%. Operative morbidity includes haemorrhage, anaemia, blood transfusion and in severe cases, maternal death. The value of routine oxytocics in the third stage of vaginal birth has been well established and it has been assumed that these benefits apply to caesarean delivery as well. A slow bolus dose of oxytocin is recommended following delivery of the baby at caesarean section. Some clinicians use an additional infusion of oxytocin for a further period following the procedure. Intravenous oxytocin has a very short half-life (4-10 minutes) therefore the potential advantage of an oxytocin infusion is that it maintains uterine contractility throughout the surgical procedure and immediate postpartum period, when most primary haemorrhages occur. The few trials to date addressing the optimal approach to preventing haemorrhage at caesarean section have been under-powered to evaluate clinically important outcomes. There has been no trial to date comparing the use of an intravenous slow bolus of oxytocin versus an oxytocin bolus and infusion. METHODS AND DESIGN: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in five large maternity units in Ireland with collaboration between academics and clinicians in the disciplines of obstetrics and anaesthetics. It will involve 2000 women undergoing elective caesarean section after 36 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be major haemorrhage (blood loss >1000 ml). A study involving 2000 women will have 80% power to detect a 36% relative change in the risk of major haemorrhage with two-sided 5% alpha. DISCUSSION: It is both important and timely that we evaluate the optimal approach to the management of the third stage at elective caesarean section. Safe operative delivery is now a priority and a reality for many pregnant women. Obstetricians, obstetric anaesthetists, midwives and pregnant women need high quality evidence on which to base management approaches. The overall aim is to reduce maternal haemorrhagic morbidity and its attendant risks at elective caesarean section. TRIAL REGISTRATION: number: ISRCTN17813715.

Murphy, Deirdre J

2012-02-01

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ECSSIT - Elective caesarean section Syntocinon infusion trial a multi-centre randomized controlled trial oxytocin Syntocinon % iu bolus and placebo infusion versus oxtocin 5 iu bolus and 40 iu infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Institute of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, RCPI Four Provinces Meeting, Junior Obstetrics & Gynaecology Society Annual Scientific Meeting, Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland Dublin Maternity Hospitals Reports Meeting, Nov 2010

Sheehan, S

2011-02-01

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Ventricular bigeminy during phenylephrine infusion used to maintain normotension during caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 31-year-old primiparous, healthy woman presented for emergency caesarean section. Following the siting of a spinal anaesthetic, seconds after starting a phenylephrine infusion, she developed ventricular bigeminy. She reverted to sinus rhythm spontaneously when the phenylephrine infusion was stopped at delivery. The possible proarrhythmic and antiarrhythmic effects of phenylephrine are discussed. We suggest that this was most probably a stretch-induced ventricular arrhythmia due to increased ventricular afterload. PMID:17400441

Lai, F M; Jenkins, J G

2007-07-01

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The usefulness of thin section rapid infusion CT for detection of cerebral aneurysm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With 2 mm thick CT scanning during the rapid infusion of contrast material(TICT), cerebral aneurysms arising from the circle of Willis and adjacent vessels can be directly visualized. Twenty five patients who had cerebral aneurysm confirmed by surgery were examined with TICT and digital subtraction angiography. The authors examined TICT prospectively to assess the detection rate of the cerebral aneurysms and to evaluation the clinical usefulness of TICT. The detection rates of aneurysms by TICT and digital subtraction angiography were 68% and 84%, respectively. TICT is a rapid, safe and reliable method in the evaluation of patients with suspected cerebral aneurysm, permitting direct visualization of the aneurysm.

Kim, Jong Min; Kim, So Sun; Huh, Jin Do [Kosin Medical College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

1993-11-15

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The usefulness of thin section rapid infusion CT for detection of cerebral aneurysm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With 2 mm thick CT scanning during the rapid infusion of contrast material(TICT), cerebral aneurysms arising from the circle of Willis and adjacent vessels can be directly visualized. Twenty five patients who had cerebral aneurysm confirmed by surgery were examined with TICT and digital subtraction angiography. The authors examined TICT prospectively to assess the detection rate of the cerebral aneurysms and to evaluation the clinical usefulness of TICT. The detection rates of aneurysms by TICT and digital subtraction angiography were 68% and 84%, respectively. TICT is a rapid, safe and reliable method in the evaluation of patients with suspected cerebral aneurysm, permitting direct visualization of the aneurysm

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A randomised controlled trial of oxytocin 5IU and placebo infusion versus oxytocin 5IU and 30IU infusion for the control of blood loss at elective caesarean section--pilot study. ISRCTN 40302163.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the blood loss at elective lower segment caesarean section with administration of oxytocin 5IU bolus versus oxytocin 5IU bolus and oxytocin 30IU infusion and to establish whether a large multi-centre trial is feasible. STUDY DESIGN: Women booked for an elective caesarean section were recruited to a pilot randomised controlled trial and randomised to either oxytocin 5IU bolus and placebo infusion or oxytocin 5IU bolus and oxytocin 30IU infusion. We wished to establish whether the study design was feasible and acceptable and to establish sample size estimates for a definitive multi-centre trial. The outcome measures were total estimated blood loss at caesarean section and in the immediate postpartum period and the need for an additional uterotonic agent. RESULTS: A total of 115 women were randomised and 110 were suitable for analysis (5 protocol violations). Despite strict exclusion criteria 84% of the target population were considered eligible for study participation and of those approached only 15% declined to participate and 11% delivered prior to the planned date. The total mean estimated blood loss was lower in the oxytocin infusion arm compared to placebo (567 ml versus 624 ml) and fewer women had a major haemorrhage (>1000 ml, 14% versus 17%) or required an additional uterotonic agent (5% versus 11%). A sample size of 1500 in each arm would be required to demonstrate a 3% absolute reduction in major haemorrhage (from baseline 10%) with >80% power. CONCLUSION: An additional oxytocin infusion at elective caesarean section may reduce blood loss and warrants evaluation in a large multi-centre trial.

Murphy, Deirdre J

2012-02-01

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Oxytocin bolus versus oxytocin bolus and infusion for control of blood loss at elective caesarean section: double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of adding an oxytocin infusion to bolus oxytocin on blood loss at elective caesarean section. DESIGN: Double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial, conducted from February 2008 to June 2010. SETTING: Five maternity hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 2069 women booked for elective caesarean section at term with a singleton pregnancy. We excluded women with placenta praevia, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathies, previo...

Gleeson, Ronan Patrick; Murphy, Deirdre

2011-01-01

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Comparison of Prophylactic Infusion of Phenylephrine with Ephedrine for Prevention of Hypotension in Elective Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesi: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Spinal anesthesia is an accepted technique in elective cesarean sections. However, hypotension, resulted from sympathectomy is a common problem, especially in pregnant women. Prevention of this complication by sympathomimetic agents is of potential clinical significance. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of prophylactic infusion of Phenylephrine versus Ephedrine in the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia in elective cesarean section. Methods Eighty-three patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into three groups. Group Ph received phenylephrine infusion, group E received ephedrine infusion while group P were delivered placebo. Vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial oxygen saturation) were recorded throughout the surgery. Maternal and neonatal perioperative complications were also controlled and recorded. Results There was an insignificant difference in demographic data between the groups. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in the phenylephrine group than control, but not higher than the ephedrine group. Maternal dysrhythmias were more common in ephedrine and phenylephrine groups than the control group. Vomiting was more common in ephedrine group (Pphenylephrine and ephedrine groups than the control group (Pphenylephrine group had less acidosis than the other groups. Conclusion Prophylactic infusion of phenylephrine can effectively decrease spinal anesthesia related hypotension without any significant complication for mother or her fetus. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012120911700N1 PMID:25649721

Moslemi, Farnaz; Rasooli, Sousan

2015-01-01

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Induction of labor using double balloon cervical device in women with previous cesarean section: Experience and review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Induction of labour remains one of the most challenging interventions in current obstetrics. Different pharmaceuticals have been used for cervical ripening such as prostaglandins; however they can lead to a number of potential inconvenient risks namely uterine tachysystole and pathological fetal cardiotocography (CTG. In cases of women with previous caesarean births, using prostaglandins would pose even higher risks such as uterine rupture and perinatal mortality. A mechanical method of cervical ripening could represent an alternative for these women. We report the use of the extra-amniotic double balloon cervical device (Cook’s device for ripening of unfavourable cervix in seventeen women attempting vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC. Using Bishop scoring system to assess cervical dilatetion, position, consistency, fetal station and effacement, the unfavourable cervix is the cervix that scores less than 6. We review the relevant literature discussing this method of induction focusing on its effectiveness, simplicity, safety and efficacy, low cost and any associated serious side effects. Conclusion: Success was estimated to be over 50% with no serious life threatening maternal or fetal complications. We considered the process satisfactory and practical. We recommend larger studies to assess safety and efficacy of Cook’s device in vaginal birth after caesarean section before embarking on routine elective caesarean delivery. Objectives: To estimate success rate for vaginal delivery after previous caesarean section using cervical double balloon device (Cook’s device. Design: Three-year observational study. Setting: Maternity unit in district general hospital, UK. Population: Women who had one previous lower segment caesarean section and unfavourable cervix identified as having Bishop Score less than 6. Methods: Data were obtained from the birth registry over 3 years from January 2008 until December 2010. Main outcome: Measure successful vaginal delivery. Results: Out of 25 cases that had induction of labour with history of one previous lower segment caesarean section, 17 patients did fit in the inclusion criteria and were studied. 53% had a successful vaginal delivery while 47% had to have cesarean section either due to failure to progress or pathological cardiotocography. 82% required to have syntocinon infusion for augmentation as per local unit protocol. All newborn babies were in good condition and did not require admission to neonatal intensive care unit.

N. Nassif

2013-03-01

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Continuous-infusion adriamycin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter discusses the diminished cardiotoxicity as well as diminished nausea and vomiting with continuous infusions of adriamycin to patients undergoing radiation therapy, particularly with infusions of 48 hours or longer, and best with 96-hour infusions, the longest duration that has been studied systematically. In breast cancer, data show that more adriamycin is better, but only for a selected subgroup of patients: those with complete remission. The diminished cardiotoxicity makes the use of adriamycin more attractive in the adjuvant situation, where increased safety will decrease the chances of long-term complications and make retreatment easy for cured patients who develop second malignancies

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Continuous radioisotope infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Continuous infusion of a radioactive marker was used instead of a conventional bolus injection to improve haemodynamic studies. Tc-99m was infused into the blood circulation at a constant rate for 100-300 seconds and the activity in the target structure was measured by a gamma camera with a computer system or by a single detector. The concentration of the marker increased linearly at the same rate throughout the circulating system. Due to variations in transport time from infusion site to different parts of the system the rise of activity occurred at different times. A theory for the calculations was presented and consequently confirmed in a model study. Blood flow patterns in artificial kidneys and alterations in renal blood flow induced by angiotensin were studied. The results are presented as time-function curves or as computer images. This technique can be used to evaluate distributions and alterations of flow in separate parts of a complex circulating system. (author)

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Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion  

OpenAIRE

The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer 26Al. 26Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous 27Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the 26Al, compared to 27Al, serum concentration × time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F =...

Yokel, Robert A.; Florence, Rebecca L.

2008-01-01

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[Development of smart infusion system].  

Science.gov (United States)

The free care smart infusion system which has the function of liquid end alarm and automatic stopping has been designed. In addition, the system can send the alarm to the health care staff by Zigbee wireless network. Besides, the database of infusion information has been set up, it can be used for inquiry afterwards. PMID:24839846

Li, Junyang

2014-01-01

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The use of a volumetric infusion pump for the intra-arterial infusion of drugs.  

OpenAIRE

Volumetric infusion pumps are widely used for intravenous infusions. We have extended their use to the intra-arterial infusion of drugs. An in vitro evaluation of the performance of such devices, under experimental conditions comparable to an intra-arterial infusion, was carried out. The results obtained confirmed the accuracy of volumetric infusion pumps for intra-arterial infusions. The system was found to be safe, reliable and simple in clinical practice.

Cooper, A. M.; Lilliman, M.

1985-01-01

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Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239Pu or 147Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

18

What is Nano-Infusion?  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from Nano-Link describes Nano-Infusion. This program "promotes integration and inclusion of nanoscale concepts into high school and college level education." Teachers are encouraged to join the free program to obtain training, support, and nano-related supplies that will aid in introducing nano experiments into their classrooms. To join the program, applicants merely need to create an account on the Nan-Link website and complete and introductory survey.

19

Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water. PMID:18848597

Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

2008-12-01

20

Financial analysis for the infusion alliance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Providing high-quality, cost-efficient care is a major strategic initiative of every health care organization. Today's health care environment is transparent; very competitive; and focused upon providing exceptional service, safety, and quality. Establishing an infusion alliance facilitates the achievement of organizational strategic initiatives, that is, increases patient throughput, decreases length of stay, prevents the occurrence of infusion-related complications, enhances customer satisfaction, and provides greater cost-efficiency. This article will discuss how to develop a financial analysis that promotes value and enhances the financial outcomes of an infusion alliance. PMID:20841984

Perucca, Roxanne

2010-01-01

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Krypton 81m infusion studies. Chapter 18  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technique is described to give a continuous, constant-rate, intravascular infusion of 81Krsup(m). Modifications of earlier generators included production of sodium-free 81Rb, the use of a solution of commercial sterile isotonic non-ionic 5% dextrose-in-water as an eluant, the incorporation of a constant-rate infusion pump, and the miniaturization of the generator column and catheter system. Results are presented of studies of 81Krsup(m) distribution in dogs, using both intravenous and intra-arterial infusion. (author)

22

Safety of rapid intravenous of infusion acetaminophen  

OpenAIRE

Intravenous acetaminophen, Ofirmev®, is approved for management of mild to moderate pain, management of moderate to severe pain with adjunctive opioids, and reduction of fever. The product is supplied as a 100 mL glass vial. As stated in the prescribing information, it is recommended to be infused over 15 minutes. This recommendation is related to the formulation propacetamol, the prodrug to acetaminophen, approved in Europe, which caused pain on infusion, and data from the clinical developm...

Needleman, Steven M.

2013-01-01

23

Lactate infusions in patients with bulimia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed lactate infusions in 18 bulimic patients and 11 normal controls. On the basis of blind ratings, bulimic patients appeared to react to the infusion with greater anxiety than controls. The frequency of lactate-induced panic, per se, was lower in bulimic patients than rates reported for panic disorder patients. However, it would be premature to conclude that bulimia is not a heterogeneous syndrome which includes a group of patients who panic with lactate. PMID:3222393

Lindy, D C; Walsh, B T; Gorman, J M; Roose, S P; Gladis, M; Devlin, M J; Glassman, A H

1988-12-01

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Polysaccharide composition of fraxinus angustifolia leave infusions  

OpenAIRE

The use of plant infusions with medicinal purposes, such as the ones from members of the Fraxinus genus, is an ancient practice that has been reported by popular medicine [1]. The health benefits are associated with the presence of phenolic compounds and polysaccharides, among others [2]. Although phenolic compounds have been studied in detail for more than two decades, the characterization of the polysaccharides present in plant infusions and their involvement in the health benefits is still...

Martins, Vitor Manuel Ramalheira; Coimbra, Manuel A.

2010-01-01

25

Immunoglobulin replacement treatment by rapid subcutaneous infusion  

OpenAIRE

Long term intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion is an effective treatment for children with immunodeficiencies, but can be complicated by poor venous access, systemic adverse reactions, and the need for frequent hospital admission. Rapid subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) infusion has been found to be effective in adults with primary immunodeficiency. Twenty six children were treated with SCIG for a median period of two years (range six months to 3.5 years). Fifteen ...

Gaspar, J.; Gerritsen, B.; Jones, A.

1998-01-01

26

Stability and Antibacterial Activity of Cefepime during Continuous Infusion  

OpenAIRE

The stability of cefepime during simulated continuous infusion was determined with a motorized portable infusion pump worn over a period of 24 to 36 h. Susceptibility testing on cefepime solutions over time indicates that the degradation products do not exhibit antibacterial activity. Cefepime stability at 24 h following continuous infusion was 94.3% ± 1.0%, which supports the use of continuous infusion.

Sprauten, Pa?l F.; Beringer, Paul M.; Louie, Stan G.; Synold, Timothy W.; Gill, Mark A.

2003-01-01

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Subcutaneous insulin infusion: change in basal infusion rate has no immediate effect on insulin absorption rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were simultaneously given subcutaneous infusions (1.12 IU/h each) of 125I-labeled Actrapid insulin in each side of the abdominal wall. After 24 h of infusion, the size of the infused insulin depots was measured by external counting for 5 h. The basal infusion rate was then doubled in one side and halved in the other for the next 4 h. Finally, 1.12 IU/h of insulin was given in both sides of the abdominal wall for an additional 3 h. The changes in the size of the depots were measured, and the absorption rates for each hour were calculated. During the first 5 h of infusion, the depot size was almost constant (approximately 5 IU) with an absorption rate that equaled the infusion rate. Doubling the infusion rate led to a significant increase in depot size, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h, and only thereafter was a significant increase seen. When the infusion rate was reduced to the initial 1.12 IU/h, the absorption rate remained elevated during the next 3 h. Correspondingly, when the infusion rate was decreased, the depot size also decreased, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h. The results show that a change in the basal insulin infusion rate does not lead to any immediate change in the insulin absorption rate. This should be considered when planning an insulin-infusion program that includes alteration(s) in the basal-rate settingtting

28

Angiotensin II infusion induces marked diaphragmatic skeletal muscle atrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are characterized by increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels and are often accompanied by significant skeletal muscle wasting that negatively impacts mortality and morbidity. Both CHF and CKD patients have respiratory muscle dysfunction, however the potential effects of Ang II on respiratory muscles are unknown. We investigated the effects of Ang II on diaphragm muscle in FVB mice. Ang II induced significant diaphragm muscle wasting (18.7±1.6% decrease in weight at one week) and reduction in fiber cross-sectional area. Expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1) and of the pro-apoptotic factor BAX was increased after 24 h of Ang II infusion (4.4±0.3 fold, 3.1±0.5 fold and 1.6±0.2 fold, respectively, compared to sham infused control) suggesting increased muscle protein degradation and apoptosis. In Ang II infused animals, there was significant regeneration of injured diaphragm muscles at 7 days as indicated by an increase in the number of myofibers with centralized nuclei and high expression of embryonic myosin heavy chain (E-MyHC, 11.2±3.3 fold increase) and of the satellite cell marker M-cadherin (59.2±22.2% increase). Furthermore, there was an increase in expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, 1.8±0.3 fold increase) in Ang II infused diaphragm, suggesting the involvement of IGF-1 in diaphragm muscle regeneration. Bone-marrow transplantation experiments indicated that although there was recruitment of bone-marrow derived cells to the injured diaphragm in Ang II infused mice (267.0±74.6% increase), those cells did not express markers of muscle stem cells or regenerating myofibers. In conclusion, Ang II causes marked diaphragm muscle wasting, which may be important for the pathophysiology of respiratory muscle dysfunction and cachexia in conditions such as CHF and CKD. PMID:22276172

Rezk, Bashir M; Yoshida, Tadashi; Semprun-Prieto, Laura; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Delafontaine, Patrice

2012-01-01

29

[Intraarterial DDP and angiotensin II infusion chemotherapy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-four patients, each with advanced bladder cancer (BC) or brain tumor (BT), were treated by intraarterial infusion of angiotensin II in combination with DDP as the main drug together with other anticancer drugs. As for the frequency of treatment by the intraarterial therapy, only one course was given in 15 cases, two courses in 9 (BC), one course in 21 cases, and two courses in 3 (BT). CR was obtained in ten of 24 evaluable patients with BC and PR in eleven. Of 20 evaluable patients with BT, 3CRs and 7PRs were attained. The selective enhancement of tumoral blood flow induced by regionally infused angiotensin II was observed using continuous intraarterial infusion of krypton-81 m. PMID:3015032

Mitsuhata, N; Matsumura, Y

1986-04-01

30

Intragastric infusion of nutrients in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. A method of continuous alimentation of cattle by total infusion of nutrients has been developed. Friesian steers within the weight range 100-400 kg live weight and dairy cows were used. 2. A multi-channel peristaltic pump was used to infuse solutions of volatile fatty acids (VFA), minerals, and buffer through a cannula in the rumen and a casein-vitamin solution into the abomasum. 3. The method described was successfully used with two cows and four steers in a series of trials over intervals of approximately 2 months. The levels of infusion were up to twice maintenance and with various relative proportions of VFA and protein. Blood metabolite levels, rumen osmotic pressure and pH were monitored and effectively controlled. PMID:6805503

MacLeod, N A; Corrigall, W; Stirton, R A; Orskov, E R

1982-05-01

31

Infusing Functional Law into the Classroom.  

Science.gov (United States)

The court system touches the lives of many children in the school system, some through divorce, and others through their own illegal behavior. Principals and administrators need to infuse a functional knowledge of the legal system so that these children will be better able to cope and deal with life events that cause them to be placed in contact…

Frieman, Barry B.; Fine, Bobbie

32

Pharmacokinetics of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the reasons for the variability of blood glucose regulation in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients is the huge variation in subcutaneous absorption of intermediate-acting insulin. We have investigated the variation in insulin absorption during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in eight such patients. The content of insulin in the subcutaneous tissue was measured using 125I-labelled insulin. The concentration of free serum insulin and blood glucose was followed from 1 h before and from 7 h after breakfast on two consecutive days. The amount of insulin absorbed during 24 h differed in all cases by less than 3% from the daily insulin dose given by the pumps. Mean insulin absorption rates and mean free insulin concentration showed peak values 30-90 min after meal bolus injections; this was sufficient to maintain near-normal blood glucose. Mean free serum insulin correlated strongly with disappearance of insulin from the subcutaneous tissue (r = 0.98). From the insulin absorption rates and free insulin concentrations during basal constant insulin infusion, the half-time of serum insulin was calculated as 6 min. Compared with the known large variability in the absorption of intermediate-acting insulin, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion offers a precise and reproducible way of insulin administration resulting in post-prandial serum insulin peaks sufficient to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels. The half-time of serum insulin during subcutaneous infusion corresponds to values for intravenous infusion given in the literature, indicating that local degradation of insulin in subcutaneous tissue is of minor importance.

Lauritzen, Torsten; Pramming, S

1983-01-01

33

Numerical Simulation Study on the Coal Seam Pulse Water Infusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process of coal seam pulse water infusion, liquid-solid coupling effect exists in coal seam between the stress field and seepage field. Based on the basic principle of liquid-solid coupling, the dynamic liquid-solid coupling effect of stress and seepage field during coal seam pulse water infusion is simulated through secondary development of ABAQUS software, during this process the mathematical model of the strain accumulation model due to the periodic changes of pulse water pressure is embedded in SOIL module of ABAQUS software. The law of different parameters of pulse water infusion on the permeability of coal around the infusion hole is gotten. Numerical simulation results show that, during the process of coal seam high pressure pulse water infusion, the stress field and flow field are mutual influence and mutual restriction. The coupling of the stress and flow field have impact on the physical and mechanical properties of coal in front of the working face, these factors promote each other and preventing coal and gas outburst effectively. The permeability of coal increase significantly with the water infusion time prolong under constant water infusion pressure and frequency. The permeability of coal increase significantly with the water infusion pressure improving under constant water infusion time and frequency. The permeability of coal increase significantly with the water infusion frequency improving under constant water infusion pressure and time. So the pulse water infusion time needs to ensure a better effect of preventing coal and gas outburst is gotten. Meanwhile the high pressure pulse water infusion pressure needs to improve under the existing technical conditions and not cause big coal fissure. The frequency of pulse water infusion needs to improve under the existing technical conditions. This research results have great theoretical value and practical significance on revealing the mechanism of coal seam pulse water infusion on permeability, enhancing the validity of the technological parameters design in coal seam water infusion and implementing the technology in the site.

Meng Junqing

2014-01-01

34

An audit of hospital based outpatient infusions and a pilot program of community-based monoclonal antibody infusions.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

INTRODUCTION: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha, is administered as an intravenous infusion requiring a costly hospital day case or inpatient admission. METHODS: An audit of all current therapies given by intravenous infusions in an outpatient setting in St Vincent\\'s University Hospital (SVUH) was undertaken. Furthermore, in conjunction with TCP homecare, we established in a general practise health clinic, the first Irish community infusion centre for the administration of infliximab in August 2006. RESULTS: All outpatient departments indicated that they would favour a centralized hospital infusion unit. There were no adverse events and the mean global satisfaction improved in the community infliximab infusion pilot programme of seven patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggests efficiencies in providing centralized infusion facilities, while the community based infusion of infliximab is feasible and safe in this small cohort and identifies the community infusion unit as a viable and cost efficient alternative for administration of infliximab.

Doran, J-P

2012-02-01

35

Epipodophyllotoxin and cisplatin on continuous infusion schedules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Epipodophyllotoxins, VP16-213 and VM26, and the heavy metal cytotoxic agents, Cisplatin and its analogs, Spriogermanium and Gallium are discussed as representing classes of agents which in clinical trials are traditionally delivered on an intermittent bolus schedule to coincide with radiation therapy. The continuous infusion of VP16-213 has a strong rationale based upon pharmacokinetic considerations of the drug and schedule dependency in experimental tumor systems. The regional delivery of Cisplatin is examined and has demonstrated some exceptional therapeutic effects, particularly in brain tumors, although toxicity has been substantial. VP16-213 has practical limitations with regard to the infusion schedule relative to the insolubility of the agent in small volumes

36

Superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Superselective arterial infusion for patients with advanced head and neck cancer has been increasingly applied in Japan. We analyzed our experiences and evaluated the efficacy and safety of this treatment. Through October 1999 to March 2002, 29 patients, ranging in age between 33 and 71 years (median 52 years), received superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy of cisplatin (100-120 mg/m{sup 2}/week) with simultaneous intravenous infusion of thiosulfate for neutralizing cisplatin toxicity, and conventional concomitant extrabeam radiotherapy (65 Gy/26 f/6.5 weeks). Four patients were diagnosed with stage III and 25 with stage IV. Thirteen patients were considered contraindicated for surgery, and the other 16 patients rejected radical surgery. Primary tumor sites included paranasal sinus (11 patients), hypopharynx (7), oropharynx (6), oral cavity (4), and parotid gland (1). During the median follow-up period of 20 months, there was no apparent recurrence in 14 (48.3%) of 29 patients. Eleven (37.9%) patients died of disease, and three (10.3%) were alive with disease. In twenty-one patients (72.4%) the primary lesions were well-controlled. Acute toxic effects were moderate, and severe toxic events occurred in four cases, namely, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia, sepsis, tetraplasia, and osteoradionecrosis. We confirmed the effectiveness and safety of superselective arterial infusion and concomitant radiotherapy. Furthermore, we must establish the optimal procedures and schedule, as well as the indications for this treatment. This treatment protocol may improve the prognosis of patients with unresectable disease and patients rejecting surgical treatment. Further study in this particular area is needed. (author)

Homma, Akihiro; Suzuki, Fumiyuki; Inuyama, Yukio; Fukuda, Satoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine

2003-05-01

37

A patient with anaphylaxis after alteplase infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaphylaxis to alteplase is a rare but reported complication of intravenous thrombolysis. We report a patient with a documented episode of anaphylaxis that occurred following an initial bolus and a subsequent delayed infusion of alteplase for thrombolysis of acute ischaemic stroke. The patient was treated with hydrocortisone, adrenaline, prochlorperazine and ranitidine, as per the hospital anaphylaxis protocol, intubation and admission to the intensive care unit. Serum tryptase levels performed during the anaphylactic event (at the end of the infusion) and 1.5 hours later showed an increase of 2 ?g/L, suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction. Anaphylaxis remains largely a clinical diagnosis even in the absence of an elevated serum tryptase. The patient would benefit from further allergen testing given the severity of the reaction to alteplase. We report this patient to indicate that although rare, anaphylaxis is a recognised adverse event following alteplase. In the case of any symptoms suggestive of a minor anaphylactic reaction to alteplase, further infusion should be ceased to avoid a dose dependent major reaction. PMID:22099072

Cheng, J N; Lee, A; Jannes, J; Heddle, R J; Koblar, S A

2012-02-01

38

Continuous ampicillin infusion as an alternative to intermittent infusion for adult inpatients: a case series.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravenous ampicillin has been extensively used for various kinds of infections for more than fifty years. This drug is administered intermittently, which can result in missed or delayed drug administration and sleep interruption that can have a negative impact on the quality of life during hospitalization. Continuous infusion may solve these concerns. We reviewed the cases of five patients who were treated with continuous ampicillin infusions in our hospital. The ampicillin serum concentrations were from 11.3 to 32.8 ?g/mL, which was above the ampicillin MICs of the causative organisms, ?0.06 to 4 ?g/mL. Although the dosages given of ampicillin varied in each case, the serum concentrations showed a strong correlation with creatinine clearance (r(2) = 0.91). All the patients improved at the time of discharge, or transfer to another hospital, with no significant complications during the continuous infusion. Continuous ampicillin infusion could be a better alternative for frequent intermittent infusion for adult inpatients with infections due to ampicillin-susceptible organisms. PMID:24972584

Ogawa, Taku; Kasahara, Kei; Ikawa, Kazuro; Shigeta, Junichi; Komatsu, Yuko; Kuruno, Noriko; Uno, Kenji; Maeda, Koichi; Mikasa, Keiichi

2014-10-01

39

Immediate infusion-related adverse reactions to intravenous immunoglobulin in a prospective cohort of 1765 infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is increasingly recommended for many diseases apart from primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Although effective and safe, adverse reactions may occur. We conducted a 2-year prospective observational study in 117 patients with PID who received regular IVIG replacement therapy at a median dose of 600 mg/kg every 3 to 4 weeks to examine IVIG's adverse effects; 1765 infusions were performed (mean=15/patient) in 75 males and 42 females (aged 3 months to 77 years) in 3 groups: ? 9 years (34.2%), 10-19 years (26.5%), and ? 20 years (39.3%). Fifty patients had common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 11 had X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and 55 had other immune system disorders. The drugs administered were Octagam® (49.1%), Tegeline® (17.3%), Imunoglobulin® (18.6%), Flebogama® (12.9%), Vigam® (1.2%), and Kiovig® (0.4%). Immediate infusion-related adverse reactions occurred in the cases of 38 out 1765 infusions (2.15%, IC95% 1.53%-2.94%), which were classified as mild (81.6%), moderate (10.5%), or severe (7.9%). Time until reaction ranged from 10 to 240 min (mean = 85.7, median = 60). Reaction rates were similar across age groups. The most common reactions were malaise, headache, and abdominal pain. Reported severe events were tightness of the throat and seizure. All symptoms improved with temporary or complete IVIG interruption and symptomatic medications. Sixteen of 38 reactions to infusions occurred in the presence of an acute infection (p=0.09). Tegeline® represented a greater reaction risk factor than Octagam® (p < 0.001). These results indicate that IVIG infusion can be considered a safe procedure. Low reaction incidence and few severe immediate infusion-related adverse reactions were observed. PMID:25257732

Bichuetti-Silva, Danielli C; Furlan, Fernanda P; Nobre, Fernanda A; Pereira, Camila T M; Gonçalves, Tessa R T; Gouveia-Pereira, Mariana; Rota, Rafael; Tavares, Lusinete; Mazzucchelli, Juliana T L; Costa-Carvalho, Beatriz T

2014-12-01

40

INTRAVENOUS FENTANYL INFUSION AS AN ANALAGESIC AGENTS FOR LABOR PAIN  

OpenAIRE

Introduction. There are few studies about intravenous fentanyl infusion for reduce labor pain. This study evaluate the usefulness of intravenous fentanyl infusion for labor analgesia. Methods. Seventy seven healthy pregnant women were randomized to recive 1.5-2.5µg/kg/hr intravenous fentanyl infusion (interventional group) or placebo (control group). Maternal labor pain intensity, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate, frequency of nausea and v...

Soltani Nezhad, H.; SH ARAM; Monajjemi, Z.; Jaafar-zadeh, L.

2001-01-01

41

Green Urine Discoloration due to Propofol Infusion: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

We present a 19-year-old man who excreted green urine after propofol infusion. The patient was admitted to our hospital for injuries sustained in a traffic accident and underwent surgery. After starting continuous infusion of propofol for postoperative sedation, his urine became dark green. Serum total bilirubin and urine bilirubin were both elevated. We believe that the green discoloration of the urine was caused by propofol infusion and was related to impaired enterohepatic circulation and ...

Nobuki Shioya; Yoriko Ishibe; Shigehiro Shibata; Hideyuki Makabe; Shigenori Kan; Naoya Matsumoto; Gaku Takahashi; Yasuhiko Yamada; Shigeatsu Endo

2011-01-01

42

[Use of an electronic gravity infusion regulator for infusion therapy in routine conditions. Comparative clinical study].  

Science.gov (United States)

In comparison with the ordinary roller clamp the gravity-infusion controller allows a significant lowering of complications and start-ups at peripheral venous access sites. These results are effectively based on a decrease in the infiltration rate of about 30%. For approximately 80% of the remaining complications an early alarm and interruption of the infusion takes place. It is of importance that the electronic controller avoids the excessive variations of the drop rate found with roller clamps. In contrast to these advantages problems may arise under certain circumstances caused by the narrowing of the control range based on the limited available hydrostatic pressure. Application of the electronic gravity controller must be seen primarily for peripheral venous access sites. Its use is particularly advantageous where an infiltration of the infusion solution results in an endangering of the patient (cytostatic agents, strong alkaline solutions, for instance NaHCO3, potassium concentrates, medication additions, for instance vasoconstricting agents). In addition, it makes sense to use the controller in situations where the accuracy of an infusion regulated by a roller clamp is considered to be inadequate. PMID:6298112

Patschke, D; Mainzer, B; Miethe, B

1982-12-01

43

Clinical applications of continuous infusion chemotherapy ahd concomitant radiation therapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents information on the following topics: theoretical basis and clinical applications of 5-FU as a radiosensitizer; treatment of hepatic metastases from gastro intestingal primaries with split course radiation therapy; combined modality therapy with 5-FU, Mitomycin-C and radiation therapy for sqamous cell cancers; treatment of bladder carcinoma with concomitant infusion chemotherapy and irradiation; a treatment of invasiv bladder cancer by the XRT/5FU protocol; concomitant radiation therapy and doxorubicin by continuous infusion in advanced malignancies; cis platin by continuous infusion with concurrent radiation therapy in malignant tumors; combination of radiation with concomitant continuous adriamycin infusion in a patient with partially excised pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremeity; treatment of recurrent carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses using concomitant infusion cis-platinum and radiation therapy; hepatic artery infusion for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation; study of simultaneous radiation therapy, continuous infusion, 5FU and bolus mitomycin-C; cancer of the esophagus; continuous infusion VP-16, bolus cis-platinum and simultaneous radiation therapy as salvage therapy in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma; and concomitant radiation, mitomycin-C and 5-FU infusion in gastro intestinal cancer.

Rosenthal, C.J.; Rotman, M.

1986-01-01

44

Clinical applications of continuous infusion chemotherapy ahd concomitant radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents information on the following topics: theoretical basis and clinical applications of 5-FU as a radiosensitizer; treatment of hepatic metastases from gastro intestingal primaries with split course radiation therapy; combined modality therapy with 5-FU, Mitomycin-C and radiation therapy for sqamous cell cancers; treatment of bladder carcinoma with concomitant infusion chemotherapy and irradiation; a treatment of invasiv bladder cancer by the XRT/5FU protocol; concomitant radiation therapy and doxorubicin by continuous infusion in advanced malignancies; cis platin by continuous infusion with concurrent radiation therapy in malignant tumors; combination of radiation with concomitant continuous adriamycin infusion in a patient with partially excised pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremeity; treatment of recurrent carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses using concomitant infusion cis-platinum and radiation therapy; hepatic artery infusion for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation; study of simultaneous radiation therapy, continuous infusion, 5FU and bolus mitomycin-C; cancer of the esophagus; continuous infusion VP-16, bolus cis-platinum and simultaneous radiation therapy as salvage therapy in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma; and concomitant radiation, mitomycin-C and 5-FU infusion in gastro intestinal cancer

45

Quantitative evaluation of valvular regurgitation by 133Xenon infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mitral and aortic regurgitation was evaluated by X-ray, dye dilution bolus, and 133Xenon infusion methods in 24 patients with mitral, aortic or both valve lesions. Good reproducibility was found using the 133Xenon infusion method. The regurgitant fraction estimated by 133Xenon constant infusion method correlates well with the results of the dye dilution method in mitral regurgitation as well as in aortic regurgitation. The 133Xenon infusion method is well-suited for quantitative evaluation of mitral and aortic regurgitation. For its simplicity, it is therefore recommended for further clinical evaluation in pharmacodynamic and preoperative studies. (author)

46

Pulsatile versus steady infusions for hepatic artery chemotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatic artery chemotherapy for unresectable liver tumors requires an even distribution of the drugs in the tumor or vascular bed. This cannot be determined angiographically because the drugs are infused at a much lower rate than the contrast media. It is easy, however, to determine the quality of the perfusion by injecting a small volume of Tc-99m MAA in one of the side ports while chemotherapeutic agent is being infused at the same rate. Usually this shows a uniform, satisfactory distribution of isotope. Occasionally, however, some areas fail to receive Tc-99m in spite of what appears to be a good position of the catheter tip. Since ''streaming'' of the infused drugs has been blamed for their uneven distribution, the authors decided to compare the usual steady flow infusions with infusions made pulsatile by the addition of a pulsing device (Gianturco Pump) attached to the infusion tubing. Eighty-three patients were studied with steady as well as pulsatile infusions. In 16 of these patients the perfusion pattern was definitely changed by the pulsatile infusion. In one patient the pulsatile mode resulted in an unwanted gastric perfusion. In 5 patients the distribution was improved in one hepatic lobe and in 10 patients it was improved in both lobes. These results show that hepatic artery perfusions can occasionally be improved by pulsing the infusate. However, pulsing can produce the unwanted perfusion of extra-hepatic areas

47

A comparison of three different target-controlled remifentanil infusion rates during target-controlled propofol infusion for oocyte retrieval  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of three different target-controlled remifentanil infusion rates during target-controlled propofol infusion on hemodynamic parameters, pain, sedation, and recovery score during oocyte retrieval. METHODS: Sixty-nine women were scheduled for oocyte retrieval. Target-controlled propofol infusion at an effectsite concentration of 1.5 ?g/mL was instituted. The patients were randomly allocated to receive remifentanil at an effect-site concentration of either ...

Demet Coskun; Berrin Gunaydin; Ayca Tas; Gozde Inan; Hulya Celebi; Kadir Kaya

2011-01-01

48

RF tumor ablation with internally cooled electrodes and saline infusion: what is the optimal location of the saline infusion?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tumors by means of internally cooled electrodes (ICE) combined with interstitial infusion of saline may improve clinical results. To date, infusion has been conducted through outlets placed on the surface of the cooled electrode. However, the effect of infusion at a distance from the electrode surface is unknown. Our aim was to assess the effect of perfusion distance (PD) on the coagulation geometry and deposited power during RFA using ICE....

Cruz Ignacio; Gonzalez Ana; Subiró Jorge; Sousa Ramón; Grande Luis; Güemes Antonio; Burdío José M; Navarro Ana; Berjano Enrique J; Burdío Fernando; Castiella Tomás; Tejero Eloy; Lozano Ricardo; de Gregorio Miguel A

2007-01-01

49

Brain activity following esophageal acid infusion using positron emission tomography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate symptoms and brain activity following esophageal acid infusion.METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. Hydrochloric acid (pH 1 and 2 and distilled water (pH 7 were randomly and repeatedly infused into the esophagus. The brain activity was evaluated by positron emission tomography. The severity of heartburn elicited by the infusion was rated on an auditory analog scale of 0-10.RESULTS: The severity of heartburn following each infusion showed a step-wise increase with increasing acidity of the perfusate. The heartburn scores were significantly higher in the second pH 1 infusion compared with the first infusion. Acid and distilled water infusion induced activation of various brain areas such as the anterior insula, temporal gyrus, and anterior/posterior cingulate cortex. At pH 1 or 2, in particular, activation was observed in some emotion-related brain areas such as the more anterior part of the anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, or the temporal pole. Strong activation of the orbitofrontal cortex was found by subtraction analysis of the two second pH 1 infusions, with a significant increase of heartburn symptoms.CONCLUSION: Emotion-related brain areas were activated by esophageal acid stimulation. The orbitofrontal area might be involved in symptom processing, with esophageal sensitization induced by repeated acid stimulation.

Shigeyuki Kobayashi, Yasuhiko Abe, Manabu Tashiro, Tomoyuki Koike, Katsunori Iijima, Akira Imatani, Shuichi Ohara, Satoshi Watanabe, Shin Fukudo, Tooru Shimosegawa

2010-11-01

50

Perisciatic infusion of ropivacaine and analgesia after hallux valgus repair  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Moderate to severe pain after hallux valgus repair can be successfully treated with a continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block in ambulatory patients. Different anesthesiologists use various infusion rates for this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of two infusion rates of ropivacaine 2 mg/ml: 5 and 8 ml/h.

Zaric, D; JØrgensen, B G

2010-01-01

51

Experimental study on intra-arterial infusion of basic fibroblast growth factor in the ischemic limbs of rabbit model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the effect of intra-arterial infusion of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on improving neovascularization, vascular perfusion and the function of partially ischemic limbs of rabbits. Methods: Twenty-seven New Zealand male rabbits were selected. Partial ischemia model was induced by surgical ligation of the primary branches of right femoral artery in each animal, and the left hind limb of each animal was served as a nonischemic control. Then, 27 rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups: intra-arterial (IA) infusion of bFGF (n=9), intravenous (IV) infusion of bFGF and IA infusion of saline (n=9). Infusion was separately performed immediately after vascular ligation, 8th and 15th days post-surgery with 10 ?g (4 ml) of bFGF per-time (or the same volume of saline). The differences between three groups and between ischemic and nonischemic limbs of the same group were compared and evaluated by the following indexes: (1) vessel section count (VSC), vessel section surface area (VSS) and vessel section perimeter (VSP) in the field of ischemic muscle tissues taken at 22nd day postoperatively; (2) capillary refilling time of ischemic limbs; and (3) functional and trophic changes of ischemic limbs. Statistical differences were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and T test. Results: VSC, VSS and VSP of the IA-bFGF group were significantly increased than those of the IV-bFGF and IA-saline groups (P<0.01). At 22nd day postoperatively, the capillary refilliny postoperatively, the capillary refilling time, new hair growth, the appearance and function of all ischemic limbs in IA-bFGF group were approximately normal. However, in IA-saline group, the ischemic changes, capillary refilling time and the function of ischemic limbs were not improved significantly. All the indexes of IV-bFGF group showed no difference statistically from those of IA-saline group. Conclusions: This experimental study identifies that intra-arterial infusion of bFGF may significantly promote neovascularization and vascular perfusion in ischemic limbs, suggesting that a better effect may be obtained with IA-infusion bFGF than that of IV-infusion bFGF. (authors)

52

Accelerated infliximab infusions for inflammatory bowel disease improve effectiveness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To study the safety and effectiveness associated with accelerated infliximab infusion protocols in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. METHODS: Original protocols and infusion rates were developed for the administration of infliximab over 90-min and 60-min. Then the IBD patients on stable maintenance infliximab therapy were offered accelerated infusions. To be eligible for the study, patients needed a minimum of four prior infusions. An initial infusion of 90-min was given to each patient; those tolerating the accelerated infusion were transitioned to a 60-min infusion protocol at their next and all subsequent visits. Any patient having significant infusion reactions would be reverted to the standard 120-min protocol. A change in a patient’s dose mandated a single 120-min infusion before accelerated infusions could be administered again. RESULTS: The University of Virginia Medical Center's Institutional Review Board approved this study. Fifty IBD patients treated with infliximab 5 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg were offered accelerated infusions. Forty-six patients consented to participate in the study. Nineteen (41.3% were female, five (10.9% were African American and nine (19.6% had ulcerative colitis. The mean age was 42.6 years old. Patients under age 18 were excluded. Ten patients used immunosuppressive drugs concurrently out of which six were taking azathioprine, three were taking 6-mercaptopurine and one was taking methotrexate. One of the 46 study patients used corticosteroid therapy for his IBD. Seventeen of the patients used prophylactic medications prior to receiving infusions; six patients received corticosteroids as pre-medication. Four patients had a history of distant transfusion reactions to infliximab. These reactions included shortness of breath, chest tightness, flushing, pruritus and urticaria. These patients all took prophylactic medications before receiving infusions. 46 patients (27 males and 19 females received a total of fifty 90-min infusions and ninety-three 60-min infusions. No infusion reactions were reported. There were no adverse events, including drug-related infections. None of the patients developed cancer of any type during the study timeframe. Total cost savings for administration of the both 90-min and 60-min accelerated infusions compared to standard 120-min infusions was estimated to be $53?632 ($116?965 vs $63?333, P = 0.001. One hundred and eighteen hours were saved in the administration of the accelerated infusions (17?160 min vs 10?080 min, P = 0.001. In the study population, overweight females [body mass index (BMI > 25.00 kg/m2] were found to have statistically higher BMIs than overweight males (mean BMI 35.07 ± 2.66 kg/m2 vs 30.08 ± 0.99 kg/m2, P = 0.05, finding which is of significance since obesity was described as being one of the risk factors for Crohn’s disease. CONCLUSION: We are the first US group to report substantial cost savings, increased safety and patient satisfaction associated with accelerated infliximab infusion.

John McConnell

2012-01-01

53

Evaluation of maternal infusion therapy during pregnancy for fetal development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this project was to study the possible association between maternal infusion treatments during pregnancy and variables of fetal development as well as the occurrence of congenital abnormalities (CA in a case-control design. The large population-based data set of the Hungarian Case?Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities (HCCSCA was evaluated based on the medically recorded infusion treatment during pregnancy. Of 22,843 case pregnant women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities, 112 (0.5%, while of 38,151 control pregnant women who had newborn infants without any defects, 262 (0.7%, had infusion treatment during pregnancy. Infusion treatment was more frequent in the control group than in the case group with congenital abnormalities (adjusted POR with 945 95% CI: 0.7, 0.6-0.9 and there was no higher rate of maternal infusion treatments in any congenital abnormality group. Mean gestational age was shorter and mean birth weight was smaller in control newborn infants without CA born to mothers with infusion treatment during pregnancy than in the babies of mothers without infusion treatment. The prevalence of mild intrauterine growth retardation was more frequent in the fetuses of pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum treated with infusion. The results of the study suggest that infusion treatment of pregnant women did not associate with a higher risk of congenital abnormalities. In addition, the intravenous infusion of drugs has some, but limited efficacy to prevent the adverse effects of hyperemesis gravidarum and threatened preterm delivery.

2005-10-01

54

Meeting the problems of first-generation insulin infusion pumps: clinical trial of a new miniature infuser.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed and constructed a new miniature, open-loop insulin infusion pump specifically to overcome the problems of many first generation insulin infusers. Special features are small size, adjustable volumetric basal infusion rate, rapid electronically mediated prandial insulin boosts, facility for doubling and halving the basal infusion rate and/or prandial delivery, and alarms for low battery state, motor over-run, stoppage, and control circuit malfunction. The infuser takes a specially designed syringe prefilled with short-acting insulin, sufficient in most diabetic patients for at least 7 days treatment with 100 U/ml insulin. To test clinical efficacy nine insulin-dependent diabetic patients received continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with the new infuser for periods up to 6 mo. Four patients previously CSII-treated with a first-generation pump and five who were new to CSII achieved and maintained the expected degree of near-normoglycemia. There were no pump breakdowns and a questionnaire completed by patients during the study confirmed ease and simplicity of operation and an appreciation of the advantages of the new pump compared with one widely used first-generation infuser. PMID:6400705

Bending, J J; Pickup, J C; Keen, H; Rothwell, D; Sutherland, I A

1983-01-01

55

Patient preferences and satisfaction in a multispecialty infusion center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Barbara E Ostrov,1 Kristine Reynolds,2 Lisabeth V Scalzi11Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, 2Department of Nursing, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USAPurpose: Direct feedback from patients about their preferred modes of medication ­administration has been increasingly sought by providers to develop care programs that best match patient goals. Multispecialty infusion centers generally provide care to hematology–oncology (HO and non-HO patients in one unit, with the same nursing staff. Our staff perceived that this was dissatisfying to our non-HO patients. We assessed patient satisfaction, as well as nursing and physician perceptions of patient preference/satisfaction with our infusion center, to determine whether a separate unit should be recommended when designing our new Cancer Institute Infusion Center.Patients and methods: A seven-question Likert scale satisfaction survey for patients, and a separate survey to assess nurses’ and physicians’ perception of patient satisfaction, were developed. The survey was administered to non-HO patients receiving infusions, doctors prescribing infusions, and nurses administering infusions. Results of the survey were compared between groups to assess differences in responses.Results: Responses were received from 52 non-HO patients, 18 physicians, and 13 nurses. Patients had more satisfaction, on all survey items, with the multispecialty infusion center than had been realized by physicians and nurses. Analysis demonstrated that patients were satisfied with care in a multispecialty infusion unit and were in favor of continuing their care in this combined center. Total scores of patient surveys were significantly different (P<0.001 from those of physicians and nurses, who had assumed patients would prefer to have their care in a non-HO infusion setting.Conclusion: Understanding patient preferences is an important step in deciding the structure of infusion centers. Based on these survey conclusions, a combined multispecialty infusion center has been continued at our institution, thus improving quality by including patients in decision-making affecting their care.Keywords: patient care, infusion preferences, non-oncology patients, infusion therapy

Ostrov BE

2014-05-01

56

Effects of infused glucose, sodium and potassium chlorides and polyphosphates on palatability of hot-boned pork.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longissimus muscle sections were excised from eight pork carcasses 1 h postmortem and sectioned into six .5-kg roasts to determine the effects of glucose, salt and polyphosphates (aqueous solution to 110% of fresh weight) on palatability of hot-boned pork. Treatments were hot-boned control (HB) with no infusion or infusions of 2% KCl and 3% of a 1:1 mixture of sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium pyrophosphate (PP) plus either 8% NaCl; 2% glucose (G) plus 6% NaCl; 6% G plus 2% NaCl; or 8% G. Another muscle section was chilled at 0 degrees C for 24 h on each carcass as a cold-processed control (CP). The roasts were frozen until cooked and evaluated by a sensory panel. The infused groups were more tender, juicy and salty and higher in moisture and ash but lower in protein content than either the CP or HB controls (P less than .05). The fat content of the infused groups was lower than of the HB control but was not different from that of the CP control. Either 2% NaCl plus 6% G or equal amounts (4%) of NaCl and G produced the most tender and juicy product. The substitution of 4% glucose for NaCl not only reduced the NaCl content of the infusion solution, but also improved the palatability of the meat. This substitution allows production of a hot-boned, lower-sodium precooked pork that is tender and juicy. PMID:2174848

Wu, C K; Ramsey, C B; Davis, G W

1990-10-01

57

Radiofrequency ablation during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To determine whether fluid injection during radiofrequency ablation (RFA can increase the coagulation area. METHODS: Bovine liver (1-2 kg was placed on an aluminum tray with a return electrode affixed to the base, and the liver was punctured by an expandable electrode. During RFA, 5% glucose; 50% glucose; or saline fluid was infused continuously at a rate of 1.0 mL/min through the infusion line connected to the infusion port. The area and volume of the thermocoagulated region of bovine liver were determined after RFA. The Joule heat generated was determined from the temporal change in output during the RFA experiment. RESULTS: No liquid infusion was 17.3 ± 1.6 mL, similar to the volume of a 3-cm diameter sphere (14.1 mL. Mean thermocoagulated volume was significantly larger with continuous infusion of saline (29.3 ± 3.3 mL than with 5% glucose (21.4 ± 2.2 mL, 50% glucose (16.5 ± 0.9 mL or no liquid infusion (17.3 ± 1.6 mL. The ablated volume for RFA with saline was approximately 1.7-times greater than for RFA with no liquid infusion, representing a significant difference between these two conditions. Total Joule heat generated during RFA was highest with saline, and lowest with 50% glucose. CONCLUSION: RFA with continuous saline infusion achieves a large ablation zone, and may help inhibit local recurrence by obtaining sufficient ablation margins. RFA during continuous saline infusion can extend ablation margins, and may be prevent local recurrence.

Toru Ishikawa

2013-01-01

58

Rectal infusion and aspiration of material through the guts of ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

A technique for inoculating and removing substances via the anus of vector ticks was devised to define features of vector competence precisely. Calibrated inocula (greater than 5 nanoliter) containing aqueous dye and polystyrene beads as well as infectious agents were infused into the rectal sacs of ticks using glass microcapillary pipettes placed within the expanded anal orifice. The guts of preadult and adult ticks, Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Hyalomma impeltatum Schulze & Schlottke, and Amblyomma americanum (L.), were thereby infused with these inocula. Distribution of inocula was determined by examining hemolymph and sectioned ticks and confirmed that material placed in the rectal sac spread throughout the midgut diverticula. Ticks survived for greater than 6 mo after this procedure and were able to feed, molt to the next stage, or oviposit. In contrast, fewer ticks survived after intracelomic inoculation. The course of infection in ticks receiving anal infusions of Borrelia burgdorferi (the Lyme disease spirochete) was assessed. Such infections appear to differ from those established by feeding on infected hosts. Contents of the tick gut can be sampled nondestructively by anal perfusion to diagnose infection by this spirochete. PMID:1770516

Pollack, R J; Telford, S R; Spielman, A

1991-11-01

59

Single ketamine infusion and neurocognitive performance in bipolar depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

We estimated neurocognitive performance using the trail making test (TMT) and the Stroop color-word interference test before, and on the 3(rd) day after a single infusion of ketamine, in 18 bipolar depressed patients receiving mood-stabilizing drugs. The performance on all tests significantly improved on the 3(rd) day after ketamine infusion which correlated positively with baseline intensity of neuropsychological impairment and was not associated either with baseline intensity of depression or reduction of depressive symptoms after 3 or 7 days. The results suggest that in such population of patients, single ketamine infusion may improve neuropsychological performance independently of antidepressant effect. PMID:25347227

Permoda-Osip, A; Kisielewski, J; Bartkowska-Sniatkowska, A; Rybakowski, J K

2015-03-01

60

Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy is used in the treatment of certain selected hepatic tumors, especially metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon. Chemical cholecystitis has been recognized recently as a complication of hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy. The authors performed hepatobiliary scans on ten patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy. All ten patients had abnormal hepatobiliary scintigraphy. They present case reports of three patients with abnormal hepatobiliary scans who have required cholecystectomy for symptoms of chemical cholecystitis to illustrate the clinical, scintigraphic, and pathologic findings in these patients

61

Pain and Gaps in IT Infusion  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of adopting a new information technology 'X' within geoscience research projects is hindered by two strong barriers: The pain associated with learning about, adopting and adapting to X, and corresponding gaps in the 'ease-of-adoption' process left by the builders of X. As builders and providers of two such X's we discuss several lessons learned from two distinct points along the data pipeline (data acquisition, storage, retrieval, archival, cleaning, provenance, browsing and analysis). We begin with work at Microsoft Research to generalize the CUAHSI Observations Data Model to a "next generation" Environmental Data Model (EDM) with the idea of supporting trans-disciplinary information across remote sensing, in situ, sample analysis, archival, and model data spaces. We then turn to an in situ sensor network microserver developed through NASA support for harsh environment data acquisition. The primary 'IT infusion' candidate research project here is SEAMONSTER, the Southeast Alaska Monitoring Network for Science, Telecommunications, Education and Research. We trace the adoption pathway, including gaps and pain, from deployment through to data registration on an EDM data catalog server. We discuss architecture, documentation and technical support in terms of an end-result success metric: How easily can this project's open data results be discovered and used?

Fatland, D. R.; van Ingen, C.; Beran, B.; Heavner, M.; Habermann, M.; Berner, L.

2008-12-01

62

[Medical emergencies following dermatological injections and infusions].  

Science.gov (United States)

Emergency situations following appropriately administered injections and infusions are an uncommon dermatologic problem. Embolia cutis medicamentosa is an uncommon complication following intramuscular injection which leads to infarct-like cutaneous necrosis. It may develop after gluteal injection of corticosteroids, anti-inflammatory agents and antibiotics and has rarely been described following venous sclerotherapy with polidocanol. Hoigné syndrome is a pseudoanaphylactic or pseudoallergic reaction following intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin, with neuropsychiatric problems developing immediately after the injection. Subacute forms following intramuscular or oral administration of structurally-related antibiotics. The intraoperative use of patent blue dye has a 1-2% risk of allergic reactions. The patient must be monitored carefully following injection for the onset the life-threatening immediate reaction. Extravasation of cytostatic agents is a critical iatrogenic problem in oncology with an incidence of up to 6.5%. Every oncologic department should have an understanding of necrotic risk of the various agents and an emergency kit with instructions for immediate steps, also including agent-specific antidotes as available. PMID:16496101

Dill-Müller, D

2006-03-01

63

Infusing Social Responsibility into the Curriculum and Cocurriculum: Campus Examples  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter highlights good practices and lessons learned for infusing social responsibility--contributing to the larger community and taking seriously the perspectives of others--as outcomes of college.

Reason, Robert D.

2013-01-01

64

Infusion device standardisation and dose error reduction software.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) released a safety alert relating to the management and use of infusion devices in England and Wales. The alert called for the standardisation of infusion devices and a consideration of using centralised equipment systems to manage device storage. There has also been growing interest in smart-pump technology, such as dose error reduction software (DERS) as a way to reduce IV medication errors. However, questions remain about the progress that has been made towards infusion device standardisation and the adoption of DERS. In this article, the authors report the results of a survey investigating the extent to which the standardisation of infusion devices has occurred in the last 10 years and centralised equipment libraries are being used in practice, as well as the prevalence of DERS use within the UK. Findings indicate that while reported standardisation levels are high, use of centralised equipment libraries remains low, as does DERS usage. PMID:25158362

Iacovides, Ioanna; Blandford, Ann; Cox, Anna; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Lee, Paul; Vincent, Chris J

65

Rapid infusion of sodium valproate in acutely ill children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical safety of sodium valproate and total and unbound valproic acid plasma concentrations after rapid infusion in hospitalized, acutely ill children. Four children (5-15 years) completed the study. Sodium valproate doses (8.3-15.4 mg/kg) were administered in infusion or 6 hours after infusion. Rapid administration of valproate to acutely ill patients can be done safely. Unbound valproic acid concentrations in acutely ill as compared with relatively healthy epilepsy patients were higher and could not be predicted based on their total pre-infusion valproic acid concentrations. PMID:12849885

Birnbaum, Angela K; Kriel, Robert L; Norberg, Shani K; Wical, Beverly S; Le, Duy N; Leppik, Ilo E; Cloyd, James C

2003-04-01

66

Radionuclide localization of intraarterial infusions in head and neck cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The therapeutic advantage of intraarterial infusion chemotherapy depends upon delivery of a high drug concentration to the entire tumor bulk with maximum sparing of critical normal tissues. It is clear that successful application of regional therapy must include methodology to assess quantitatively and qualitatively the infused area. /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin (Tc-MAA) injected intraarterially is held on first pass in the arteriolar capillary bed, thus providing a map of blood flow distribution. Analog and digital planar images and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after Tc-MAA injections provide static and transaxial tomographic images of head and neck intraarterial infusions. SPECT can be viewed as an endless movie-type display, thus producing a rotating cimematic display. These radionuclide localization techniques provide a three-dimensional delineation of the tissues infused, including subsurface details not appreciated with dye injection alone. These procedures should be considered an integral part of intraarterial therapy of head and neck cancer

67

Use of Continuous Infusion Pumps During Radiation Treatment  

OpenAIRE

The varied results of radiation exposure on infusion devices suggest that additional testing should be carried out to determine the limits of dose exposure, and to raise awareness around this patient safety issue.

Bak, Kate; Gutierrez, Eric; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Sharpe, Michael; Green, Esther; Costa, Sarah; Hertz, Sherrie; Kaizer, Leonard; Whitton, Anthtony; Warde, Padraig

2013-01-01

68

Gas cluster ion beam infusion processing of semiconductors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) infusion in advanced IC fabrication is described. GCIB processes for surface modifications, additive (junction formation, deposition) and subtractive (etch) processing are discussed

69

A Death Associated with Possible Propofol Infusion Syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Propofol, an intravenously administered, centrally acting sedative/hypnotic, is a popular medication for anesthesia and sedation due to rapid onset, controllability and short recovery time. Prolonged propofol infusions, (>48 h) with elevated doses (>67 mcg/kg/min) may result in a rare but fatal condition known as the Propofol Related Infusion Syndrome (PRIS). This is a case of severe metabolic acidosis and refractory hyperkalemia in a 53 year old female with polytrauma on a continuous prop...

Agrawal, Nikhil; Rao, Sudhakar; Nair, Roshan

2012-01-01

70

Infusing Software Engineering Technology into Practice at NASA  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an ongoing effort of the NASA Software Engineering Initiative to encourage the use of advanced software engineering technology on NASA projects. Technology infusion is in general a difficult process yet this effort seems to have found a modest approach that is successful for some types of technologies. We outline the process and describe the experience of the technology infusions that occurred over a two year period. We also present some lessons from the experiences.

Pressburger, Thomas; Feather, Martin S.; Hinchey, Michael; Markosia, Lawrence

2006-01-01

71

Sustained resveratrol infusion increases natriuresis independent of renal vasodilation  

OpenAIRE

Resveratrol is reported to exert cardio?renal protective effects in animal models of pathology, yet the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Previously, we reported an i.v. bolus of resveratrol induces renal vasodilation by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and inhibiting reactive oxygen species. Thus, we hypothesized a sustained infusion of resveratrol would also increase renal blood flow (RBF), and additionally glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We infused vehic...

Gordish, Kevin L.; Beierwaltes, William H.

2014-01-01

72

Isolation and characterization of polysaccharides from Fraxinus angustifolia infusions  

OpenAIRE

In folk medicine there is a great variety of plants that are used for as infusions, such as Camellia sinensis and Matricaria recutita. Despite the reported biological activities and health benefits of these infusions [1,2], most of the knowledge achieved so far is based on folk tradition passed over several generations, without a sound scientific basis. In Trás-os-Montes region, the dried leaves of the narrow-leafed ash “freixo” (Fraxinus angustifolia) are used for medicin...

Martins, Vitor Manuel Ramalheira; Coimbra, Manuel A.

2012-01-01

73

Role of saline infusion sonography in abnormal uterine bleeding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusions: We found Saline Infusion Sonography to be an easy and safe procedure, though being less sensitive, it cannot replace hysteroscopy as a whole. Though hysteroscopy is a gold standard, saline infusion sonography is an easy, safe procedure for diagnosing intracavitary pathologies in low resource setting and despite being less sensitive, it can still reduce the number of hysteroscopies. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 533-538

Megha Sharma

2013-08-01

74

Numerical Simulation Study on the Coal Seam Pulse Water Infusion  

OpenAIRE

In the process of coal seam pulse water infusion, liquid-solid coupling effect exists in coal seam between the stress field and seepage field. Based on the basic principle of liquid-solid coupling, the dynamic liquid-solid coupling effect of stress and seepage field during coal seam pulse water infusion is simulated through secondary development of ABAQUS software, during this process the mathematical model of the strain accumulation model due to the periodic ...

Meng Junqing; Zhao Bi; Ma Yechao

2014-01-01

75

Effect of phenylephrine infusion on atrial electrophysiological properties.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of changes in autonomic tone induced by phenylephrine infusion on atrial refractoriness and conduction. DESIGN: Left and right atrial electrophysiological properties were measured before and after a constant phenylephrine infusion designed to increase sinus cycle length by 25%. SUBJECTS: 20 patients, aged 53 (SD 6) years, undergoing electrophysiological study for investigation of idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (seven patients) or for routine follo...

Leitch, J. W.; Basta, M.; Fletcher, P. J.

1997-01-01

76

[Behavioural impairments and hallucinations after consumption of boldo leaf infusions].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of behavioural impairments with hallucinations in a twelve-year-old girl, after consumption of boldo leaf infusions. The main alkaloid of boldo, named boldine, is very likely responsible for temporary neuropsychiatric disturbances present in the patient. The emergence of behavioural problems and hallucinations without any obvious cause, should lead to search for consumption of boldo leaf infusion ("tisanes"). This consumption must be avoided in children. PMID:25230279

Chaboussant, Pierre-Jacques; Gagez, Anne-Laure; Graber, Marianne; Zhao, Jean-Michel; Chavant, François; Perault-Pochat, Marie-Christine; Graber, Denis

2014-01-01

77

Parathyroid scanning with 75Se selenomethionine after EDTA-infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, of which three had already received surgery, hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue was localised by parathyroid 75Se Selenomethionine scintiscanning after EDTA-infusion. In one patient the same result could be achieved without EDTA. It was suggested that parathyroid 75Se Selenomethionine scanning after EDTA-infusion could be a useful tool in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, especially in cases in which surgery had been unsuccessful. (author)

78

Lipolytic response to glucose infusion in human subjects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have determined the effect of various rates of glucose infusion on the rates of release of glycerol (R/sub a/ glycerol), free fatty acids (R/sub a/ FFA), and on energy metabolism in normal human volunteers. Plasma kinetics were determined with use of the stable isotopic tracers D-5-glycerol and [1-13C]palmitate, and energy metabolism was determined by indirect calorimetry. The effect of glucose infusion on R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA was dose-dependent. At 4 mg x kg-1 x min-1, both R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA were suppressed; at 8 mg x kg-1 x min-1, R/sub a/ FFA was even more depressed, but R/sub a/ glycerol was similar to the value during the 4 mg x kg-1 x min-1 infusion. At all infusion rates tested, the amount of potential energy available from the sum of the glucose infusion and endogenously mobilized fat was always greater than when no glucose was infused. Glucose decreased fat mobilization by both inhibiting lipolysis and stimulating reesterification, thus causing a significant increase in triglyceride-fatty acid substrate cycling within the adipose tissue. Plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay

79

Tracer studies with aortic infusion result in improper tracer distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been suggested that lactate turnover can be accurately assessed by infusing radioactive lactate tracer into the aorta and sampling blood in the vena cava. However, there may be streaming of newly infused tracer in the aorta, resulting in a nonuniform arterial specific activity (SA). Furthermore vena caval blood may not be representative of mixed venous blood. The authors examined this problem in 7 anesthetized dogs with sampling catheters in the pulmonary (PA), carotid (CA), and femoral (FA) arteries, and the superior (SVC) and inferior (IVC) vena cavi. [1-14C]lactate was continuously infused into the left ventricle through a catheter introduced through the femoral artery. The same SA (dpm/?mol) was found in the CA and FA, indicating adequate mixing of newly infused tracer with trace. Three dogs showed differences between SVC, IVC and PA, suggesting a mixed venous sample can not be obtained from the VC. When the catheter was moved into the aorta, wide differences in SA appeared between the CA and FA, clearly reflecting streaming of tracer. These differences also appeared in the SVC and IVC. In conclusion, adequate mixing does not occur between tracer and trace in arterial blood with aortic infusion. Further, VC sampling will not give a consistent mixed venous SA. Therefore, for practical reasons, aortic tracer infusion with vena caval sampling will lead to erroneous turnover values

80

Prepreg and infusion processes for modern wind turbine blades  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The different elements of wind turbine blades have been analyzed for their main function, performance requirements and drivers. Key drivers can be simplified to either performance or cost. The use of prepreg and infusion to make these blade elements has then been compared and shows, from a comparison of test laminates, that prepreg typically delivers higher mechanical performance on both glass and carbon. One of the main process differences, cure temperature, has been overcome with the introduction of M79 which cures at 70 deg. - 80 deg. C. M79 combines this low cure temperature with a much lower reaction enthalpy allowing shorter cure cycles. This means that prepregs can now be cured in the same molds, at the same temperatures and with the same foam as used in a conventional infusion process. Although prepreg and infusion are usually used separately for making blade elements, they may also be used in combination: co-infused and co-cured using prepregs for the hard to infuse unidirectional load-carrying elements and infusion for the other elements. This can thus simplify the production process. The conclusion is that unidirectional prepregs are ideally suited for the performance driven parts of the blade such as in load carrying elements. (Author)

Shennan, C. [Hexcel, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

2013-09-01

81

Electro-osmotic infusion for joule heating soil remediation techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Electro-osmotic infusion of ground water or chemically tailored electrolyte is used to enhance, maintain, or recondition electrical conductivity for the joule heating remediation technique. Induced flows can be used to infuse electrolyte with enhanced ionic conductivity into the vicinity of the electrodes, maintain the local saturation of near-electrode regions and resaturate a partially dried out zone with groundwater. Electro-osmotic infusion can also tailor the conductivity throughout the target layer by infusing chemically modified and/or heated electrolyte to improve conductivity contrast of the interior. Periodic polarity reversals will prevent large pH changes at the electrodes. Electro-osmotic infusion can be used to condition the electrical conductivity of the soil, particularly low permeability soil, before and during the heating operation. Electro-osmotic infusion is carried out by locating one or more electrodes adjacent the heating electrodes and applying a dc potential between two or more electrodes. Depending on the polarities of the electrodes, the induced flow will be toward the heating electrodes or away from the heating electrodes. In addition, electrodes carrying a dc potential may be located throughout the target area to tailor the conductivity of the target area.

Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA); Nitao, John J. (Castro Valley, CA)

1999-01-01

82

Managing Problem-Based Learning in Large Lecture Sections  

Science.gov (United States)

Problem-based learning can enhance reasoning and concept development among undergraduate college students by presenting content within authentic contexts. However, large lecture sections present problems and barriers to implementing PBL. This article discusses approaches used by the author to infuse PBL into large biology lecture sections, and…

Bledsoe, Karen E.

2011-01-01

83

Volatile fraction of lavender and bitter fennel infusion extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative proportions of chemical classes (hydrocarbons, oxides, alcohols/ethers, aldehydes/ketones, acids/esters/lactones) in the essential oil of lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., family Lamiaceae) and bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare var. vulgare (Mill.) Thellung, family Apiaceae) and in the volatile fraction of infusion extracts were examined and showed remarkable differences. The volatile compounds of infusions were isolated by hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE). Their qualitative and semiquantitative compositions were compared with the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation directly from the plant material and analyzed by GC-MS. Furthermore, quantification of the major constituents of lavender oil and of the volatile fraction obtained by hydrodistillation of the infusion was performed. Comparison of the total essential oil yield quantified by hydrodistillation of the lavender infusion (0.7% v/w, corresponding to plant material) with the essential oil yield of the blossoms (5.1% v/w) revealed that only 13.9% of the initial oil could be extracted by infusion. The main constituents of the volatile fraction of the lavender infusion were (hydrodistillation/SPE): linalool (39.3%/28.2%), 1,8 cineole (24.8%/18.9%), cis-linalool oxide (furanoid) (5.8%/8.0%), trans-linalool oxide (furanoid) (4.1%/7.1%), camphor (5.3%/4.0%) and alpha-terpineol (4.0%/3.0%). The major constituents of lavender essential oil were linalool (28.8%), 1,8-cineole (18.05%), linalyl acetate (13.9%) and alpha-terpineol (4.0%). Most intriguing, in the volatile fraction of lavender infusion a significant proportional decrease of linalyl acetate and an increase of linalool oxides was recognized. The essential oil yield of fennel fruits was 12.5% v/w, whereas 1.8% v/w volatile fraction (corresponding to plant material) was obtained by hydrodistillation of the fennel infusion, which is equivalent to 14.5% of the initial fennel essential oil. The main constituents of the volatile fraction of the fennel infusion were (hydrodistillation/SPE): trans-anethole (56.4%/54.8%), fenchone (36.2%/39.5%) and estragole (2.5%/2.2%), which were also the major compounds of the genuine bitter fennel essential oil. In infusions, the proportion of ethers vs. ketones was shifted significantly towards a higher proportion of the latter compared with the essential oil obtained from the fruits. PMID:20923003

Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

2010-09-01

84

An evaluation of intravenous infusion pumps and controllers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy, safety, reliability and cost of use of 35 intravenous infusion pumps and 3 flow controllers were assessed. When infusing saline 11 out of 17 syringe pumps, 3 out of 5 peristaltic pumps, 1 out of 2 roller pumps and all 14 cassette pumps tested were accurate to within 5% over their full ranges of operation. There was no significant change in the performance of any of the pumps tested when saline was infused through a standard resistance, except in the cases of the 3 flow controllers which were unable to infuse at all against the resistance. When 50% dextrose was infused, delivery by two peristaltic pumps was reduced by 23 and 38%. No pump cut out or alarmed at pressures of up to 200 mmHg and 21 pumps continued to infuse against pressures of 750 mmHg or greater. Surges of up to 0.5 ml occurred after release of an outlet obstruction. One device was fitted with a variable high pressure alarm. This device could also measure pressure in the infused vessel and was found to be accurate for measurements of central venous pressure. The cost of consumables for a single use for syringe pumps ranges from A$2 to $5, for peristaltic and roller pumps from A$1 to $10, and for cassette pumps from A$7 to $12, with an additional A$2 for a burette. Accurate delivery of intravenous fluids and drugs is available but is expensive and requires the operator to be specially trained. No simple, cheap, accurate device is yet available. PMID:3605571

Runciman, W B; Ilsley, A H; Rutten, A J; Baker, D; Fronsko, R R

1987-05-01

85

Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status  

Science.gov (United States)

The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the Advanced Materials Bi-propellant Rocket (AMBR) engine.This report will present the teams Findings from the RFI inputs and the recommendations that arose from these findings. Methodologies on the findings and recommendations development are discussed.

Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

2014-01-01

86

Career Education. Administrators and Counselors Implementation Model. Module IV--Planning. (4.1) Develop Plans for Curriculum Preparation and Infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of a 13-volume series designed to be used as a group inservice or a self-learning system to train school administrators and counselors for their role in career education, this first section (4.1) of module 4 (Planning) is designed to assist principals and other school administrators to develop plans for curriculum preparation and infusion of…

Thompson, John A.; Chock, Mona K.O.

87

Fluoride in drinking water, brick tea infusion and human urine in two counties in Inner Mongolia, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to detect the fluoride level in the drinking water and the urine of habitants aged 16-55 years living in Inner Mongolia China. Furthermore, fluoride concentration of the brick tea infusion samples which were drunk by Mongolia herdsmen in everyday life living in SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner, Inner Mongolia China was also determined. A total of 117 participants (61 female and 56 male) were recruited from two counties for a cross-sectional study on health effects of chronic fluoride exposure from drinking water and drinking brick tea infusion. The fluoride concentration in drinking water, urine and brick tea infusion samples were determined using fluoride ion selective electrode method obtained from the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. The average fluoride concentration in drinking water samples was 0.32+/-0.01 mg/L at AretengXire town of Ejin Horo Banner, 0.70+/-0.19 mg/L at SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner, and 2.68+/-1.15 mg/L at ZhalaiNuoer district of Manzhouli city. The average fluoride concentration in brick tea infusion samples which collected from Mongolia herdsmen at SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner was 1.81+/-1.09 mg/L. The average urinary fluoride concentration at AretengXire town of Ejin Horo Banner was 0.59+/-0.48 mg/L, at SumuErga village of Ejin Horo Banner was 1.45+/-0.93 mg/L and at ZhalaiNuoer district of Manzhouli city was 3.06+/-1.53 mg/L. The higher fluoride levels in the urine of participants may be associated to higher fluoride in drinking water at ZhalaiNuoer of Manzhouli city. However, drinking brick tea infusions with higher fluoride may be the cause of the higher fluoride contents in the Mongolia herdsmen's urine. PMID:19269093

Li, Hai-rong; Liu, Qing-bin; Wang, Wu-yi; Yang, Lin-sheng; Li, Yong-hua; Feng, Fu-jian; Zhao, Xiao-yu; Hou, Kun; Wang, Ge

2009-08-15

88

[Modeling 5-FU clearance during a chronomodulated infusion].  

Science.gov (United States)

Drugs pharmacokinetic control is a usual practice in case of flat continuous infusions. It enables among others, to modulate delivered doses when drug concentrations in blood appear too high. With chronotherapy, this possibility becomes more difficult because of sinusoidal outflows of infusion. We propose here a method that enables this follow-up, established through the study of 21 metastatic colorectal cancer patients, treated with a chronomodulated infusion of high dose 5-fluoro-uracil (5-FU) and folinic acid. This pharmacokinetic follow-up permitted the modelisation of 5-FU clearance and the calculation of an index, which was, in our study, correlated to the treatment response and also to main encountered toxicities. PMID:12852999

Kwiatkowski, F; Chevalier, V; Chevrier, R; Richard, D; Cure, H; Chollet, P

2003-06-01

89

Determination of selected microelements in polish herbs and their infusions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in birch leaves (Folium Betulae), dandelion roots (Radix Taraxacae), hawthorn blossom (Inflorescentia Crataegi) and their infusions by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave digestion of plant samples. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. The results obtained were compared with daily requirements for each element. Results show high content of cadmium in the medicinal plants analyzed. The highest level in infusions was observed for Ni and Zn (over 90% of the total element concentration for Ni and in most cases over 50% for Zn), and the lowest for Cd and Pb. The calculated daily intake of majority of the analyzed elements was very low (under 1% of daily requirements)

Kalny, Piotr [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalek, Zbigniew [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); National Medicines Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chelmska 30/34, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland); Daszczuk, Anna [Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Drugs Analysis, Banacha 1, 02-091 Warsaw (Poland); Ostapczuk, Peter [Research Center of Juelich, Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Leo-Brand Str. 1, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: p.ostapczuk@fz-juelich.de

2007-08-01

90

Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time. PMID:24293005

Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

2014-03-01

91

Demonstration of the dorsal pancreatic artery by CTA to facilitate superselective arterial infusion of stem cells into the pancreas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic performance of 64-section CTA in the detection of dorsal pancreatic artery before interventional therapy for patients with diabetes. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee; written informed consent was obtained. Forty-two consecutive patients with diabetes received an experimental treatment of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation by means of infusion into the dorsal pancreatic artery. All cases underwent abdominal CTA before angiography of pancreatic arteries in order to locate the origin and course of dorsal pancreatic artery. Angiography of coeliac artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery and superior mesenteric artery were performed both in CTA and DSA. Superselective catheterization of dorsal pancreatic artery was carried out for the infusion of stem cell. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the detection of dorsal pancreatic artery with CTA were calculated using DSA images as the reference standard. Results: Thirty-five and thirty-six dorsal pancreatic arteries were detected by CTA and DSA respectively. Dorsal pancreatic artery was not visualized in either CTA or DSA in 5 patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for CTA were 94.4%, 83.3% and 92.9%. Conclusion: 64-section CTA is accurate for the detection of dorsal pancreatic artery. It may be useful for the facilitation of superselective arterial infusion of stem cells to pancreas.nfusion of stem cells to pancreas.

92

Radionuclide venography using continuous Kr-81 m infusion: preliminary note  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Continuous infusion of Kr-81m presents important advantages compared to the commonly used radionuclides for venography. High count rates can be accumulated, and a high resolution collimator can be employed to ensure good quality images. The study can be repeated immediately and multiple views can be performed until a satisfactory result is obtained. The production of radionuclide from a Rb-81--Kr-81m generator suitable for intravenous infusion is almost the same as that which is suitable for ventilation. The same generator can first be used for venography and then for ventilation imaging to complete the work-up patients suspected of having thromboembolic disease

93

Physical and chemical stability of cisplatin infusions in PVC containers  

OpenAIRE

Study objectives: To determine the extended chemical and physical stability of cisplatin infusions in PVC containers at normal in-use concentrations in saline, with and without added electrolyte combinations relevant to clinical practice. Methods: Cisplatin infusions 0.1–0.4 mg/mL were prepared in normal saline, with and without magnesium sulphate and potassium chloride supplements in 500 mL PVC bags, and stored at 25°C protected from light. Chemical stability was assessed by a stability-i...

Graham Sewell

2010-01-01

94

Effect of Insulin Infusion on Liver Protein Synthesis during Hemodialysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background Hemodialysis (HD) is a catabolic procedure that may contribute to the high frequency of protein-energy wasting among patients receiving maintenance HD. The present study investigated the additional effect of glucose and glucose-insulin infusion on liver protein synthesis during HD compared with a meal alone. Methods In a randomized cross-over study with three arms, 11 non-diabetic HD patients were assigned to receive a conventional HD session with either: • no treatment (NT) • IV infusion of glucose (G) • IV infusion of glucose-insulin (GI) During infusions blood glucose levels were maintained at 8.0-10.0 mmol/L by additional glucose infusion. Glucose and glucose-insulin infusions were commenced 2 h prior to HD and continued throughout the HD session. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline before infusion and followed by the only meal allowed during the study. Results Blood glucose and insulin: The change in blood glucose differed significantly from baseline (-120 min) to end of HD (240 min) between the NT group and the G group (p=0.002); there was no significant difference in the change between the NT group and the GI group (p=0.06), or between the G group and the GI group (p=0.15). Fibrinogen and albumin: There was an overall increase in serum albumin (38.8±2.1 to 40.4±2.5 g/L, p<0.0001) and in serum fibrinogen (11.7±1.7 to 12.8±1.8 µmol/L, p<0.0001) from HD start (0 min) to 2 h post HD (360 min), but no significant difference in the change in either albumin (p=0.12) or fibrinogen (p=0.12) between the groups. IGFBP-1: During the first 4 h after baseline (-120 min) we observed an overall decrease in serum IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) (from 267±147 to 140±84 µg/L, p<0.0001), but no difference in the change between groups (p=0.41). However, from 4 h after baseline to the end of the study there was a significant difference in the change in serum IGFBP-1 between the groups (p=0.003) with a significant increase in serum IGFBP-1 in the NT group (p<0.0001), but not in the G group or GI group (p=0.50 and p=0.07, respectively). Conclusions Compared with a meal neither glucose nor glucose-insulin infusion appear to have any extra effects on liver protein synthesis during HD.

Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan

95

Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced str...

Feliu?-hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, Ce?sar

2013-01-01

96

Infusion Doping for Sub-45 nm CMOS Technology Nodes  

Science.gov (United States)

The requirements for ultra-shallow junctions will be difficult to meet for sub-45 nm CMOS technology nodes with conventional low-energy ion implantation and fast-ramp spike annealing. This paper explores the possibility of using infusion doping in conjunction with flash annealing to achieve shallower junctions with lower sheet resistance. No evidence of channeling in (100) and (110) silicon substrates is seen for infusion doping. A detailed investigation is carried out to study the effects of flash anneal parameters. Experimental results indicate that it is possible to achieve Xj in the range ˜12-15 nm with Rs˜1000 ?/?, which is adequate for the 32 nm technology generation.

Kalra, Pankaj; Majhi, Prashant; Tseng, Hsing-Huang; Jammy, Raj; Liu, Tsu-Jae King

2008-11-01

97

Doing Business with China: Curriculum Internationalisation through an Infusion Method  

Science.gov (United States)

The US apparel and textiles industry operates within an interdependent global system, necessitating workforces competent for day-to-day operations. The US workforce lacks preparedness in working globally; this study tests an infusion method of curriculum internationalisation to enhance students' global understanding. Four cognitive and…

Jin, Byoungho; Swinney, Jane; Cao, Huantian; Muske, Glenn; Nam, Jinhee; Kang, Ji Hye

2011-01-01

98

Propofol-related infusion syndrome: rare and fatal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Propofol is one of the most commonly used sedating agents in critical care units worldwide. It is generally well tolerated and preferred for its pharmacokinetic profile. Here, we describe a rare and devastating adverse effect of propofol, the propofol-related infusion syndrome. PMID:23782764

Pothineni, Naga Venkata Krishna Chand; Hayes, Kevin; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Paydak, Hakan

2015-01-01

99

Antioxidant and astroprotective effects of a Pulicaria incisa infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, an infusion prepared from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa (Pi) was tested for its protective and antioxidant effects on astrocytes subjected to oxidative stress. The Pi infusion attenuated the intracellular accumulation of ROS following treatment with hydrogen peroxide and zinc and prevented the H(2)O(2)-induced death of astrocytes. The Pi infusion also exhibited an antioxidant effect in vitro and induced GDNF transcription in astrocytes. It is proposed that this Pi infusion be further evaluated for use as a functional beverage for the prevention and/or treatment of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative stress plays a role. PMID:23320126

Elmann, Anat; Telerman, Alona; Mordechay, Sharon; Erlank, Hilla; Ofir, Rivka

2012-01-01

100

Effects of daytime melatonin infusion in young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daytime oral melatonin typically exerts soporific and thermoregulatory effects; however, it is not clear whether these effects reflect the normal physiological response to endogenous nocturnal melatonin production. We infused melatonin at doses that produced physiological and supraphysiological steady-state levels in 24 young adults during two daytime bed rest protocols. From 1000 to 1630, subjects were infused intravenously with saline or melatonin in counterbalanced order. Each group of eight subjects received melatonin (and saline) infusions at one dose rate: 0.04 microg . h-1 . kg body wt-1 (low), 0.08 microg . h-1 . kg-1 (medium), or 8.0 microg . h-1 . kg-1 (high). Low and medium melatonin infusions produced plasma and saliva levels within the normal nocturnal range observed in young adults. These levels were not associated with any changes in rectal, hand, forehead, or tympanic temperatures or with subjective sleepiness. High melatonin produced supraphysiological plasma and saliva levels and was associated with a significant attenuation in the daytime increase in rectal temperature, significantly increased hand temperature, and greater sleepiness. It is not yet clear whether the thermoregulatory and soporific effects of daytime supraphysiological melatonin administration are equivalent to the physiological responses to endogenous melatonin. PMID:9688869

Van Den Heuvel, C J; Kennaway, D J; Dawson, D

1998-07-01

101

Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student's t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

2013-01-01

102

Duodenal levodopa infusion in Parkinson's disease--long-term experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Motor fluctuations in parkinsonian patients can be reduced by intraduodenal infusion of levodopa. Between 1991 and 1998 continuous daytime administration of levodopa through a transabdominal port has been used in 28 very advanced patients over a total period of 1045 months. A stable suspension of levodopa and carbidopa (Duodopa) has been developed. Patients were characterized by early onset, long history of disease and levodopa therapy. The reason for infusion was in all cases related to on-off fluctuations. All patients experienced a general improvement after the introduction of continuous treatment. There have been no severe complications. Six patients have taken the decision to curtail their treatment. The mean daily levodopa consumption has been slightly reduced on infusion as compared to oral therapy. Nine of the first group of patients participating in the new therapy have been regularly evaluated by means of rating scales and movement analyses. Short-term results have already been published and a follow-up showing continued positive effect after 4-7 years of continuous duodenal infusion is presented. PMID:11903087

Nilsson, D; Nyholm, D; Aquilonius, S M

2001-12-01

103

Impact of Curriculum Infusion on College Students' Drinking Behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: A posttest-only experimental design was used to examine the effectiveness of curriculum infusion (CI) in reducing alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences among college students. Methods: Faculty teaching 2 identical courses during the same quarter were recruited; both classes were randomly assigned to either a treatment…

White, Sabina; Park, Yong Sue; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane

2010-01-01

104

Treatment of bladder carcinoma with concomitant infusion chemotherapy and irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an attempt to increase tumor clearance and bladder preservation without increased morbidity, a pilot study using irradiation and concomitant continuous 5-FU infusion, and Mitomycin C as IV bolus in the treatment of invasive high grade bladder carcinomas was started at Downstate Medical Center. This report shows the preliminary results regarding tumor response, survival, and morbidity of treatment

105

Aldosterone suppression with dopamine infusion in low-renin hypertension.  

OpenAIRE

A dopaminergic mechanism has been proposed to suppress aldosterone secretion. To assess the possibility that a defect in the dopaminergic mechanism might enhance aldosterone secretion in hypertensive patients, we determined basal and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated plasma aldosterone (PA), cortisol, renin activity, and potassium concentrations before and during dopamine receptor stimulation with dopamine infusion and bromocriptine administration and dopamine receptor blockade wi...

Holland, O. B.; Thomas, C.; Brown, H.; Schindewolf, D.; Hillier, Y.; Gomez-sanchez, C.

1983-01-01

106

Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion for advanced gastric cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of chemotherapy via arterial infusion in treatment of advanced gastric cancer.Methods Forty-seven patients with advanced gastric cancer were given chemotherapy via arterial infusion.Chemotherapy plan was as follows: 5-Fluorouracil(Fu 500mg/m2,cyclophosphamide(MMX 10mg/m2,Hydroxycamptothecin(HPT 20mg/m2,once per week,2 weeks as a course,a total of 2-3 courses.Results After chemotherapy via arterial infusion,complete remission(CR was achieved in 1 case,partial remission(PR in 28 cases,stabilization of disease(SD in 16 cases,progression of disease(PD was found in 2 cases,and rate with response(CR+PR was 61.7%.Four of 28 PR patients underwent tumorectomy,the pathology revealed the presence of cancer cells around the vascular vessels,manifesting karyopyknosis,karyorrhexis,coagulation and necrosis of cytoplasm,intercellular edema,hyperplasia of fibroblasts,inflammatory cell infiltration,thickening of endothelium,and thrombosis.One,two and three-year survival rates were 70.2%,14.9% and 2.1%,respectively.The average survival period was 17.2 months.Conclusion Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion,as a part of the combined treatment,is beneficial to the patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer.

Zhi-yu CAO

2011-10-01

107

Prostacyclin infusion may prevent secondary damage in pericontusional brain tissue  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator, inhibitor of leukocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation, and has been suggested as therapy for cerebral ischemia. A case of focal traumatic brain lesion that was monitored using intracerebral microdialysis, and bedside analysis and display is reported here. When biochemical signs of cerebral ischemia progressed, i.v. infusion of prostacyclin was started.

Reinstrup, Peter; Nordström, Carl-Henrik

2011-01-01

108

Jumping off the Couch: Infusing Creativity into Counselor Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This study infused key elements of creativity into the process of counselor education, exposing students in a counseling skills and techniques course to a curriculum designed to promote tolerance for ambiguity, appropriate risk-taking behaviors, and improvisational skills. Employing a phenomenological strategy of inquiry, the researcher sought to…

Lawrence, Christopher

2012-01-01

109

The value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the value of MR enteroclysis with air infusion in the diagnosis of small bowel disease. Methods: Sixteen patients with suspected small bowel disease, but without acute inflammatory disease or bowel obstruction, received MR enteroclysis with air infusion. There were 12 males and 4 females, and their age ranged from 17 to 75 years. 10 patients had abdominal pain, 4 with melena or blood stool, and 2 with diarrhea. The longest course was 7 years, and the shortest 1 week. Before MR imaging, a nasoenteric catheter was inserted into the distal part of duodenum, and about 1000 ml of air was infused through the tube to distend the small bowel. 20 mg of IV anisodamine was given to reduce small-bowel peristalsis. All patients were imaged with fat-saturated Gd-DTPA enhanced coronal and axial T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequence and fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence. Comparison between the diagnosis of MRI and the results of surgery, pathology or clinic was performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of MRI. Results: 5 cases were normal, 6 with Crohn disease, 2 with gastric intestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and 1 each of lymphoma, tuberculosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The lumen of normal small bowel in MR enteroclysis was no signal, the wall was outlined as middle signal by intraluminal air and surrounding air-distended bowel and was between 1-3 mm thick, and the diameter of the lumen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease shoen was between 17-28 mm. Crohn disease showed segmental mural thickening, increased enhancement, luminal stricture, and even extraluminal inflammatory mass or fistula. Intestinal tuberculosis invaded the distal section of ileum, cecum, and the proximal ascending colon, the wall thickened and enhanced apparently, and cecum and proximal ascending colon shortened. GIST showed a mass that was iso-signal on T1WI, high signal on T2WI, and enhanced significantly after IV Gd-DTPA. 1 recurrent lymphoma of ileum showed mural thickening and increased enhancement but no stenosis. 1 irritable bowel syndrome is disfunction, so its shape and signal is normal. Except 1 Crohn disease, which showed a large mass, was misdiagnosed as lymphoma and no abnormality was found in 1 irritable bowel syndrome, the other diagnosis of MRI was correct. The sensitivity in diagnosing small intestinal disease was 100%, and the specificity was 83%. Conclusion: MR enteroclysis with air infusion is a sensitive method in diagnosing the small bowel disease, especially in Crohn disease and tumor. It can clearly display the mural thickening and the extraluminal inflammatory mass

110

Electrocardiographic changes predicting sudden death in propofol-related infusion syndrome  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND The occurrence of metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalemia, and sudden cardiac death after long-term, high-dose propofol infusion has been referred to as propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS).

Vernooy, Kevin; Delhaas, Tammo; Cremer, Olaf L.; Di Diego, Jose? M.; Oliva, Antonio; Timmermans, Carl; Volders, Paul G.; Prinzen, Frits W.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Antzelevitch, Charles; Kalkman, Cornelis J.; Rodriguez, Luz-maria; Brugada, Ramon

2006-01-01

111

Continuous Furosemide Infusion in the Management of Ascites  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The current therapy for patients hospitalized with ascites requires titration of oral diuretics and often needs several days. A faster method for predicting the response to a given dose of diuretic may allow this process to be completed more rapidly. Aim Describe the short-term safety and efficacy of a diuretic infusion to predict net sodium excretion in patients with cirrhosis, ascites and edema using a fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) of ?1% as the target. Methods We conducted a retrospective case series of patients admitted for management of ascites who received intravenous furosemide by continuous infusion in ascites management. Patients were stratified depending on whether they had edema, received an intravenous bolus of furosemide or a large-volume paracentesis. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving a FENa of ?1% during the infusion. Secondary outcomes included development of electrolyte abnormalities or acute kidney injury (AKI) during or immediately following the infusion and natriuresis on titrated oral furosemide. Results 47 patients meeting criteria were identified from 721 patients seen in consultation. 10 of the patients had edema and received neither bolus intravenous diuretic therapy nor therapeutic paracentesis; all ten achieved a FENa ?1%. One patient had transient hypokalemia. Of 37 patients who either had no edema or received additional treatment options, all but six patients achieved a FENa of ?1%. Transient complications in the 31/37 patients with natriuresis included hyponatremia (n = 1), hypokalemia (n = 5) and AKI (n = 3). 24 hour urine sodium averaged > 4 g/d on the titrated oral furosemide regimen in 19 patients completing the collection. Conclusion Use of a short continuous furosemide infusion can achieve a FENa ? 1% in patients with cirrhotic ascites and may be safe and efficacious for diuresis, meriting further study. PMID:22373660

Rogers, Nicholas A.; Gupta, Samir; Cuthbert, Jennifer A.

2012-01-01

112

Successful rechallenge of cetuximab following severe infusion-related reactions: a case report  

OpenAIRE

Cetuximab, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody, is associated with a risk of infusion reactions, similar to other infusional agents. Although avoiding a rechallenge with cetuximab following a severe infusion reaction is preferable, this may not be an option if few other reasonable alternatives exist. We report herein a successful case of cetuximab rechallenge, carried out by extending infusion times and using saline dilution in a patient who had severe infusion...

Chang, Pei-hung; Huang, Jen-seng

2014-01-01

113

Using miniature osmotic infusion pumps to maintain tritiated thymidine exposure to cells in culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To provide a constant level of tracer doses of tritiated thymidine to cultured cells during continuous infusion, miniature osmotic infusion pumps were used to provide replacement thymidine. By determining the loss of isotope from the media during nonreplacement, the rate of constant infusion replacement to maintain thymidine levels was calculated. The replacement rates were similar for the three cell lines examined and allowed a standard osmotic pump infusion

114

Impact of infusion speed on the safety and effectiveness of prothrombin complex concentrate  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) infusion is preferred for emergency reversal of coumarin therapy. Rapid infusion can potentially save crucial time; however, the possible impact of high infusion speed on PCC safety and effectiveness has not been delineated. In a prospective multinational clinical trial with 43 patients receiving PCC (Beriplex® P/N) for emergency reversal of coumarin therapy, infusion speeds were selected by the investigators. In a two-phase statistic...

Pabinger, Ingrid; Tiede, Andreas; Kalina, Uwe; Knaub, Sigurd; Germann, Reinhard; Ostermann, Helmut

2009-01-01

115

Mineral Analysis the Infusion of Black Tea Samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

OpenAIRE

Tea infusion is one of the most popular drinks around the world. Since tea infusion is known to contain several essential nutrients, it is considered a healthy beverage. In this study eight different Iranian brands of tea infusion and eleven brands imported tea infusion samples from another country for Cu, Zn, Mn and Al were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after wet digestion. The results of analysis showed that the extraction rates of minerals from dry black tea to infusio...

Lahiji N.; Tadayon F.; Tamiji F.; Lahiji A. H.

2013-01-01

116

Infusion pressure and pain during microneedle injection into skin of human subjects  

OpenAIRE

Infusion into skin using hollow microneedles offers an attractive alternative to hypodermic needle injections. However, the fluid mechanics and pain associated with injection into skin using a microneedle have not been studied in detail before. Here, we report on the effect of microneedle insertion depth into skin, partial needle retraction, fluid infusion flow rate and the co-administration of hyaluronidase on infusion pressure during microneedle-based saline infusion, as well as on associat...

Gupta, Jyoti; Park, Sohyun; Bondy, Brian; Felner, Eric I.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

2011-01-01

117

Diuretic effect of intraventricular and intravenous infusions of noradrenaline in conscious sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infusion of noradrenaline at rates between 32-160 nmol.min-1 for 30 min into one lateral cerebral ventricle of conscious sheep caused a diuresis which was accompanied by negative solute-free water reabsorption and which lasted for 90-120 min. The range of noradrenaline infusion rates used reflects differences between individual animals in the rate of infusion necessry to cause diuresis. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of noradrenaline at half the diuretic rate caused no significant changes in urine flow. The diuresis induced by ICV noradrenaline infusion was prevented by concurrent ICV administration of the alpha-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine, but was not prevented by concurrent ICV administration of the beta antagonist, propranolol, or by concurrent intravenous infusion of phentolamine. Intravenous infusion of noradrenaline at rates that were diuretic by ICV infusion caused a diuresis of approximately 30 min duration which coincided with the period of intravenous noradrenaline infusion. This diuresis was prevented by concurrent intravenous infusion of phentolamine. These results were interpreted as indicating that the higher rates of ICV infusion of noradrenaline caused the prolonged water diuresis by acting at a site in the brain and, thereby, inhibiting the release of endogenous vasopressin. ICV infusion of noradrenaline at all rates was followed by a reduction in mean arterial blood pressure and pulse pressure with variable changes in heart rate and by depression of the rates of renal clearance of PAH, potassium and total solute. PMID:6906039

Beal, A M; Bligh, J

1980-10-01

118

Haemolysis following rapid experimental red blood cell transfusion--an evaluation of two infusion pumps  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The vast majority of infusion pumps used for rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood have never been properly examined regarding their influence on the quality of the red blood cells (RBCs) infused. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different infusion pumps on the degree of RBC destruction following rapid experimental blood transfusion.

Hansen, Tom Giedsing; SprogØe-Jakobsen, U

1998-01-01

119

Liquid Resin Infusion process monitoring with embedded superimposed long period and short period Bragg grating sensor.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose here the monitoring of the Liquid Resin Infusion (LRI process for using a superimposed long period (LPG and short period (FBG Bragg grating sensor. Monitoring of such a process is usually made measuring simultaneously temperature and strain by the use of an electro-optical device (FBG-Thermocouple. It has been shown that an applied solicitation is measured by a wavelength shift with a different sensitivity for LPG and FBG; thus strain and temperature influences can be determined separately by measuring corresponding wavelength shifts. The reported configuration is based on the use of these two Bragg gratings types written in the same fibre section, which allows us to discriminate the contributions of the temperature and strain. The sensor is embedded in a composite specimen manufactured by LRI process for monitoring in real time and simultaneously the applied temperature and strain.

Robert L.

2010-06-01

120

Delivery temperature of heated intravenous solutions during rapid infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Warming of intravenous fluids may help to prevent shivering and hypothermia in the surgical patient. Increasing the fluid temperatures to as high as 60 degrees C has been suggested. An in vitro study was performed in which temperature changes following the rapid infusion of heated lactated Ringer's solution within a vein were measured. When 1 L of solution was warmed to 55 degrees C and then was infused over 4 min, local model vein temperatures rose from 37 degrees C to 44 degrees C. This effect of possible regional tissue heating may well occur in vivo. It is known that the rate of human blood cell hemolysis and membrane enzymatic function is affected by temperature. Further efforts need to be directed toward appreciating the effects of warmed intravenous fluids upon intact physiologic preparations and red blood cells. PMID:2627399

Burchman, C A; Datta, S; Ostheimer, G W

1989-01-01

121

[Efficacy of circadian chronotherapy via hepatic arterial infusion].  

Science.gov (United States)

For hepatectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), we applied circadian chronotherapy via the hepatic artery for multiple bilobar liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Four patients underwent chronotherapy and 16 patients underwent flat infusion therapy (5 day q 2 weeks, 4 or more courses). We used 2 drugs, (5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and l-leucovorin (l-LV)), and partially added cisplatin (CDDP) in the flat infusion group. The result was a higher response rate (75% vs 37.5%) and lower toxicity (0% vs 31.3%) in the chronotherapy group. Hepatectomy was performed on 12 of the 20 patients. The 5 responders to NAC showed better overall survival (p chronotherapy via the hepatic artery prior to hepatectomy may improve the survival of patients with multiple bilobar liver metastases. PMID:14619484

Kito, Ayako; Tanaka, Kuniya; Matsuo, Kenichi; Kunihiro, Osamu; Togo, Shinji; Shimada, Hiroshi

2003-10-01

122

Smart Infusion Pump: A boon to the Health Care Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Main motive of any hospital or clinic is to provide the best patient care. Patient care can be drastically improved using electronic medical record. An electronic medical record (EMR is a computerized medical record created in an organization that delivers care, such as a hospital or physician's office. The costs of storage media, such as paper and film, per unit of information differ dramatically from that of electronic storage media. When paper records are stored in different locations, collating them to a single location for review by a health care provider is time consuming and complicated, whereas the process can be simplified with electronic records. When treating a patient another major thing is to monitor the drug or fluid administered to the patient. Better and safer drug delivery systems will be the one with automatic or an intelligent infusion pump system. Thus automatic intravenous infusion will efficiently reduce medication and administration error.

K.V. Padmaja#1 , Apoorva M. Kalgal

2013-06-01

123

Rapid infusion with rituximab: short term safety in systemic autoimmune diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To describe the incidence, types and severity of adverse events, related to an accelerated regime of rituximab infusion in patients with various autoimmune diseases. Fifty-four patients with systemic autoimmune disease, to be treated with 1,000 mg of rituximab twice 2 weeks apart, participated. Pre-medication (oral prednisolone, anti-histamine and paracetamol) was administered 1-4 h before infusion start. The first infusion was administered over a period of 195 min. The second infusion over a period of 90 min. Any adverse events were classified using the Clinical Trials Classification of Adverse Events (CTCAE) v. 3.0. Ten patients (18.5%) experienced at least one infusion-related reaction (IRR) ever. The first infusion was associated with reactions in 4 CTCAE categories of which rhinitis were the most frequent. The CTCAE severity grading showed six patients (11.1%) had a grade 1 reaction. One patient (1.8%) had grade 2 events on both infusions and two patients (3.6%) had a grade 3 event on both infusions. RA patients more often had an infusion-related reaction (IRR) (9.2%) than the rest. The types of IRR were mostly of allergic or angio-oedematic nature. In practise, the rapid infusion was an easy to use regime and the second infusion is of time sparing significance to health professionals. No unexpected side effects were observed in relation to the accelerated regime.

Larsen, Janni Lisander; Jacobsen, Soren

2013-01-01

124

Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 +/- 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak myocardial systolic velocity S', tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S' 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P <0.001), whereas EF, resting blood flow velocity, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation did not change (P = 0.13). This was associated with a peak in serum growth hormone after 60 min of infusion (37.77 +/- 5.27 ng/ml, P <0.001), a doubling of free fatty acid levels (P = 0.001), and a 1.6-fold increase in cortisol levels (P <0.05), whereas glucose and catecholamine levels were constant. In conclusion, supraphysiological levels of ghrelin stimulate left ventricular function in terms of S' and TT in healthy young normal-weight men without changing resting blood flow velocity and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation. The effects did not translate into detectable increments in EF.

Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark

2007-01-01

125

Patient preferences and satisfaction in a multispecialty infusion center  

OpenAIRE

Barbara E Ostrov,1 Kristine Reynolds,2 Lisabeth V Scalzi11Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, 2Department of Nursing, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USAPurpose: Direct feedback from patients about their preferred modes of medication ­administration has been increasingly sought by providers to develop care programs that best match patient goals. Multispecialty infusion centers generally provide care to hematology–oncology (HO) and non-HO patients in one unit, wit...

Be, Ostrov; Reynolds K; Lv, Scalzi

2014-01-01

126

Infusible silazane polymer and process for producing same. [protective coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

Coatings of high thermal and chemical stability for application to metal, glass, ceramics, and other surfaces are formed by reacting diphenyldichlorosilane in the presence of triethylamine with a nitrogen base selected from the group consisting of ammonia and methylamine. The pl polymeric, noncrystalline reaction product is heated in a reaction zone open to the atmosphere at a temperature ranging from approximately 250 C to 450 C until the infusible polymer is formed.

Burks, R. E., Jr.; Lacey, R. E.; Christy, C. L., Jr. (inventors)

1967-01-01

127

Neural reflex of the canine pylorus to intraduodenal acid infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 29 chloralose-urethane anesthetized dogs, a manometric assembly was inserted through a gastrostomy to monitor pressure of the pyloric region with a sleeve sensor. Antral and duodenal contractions were monitored with both manometric sideholes and serosal strain gauges. An additional tube channel allowed intraduodenal infusions 1-2 cm aborad from the pylorus. Intraluminal infusion of hydrochloric acid (0.1 N, 0.92 ml/min, for 2 min) reproducibly caused activation of motor activity in the pyloric region and peristaltic duodenal activity. Proximal duodenal activity probably contributed to the total phasic response recorded in the pylorus region. Excitatory responses could also be elicited by infusion of phenyl-biguanide (stimulant of sensory nerve endings), but not by control infusions with diluent (Krebs' buffer or saline). The motor response of the pyloric region to intraduodenal acid was blocked by intraduodenal application of 2% xylocaine. Atropine (30 micrograms/kg i.v. and 100 micrograms i.a.) or hexamethonium (10 mg/kg and 1 mg i.a.) markedly reduced or blocked the acid-induced pyloric motor response of this region but propranolol (1.0 mg/kg i.v. and 100 micrograms i.a.), phentolamine (1.5 mg/kg i.v. and 100 micrograms i.a.), or naloxone (200 micrograms/kg and 20 micrograms i.a.) had no effect. We believe these observations show the existence of a reflex from the duodenum to the pylorus in response to intraluminal stimuli mediated by a chain of cholinergic nerves. In the dog, endogenous opioid peptides do not contribute to the excitatory reflex pathway activated by intraduodenal acid or phenyl-biguanide. As intraluminal acid in the duodenum activates this reflex, it may play a role in the physiologic and pathophysiologic role of gastric emptying in this species. PMID:2562833

Allescher, H D; Daniel, E E; Dent, J; Fox, J E; Kostolanska, F

1989-01-01

128

Understanding Infusion Administration in the ICU through Distributed Cognition  

OpenAIRE

To understand how healthcare technologies are used in practice and evaluate them, researchers have argued for adopting the theoretical framework of Distributed Cognition (DC). This paper describes the methods and results of a study in which a DC methodology, Distributed Cognition for Teamwork (DiCoT), was applied to study the use of infusion pumps by nurses in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Data was gathered through ethnographic observations and interviews. Data analysis consisted of construct...

Rajkomar, A.; Blandford, A. E.

2012-01-01

129

Saline infusion sonohysterography versus hysteroscopy for uterine cavity evaluation  

OpenAIRE

Background and Objectives: The most frequent procedures performed on women with abnormal uterine bleeding are 2D and 3D ultrasound. The most common accepted approach for the management of abnormal uterine bleeding is 2D TV scan followed by therapeutic hysteroscopy. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess whether 3D saline infusion sonohysterography (3D SIS) could replace diagnostic hysteroscopy (DH) for the diagnosis of endometrial pathology, in patients with abnormal uterine blee...

Khan Faryal; Jamaat Sadia; Al-Jaroudi Dania

2011-01-01

130

Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL is an intravenous bisphosphonate that is given once yearly for the treatment of osteoporosis via a medically supervised 15-minute infusion. This ensures compliance for a full 12 months. In clinical trials, an annual infusion of ZOL 5 mg has shown sustained efficacy in reducing hip and spine fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It has also been shown to increase bone density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (low bone mass and in men with osteoporosis. Transient flu-like symptoms are the most common adverse effects following ZOL infusion, and these can generally be managed with acetaminophen. The availability of an intravenous bisphosphonate that ensures compliance over a long dosing interval may help to overcome barriers to efficacy resulting from poor long-term compliance with oral agents.Keywords: fractures, intravenous bisphosphonate, osteoporosis, zoledronic acid

John A Sunyecz

2010-10-01

131

Review of pharmacokinetic models for target controlled infusions in anesthesia  

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Full Text Available Intravenous injection of anesthetic drugs dates back to the 17th Century when opium and chloral hydrate have been injected intravenously. It was not until the 1930s intravenous anesthesia became popular with the invention of barbiturates.Early intravenous anesthetic agents such as barbiturates were ideal for induction of anesthesia, but not suitable for maintenance of anesthesia. Most of these drugs accumulated significantly with increasing durations of infusion and also resulted in cardiorespiratory depression. The invention of propofol and shorter acting opioid analgesics such as remifentanil and alfentanil have revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The rapid onset and offset of these drugs lends itself to being suitable agents for maintenance of anesthesia over prolonged periods of time. Detailed understanding of the pharmacokinetics of propofol and remifentanil, combined with technological advances in intravenous pumps capable of accurate delivery of drugs have resulted in great development of the field of total intravenous anesthesia and target controlled infusions. I would like to discuss, in this article, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic models behind these intravenous infusion pumps. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 417-423

Subash Kennedy Sivasubramaniam

2014-06-01

132

Antioxidant activity of organic extracts from aqueous infusions of sage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activity of aqueous infusions of sage emerges from specific components present in that herb. In an attempt to investigate the chemical nature and properties of these components, four organic solvent extracts from aqueous infusions of sage were examined. HPLC analyses of these extracts led to the separation of a number of components, of which four were identified and quantified through the use of standard compounds of known chromatographic HPLC profiles. These compounds are the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol and the hydroxycinnamic acid caffeic acid. The antioxidant activity and polyphenol content were determined in the four organic solvent extracts and the left-over aqueous fraction. Both polyphenolic and nonpolyphenolic substances present in the extracts arise as significant contributors to the observed antioxidant activity of the derived extracts and thus sage itself. In this sense, they reflect the antioxidant potential of the aqueous infusions of sage toward reactive oxygen species generated through variable mechanisms of iron-promoted oxidative processes. PMID:14582962

Matsingou, Triantafillia Christina; Petrakis, Nicolaos; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Salifoglou, Athanasios

2003-11-01

133

Regional blood flow during continuous low-dose endotoxin infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Escherichia coli endotoxin (ET) was administered to adult rats by continuous IV infusion from a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump (Alzet). Cardiac output and regional blood flow were determined by the radiolabeled microsphere method after 6 and 30 hr of ET or saline infusion. Cardiac output (CO) of ET rats was not different from time-matched controls, whereas arterial pressure was 13% lower after 30 hr of infusion. After both 6 and 30 hr of ET, pancreatic blood flow and percentage of cardiac output were lower than in controls. Estimated portal venous flow was decreased at each time point, and an increased hepatic arterial flow (significant after 30 hr) resulted in an unchanged total hepatic blood flow. Blood flow to most other tissues, including epididymal fat, muscle, kidneys, adrenals, and gastrointestinal tract, was similar between treatments. Maintenance of blood flow to metabolically important tissues indicates that the previously reported alterations in in vitro cellular metabolism are not due to tissue hypoperfusion. Earlier observations of in vitro myocardial dysfunction, coexistent with the significant impairment in pancreatic flow, raise the possibility that release of a myocardial depressant factor occurs not only in profound shock but also under less severe conditions of sepsis and endotoxemia

134

Fat overload syndrome after the rapid infusion of SMOFlipid emulsion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fat overload syndrome is a well-known complication of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy. It is characterized by headaches, fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, respiratory distress, and spontaneous hemorrhage. Other symptoms include anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen levels, and coagulopathy. Several reports in the literature describe fat overload syndrome caused by rapid infusion of lipid emulsions, all with soybean-based lipid emulsions. We report fat overload syndrome in a 2-year-old girl with short bowel syndrome on home parenteral nutrition. Fat overload syndrome occurred as a result of accidental, very rapid infusion of a 20% soy oil, medium-chain triglyceride, olive and fish oil-based lipid emulsion (SMOFlipid) that showed the same complications seen with an earlier lipid emulsion (Intralipid). The patient was successfully treated with supportive care combining fluid infusion, transfusion of platelets, and substitution of serum albumin (0.5 g/kg/d) and fresh-frozen plasma (10 mL/kg). In the next couple of days, she received extra platelets, erythrocyte transfusion, and filgrastim (Neupogen; 5 µg/kg/d) due to a very low leukocyte count. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of fat overload syndrome caused by SMOFlipid emulsion described in the literature. PMID:23520135

Hojsak, Iva; Kola?ek, Sanja

2014-01-01

135

iPRECIO® Micro Infusion Pump: Programmable, refillable and implantable  

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Full Text Available Successful drug delivery using implantable pumps may be found in over 12,500 published articles. Their versatility in delivering continuous infusion, intermittent or complex infusion protocols acutely or chronically has made them ubiquitous in drug discovery and basic research. The recent availability of iPRECIO®, a programmable, refillable and implantable infusion pump has made it possible to carry out quantitative pharmacology (PKPD in single animals. When combined with specialized catheters, specific administration sites have been selected. When combined with radiotelemetry, the physiologic gold standard, more sensitive and powerful means of detecting drug induced therapeutic and/or adverse effects has been possible. Numerous application examples are cited from iPRECIO® use in Japan, United States and Europe with iPRECIO® as an enabling drug delivery device where the refillable and programmability functionality were key benefits. The ability to start/stop drug delivery and to have control periods prior dosing made it possible to have equivalent effects at a much lower dose than previously studied. Five different iPRECIO® applications are described in detail with references to the original work where the implantable, refillable and programmable benefits are demonstrated with their different end-points.

TsungTan

2011-07-01

136

A Successful Infusion Process for Enabling Lunar Exploration Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Vision for Space Exploration begins with a more reliable flight capability to the International Space Station and ends with sending humans to Mars. An important stepping stone on the path to Mars encompasses human missions to the Moon. There is little doubt throughout the stakeholder community that new technologies will be required to enable this Vision. However, there are many factors that influence the ability to successfully infuse any technology including the technical risk, requirement and development schedule maturity, and, funds available. This paper focuses on effective infusion processes that have been used recently for the technologies in development for the lunar exploration flight program, Constellation. Recent successes with Constellation customers are highlighted for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Projects managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Following an overview of the technical context of both the flight program and the technology capability mapping, the process is described for how to effectively build an integrated technology infusion plan. The process starts with a sound risk development plan and is completed with an integrated project plan, including content, schedule and cost. In reality, the available resources for this development are going to change over time, necessitating some level of iteration in the planning. However, the driving process is based on the initial risk assessment, which changes only when the overall architecture changes, enabling some level of stability in the process.

Over, Ann P.; Klem, Mark K.; Motil, Susan M.

2008-01-01

137

Preliminary results of a randomized study of intrahepatic infusion versus systemic infusion of FUDR for metastatic colorectal carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a randomized study that compares intrahepatic infusion to systemic infusion applying the same chemotherapeutic agent (FUDR), schedule, and method of administration. Radiation therapy patients with measurable metastatic colorectal carcinoma to the liver, without extrahepatic disease, are eligible. Patients with a Karnofsky Performance Status less than 60% and a serum bilirubin greater than 4.0 mg/d1 are excluded. To date, 11 partial responses (PR's) in 26 evaluable patients were seen in the intrahepatic group and 8 PR's in 24 evaluable patients in the systemic group. The median duration of response is 7 months for both groups. There were two minor responses in each group. In the systemic group, 3 patients have stable disease for 4-13+ months. Fifteen patients in the intrahepatic group and 10 patients in the systemic group have had more than 50% reduction in carcinoembryonic antigen level

138

The analgesic and sedative properties of dexmedetomidine infusion after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty  

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Full Text Available Background: Dexmedetomidine is an alpha2 - adrenergic agonist with sedative and analgesic properties. This study aimed to investigate if the use of continuous dexmedetomidine infusion with i.v. morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA could improve postoperative analgesia while reducing opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects. Materials & methods: In this prospective randomized, double-blinded, controlled study, 24 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing uvulopalatopharyngoplasty were assigned to two groups. Group D received a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1µg kg¯¹ i.v., 30 min before the anticipated end of surgery, followed by a continuous infusion at a rate of 0.6 µg kg¯¹ hr¯¹ for 24 hr. Group P received a volume-matched bolus and infusion of placebo. In both groups, postoperative pain was initially controlled by i.v. morphine titration and then PCA with morphine. Cumulative PCA morphine consumption, pain intensities, sedation scores, cardiovascular and respiratory variables and narcotic-related adverse effects were recorded for 48 h after operation. Results: Extubation time was significantly prolonged in dexmedetomidine group (16±7 vs. 11±6 min p=0.074 in the placebo group. Visual analogue scale scores were significantly greater during the first 2h after tracheal extubation in the placebo group than in the dexmedetomidine group. The time to first analgesic request was significantly longer in the dexmedetomidine group than in the placebo group (21±11 vs. 9±4min; p=0.002. Compared with group P, patients in group D required 52.7% less morphine by PCA during the first 24h postoperative period, whereas levels of sedation were similar between the 2 groups at each observational time point. Fewer patients in group D experienced nausea and vomiting than those in group P (P< 0.05. There was no bradycardia, hypotension, or respiratory depression. Continuous dexmedetomidine infusion may be a useful anesthetic adjuvant for patients who are susceptible to narcotic-induced respiratory depression. Conclusion: Continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine for pain relief after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty significantly reduces the amount of PCA morphine used by the patients postoperatively without affecting their ventilatory parameters and was associated with fewer morphine-related side effects. This novel drug could become a useful anesthetic adjuvant for patients with obstructive sleep apnea who are susceptible to narcotic-induced respiratory depression

W.Abd El Megid ¹* and Ahmed M. Nassar

2009-09-01

139

RF tumor ablation with internally cooled electrodes and saline infusion: what is the optimal location of the saline infusion?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiofrequency ablation (RFA of tumors by means of internally cooled electrodes (ICE combined with interstitial infusion of saline may improve clinical results. To date, infusion has been conducted through outlets placed on the surface of the cooled electrode. However, the effect of infusion at a distance from the electrode surface is unknown. Our aim was to assess the effect of perfusion distance (PD on the coagulation geometry and deposited power during RFA using ICE. Methods Experiments were performed on excised bovine livers. Perfusion distance (PD was defined as the shortest distance between the infusion outlet and the surface of the ICE. We considered three values of PD: 0, 2 and 4 mm. Two sets of experiments were considered: 1 15 ablations of 10 minutes (n ? 4 for each PD, in order to evaluate the effect of PD on volume and diameters of coagulation; and 2 20 additional ablations of 20 minutes. The effect of PD on deposited power and relative frequency of uncontrolled impedance rises (roll-off was evaluated using the results from the two sets of experiments (n ? 7 for each PD. Comparisons between PD were performed by analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test. Additionally, non-linear regression models were performed to elucidate the best PD in terms of coagulation volume and diameter, and the occurrence of uncontrolled impedance rises. Results The best-fit least square functions were always obtained with quadratic curves where volume and diameters of coagulation were maximum for a PD of 2 mm. A thirty per cent increase in volume coagulation was observed for this PD value compared to other values (P Conclusion Saline perfusion at around 2 mm from the electrode surface while using an ICE in RFA improves deposition of energy and enlarges coagulation volume.

Cruz Ignacio

2007-07-01

140

Delivery after caesarean section: review of 2176 consecutive cases.  

OpenAIRE

A total of 2176 consecutive patients who had had one previous caesarean section were studied retrospectively. A repeat elective caesarean section was performed in 395 (18.2%). Labour started spontaneously in 1363 patients, 301 of whom were given oxytocin to accelerate inert labour, and was induced by amniotomy and infusion of oxytocin in 418 women; 1618 of these 1781 patients (90.8%) delivered vaginally. Patients who had had a previous vaginal delivery were more likely to deliver vaginally ag...

Molloy, B. G.; Sheil, O.; Duignan, N. M.

1987-01-01

141

Safe and tolerable one-hour pamidronate infusion for multiple myeloma patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dimitrios Chantzichristos, Andréasson Björn, Johansson PeterDepartment of Internal Medicine, Uddevalla Hospital, Uddevalla, SwedenBackground: Once a month, patients with multiple myeloma received an infusion of bisphosphonates, principally to reduce osteoclastic bone resorption. Recommended infusion time for pamidronate is 2 hours in the US and 4 hours in Europe because of its potential nephrotoxicity. From 2003, a 90 mg infusion of pamidronate was provided over 1 hour to patients with no pre-existing renal impairment, in the Daily Care Unit at Uddevalla Hospital.Method: Retrospective analysis of the renal deterioration, serum calcium, and adverse effects in patients with multiple myeloma treated with 1-hour pamidronate 90 mg infusion from January 2003 to April 2007.Results: Seventy-nine patients provided valuable data. A total number of 846 infusions were given and the median number of infusion to each patient was 11. Significant creatinine elevation was seen in 7 patients (8.9%, after 19 infusions (2.2%. Renal deterioration occurred in 5 of these 7 patients, which was related to progress of the myeloma or opportunistic infections. Prevalence of infusion-related events was 0.8% and the mean total S-Ca was 0.05 mmol/L lower than the baseline.Conclusion: Few events of renal deterioration, hypocalcemia, or other adverse effects resulted from a 1-hour pamidronate 90 mg infusion for multiple myeloma patients with no pre-existing renal impairment.Keywords: bisphosphonates, pamidronate, multiple myeloma, infusion time

Dimitrios Chantzichristos

2008-09-01

142

Clinical assessment of first pass radionuclide ventriculography after dipyridamole infusion in patients with coronary artery disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First pass radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was performed after dipyridamole (D) infusion in 33 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 15 normal volunteers. RNV findings after D infusion were compared with those of conventional exercise RNV and body surface ECG mapping (MAP). For patients with multiple vessel disease, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower after D infusion than at rest. Wall motion abnormality (WMA) sites induced by D infusion were well coincident with those induced by exercise. Pressure rate product at exercise was significantly higher than that after D infusion, suggesting the different mechanism of the occurrence of WMA after D infusion and at exercise. The incidence of ischemic reaction tended to be higher after D infusion than at exercise in 25 patients with CAD. There was negative correlation between ST depression on MAP after D infusion and LVEF on RNV after D infusion. This RNV after D infusion can be used as a supplement tool to conventional exercise RNV in the evaluation of the degree of coronary artery lesions and preserved left ventricular function. (Namekawa, K.)

143

Investigation on the pancreatic and stomach secretion in pigs by means of continuous infusion of 14C-amino acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2 pigs received a barley-soya bean meal diet and another 2 a casein-wheat starch diet. The specific radioactivity (SR = dpm/?mol) of leucine and phenylalanine in the TCA soluble fraction of plasma and in the TCA soluble and TCA precipitable fractions of pancreatic juice and of digesta leaving the stomach was determined during 6 hours of intravenous infusion of 14C-leucine and 14C-phenylalanine. At the end of the infusion the SR of both amino acids in both fractions of several tissues was measured and used for calculations of the rate of tissue protein synthesis. The results are that mainly amino acids derived from the extracellular space were used for synthesis that the process of synthesis, concentration and secretion of secretory proteins requires in pigs 120 to 180 minutes, and that TCA soluble amino acids in pancreatic juice are not free amino acids per se, but originate from processing of presecretory proteins. In the duodenal digesta labelled proteins appeared 3 to 4 hours after the beginning of the infusion. Both, secretion of proteins by the pancreas and by the stomach seemed to be more stimulated after feeding the barley-soya diet than the casein-starch diet. Of all tissues, the SR of amino acids in proteins was highest in the pancreas. However, proteins secreted by the pancreas were 3 to 4 times higher labelled than those retained in the tissue. The range of the fractional rate of protein synthesis was calculated for the sections of thsis was calculated for the sections of the gastrointestinal tract, the liver and skeletal muscles and discussed with other findings. (author)

144

Target controlled infusion for kids: trials and simulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Target controlled infusion (TCI) for Kids is a computer controlled system designed to administer propofol for general anesthesia. A controller establishes infusion rates required to achieve a specified concentration at the drug's effect site (C(e)) by implementing a continuously updated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodymanic model. This manuscript provides an overview of the system's design, preclinical tests, and a clinical pilot study. In pre-clinical tests, predicted infusion rates for 20 simulated procedures displayed complete convergent validity between two software implementations, Labview and Matlab, at computational intervals of 5, 10, and 15s, but diverged with 20s intervals due to system rounding errors. The volume of drug delivered by the TCI system also displayed convergent validity with Tivatrainer, a widely used TCI simulation software. Further tests, were conducted for 50 random procedures to evaluate discrepancies between volumes reported and those actually delivered by the system. Accuracies were within clinically acceptable ranges and normally distributed with a mean of 0.08 +/- 0.01 ml. In the clinical study, propofol pharmacokinetics were simulated for 30 surgical procedures involving children aged 3 months to 9 years. Predicted C(e) values during standard clinical practice, the accuracy of wake-up times predicted by the system, and potential correlations between patient wake-up times, C(e), and state entropy (SE) were assessed. Neither Ce nor SE was a reliable predictor of wake-up time in children, but the small sample size of this study does not fully accommodate the noted variation in children's response to propofol. A C(e) value of 1.9 mug/ml was found to best predict emergence from anesthesia in children. PMID:19164040

Mehta, Disha; McCormack, Jon; Fung, Parry; Dumont, Guy; Ansermino, J

2008-01-01

145

Corneal Endothelial Cell Density and Morphology Following Bolus versus Infusion Intracameral Adrenaline during Phacoemulsification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

PURPOSE: To compare early postoperative corneal endothelial cell density and morphology after phacoemulsification using bolus versus infusion intracameral adrenaline. METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 71 eyes of 71 patients scheduled for phaco-emulsification were randomly assigned to two groups: one group (31 eyes received bolus intracameral adrenaline (1:10,000 and the other group (30 eyes received adrenaline infusion (1:1,000,000. Pre- and one month postoperatively, a complete ophthalmologic examination as well as endothelial evaluation using ConfoScan III was performed; effective phaco time (EPT and mydriasis during surgery were also compared between the study groups. RESULTS: The two study groups were not significantly different in terms of demographic characteristics, lens opacity and EPT. Endothelial cell density was 2737±321 cell/mm2 in the bolus group vs 2742±426 cell/mm2 in the infusion group preoperatively (P=0.1. One month postoperatively, the rate of cell loss was 7.21% in the infusion group versus 8.87% in the bolus group (P= 0.13. Pupil diameter was > 6 mm in 48% of eyes in the infusion group vs 33% of eyes in the bolus group (P=0.5. CONCLUSION: Adrenaline was safe at the studied concentrations and there was no significant difference between bolus and infusion routes of administration in terms of pupil dilation and endothelial cell loss.

161

Does prolonged ?-lactam infusions improve clinical outcomes compared to intermittent infusions? A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized, controlled trials  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of multi-drug resistant Gram-negatives (MDRGNs coupled with an alarming scarcity of new antibiotics has forced the optimization of the therapeutic potential of available antibiotics. To exploit the time above the minimum inhibitory concentration mechanism of ?-lactams, prolonging their infusion may improve outcomes. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to determine if prolonged ?-lactam infusion resulted in decreased mortality and improved clinical cure compared to intermittent ?-lactam infusion. Methods Relevant studies were identified from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. Heterogeneity was assessed qualitatively, in addition to I2 and Chi-square statistics. Pooled relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel random-effects models. Results Fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. Prolonged infusion ?-lactams were not associated with decreased mortality (n= 982; RR 0.92; 95% CI:0.61-1.37 or clinical cure (n = 1380; RR 1.00 95% CI:0.94-1.06 compared to intermittent infusions. Subgroup analysis for ?-lactam subclasses and equivalent total daily ?-lactam doses yielded similar results. Most studies had notable methodological flaws. Conclusions No clinical advantage was observed for prolonged infusion ?-lactams. The limited number of studies with MDRGNs precluded evaluation of prolonged infusion of ?-lactams for this subgroup. A large, multicenter RCT with critically ill patients infected with MDRGNs is needed.

Van Arendonk Kyle J

2011-06-01

162

Cesarean Sections  

Science.gov (United States)

... no complications — manageable contractions, some pushing, then a beautiful baby. But it doesn't always work out ... a vaginal delivery. However, C-sections can help women at risk for complications avoid dangerous delivery-room ...

163

[Modes of infusion provision of myocardial revascularization on the working heart].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper deals with the study of the impact of liberal (traditional) and conservative (restrictive) infusion strategy on oxygen transport, central hemodynamics, and vascular tone during myocardial revascularization on the working heart. Two patient groups intraoperatively received different infusion volumes under the control of central hemodynamic parameters by a PICCO PLUS system (Pulsion, Germany) and oxygen transport. There were no significant differences in the major parameters between the groups. However, after applying the conservative strategy, postoperative pulmonary compliance and artificial ventilation duration were less than those after liberal infusion strategy. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the restrictive infusion strategy is restrictive during myocardial revascularization on the working heart. PMID:20491143

Krasheninnikov, S V; Levit, A L

2009-01-01

164

Vacuum infusion manufacturing and experimental characterization of Kevlar/epoxy composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epoxy/Kevlar composites have been manufactured by conventional Vacuum Infusion process and the Pulse Infusion technique. Pulse Infusion allows to control the pressure of the vacuum bag on the dry fiber reinforcement by using a proper designed pressure distributor that induces a pulsed transverse action and promotes the through thickness resin flow. The realized composite panel have been mechanically characterized by performing tensile and short beam shear tests according with the ASTM D3039 and ASTM D2344/D 2344M standard respectively in order to investigate the effect of Pulse Infusion on the tensile strength and ILSS.

Ricciardi, M. R.; Giordano, M.; Antonucci, V. [National Research Council, Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials, P.le Enrico Fermi, 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Langella, A.; Nele, L. [University of Naples Federico II, Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering Department, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy)

2014-05-15

165

Safe and tolerable one-hour pamidronate infusion for multiple myeloma patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Once a month, patients with multiple myeloma received an infusion of bisphosphonates, principally to reduce osteoclastic bone resorption. Recommended infusion time for pamidronate is 2 hours in the US and 4 hours in Europe because of its potential nephrotoxicity. From 2003, a 90 mg infusion of pamidronate was provided over 1 hour to patients with no pre-existing renal impairment, in the Daily Care Unit at Uddevalla Hospital. Method: Retrospective analysis of the renal deterioration, serum calcium, and adverse effects in patients with multiple myeloma treated with 1-hour pamidronate 90 mg infusion from January 2003 to April 2007. Results: Seventy-nine patients provided valuable data. A total number of 846 infusions were given and the median number of infusion to each patient was 11. Significant creatinine elevation was seen in 7 patients (8.9%), after 19 infusions (2.2%). Renal deterioration occurred in 5 of these 7 patients, which was related to progress of the myeloma or opportunistic infections. Prevalence of infusion-related events was 0.8% and the mean total S-Ca was 0.05 mmol/L lower than the baseline. Conclusion: Few events of renal deterioration, hypocalcemia, or other adverse effects resulted from a 1-hour pamidronate 90 mg infusion for multiple myeloma patients with no pre-existing renal impairment. PMID:19337444

Chantzichristos, Dimitrios; Andréasson, Björn; Johansson, Peter

2008-01-01

166

Vacuum infusion manufacturing and experimental characterization of Kevlar/epoxy composites  

Science.gov (United States)

Epoxy/Kevlar composites have been manufactured by conventional Vacuum Infusion process and the Pulse Infusion technique. Pulse Infusion allows to control the pressure of the vacuum bag on the dry fiber reinforcement by using a proper designed pressure distributor that induces a pulsed transverse action and promotes the through thickness resin flow. The realized composite panel have been mechanically characterized by performing tensile and short beam shear tests according with the ASTM D3039 and ASTM D2344/D 2344M standard respectively in order to investigate the effect of Pulse Infusion on the tensile strength and ILSS.

Ricciardi, M. R.; Giordano, M.; Langella, A.; Nele, L.; Antonucci, V.

2014-05-01

167

Vacuum infusion manufacturing and experimental characterization of Kevlar/epoxy composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epoxy/Kevlar composites have been manufactured by conventional Vacuum Infusion process and the Pulse Infusion technique. Pulse Infusion allows to control the pressure of the vacuum bag on the dry fiber reinforcement by using a proper designed pressure distributor that induces a pulsed transverse action and promotes the through thickness resin flow. The realized composite panel have been mechanically characterized by performing tensile and short beam shear tests according with the ASTM D3039 and ASTM D2344/D 2344M standard respectively in order to investigate the effect of Pulse Infusion on the tensile strength and ILSS

168

Systemic, pulmonary and renal haemodynamic and renal morphologic effects of intravenously infused iodixanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The systemic, pulmonary and renal haemodynamic effects following an intravenous infusion (1 ml/s, 4 ml/kg) of a non-ionic isoosmolar contrast medium (iodixanol) were investigated in 8 pigs. Histopathologic changes occurring after infusion of iodixanol were studied by repeated renal biopsies. Iodixanol caused a significant increase of cardiac output, mean right atrial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure and mean arterial pressure. There was a decrease of the systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances. Most renal biopsies showed no pathologic findings after infusion of iodixanol but in 3 specimens proteinaceous content was observed 15 min after infusion. (orig.)

169

A comparison of continuous infusion of vecuronium and atracurium in midline and paramedian laparotomies.  

OpenAIRE

This was a study to compare continuous intravenous infusion of atracurium with continuous intravenous infusion of vecuronium for intraoperative muscle relaxation in 62 ASA I / II patients. Scheduled for laparotomies and pelvic surgeries under general anaesthesia. They were randomly allocated in two groups to receive either vecuronium infusion of 50 microg/kg/hour following a bolus dose of 0.1 microg/kg, or atracurium infusion of 400 microg/kg/hour following a bolus dose of 0.5 microg/kg. The ...

Chaudhari L; Shetty A; Buddhi M; Krishnan G

1999-01-01

170

X-ray Fluorescence in Member States: Philippines. Secrets of Scalar Energy Infused Products as Revealed by XRF Spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Analytical Techniques Applications (NATA) Section (formerly the Analytical Measurements Research Section), as part of its function continues to provide analytical services. It has been offering qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of solid samples using the autoquantify method in the Panalytical Epsilon 5 EDXRF spectrometer. A recent health fad introduced in the market so called scalar energy infused products. Among these are 'Quantum' pendants and so-called energy bracelet/ballers. Claims of their ability to enhance energy levels and balance, detoxify, and prevent cancer have been made. In a demonstration class on the application of nuclear analytical techniques, particularly on the facility of XRF for rapid, nondestructive testing, one participant volunteered to have her 'Quantum' pendant tested. The results of the analysis made her decide to part with her pendant. What did XRF reveal that prompted her to that decision? Analysis of some samples of similar pendants by XRF revealed the secrets of

171

Regional hepatic chemotherapy using an implantable drug infusion pump.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regional infusion of chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of liver cancer can greatly increase tumor exposure to certain drugs. Exposure is 100 times greater with floxuridine, 6 times greater with mitomycin C, and 6 times greater with BCNU. The Model 400 Infusaid implantable, refillable drug infusion pump overcomes much of the discomfort and inconvenience associated with previously employed extracorporeal systems. Our experience with our first 50 patients has been presented herein. Forty-one patients had metastatic colorectal cancer, 3 primary cancers, and 6 other metastatic cancers. Eleven pumps and 11 catheters were implanted at laparotomy. Thirty-nine patients had their pumps integrated to angiographically placed catheters. In over 260 patient months there were no pump malfunctions and only one infection. There were no vascular complications in the patients with angiographically placed catheters. Chemotherapeutic programs included floxuridine, floxuridine and radiotherapy, or floxuridine with mitomycin C and BCNU. In 18 patients with evaluable metastatic colorectal cancer who received hepatic arterial combination chemotherapy, there were therapeutic responses in 13 and disease stabilization in 4. The pumps were well tolerated by patients. They offer a reasonable approach to long-term ambulatory regional hepatic chemotherapy. PMID:6220618

Cohen, A M; Kaufman, S D; Wood, W C; Greenfield, A J

1983-04-01

172

Anaphylactoid reactions after infusion of radiographic contrast media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pathophysiology and Prophylaxis: Anaphylactoid reactions after infusion of radiographic contrast media (RCM) do not occur infrequently (5-20%). The pathophysiology of these reactions is not totally clear. In the majority of the reactions, immunological mechanisms do not seem to play a role; rather pseudo-allergic mechanisms are involved, namely the direct liberation of vasoactive mediator substances (e.g. histamine) or activation of the complement, coagulation or kallikrein-kinin system. For the prophylaxis of RCM-induced reactions, different drugs have been recommended such as antihistamines, gluco-corticosteroids, adrenergic agents, epsilonaminocaproic acid, psychopharmaca or hypnotic suggestion. In a controlled randomized study with 800 patients undergoing intravenous urography, the efficacy of 3 different pretreatment schedules (H1-antagonists, combined H1 + H2-antagonists, prednisolone) was compared to a placebo control. It was found that the application of combined H1- and H2-antagonists 5 minutes prior to RCM infusion significantly reduced the frequency of objective anaphylactoid reactions. Neither H1-antagonists alone nor prednisolone (250 mg) showed an effect in this study. (orig.)

173

Anaphylactoid reactions after infusion of radiographic contrast media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pathophysiology and Prophylaxis: Anaphylactoid reactions after infusion of radiographic contrast media (RCM) do not occur infrequently (5-20%). The pathophysiology of these reactions is not totally clear. In the majority of the reactions, immunological mechanisms do not seem to play a role; rather pseudo-allergic mechanisms are involved, namely the direct liberation of vasoactive mediator substances (e.g. histamine) or activation of the complement, coagulation or kallikrein-kinin system. For the prophylaxis of RCM-induced reactions, different drugs have been recommended such as antihistamines, gluco-corticosteroids, adrenergic agents, epsilonaminocaproic acid, psychopharmaca or hypnotic suggestion. In a controlled randomized study with 800 patients undergoing intravenous urography, the efficacy of 3 different pretreatment schedules (H1-antagonists, combined H1 + H2-antagonists, prednisolone) was compared to a placebo control. It was found that the application of combined H1- and H2-antagonists 5 minutes prior to RCM infusion significantly reduced the frequency of objective anaphylactoid reactions. Neither H1-antagonists alone nor prednisolone (250 mg) showed an effect in this study.

Ring, J.; Rothenberger, K.H.

1984-05-18

174

Drug selection principles in intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is an effective treatment for malignant tumors. The following ten principles should be taken into account when the choice of infusion medication is to be made. (1) The tumor-sensitive drugs should be selected. (2) Pay attention to the compatibility of medicines. (3) Select the type of drug compatibility and drug interactions. (4) Concentration-dependent drugs are the drugs of first choice. (5) Pay attention to side effects when anti-cancer drug compatibility is considered.(6) The perfusion anti-cancer drugs exert their killing effect on the tumor cells in their prototype. (7) Pay attention to the administration order of the drugs and the intervals of treatment. (8) The medication should be individualized as the physical condition and tumor's heterogeneity are different from patient to patient. It is one of the fundamental principles to formulate a specific scheme for every given patient. (9) Make full use of the pharmacokinetics features of the anti-cancer drugs in clinical practice. (10) To be familiar with commonly used drugs and common tumor chemotherapeutic formulae is a matter of cardinal significance. (authors)

175

Green Propellant Infusion Mission Program Development and Technology Maturation  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) is comprised of a cross-cutting team of domestic spacecraft propulsion and storable green propellant technology experts. This TDM is led by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC), who will use their BCP- 100 spacecraft to carry a propulsion system payload consisting of one 22 N thruster for primary divert (DeltaV) maneuvers and four 1 N thrusters for attitude control, in a flight demonstration of the AF-M315E technology. The GPIM project has technology infusion team members from all three major market sectors: Industry, NASA, and the Department of Defense (DoD). The GPIM project team includes BATC, includes Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR), Air Force Research Laboratory, Aerospace Systems Directorate, Edwards AFB (AFRL), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). STMD programmatic and technology oversight is provided by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The GPIM project shall fly an operational AF-M315E green propulsion subsystem on a Ball-built BCP-100 spacecraft.

McLean, Christopher H.; Deininger, William D.; Joniatis, John; Aggarwal, Pravin K.; Spores, Ronald A.; Deans, Matthew; Yim, John T.; Bury, Kristen; Martinez, Jonathan; Cardiff, Eric H.; Bacha, Caitlin E.

2014-01-01

176

Continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine for maintenance sedation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ketamine HCl is a rapidly acting general anesthetic with sedative and analgesic properties that has been reported to have favorable effects on the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. The goal of this review is to determine the hemodynamic and pulmonary effects of continuous intravenous (IV) ketamine infusion in mechanically ventilated patients, and to determine whether sufficient evidence exists to support its use as an agent for maintenance anesthesia. PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Index Medicus databases as well as relevant bibliographies were searched. Studies were independently evaluated for inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as study parameters, by two evaluators. Any discrepancy was resolved by a third evaluator. Twenty studies (281 patients) met the inclusion criteria for this review including 11 prospective studies (250 patients). Data suggests that ketamine decreases airway resistance, improves dynamic compliance, and preserves functional residual capacity, minute ventilation and tidal volume, while retaining protective pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes. In patients with refractory bronchospasm, continuous infusion of intravenous ketamine decreases audible wheeze, bronchodilator requirements, and hypercarbia. It also improves respiratory rate and oxygenation, and does not promote respiratory depression. Additionally, ketamine does not result in significant perturbations in blood pressure, heart rate, or vascular resistance. Ketamine may be a safe and effective tool for maintenance sedation of mechanically ventilated patients, however a large prospective clinical trial is warranted. PMID:21730929

Miller, A C; Jamin, C T; Elamin, E M

2011-08-01

177

1, 2, 3, 4: infusing quantitative literacy into introductory biology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biology of the twenty-first century is an increasingly quantitative science. Undergraduate biology education therefore needs to provide opportunities for students to develop fluency in the tools and language of quantitative disciplines. Quantitative literacy (QL) is important for future scientists as well as for citizens, who need to interpret numeric information and data-based claims regarding nearly every aspect of daily life. To address the need for QL in biology education, we incorporated quantitative concepts throughout a semester-long introductory biology course at a large research university. Early in the course, we assessed the quantitative skills that students bring to the introductory biology classroom and found that students had difficulties in performing simple calculations, representing data graphically, and articulating data-driven arguments. In response to students' learning needs, we infused the course with quantitative concepts aligned with the existing course content and learning objectives. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by significant improvement in the quality of students' graphical representations of biological data. Infusing QL in introductory biology presents challenges. Our study, however, supports the conclusion that it is feasible in the context of an existing course, consistent with the goals of college biology education, and promotes students' development of important quantitative skills. PMID:20810965

Speth, Elena Bray; Momsen, Jennifer L; Moyerbrailean, Gregory A; Ebert-May, Diane; Long, Tammy M; Wyse, Sara; Linton, Debra

2010-01-01

178

L-ornithine-L-aspartate infusion efficacy in hepatic encephalopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the efficacy of L-ornithine-L-aspartate in treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Cirrhotic patients with hyperammonemia and overt hepatic encephalopathy were enrolled. Eighty patients were randomized to two treatment groups, L-ornithine-L-aspartate (20g/d) or placebo, both dissolved in 250mL of 5% dextrose water and infused intravenously for four hours a day for five consecutive days with 0.5 g/kg dietary protein intake at the end of daily treatment period. Outcome variables were postprandial blood ammonia and mental state grade. Adverse reactions and mortality were also determined. Both treatment groups were comparable regarding age, gender, etiology of cirrhosis, Child-Pugh class, mental state grade and blood ammonia at baseline. Although, improvement occurred in both groups, there was a greater improvement in L-ornithine-L-aspartate group with regard to both variables. Four patients in the placebo group and 2 in L-ornithine-L-aspartate group died. L-ornithine-L-aspartate infusions were found to be effective in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. (author)

179

Tea and herbal infusions: Their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tea and herbal infusions have been studied for their polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. The total phenolics recovered by ethyl acetate from the water extract, were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and ranged from 88.1 ± 0.42 (Greek mountain tea) to 1216 ± 32.0 mg (Chinese green tea) GAE (Gallic acid equivalents)/cup. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by two methods, DPPH and chemiluminescence assays, using Trolox and quercetin as standards. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 0.151 ± 0.002 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.38 quercetin equivalents and 0.57 Trolox equivalents), for Chinese green tea, to 0.77 ± 0.012 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.08 quercetin equivalents and 0.13 Trolox equivalents), for Greek mountain tea. Chemiluminescence assay results showed that the IC50 ranged from 0.17 ± 3.4 x 103 lg extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (1.89 quercetin and 5.89 Trolox equivalents) for Chinese green tea, to 1.10 ± 1.86 x 102 g extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (0.29 quercetin and 0.90 Trolox equivalents) for Greek mountain tea. The phenolic profile in the herbal infusions was investigated by LC-DAD-MS in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. About 60 different flavo- noids, phenolic acids and their derivatives have been identified. (author)

180

Manifestations of Antidrug Antibodies Response: Hypersensitivity and Infusion Reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunogenicity of biological agents leads to the development of antidrug antibodies (ADA) and it may be associated to hypersensitivity reactions. Immediate infusion reactions occur during or within 1?h after infusion, and their clinical manifestations vary considerably, ranging from mild to severe and life-threatening. Recent studies show that different mechanisms sustain hypersensitivity reactions toward biologics, and the application of novel methods for detecting ADA has demonstrated the involvement of specific IgE isotypes. Considering the severity of the reactions, it is important for clinicians to recognize their symptoms, to know their pathophysiological mechanisms, and to take risk assessment and prophylactic procedures. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations of antibody and nonantibody-mediated reactions as well as the humoral and cellular mechanisms of antidrug responses. Last, the management of patients at risk is discussed. The definition of diagnostic and prophylactic strategies represents an unavoidable need in the management of potentially reactive patients to improve the safety profile of biologics. PMID:25493962

Vultaggio, Alessandra; Nencini, Francesca; Pratesi, Sara; Petroni, Giulia; Maggi, Enrico; Matucci, Andrea

2014-12-01

181

THE ROLE OF INTRAVENOUS AMINO ACID INFUSION IN OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oligohydramnios means the fetus is in a compromised condition. Ante partum amniotic fluid index (A.F.I. assessment is one of the reliable, good predictor and standard technique for assessment of fetal well-being in antenatal period. In the present study 25 cases of Oligohydramnios in the third trimester were given intravenous amino acid in 1000cc of 10% fructodex drip on 1st day and the amino acid infusion drip in 500 ml of 10% fructodex daily till 6 days. After that biweekly till patient deliver or till term. There were 4 cases of severe Oligohydramnios and 21 cases of moderate Oligohydramnios at the time of their first visit. After amino acid infusion therapy, on repeat ultrasonography, 9 (36% cases patients with moderate Oligohydramnios had improved amniotic fluid index (AFI to normal whereas two patients with severe Oligohydramnios had improved A.F.I. to moderate Oligohydramnios and remaining 12 and two patients of moderate and severe Oligohydramnios group patients did not show any changes in A.F.I. Maximum cases delivered vaginally.

Ritu Gupta et al

2012-10-01

182

Morphine infusions into the rostrolateral periaqueductal gray affect maternal behaviors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english It is well established that morphine inhibits maternal behaviors. Previous studies by our group have shown activation of the rostrolateral periaqueductal gray (rlPAG) upon inhibition-intended subcutaneous injections of morphine. In this context, we demonstrated that a single naloxone infusion into t [...] he rlPAG, following this opioid-induced inhibition, reactivated maternal behaviors. Since these data were obtained by using peripheral morphine injections, the present study was designed to test whether morphine injected directly into the rlPAG would affect maternal behaviors. Our hypothesis that morphine acting through the rlPAG would disrupt maternal behaviors was confirmed with a local infusion of morphine. The mothers showed shorter latency for locomotor behavior to explore the home cage (P = 0.049). Inhibition was especially evident regarding retrieving (P = 0.002), nest building (P = 0.05) and full maternal behavior (P = 0.023). These results support the view that opioidergic transmission plays a behaviorally meaningful inhibitory role in the rostrolateral PAG.

L.M., Moura; N.S., Canteras; M.H., Sukikara; L.F., Felicio.

2010-09-01

183

Augmentation of Chemotherapeutic Infusion Effect by TSU-68, an Oral Targeted Antiangiogenic Agent, in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of combination therapy with TSU-68 and chemotherapeutic infusion in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. Methods: This study was approved by the animal care committee at our institute. Three weeks before chemotherapeutic infusion, VX2 carcinoma was implanted into the livers of 32 rabbits. One week after chemotherapeutic infusion, vehicle was administered orally for 3 weeks in the control group (n = 16), and TSU-68 was administered orally at a daily dose of 200 mg/kg for 3 weeks in the treated group (n = 16). Computed tomography (CT) was performed before and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after chemotherapeutic infusion. Tumor response was assessed according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) on CT scan. The maximum thickness of viable tumor was measured on microscopic sections. Results: According to the RECIST, stable disease was observed in 9 (56%) rabbits and progressive disease in 7 (44%) in the control group, whereas partial response was observed in 1 (6%) rabbit and stable disease in 15 (94%) in the treated group. On pathologic examination, a viable lesion was present in 12 (75%) rabbits in the control group and in 6 (38%) rabbits in the treated group (P = 0.073). The mean maximum thickness of viable tumor in the treated group was significantly smaller than that in the control group (0.74 mm vs. 3.39 mm; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Oral administration of TSU-68 augmented the effect of chemion of TSU-68 augmented the effect of chemotherapeutic infusion in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model.

184

Transarterial Infusion Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin-Lipiodol Suspension With or Without Embolization for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluate the long-term prognosis and prognostic factors in patients treated with transarterial infusion chemotherapy using cisplatin-lipiodol (CDDP/LPD) suspension with or without embolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Study subjects were 107 patients with HCC treated with repeated transarterial infusion chemotherapy alone using CDDP/LPD (adjusted as CDDP 10mg/LPD 1ml). The median number of transarterial infusion procedures was two (range, one to nine), the mean dose of CDDP per transarterial infusion chemotherapy session was 30 mg (range, 5.0-67.5 mg), and the median total dose of transarterial infusion chemotherapy per patient was 60 mg (range, 10-390 mg). Survival rates were 86% at 1 year, 40% at 3 years, 20% at 5 years, and 16% at 7 years. For patients with >90% LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy, rates were 98% at 1 year, 60% at 3 years, and 22% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis identified >90% LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy (p = 0.001), absence of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT; p < 0.001), and Child-Pugh class A (p = 0.012) as independent determinants of survival. Anaphylactic shock was observed in two patients, at the fifth transarterial infusion chemotherapy session in one and the ninth in the other. In conclusion, transarterial infusion chemotherapy with CDDP/LPD appears to be a useful treatment option for patients with unresectable HCC without PVTT and in Cith unresectable HCC without PVTT and in Child-Pugh class A. LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy is an important prognostic factor. Careful consideration should be given to the possibility of anaphylactic shock upon repeat infusion with CDDP/LPD.

185

Cesarean Section  

Science.gov (United States)

... In the United States, about one in four women have their babies this way. Most C-sections are done when unexpected problems happen during delivery. These include Health problems in the mother The position of the baby Not enough room for the ...

186

Flip-flop kinetics of ropivacaine during continuous epidural infusion influences its accumulation rate  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Ropivacaine has an optimal toxicity profile for epidural anesthesia in adults, but there are currently no studies concerning its pharmacokinetics during continuous infusion. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of ropivacaine in adults during a 48-h continuous epidural infusion. Materials and methods We enrolled 43 adults (ASA I-II) schedul...

Cusato, Maria; Allegri, Massimo; Niebel, Tekla; Ingelmo, Pablo; Broglia, Monica; Braschi, Antonio; Regazzi, Mario

2010-01-01

187

Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare L.: different performances regarding bioactivity and phenolic compounds  

OpenAIRE

Bioactivity of oregano methanolic extracts and essential oils is well known. Nonetheless, reports using aqueous extracts are scarce, mainly decoction or infusion preparations used for therapeutic applications. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic compounds of the infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic extract of oregano were evaluated and compared. The antioxidant activity is related with phenolic compounds, mostly flavonoids, since decoction presente...

Martins, Nata?lia; Barros, Lillian; Santos-buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2014-01-01

188

Programmable control means for providing safe and controlled medication infusion  

Science.gov (United States)

An implantable programmable infusion pump (IPIP) is disclosed and generally includes: a fluid reservoir filled with selected medication; a pump for causing a precise volumetric dosage of medication to be withdrawn from the reservoir and delivered to the appropriate site within the body; and, a control means for actuating the pump in a safe and programmable manner. The control means includes a microprocessor, a permanent memory containing a series of fixed software instructions, and a memory for storing prescription schedules, dosage limits and other data. The microprocessor actuates the pump in accordance with programmable prescription parameters and dosage limits stored in the memory. A communication link allows the control means to be remotely programmed. The control means incorporates a running integral dosage limit and other safety features which prevent an inadvertent or intentional medication overdose. The control means also monitors the pump and fluid handling system and provides an alert if any improper or potentially unsafe operation is detected.

Fischell, Robert E. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

189

Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Parenteral thiamine has a very high safety profile. The most common adverse effect is local irritation; however, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions may occur, mostly related to intravenous administration. We describe a 44-year-old man, a chronic alcoholic, who was admitted with alcohol intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance of recognising the symptoms of anaphylaxis and the fact that facilities for treating anaphylaxis and cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be available when thiamine or for that matter, any drug is given in-hospital.

Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan

2013-01-01

190

The environmental impact of health care: implications for infusion nursing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health care provision is a dangerous business. Health professionals recognize the potential for miscommunication, medication errors, and other possible threats to patient safety. Less evident are the hazards to the environment inherent in the everyday practice of patient care. This article addresses 3 areas of practice in which infusion nurses can make a positive impact on the environment: preferable intravenous (IV) supply purchasing, proper management of electronic equipment (including purchasing, servicing, and disposal), and appropriate medication use and disposal practices. The article aims to inform IV nurses of the alarming environmental effects that the health care industry has on the environment and to suggest a clear, direct course of action to improve our environmental impact. PMID:22498487

Lipkin, Noelle Claire

2012-01-01

191

The evolving role of saline infusion sonography (SIS) in infertility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saline infusion sonography (SIS) has become a valuable diagnostic modality in gynaecology over the last three decades. SIS is now commonly employed for detailed evaluation of the uterine cavity as part of pre-treatment assessment in infertile women. The objective of this paper is review the scientific literature on SIS in infertility. Medline, Ovid and Cochrane databases were searched for relevant articles. The indications, technical aspects and the potential advantages of SIS are discussed. The efficacy and sensitivity of SIS are compared to hysteroscopy in the evaluation of uterine polyps, fibroids, intrauterine adhesions and uterine anomalies. Increasing evidence suggests the use of SIS prior to an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle as it has increased sensitivity in the detection of intrauterine pathology. SIS is cost-effective and results in better patient satisfaction scores than hysteroscopy. PMID:25528732

Seshadri, S; Khalil, M; Osman, A; Clough, A; Jayaprakasan, K; Khalaf, Y

2015-02-01

192

Pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy of bleomycin administered by continuous infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was done at Memorial Hospital in which Bleomycin was given by continuous intravenous infusion to radiation therapy patients with a variety of far advanced unresectable malignant neoplastic diseases. Smaller doses than usual were administered initially, approximately 1/10 the dose that had been previously studied. The dose was gradually escalated when it was shown that there was no acute toxicity from the smaller dose. Bleomycin blood levels were measured by bioassay and pulmonary function was studied by measurement of total lung capacity and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. In this study, therapeutic activity in cervix cancer appeared to be significantly better than in earlier studies by the same group of investigators. However, in vitro and animal studies in the author's own clinical pharmacologic studies support the logic of continuous intravenous administration in the effort to decrease pulmonary toxicity and to improve therapeutic effect

193

Effects of lipid and propionic acid infusions on feed intake of lactating dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Propionic acid is more hypophagic for cows with elevated hepatic acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) concentration in the postpartum period. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interaction of hepatic acetyl CoA concentration, which is elevated by intravenous lipid infusion, and intraruminal propionic acid infusion on feed intake and feeding behavior responses of lactating cows. Eight multiparous, ruminally cannulated, Holstein dairy cows past peak lactation were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were propionic acid (PI) infused intraruminally at 0.5mol/h for 18h starting 6h before feeding and behavior monitoring or sham control (CO), and intravenous jugular infusion of lipid (LI, Intralipid 20%; Baxter US, Deerfield, IL) or saline (SI, 0.9% NaCl; Baxter US) infused at 250mL/h for 12h before feeding and behavior monitoring, and then 500mL/h for 12h after feeding. Changes in plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones and hepatic acetyl CoA from before infusion until the end of infusion were evaluated. We observed a tendency for an interaction between PI and LI for the change in plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration from the preliminary day to the end of the infusion period. Infusion of propionic acid decreased dry matter intake (DMI) 15% compared with CO, but lipid infusion did not affect DMI over the 12h following feeding. Infusion of propionic acid tended to decrease hepatic acetyl CoA concentration from the preliminary day to the end of the infusion compared with CO, consistent with PI decreasing DMI by stimulating oxidation of acetyl CoA. Contrary to our expectations, LI did not increase concentration of NEFA or ?-hydroxybutyrate in plasma, concentration of acetyl CoA in the liver, or milk fat yield, suggesting that the infused lipid was stored or oxidized by extra-hepatic tissues. As a result, we detected no interaction between PI and LI for DMI. Although the effect of PI on DMI was consistent with our previous results, this lipid infusion model using cows past peak lactation was not useful to simulate the lipolytic state of cows in the postpartum period in this experiment. PMID:24534511

Stocks, S E; Allen, M S

2014-04-01

194

Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an established treatment for various neuromuscular disorders. Recently, we have observed a few cases of haemolytic anaemia following IVIg treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of anaemia and haemolysis as a complication to IVIg. In a prospective study we included 28 post-polio patients treated with 2g per kilo of Privigen® and 22 CIDP patients treated with 1.7±0.4 (mean±SD) g per kilo of Kiovig®. The post-polio patients were all IVIg treatment naitive whereas the CIDP patients were in maintenance therapy. Venous blood samples were performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p<0.001. Furthermore, decreasing haptoglobin and increasing reticulocyte count, blood bilirubin, and lactate dehydrogenase were observed, all p<0.05. The decrease of haemoglobin was 0.79±1.2 in the treatment naive versus 0.25±0.3mmol/l in the long-term treated patients, p=0.05. Alterations of reticulocyte count, haptoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase were more pronounced in the treatment naive group, all p<0.05. In 7 patients we observed a substantial decline of haemoglobin of more than 1.5mmol/l (1.8-2.9). Six of those 7 patients had undetectable levels of haptoglobin after IVIg and the mean reticulocyte count, blood bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase increased 420%, 130% and 108%. All were in the de-novo treated group. Our observations indicate that treatment naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized.

Markvardsen, Lars HØj; Harbo, Thomas

195

Intracoronary stem cell infusion in heart transplant candidates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stem cell transplantation is emerging as a potential therapeutic modality for patients with heart failure. It has been demonstrated that intracoronary stem cell transplantation had beneficial effects on left ventricular perfusion and contractile functions. We hypothesized that patients with end-stage ischemic cardiomyopathy, who are candidates for heart transplantation, could also benefit from autologous intracoronary stem cell transplantation. We performed a prospective, open-labeled study in 10 patients with end-stage ischemic cardiomyopathy, who were on the waiting list for heart transplantation. Each patient received bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell infusion via balloon catheter in the target vessel, which had been revascularized by percutaneous intervention and was patent before the procedure. Clinical and laboratory evaluations, a treadmill exercise test, echocardiography, and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) were performed to the patients at baseline and 6 months after stem cell infusion. At 6-month follow-up of the eight patients who were able to complete the study, we revealed a significant increase in ejection fraction (from 30.0±6.6% to 36.2±7.3%; p=0.001) in echocardiographic evaluation. SPECT evaluation also displayed a reduction in infarct area (50.4±16.1% to 44.1±12.5%; p=0.003). Both myocardial oxygen consumption (p=0.001) and metabolic equivalents (p=0.001) were significantly increased at 6-month follow-up. These results demonstranth follow-up. These results demonstrate that intracoronary stem cell transplantation ameliorates heart failure symptoms and improves left ventricular function and perfusion. Therefore intracoronary stem cell transplantation may be used as an alternative treatment option for heart transplant candidates. (author)

196

Sincalide cholescintigraphy--32 years later: evidence-based data on its clinical utility and infusion methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sincalide cholescintigraphy was first reported to have clinical utility in 1980. Since then, many publications have found that a reduced gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) can confirm the clinical diagnosis of acalculous chronic gallbladder disease and predict symptomatic relief with cholecystectomy. However, some publications had not found the test clinically predictive. Many different sincalide infusion methods and normal values have been used. It had been suspected that the different infusion methods and normal values might account for the variability in reported utility. Furthermore, clinical review articles have raised questions about the evidence-based quality of the published data on the diagnostic utility of sincalide cholescintigraphy. A recently published multicenter trial has established the optimal methodology for sincalide infusion and normal values. A subsequent multispecialty consensus publication has recommended that this method be the standard method for sincalide infusion, specifically, a 60-minute infusion of 0.02 ?g/kg (abnormal GBEF, gallbladder disease and the patient's response to cholecystectomy. PMID:22293163

Ziessman, Harvey A

2012-03-01

197

Continuous infusion of low-dose doxorubicin, epirubicin and mitoxantrone in cancer chemotherapy: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the recent development of reliable portable pumps and safe venous access systems, continuous infusion of chemotherapeutic agents on an out-patient basis has become feasible. Advantages of continuous infusion are the long-term exposure of tumour cells to the drug and the fact that most toxic effects are reduced for doxorubicin, epirubicin and mitoxantrone due to elimination of the high peak plasma levels. Preliminary data for doxorubicin suggest that its antitumour activity is maintained. Pharmacokinetic studies with epirubicin and mitoxantrone showed a linear relationship between drug dose infused and the steady-state plasma level for these drugs. The area under the curve for leukocytes drug level was higher during continuous infusion than after an equitoxic bolus injection of epirubicin and mitoxantrone. Well-randomized clinical trials will be necessary to investigate the role of continuous infusion of antracyclines and mitoxantrone in cancer chemotherapy in the future. PMID:3062572

Greidanus, J; Willemse, P H; Uges, D R; Oremus, E T; De Langen, Z J; De Vries, E G

1988-12-01

198

Comparison of surface modifications of poly(ether urethanes) by chemical infusion and graft polymerization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our approach to surface modification uses the chemical infusion process to introduce materials into the outermost layer of the polymeric material, thereby altering the surface without changing the bulk properties of the polymer. The infused materials may slowly diffuse out of the infusion layer if they are volatile or highly mobile. However, if polymeric infusant materials are employed, they may become chain entangled with the host polymer and result in a permanently modified surface. A second approach utilizes photo-initiated graft polymerization of poly(ether urethanes) with an appropriate monomer. We have explored both of these methods by examining the infusion of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) into commercially available poly(ether urethanes) and the graft polymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone onto poly(ether urethanes). Results are presented here. 7 refs., 1 tab.

Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Hermes, R.E.

1988-01-01

199

Successful intraosseous infusion in the critically ill patient does not require a medullary cavity.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that successful intraosseous infusion in critically ill patients does not require bone that contains a medullary cavity. DESIGN: Infusion of methyl green dye via standard intraosseous needles into bones without medullary cavity-in this case calcaneus and radial styloid-in cadaveric specimens. SETTING: University department of anatomy. PARTICIPANTS: Two adult cadaveric specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Observation of methyl green dye in peripheral veins of the limb in which the intraosseous infusion was performed. RESULTS: Methyl green dye was observed in peripheral veins of the chosen limb in five out of eight intraosseous infusions into bones without medullary cavity-calcaneus and radial styloid. CONCLUSIONS: Successful intraosseous infusion does not always require injection into a bone with a medullary cavity. Practitioners attempting intraosseous access on critically ill patients in the emergency department or prehospital setting need not restrict themselves to such bones. Calcaneus and radial styloid are both an acceptable alternative to traditional recommended sites.

McCarthy, Gerard

2012-02-03

200

Determination of 210Po in tea, mat and their infusions and its annual intake by Syrians  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polonium-210 was determined in 34 kinds of imported tea and 9 kinds of mat collected from the Syrian local market. The 210Po concentration was found to vary from 5.5 to 39 Bq x kg-1 and 47 to 82 Bq x kg-1 in tea and mat samples, respectively. In addition 210Po was also determined in tea and mat infusions where different infusion conditions have been examined: amount, temperature and infusion time. The results have shown that the amount of 210Po transferred from tea and mat leaves to the aqueous extract ranged from 9 to 21% and 3 to 15%, respectively. The annual intake of 210Po by Syrians due to tea consumption and mat infusions was calculated and found to be 9 Bq and 151 Bq for tea and mat respectively: washing of mat with warm water is recommended before preparation the infusions to decrease the annual intake of 210Po. (author)

201

Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED50) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

202

Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process : A decision making methodology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection for vacuum infused of a wind turbine blade—is shown to demonstrate the intricacies involved in the proposed methodology for resin selection.

Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage

2011-01-01

203

Attribute Based Selection of Thermoplastic Resin for Vacuum Infusion Process: A Decision Making Methodology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection for vacuum infused of a wind turbine blade—is shown to demonstrate the intricacies involved in the proposed methodology for resin selection.

Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Lystrup, Aage

2012-01-01

204

Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris: a comparative study of infusion polysaccharides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium and Artemisia vulgaris are used in infusions for the treatment of several diseases. Besides secondary metabolites, carbohydrates are also extracted with hot water and are present in the infusions. The plant carbohydrates exhibit several of therapeutic properties and their biological functions are related to chemical structure. In this study, the polysaccharides from infusions of the aerial parts of A. absinthium and A. vulgaris were isolated and characterized. In the A. absinthium infusion, a type II arabinogalactan was isolated. The polysaccharide had a Gal:Ara ratio of 2.3:1, and most of the galactose was (1 ? 3)- and (1 ? 6)-linked, as typically found in type II arabinogalactans. In the A. vulgaris infusion, an inulin-type fructan was the main polysaccharide. NMR analysis confirmed the structure of the polymer, which is composed of a chain of fructosyl units ?-(2 ? 1) linked to a starting ?-d-glucose unit. PMID:24507342

Corrêa-Ferreira, Marília Locatelli; Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia

2014-02-15

205

Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

206

Mammalogy Section  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine of the world's 29 orders of mammals are found in the state of Washington, including bats, primates, rodents, marine mammals, and carnivores, among other groups. For a plethora of information on mammals in Washington state and beyond, check out this Webpage from the Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture (University of Washington-Seattle). In the Mammals of Washington section of the Website, nine mammalian orders are described in 148 separate species's accounts. Each account gives the natural history of the species (characteristics, diet, behaviors, habitat), as well as its geographic distribution, and in some cases, phylogeography. In the Burke Mammalogy Research section, current research on the Biogeography of Pacific Northwest Mammals is described, with details of other research projects (in Chile, Mexico, and China) still under construction. The Burke Mammal Collection section contains information on the Museum's 44,000 specimens, including history and composition of the Collection and Database, use of the Collection and Database, and Publications and Theses (related to the Collection). The Website is beautifully conceived, easy to navigate, and highly informative, making it an excellent learning or research resource.

207

Bile duct complications of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy evaluated by helical CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AIM: To describe the imaging findings of bile duct complications of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using helical CT, to set diagnostic criteria, to develop a CT grading system, and to correlate these with clinical findings and laboratory data. METHODS: Follow-up helical CT of the abdomen was performed every 3 months for 60 patients receiving HAIC. Three radiologists reviewed all CT studies before and after treatment, using either the picture archiving and communication system or hard copies. The findings of bile duct abnormalities were correlated with findings from other imaging techniques, clinical symptoms and laboratory data. RESULTS: Bile duct abnormalities developed in 34 (57%) of cases either during HAIC or 1 to 12 months after treatment. In 14 (41%) of these 34 patients, enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma along the dilated bile duct or in the segmental or lobar distribution was observed. In 43 cases (72%), normal or abnormal alkaline phosphatase levels were consistent with normal or abnormal CT findings, respectively. Increasing alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels were related to CT grade. CONCLUSION: Imaging findings of bile duct complications of HAIC are similar to those of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and correlate well with abnormal clinical and laboratory data. In the presence of such clinical abnormalities, thin-section helical CT with careful review of the imaging studies helps to determine the correct diagnosis, monitor the changes and guide appropriate treatment.

Phongkitkarun, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: rasih@mahidol.ac.th; Kobayashi, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Varavithya, V. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Huang, X. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Curley, S.A. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Charnsangavej, C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2005-06-01

208

Bile duct complications of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy evaluated by helical CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AIM: To describe the imaging findings of bile duct complications of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using helical CT, to set diagnostic criteria, to develop a CT grading system, and to correlate these with clinical findings and laboratory data. METHODS: Follow-up helical CT of the abdomen was performed every 3 months for 60 patients receiving HAIC. Three radiologists reviewed all CT studies before and after treatment, using either the picture archiving and communication system or hard copies. The findings of bile duct abnormalities were correlated with findings from other imaging techniques, clinical symptoms and laboratory data. RESULTS: Bile duct abnormalities developed in 34 (57%) of cases either during HAIC or 1 to 12 months after treatment. In 14 (41%) of these 34 patients, enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma along the dilated bile duct or in the segmental or lobar distribution was observed. In 43 cases (72%), normal or abnormal alkaline phosphatase levels were consistent with normal or abnormal CT findings, respectively. Increasing alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels were related to CT grade. CONCLUSION: Imaging findings of bile duct complications of HAIC are similar to those of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and correlate well with abnormal clinical and laboratory data. In the presence of such clinical abnormalities, thin-section helical CT with careful review of the imaging studies helps to determine the correct diagnosis, monitor the chmine the correct diagnosis, monitor the changes and guide appropriate treatment

209

Anti-Peroxyl Radical Quality and Antibacterial Properties of Rooibos Infusions and Their Pure Glycosylated Polyphenolic Constituents  

OpenAIRE

The anti-peroxyl radical quality of two aqueous rooibos infusions and solutions of their most abundant glycosylated polyphenols was evaluated using pyrogallol red and fluorescein-based oxygen radical absorbance ratios. It was observed that the artificial infusions, prepared using only the most abundant polyphenols present in rooibos and at concentrations similar to those found in the natural infusions, showed greater antioxidant quality than the latter infusions, reaching values close to thos...

Udekwu, Klas I.; Elizabeth Joubert; Eduardo Lissi; Baback Salehani; Akop Yepremyan; Minehan, Thomas G.; Camilo López-Alarcón; Nadja Karamehmedovic; Daisy Hjelmqvist; Simpson, Madeline J.; Alarcon, Emilio I.

2013-01-01

210

Is routine replacement of i.v. administration sets required after each change of intermittently administrated antibiotic infusions?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Aim: Manufacturers’ instructions recommend changing the infusion line together with the infusion bottle after each administration. We investigated if the complete infusion line may be microbiologically contaminated after short-time antibiotic and rinse-solution application.Method: Immediately after the change of an infusion administration set after 72 hours the remaining antibiotic solution was inactivated with yolk and cultured on blood agar for 48 hours at 36°C to detect possible contaminants.Results: Among 87 investigated samples no microbial growth was detected. One sample which hadn’t any contact to antibiotics yielded forming unit (cfu of coagulase-negative staphylococci.These results suggest that in case of consecutive antibiotic-short- and rinse-infusions the infusion line may be in place up to 72 hours without contamination. This, however, may be only the case for infusion sets, which are in contact with antibiotics. If no antibiotic is administered, the infusion bottle and the infusion line must be renewed together for every change. To clarify this question into more detail, a larger consecutive study is required. Conclusion: I.v. administration sets without any contact to antibiotics must be changed together with their infusion bottle after administration. In case of consecutive antibiotic-short- and rinse-infusions our pilot study suggests using the i.v. administration sets for up to 72 hours without renewing it at every infusion-set exchange.

von Au, Felix

2013-04-01

211

Post-ruminal or intravenous infusions of carbohydrates or amino acids to dairy cows 1. Early lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of post-ruminal and intravenous infusions of wheat starch or glucose (CHO) or a mixture of amino acids (AA) on milk protein yield, nitrogen utilisation, plasma metabolites and mammary extraction rate of dairy cows in early lactation. Eight cow, ruminally fistulated, was assigned to two 4 × 4 Latin squares during 14-day periods, where the last 7 days were for infusions. Infusions were: (1) starch in the abomasum (SP), (2) glucose in the blood (GB), (3) AA in the abomasum (AP), and (4) AA in the blood (AB). The experiment started 54 ± 4 days (mean ± s.e.) post partum (milk yield 33.4 ± 1.7 kg). Daily amounts of nutrients infused were 378, 365, 341, and 333 g for SP, GB, AP and AB, respectively. The cows were fed a basal diet consisting of a concentrate mixture and grass silage (55:45 on dry-matter (DM) basis), and DM intake was 17.2 kg/day. Milk production was affected by site of infusion within substrate, whereas infusion substrates within infusion site (CHO or AA) were of minor importance. Compared with SP infusion, GB infusion increased ( P losses of metabolic faecal nitrogen (MFN) by abomasal than by intravenous infusions, and an increased ( P 0.10) plasma glucose or insulin concentrations above that of SP infusion. Compared with the SP infusion, the GB infusion had minor effect on plasma AA. AP infusion increased ( P 0.05) on essential AA (EAA) or branched-chain AA (BCAA). Although a higher milk protein synthesis was observed for AB infusion, the mammary extraction rate was not higher ( P>0.05) than for AP infusion. Across infusion site, AP and AB infusions increased plasma concentration of EAA and BCAA, but compared with GB infusion, the mammary extraction rates tended ( P loss of MFN and that the gastrointestinal metabolism influences the nutrients available for milk synthesis. Our conclusion is that when glucose was infused, AA limited a further milk protein synthesis, but when AA was infused, glucose or energy substrate might have been the limiting factor. Our results verify that glucogenic substrates are limiting when cows are in negative energy balance. PMID:22444407

Schei, I; Danfær, A; Boman, I A; Volden, H

2007-05-01

212

Value of infusion-DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography) in diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of the infusion-study, the authors prospectively evaluated hepatic digital subtraction angiography of bolus and infusion studies in 71 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast to Bolus-DSA, which involves a 2 second injection of 10cc of contrast medium, the Infusion-DSA uses a protracted (10sec) injection, a lower injection rate, and larger total dose of contrast medium (20cc). The information yield of arterial and capillary phases of Infusion-DSA was compared with that of Bolus-DSA and graded as 'improved(+)', 'equivalent( ± )', or 'poor(-)'. Also, the contribution of Infusion-DSA to the diagnosis was classified into one of five in a graded system. In 29 hepatocellular patients, the Infusion-DSA was helpful in detecting daughter nodules, fibrous capsule and arteriovenous shunt. Infusion-DSA is a useful complementary technique in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and was also helpful in determining the selection of the therapeutic modality of hepatocellular carcinoma

213

Value of infusion-DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography) in diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of the infusion-study, the authors prospectively evaluated hepatic digital subtraction angiography of bolus and infusion studies in 71 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast to Bolus-DSA, which involves a 2 second injection of 10cc of contrast medium, the Infusion-DSA uses a protracted (10sec) injection, a lower injection rate, and larger total dose of contrast medium (20cc). The information yield of arterial and capillary phases of Infusion-DSA was compared with that of Bolus-DSA and graded as 'improved(+)', 'equivalent( {+-} )', or 'poor(-)'. Also, the contribution of Infusion-DSA to the diagnosis was classified into one of five in a graded system. In 29 hepatocellular patients, the Infusion-DSA was helpful in detecting daughter nodules, fibrous capsule and arteriovenous shunt. Infusion-DSA is a useful complementary technique in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and was also helpful in determining the selection of the therapeutic modality of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Kwon, Jeong Mi; Kim, So Sun; Huh, Jin Do; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

1991-09-15

214

Consequences of syringe size sensor malfunction in a modern infusion pump.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prompted by an actual case of potentially life-threatening infusion pump malfunction, we investigated the effects of wire breakage(s) within the syringe size sensor circuit in a Graseby 3400 infusion pump. The circuit wires within the sensor were systematically broken. The syringe sizes recognised by the sabotaged circuit and the actual sizes of syringes inserted into the pump were compared. Thirty-eight per cent of the possible wire breakages resulted in a smaller syringe size being recognized, causing the infusion rate to be too fast, and 38% of the possiblewire breakage resulted in a larger syringe size being recognized, causing the infusion rate to be too slow. The volume delivered for each different size of Terumo syringe as a function of distance travelled by the plunger was measured. The errors ranged from 0.4 to 2.6 times that of the expected rate. Only 1.3% of the possible wire breakage(s) were recognised as errors by the pump. The infusion rates were not affected in 22.5% of the cases. Wire breakage within the syringe size sensor in infusion pumps is yet another potential source of infusion error, with important safety implications. PMID:12635400

Derrick, J L; Ho, A M H; Cho, A M W

2003-02-01

215

Glucagon infusion increases rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the parallel increases of glucagon, the second peak of hepatic cAMP, and the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the prereplicative period in regenerating rate liver after a 70% hepatectomy, it was hypothesized that glucagon is responsible for the increased rate of purine synthesis de novo. To test this hypothesis, the effect of glucagon or dibutyryl cAMP infusion on the rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver was studied. Glucagon infusion but not insulin or glucose infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo, which was assayed by ({sup 14}C)glycine or ({sup 14}C)formate incorporation, by 2.7- to 4.3-fold. Glucagon infusion increased cAMP concentrations by 4.9-fold and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations by 1.5-fold in liver but did not change the specific activity of amidophosphoribosyltransferase or purine ribonucleotide concentrations. Dibutyryl cAMP infusion also increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo by 2.2- to 4.0-fold. Because glucagon infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the presence of unchanged purine ribonucleotide concentrations, it is concluded that glucagon after infusion or in animals after a 70% hepatectomy is playing an anabolic role to increase the rate of purine synthesis de novo by increasing cAMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations.

Itakura, Mitsuo; Maeda, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masami; Yamashita, Kamejiro (Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

1987-12-01

216

Glucagon infusion increases rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the parallel increases of glucagon, the second peak of hepatic cAMP, and the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the prereplicative period in regenerating rate liver after a 70% hepatectomy, it was hypothesized that glucagon is responsible for the increased rate of purine synthesis de novo. To test this hypothesis, the effect of glucagon or dibutyryl cAMP infusion on the rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver was studied. Glucagon infusion but not insulin or glucose infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo, which was assayed by [14C]glycine or [14C]formate incorporation, by 2.7- to 4.3-fold. Glucagon infusion increased cAMP concentrations by 4.9-fold and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations by 1.5-fold in liver but did not change the specific activity of amidophosphoribosyltransferase or purine ribonucleotide concentrations. Dibutyryl cAMP infusion also increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo by 2.2- to 4.0-fold. Because glucagon infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the presence of unchanged purine ribonucleotide concentrations, it is concluded that glucagon after infusion or in animals after a 70% hepatectomy is playing an anabolic role to increase the rate of purine synthesis de novo by increasing cAMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations

217

Albumin infusion in humans does not model exercise induced hypervolaemia after 24 hours  

Science.gov (United States)

We rapidly infused 234 +/- 3 mL of 5% human serum albumin in eight men while measuring haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, plasma volume (PV), albumin concentration, total protein concentration, osmolality, sodium concentration, renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration to test the hypotheses that plasma volume expansion and plasma albumin content expansion will not persist for 24 h. Plasma volume and albumin content were expanded for the first 6 h after infusion (44.3 +/- 1.9-47.2 +/- 2.0 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1-2.1 +/- 0.1 g kg-1 at pre-infusion and 1 h, respectively, P albumin content decreased significantly from 1 h post-infusion and were not different from pre-infusion (44.8 +/- 1.9 mL kg-1 and 1.9 +/- 0.1 g kg-1, respectively). Plasma aldosterone concentration showed a significant effect of time over the 24 h after infusion (P albumin content by infusion does not remain in the vascular space for 24 h and suggest a redistribution occurs between the intravascular space and interstitial fluid space.

Haskell, A.; Gillen, C. M.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

1998-01-01

218

Portal vein caffeine infusion enhances net hepatic glucose uptake during a glucose load in conscious dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined whether intraportal caffeine infusion, at rates designed to create concentrations similar to that seen with normal dietary intake, would enhance net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) during a glucose load. Dogs (n = 15) were implanted with sampling and infusion catheters as well as flow probes >16 d before the studies. After a basal sampling period, dogs were administered a somatostatin infusion (0-150 min) as well as intraportal infusions of glucose [18 micromol/(kg . min)], basal glucagon [0.5 ng/(kg . min)], and insulin [8.3 pmol/(kg . min)] to establish mild hyperinsulinemia. Arterial glucose was clamped at 10 mmol/L with a peripheral glucose infusion. At 80 min, either saline (Control; n = 7) or caffeine [1.5 micromol/(kg . min); n = 8] was infused into the portal vein. Arterial insulin, glucagon, norepinephrine, and glucose did not differ between groups. In dogs infused with caffeine, NHGU was significantly higher than in controls [21.2 +/- 4.3 vs. 11.2 +/- 1.6 micromol/(kg . min)]. Caffeine increased net hepatic lactate output compared with controls [12.5 +/- 3.8 vs. 5.5 +/- 1.5 micromol/(kg . min)]. These findings indicate that physiologic circulating levels of caffeine can enhance NHGU during a glucose load, and the added glucose consumed by the liver is in part converted to lactate. PMID:15514273

Pencek, R Richard; Battram, Danielle; Shearer, Jane; James, Freyja D; Lacy, D Brooks; Jabbour, Kareem; Williams, Phillip E; Graham, Terry E; Wasserman, David H

2004-11-01

219

Venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after nitroglycerin infusion in healthy subjects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Endothelin-1 and nitric oxide play an important regulatory role in the control of vascular smooth muscle tone. Nitroglycerin (NTG), a nitric oxide donating drug, may inhibit endothelin production. In this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, plasma levels of endothelin-1 were measured before and immediately (5-30 s) after 80 min infusion of NTG (glyceryl trinitrate) or saline in 12 healthy subjects. On two different days separated by at least 1 week, NTG in four different doses, 0.015, 0.25, 1.0, and 2.0 micrograms. kg-1. min-1, or placebo (isotonic saline) was infused successively for 20 min each dose. During the infusion blood pressure and heart rate were measured. NTG infusion significantly decreased systolic blood pressure from 112.4 to 103.4 mmHg and pulse pressure from 39.3 to 29.5 mmHg. Heart rate increased from 62.7 to 73.1 beats. min-1. No changes in endothelin-1 plasma levels were induced by NTG infusion (2.4 pg.ml-1 before NTG vs. 2.7 pg.ml-1 after NTG) and placebo infusion also did notaffect plasma endothelin-1. It is concluded that venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after NTG infusion.

Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

1995-01-01

220

Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae), commonly referred to as 'boldo', is used in traditional Chilean medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal diseases. Its leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, principally alkaloids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the protective effect of a complete boldo leaf infusion on lipoperoxidation (MDA determination at 532 nm) induced by cisplatin in mice liver. To determine if the observed effect can be explained by the action of boldine or catechin, each compound was studied separately. The mice were divided into 8 groups (n = 6): (I) not treated; (II) treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (III) treated with boldo leaf infusion 5%; (IV) pretreated with boldo leaf infusion 5% and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w.; (V) treated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w.; (VI) pretreated with boldine 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/kg.b.w.; (VII) treated with catechin; and (VIII) pretreated with catechin 50 mg/Kg b.w. and treated with cisplatin 6 mg/Kg b.w. As expected, the treatment with cisplatin significantly increased (p boldo leaf infusion significantly diminished (p boldo infusion is acting as a protector with respect to the oxidative hepatic damage caused by cisplatin, and that this protective ability would be due to the presence in the infusion of the natural antioxidants boldine and principally catechin. These findings suggest the potential use of the infusion as a chemoprotector. PMID:19145575

Fernández, J; Lagos, P; Rivera, P; Zamorano-Ponce, E

2009-07-01

221

Choice of infusion-sampling mode for tracer studies of free fatty acid metabolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the preferred infusion-sampling mode for isotopic studies of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, tracer [(14C]palmitate) was infused into the left ventricle of five anesthetized dogs, and tracee ([3H]palmitate) was infused into three separate peripheral veins of each dog. The [14C]palmitate specific activity (SA) was lower in mixed venous than arterial blood, and [3H]palmitate SA was equal in both sites. The actual infusion rate of [3H]palmitate [2.15 +/- 0.31 X 10(5) disintegrations/min (dpm).kg-1.min-1] could be accurately predicted (2.14 +/- 0.32 X 10(5) dpm.kg-1.min-1) using the known [14C]palmitate infusion rate and the arterial plasma [14C]-to-[3H]palmitate ratio. In contrast, the mixed venous [14C]-to-[3H]palmitate ratio resulted in overestimates (P less than 0.05) of the actual [3H]palmitate infusion rate. In summary, venous tracer infusion with arterial blood sampling for FFA tracer studies provides the most accurate estimates of tracee rate of appearance

222

Isotropic three-dimensional MRI-Fricke-infused gel dosimetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Fricke-infused gel has been shown to be a simple and attainable method for the conformal measurement of absorbed radiation dose. Nevertheless, its accuracy is seriously hindered by the irreversible ferric ion diffusion during magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement in radiosurgery is considered. In this study, the authors developed a fast three-dimensional spin-echo based Fricke gel dosimetry technique to reduce the adverse effects of ferric ion diffusion and to obtain an accurate isotropic 3D dose measurement. Methods: A skull shaped phantom containing Fricke-infused gel was irradiated using Leksell Gamma Knife. The rapid image-based dosimetry technique was applied with the use of a 3D fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence. The authors mathematically derived and experimentally validated the correlations between dose-response characteristics and parameters of the 3D fast spin-echo MR imaging sequence. Absorbed dose profiles were assessed and compared to the calculated profiles given by the Gamma Knife treatment planning system. Coefficient of variance (CV%) and coefficient of determination (R2) were used to evaluate the precision of dose-response curve estimation. The agreement between the measured and the planned 3D dose distributions was quantified by gamma-index analysis of two acceptance criteria. Results: Proper magnetic resonance imaging parameters were explored to render an accurate eters were explored to render an accurate three-dimensional absorbed dose mapping with a 1 mm3 isotropic image resolution. The efficacy of the dose-response estimation was approved by an R2 > 0.99 and an average CV% of 1.6%. Average gamma pass-rate between the experimentally measured and GammaPlan calculated dose distributions were 83.8% and 99.7% for 2%/2 and 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. Conclusions: With the designed MR imaging sequence and parameters, total 3D MR acquisition time was confined to within 20 min postirradiation, during which time ferric ion diffusion effects were negligible, thus enabling an accurate 3D radiation dose measurement.

223

Isotropic three-dimensional MRI-Fricke-infused gel dosimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Fricke-infused gel has been shown to be a simple and attainable method for the conformal measurement of absorbed radiation dose. Nevertheless, its accuracy is seriously hindered by the irreversible ferric ion diffusion during magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement in radiosurgery is considered. In this study, the authors developed a fast three-dimensional spin-echo based Fricke gel dosimetry technique to reduce the adverse effects of ferric ion diffusion and to obtain an accurate isotropic 3D dose measurement. Methods: A skull shaped phantom containing Fricke-infused gel was irradiated using Leksell Gamma Knife. The rapid image-based dosimetry technique was applied with the use of a 3D fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence. The authors mathematically derived and experimentally validated the correlations between dose-response characteristics and parameters of the 3D fast spin-echo MR imaging sequence. Absorbed dose profiles were assessed and compared to the calculated profiles given by the Gamma Knife treatment planning system. Coefficient of variance (CV%) and coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) were used to evaluate the precision of dose-response curve estimation. The agreement between the measured and the planned 3D dose distributions was quantified by gamma-index analysis of two acceptance criteria. Results: Proper magnetic resonance imaging parameters were explored to render an accurate three-dimensional absorbed dose mapping with a 1 mm{sup 3} isotropic image resolution. The efficacy of the dose-response estimation was approved by an R{sup 2} > 0.99 and an average CV% of 1.6%. Average gamma pass-rate between the experimentally measured and GammaPlan calculated dose distributions were 83.8% and 99.7% for 2%/2 and 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. Conclusions: With the designed MR imaging sequence and parameters, total 3D MR acquisition time was confined to within 20 min postirradiation, during which time ferric ion diffusion effects were negligible, thus enabling an accurate 3D radiation dose measurement.

Cho, Nai-Yu; Chu, Woei-Chyn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Huang, Sung-Cheng [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chung, Wen-Yuh [Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Guo, Wan-Yuo [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China)

2013-05-15

224

Proteolytic and proteomic changes in milk at quarter level following infusion with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastitis is a major disease in dairy cattle, which causes significant economic losses due to decreased milk production, veterinary costs, and discarded milk. Escherichia coli is one of the most prevalent species of gram-negative bacteria that induce clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic and proteomic changes in milk in response to infusion with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at quarter level in a model mastitis system. One quarter of each of 2 cows was infused with 0.1 or 5 ?g of LPS. The somatic cell count of the infused quarters reached a peak 6 h after infusion to a greater extent in the cow infused with 5 ?g of LPS and changes in plasmin activity in milk differed between the 2 animals. Urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretograms of milk samples of the cow infused with 5 ?g of LPS obtained at different time points after infusion and incubated for up to 7 d showed almost full hydrolysis of ?- and ?(s1)-casein during incubation of milk samples due to indigenous proteolytic activity. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretograms of milk at 0, 6, or 12 h after infusion with LPS showed hydrolysis of ?(s)-casein and ?-casein as well as the appearance of lower molecular weight products. Eleven fragments from proteolysis of the caseins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and, in addition, proteolysis patterns of casein by the indigenous bovine milk proteases plasmin and cathepsin D were studied in model studies using 2-dimensional gel electrophoretograms. Twelve hours after infusion, lower abundance markers of inflammation were identified, including serotransferrin, fibrinogen ? chain, protein S100 A12, and the antimicrobial polypeptide cathelicidin. PMID:22459814

Hinz, K; Larsen, L B; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M; Kelly, A L

2012-04-01

225

Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of fixed dose combination of ofloxacin with ornidazole infusion (infusion O2) in the management of diarrhoea and dysentery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute diarrhoea in adults is one of the most commonly encountered medical emergency in general practice and is responsible for considerable morbidity around the world. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of fixed dose combination of ofloxacin with ornidazole infusion (infusion O2) in the management of diarrhoea and dysentery, a study was carried out among 290 patients, age group from 18 to 65 years suffering from diarrhoea, dysentery, gastro-enteritis. Study drug infusion O2, (Medley Pharmaceutical, Mumbai) containing ofloxacin 200 mg + ornidazole 500 mg was administrated twice daily for a duration of 5 days. Number of soft or watery stool, body temperature, nausea, abdominal pain, gas and flatulence were recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Tolerability and efficacy was evaluated based on the global assessment by the investigator based on a 3-point scale marked as excellent/good/poor. Two hundred and fifty-six-patients (160 male and 96 female) were included for final analysis, 34 patients lost to follow-up. Mean number of watery stool per day was reduced from 9.273 +/- 0.4537 to 1.375 +/- 0.07001 (p ornidazole infusion (infusion O2) significantly reduces number of watery stool and associated symptoms like nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence/gas with excellent tolerability. PMID:23029956

Faruqui, Arif A; Joshi, Chandrakant

2012-03-01

226

Tibial subacute osteomyelitis with intraosseous abscess: an unusual complication of intraosseous infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravenous (IV) access is a critical step in patient care, especially in the emergency and/or trauma setting. Recently, intraosseous (IO) infusion has re-emerged as a recommended alternative to central venous access in both the pediatric and the adult patient. We present the case of an older adult male patient several months after emergency tibial IO infusion, now with left shin pain, and the MRI and culture findings diagnostic of subacute osteomyelitis with IO abscess, an unusual complication of IO infusion. PMID:20838993

Henson, Nicholas L; Payan, John M; Terk, Michael R

2011-02-01

227

Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats  

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Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

Anurag Payasi

2010-04-01

228

Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan  

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Full Text Available Transcatheter methods such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC have an important role in the treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Recently, sorafenib, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, has been found to obtain survival benefits in patients with HCC, leading to major advances in the treatment of advanced HCC. However, it is associated with a low tumor response rate, minimal survival advantage, and high rates of adverse events. On the other hand, high rates of objective treatment response with HAIC for advanced HCC have been reported, although convincing evidence of it contributing to overall survival in HAIC has been lacking. In Japan, HAIC still tends to be the preferred method for the treatment of advanced HCC, even in patients with poor liver function. However, the choice of chemotherapeutic agents in TACE/HAIC for HCC varies between institutions. In this review, based on studies reported to date in the literature, we refer to current knowledge regarding the chemotherapeutic agents used for TACE/HAIC for HCC in Japan and consider the future perspectives for HAIC for this cancer.

Ryuichi Kita

2012-02-01

229

GMFM 1 year after continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is an improvement in motor function in persons with cerebral palsy (CP) who have had a reduction of muscle tone by continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion. This was a prospective, open label, non-blinded case series without a control group, conducted at multiple centres. There were 31 subjects, aged 4-29 years. All had a pre-treatment mean lower extremity Ashworth scores of >or= 3 and a significant reduction in tone after a bolus injection of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) and received an implanted pump for continuous delivery of ITB. Motor function was assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) prior to and 1 year following pump implantation. Significant improvement (p < 0.05) in mean GMFM scores was seen in subjects < 8 years (mean change 4.1) and in those from 8-18 years (mean change 3.7) and in subjects with CP Classes 2 and 5 (mean changes 6.2 and 2.9). There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.05) in Ashworth scores in CP classes 2-5. Subjects or their caregivers that completed a survey about perceived changes stated that motor control, positioning and endurance improved. PMID:16087555

Krach, Linda E; Kriel, Robert L; Gilmartin, Richard C; Swift, Dale M; Storrs, Bruce B; Abbott, Rick; Ward, John D; Bloom, Karen K; Brooks, William H; Madsen, Joseph R; McLaughlin, John F; Nadell, Joseph M

2005-01-01

230

Myasthenia gravis masquerading as dysphagia: unveiled by magnesium infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disorder that typically affects the ocular, bulbar, neck, proximal limbs and respiratory muscles. Dysphagia can occasionally be the only presenting symptom leading to extensive but ultimately futile gastrointestinal workup. Delay in diagnosis and use of certain pharmacological agents in the interim can lead to a myasthenic crisis, which though diagnostic is life threatening. We document a case of dysphagia as the only symptom of myasthenia, diagnosed after a magnesium infusion precipitated myasthenic crisis. A 70-year-old Caucasian woman who had had progressive dysphagia for 2 years, for which multiple oesophageal dilations were performed. During a hosptalisation for further gastrointestinal workup, she went into myasthenic crisis (respiratory failure) after receiving magnesium replacement. She required ventilatory support and received five plasma exchange (PLEX) treatments after myasthenia was confirmed by the detection of high antiacetylcholine receptor antibody. Though her symptoms improved, she had a prolonged hospital stay (25 days) and required 18 days of mechanical ventilation. This underscores the morbidity associated with a delay in diagnosis of this condition. This case report suggests that neuromuscular causes should be considered early in elderly patients presenting with dysphagia. Timely diagnosis, initiation of management and avoidance of drugs that affect neuromuscular transmission may help reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with myasthenic crisis. PMID:24744075

Klair, Jagpal Singh; Rochlani, Yogita M; Meena, Nikhil K

2014-01-01

231

Adverse events with continuous doxapram infusion against late postoperative hypoxaemia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: A randomized double-blind controlled trial of doxapram versus placebo against late postoperative hypoxaemia was planned to include 40 patients (2 x 20). RESULTS: After inclusion of 18 patients a serious adverse event was encountered with development of a brain stem infarction in a 90-year-old woman receiving doxapram. At this point the randomization code was broken and we decided to terminate the trial. Three of nine patients receiving doxapram had had an adverse event whereas none of the patients receiving placebo had adverse events (P = 0.2). In the 18 patients studied, there was an insignificant trend towards higher mean oxygen saturation in the doxapram group, and a significantly higher minimum oxygen saturation and reduced number of hypoxaemic events on the first postoperative night. CONCLUSION: Although these preliminary data on the effect of doxapram on postoperative hypoxaemia seem promising, further studies on the effect of continuous nocturnal postoperative doxapram infusion on levels of arterial oxygen saturation should be postponed until more knowledge about the pharmacokinetics of doxapram in this particular clinical situation has been gathered.

Rosenberg, J; Kristensen, P A

1996-01-01

232

Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) required cholecystectomy for both acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis suggesting chemical cholecystitis. To evaluate the incidence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients receiving HAIC, the authors performed hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m DISIDA or PIPIDA on eight patients receiving HAIC through an indwelling hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid (trademark) pump. In 7 of 8 patients, there was non-visualization of the gall bladder throughout the hepatobiliary study. In the eighth patient, the gall bladder visualized at 2 hr. One patient with non-visualization of the gall bladder at 4 hr developed acute symptoms requiring cholecystectomy which showed acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholethiasis. There was prominent sclerosis which was thought to be due to chemical cholecystitis as well as cholelithiasis. In all 10 patients, no evidence of cholecystitis had been observed during the surgical placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump. The hepatobiliary scintigraphic finding of gall bladder dysfunction in all eight patients studied is most likely due to chemical cholecystitis from HAIC. This series suggests that chemical cholecystitis is common during HAIC and can be identified by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. The authors consider elective cholecystectomy during the operative placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pumpnfusaid pump

233

Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a sterilization process (D-6 value greater-than-or-equal-to 30 kGy) were found with a frequency of approximately two colony forming units (cfu) per 100 product items, even though the product items in two of the series of analyses were irradiated with doses of 3-6 kGy. The frequency of occurrence of isolates with D-6 values greater-than-or-equal-to 30 kGy was 0.45 per 1000 cfu of the total aerobic count. Eight different isolates of microorganisms had D-6 values greater-than-or-equal-to 40 kGy when irradiated in dried laboratory preparation. All but one of these were classified according to morphologic criteria as Deinococcus, and all but one had nonlinear dose-response relationships in semilogarithmic presentation.

Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.

1991-01-01

234

Anti-Peroxyl Radical Quality and Antibacterial Properties of Rooibos Infusions and Their Pure Glycosylated Polyphenolic Constituents  

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Full Text Available The anti-peroxyl radical quality of two aqueous rooibos infusions and solutions of their most abundant glycosylated polyphenols was evaluated using pyrogallol red and fluorescein-based oxygen radical absorbance ratios. It was observed that the artificial infusions, prepared using only the most abundant polyphenols present in rooibos and at concentrations similar to those found in the natural infusions, showed greater antioxidant quality than the latter infusions, reaching values close to those reported for tea infusions. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of the natural and artificial infusions was assessed against three species of bacteria: Gram (+ Staphylococus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram (? Escherichia coli. When compared to the natural infusions the artificial beverages did not demonstrate any bacterostatic/cidal activity, suggesting that the antibacterial activity of rooibos is related to compounds other than the glycosylated polyphenols employed in our study.

Klas I. Udekwu

2013-09-01

235

Anti-peroxyl radical quality and antibacterial properties of rooibos infusions and their pure glycosylated polyphenolic constituents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anti-peroxyl radical quality of two aqueous rooibos infusions and solutions of their most abundant glycosylated polyphenols was evaluated using pyrogallol red and fluorescein-based oxygen radical absorbance ratios. It was observed that the artificial infusions, prepared using only the most abundant polyphenols present in rooibos and at concentrations similar to those found in the natural infusions, showed greater antioxidant quality than the latter infusions, reaching values close to those reported for tea infusions. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of the natural and artificial infusions was assessed against three species of bacteria: Gram (+) Staphylococus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram (-) Escherichia coli. When compared to the natural infusions the artificial beverages did not demonstrate any bacterostatic/cidal activity, suggesting that the antibacterial activity of rooibos is related to compounds other than the glycosylated polyphenols employed in our study. PMID:24036515

Simpson, Madeline J; Hjelmqvist, Daisy; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Karamehmedovic, Nadja; Minehan, Thomas G; Yepremyan, Akop; Salehani, Baback; Lissi, Eduardo; Joubert, Elizabeth; Udekwu, Klas I; Alarcon, Emilio I

2013-01-01

236

Application of /sup 195m/Au for phlebography by a continuous-infusion technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The administration of /sup 195m/Au as continuous infusion into a peripheral vein might theoretically be considered a valuable approach to visualize the flow pattern through this vessel. The optimal infusion rate was determined (7 ml/min), and the amount of 195Hg breakthrough during a 10-min infusion investigated. The radiation dose to the kidneys did not exceed 2 rads. This technique was applied in several patients who received the infusion into a peripheral vein (foot or hand). Flow patterns in normals and patients with deep venous thrombosis were studied. The first preliminary results suggest that disturbances in the flow pattern can be seen in the presence of venous thrombosis. Further implications and improvements of the technique will be discussed

237

Hemodynamic effects of mannitol infusion in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate hemodynamic effects of mannitol infusion in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: Thirty patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled. Transcranial doppler was used to detect variables of bilateral middle cerebral arteria (MCA) including mean veloc [...] ity (Vm) and pulsitility index (PI) before and after125ml and 250ml mannitol infusion (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 min). RESULTS: When 125ml or 250ml mannitol was infused in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage, Vm of bilateral MCA elevated, and reached the top at 30min, and then decreased. PI decreased in the affected MCA (250ml) and in the unaffected MCA (125ml and 250ml). CONCLUSION: Mannitol infusion in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage can improve cerebral blood flow in bilateral hemispheres and decrease intracranial pressure in the hemorrhagic hemisphere (250ml) and in the nonhemorrhagic hemisphere (125ml and 250ml).

Hong, Ye; Yingying, Su.

2013-02-01

238

The course of diabetic retinopathy during treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of normalization of blood sugar regulation by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) on the course of diabetic retinopathy in insulin-dependent (type I) diabetic patients. Zie: Summary

Hooymans, Johanna Martina Maria

1986-01-01

239

Replacement of osmotic minipumps to extend the intracerebral infusion time of compounds into the mouse brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osmotic minipumps represent a convenient and established method for targeted delivery of agents into the brain of small rodents. Agents unable to cross the blood brain barrier can be directly infused into the brain parenchyma or lateral ventricle through implanted cannulas. The small volume of the minipump reservoir typically limits the infusion time to 4-6 weeks. Pump changes with reattachment of a new pump reservoir to the cannula might lead to brain tissue irritation or increased intracranial pressure associated with hydrocephalus. Here, we describe a pump reservoir exchange technique using a Y-shaped connection piece (Y-con) between the infusion cannula and the pump reservoir. This allows repeated replacement of a subcutaneously installed pump reservoir for brain delivery of agents in mice. Experimental evaluation of Y-con pump replacement revealed no signs of tissue irritation or hydrocephalus and allowed extended controlled delivery of infusion agents in the brain. PMID:23931595

Grathwohl, Stefan A; Jucker, Mathias

2013-08-01

240

Intra-arterial Infusion of Leptin does not Affect Blood Pressure in Salt-loaded Rabbits  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research is to see the effect of intra-arterial infusion of leptin on blood pressure of salt loaded rabbits in vivo. Increased blood pressure was produced in rabbits by giving diets containing 8% sodium chloride for 5 weeks. Leptin in different concentrations was infused intra-arterially into rabbits fed on high salt diets and the response was compared in rabbits fed with low salt diets. High salt diets produced significant increase in blood pressure. In rabbits fed with low salt diet, leptin infused intra-arterially caused an increase in blood pressure while infusion of leptin into rabbits fed with high salt diets does not affect the blood pressure. In conclusion, salt loading to rabbits abolishes the effect of leptin on cardiovascular system. This may indicate that leptin effect on sympathetic activity is altered by high salt diets in these animals.

Mohammad Nidal Khabaz

2010-01-01

241

A GOOD IDEA (INFUSING DATA INTO ENVIRONMEN TAL APPLICATIONS)-INVITED PRESENTATION  

Science.gov (United States)

IDEA (Infusing satellite Data into Environmental Applications)is a partnership between researchers in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EP A), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)...

242

In vitro study of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of aqueous infusion of Bidens pilosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bidens pilosa is an annual plant from tropical America with anti-inflammatory properties in hepatitis, laryngitis, headache and digestive disorders, among others. Its wide pharmacological applications can be attributed to its chemical composition, with inhibitory effects on pathogenic microorganisms and flavonoids, which show strong antioxidant capacities. We investigated the antioxidant activity of an aqueous infusion of Bidens pilosa by studying its protective effect on the hemolysis induced by an initiator of radicals such as 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The immunomodulatory activity of the infusion was tested using whole blood cells. Cytokine production increased in whole blood stimulated or not by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). The infusion is also characterized by its capacity to protect erythrocytes from the phototoxic effect of chlorpromazine, which allows its use as a potential photoprotector. Finally, it did not show ocular irritation, as demonstrated by the effect on hemoglobin denaturation. This study supports the health benefits of the ingestion of the infusion. PMID:15234771

Abajo, Celia; Boffill, María Angeles; del Campo, Jaime; Alexandra Méndez, María; González, Yisel; Mitjans, Montserrat; Pilar Vinardell, María

2004-08-01

243

78 FR 79469 - Strategies To Address Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions; Public Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

...infusion. Complications of hemolysis include severe anemia requiring transfusion, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Ig-associated hemolysis has been generally thought to be caused by the presence of...

2013-12-30

244

Home Healthcare Medical Devices: Infusion Therapy - Getting the Most Out of Your Pump  

Science.gov (United States)

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245

Outcomes of extended infusion piperacillin/tazobactam for documented Gram-negative infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

This comparison of intermittent versus extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam among patients with Gram-negative infections revealed similar mortality and length of stay. Outcomes remained similar when stratified by MIC value. PMID:19500529

Patel, Gita Wasan; Patel, Nimish; Lat, Asma; Trombley, Kristen; Enbawe, Sam; Manor, Kelli; Smith, Raymond; Lodise, Thomas P

2009-06-01

246

Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare L.: different performances regarding bioactivity and phenolic compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactivity of oregano methanolic extracts and essential oils is well known. Nonetheless, reports using aqueous extracts are scarce, mainly decoction or infusion preparations used for therapeutic applications. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic compounds of the infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic extract of oregano were evaluated and compared. The antioxidant activity is related with phenolic compounds, mostly flavonoids, since decoction presented the highest concentration of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds, followed by infusion and hydroalcoholic extract. The samples were effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It is important to address that the hydroalcoholic extract showed the highest efficacy against Escherichia coli. This study demonstrates that the decoction could be used for antioxidant purposes, while the hydroalcoholic extract could be incorporated in formulations for antimicrobial features. Moreover, the use of infusion/decoction can avoid the toxic effects showed by oregano essential oil, widely reported for its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. PMID:24731316

Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2014-09-01

247

A technique of infusion of contrast material on CT enhancement study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the method of enhancement on a fast CT scanner of the third generation by changing the infusion time of contrast material, 3 min., 5 min. and 7 min., and by measuring the attenuation values of certain ROIs at 1 min., 3 min. and 5 min. after infusion. 60% meglumine iothalamate and 65% meglumine diatrizoate were compared in their enhancing effect and side effects. There was no difference in the enhancing effect between the two contrast materials, but 60% meglumine iothalamate had less side effect than the other. The longer the infusion time, the less the side effects, especially nausea and vomiting. We have come to the conclusion that 7 min. infusion of 100 ml of 60% meglumine iothalamate is the method of choice for contrast enhancement CT scan. (author)

248

Altered hepatic vasopressin and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors after chronic endotoxin infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sepsis and septic shock are complicated by a number of hemodynamic and metabolic aberrations. These include catecholamine refractoriness and altered glucose metabolism. Recently, a nonshock rat model of continuous endotoxin infusion via an implanted osmotic pump was developed that reproduces some of the metabolic and cardiovascular findings of human sepsis. By using this model, we have found a decreased number of hepatic plasma membrane alpha 1-adrenergic and [Arg8]vasopressin receptors in rats continuously infused with endotoxin. There was a significant decrease in [3H]prazosin (35 +/- 7%) and [3H] [Arg8]vasopressin (43 +/- 8%) receptors after 30 h of continuous endotoxin infusion with no change in affinity. The ability of norepinephrine to form the high-affinity complex with alpha 1-adrenergic receptors was not altered after chronic endotoxin infusion. The results are consistent with the concept that alterations in receptor number might underlie certain of the metabolic consequences of chronic sepsis

249

Hemodynamic effects of rapid and slow infusions of manganese chloride and gadolinium-DTPA in dogs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The acute hemodynamic effects of two paramagnetic contrast materials, manganese chloride and gadolinium-DTPA, were examined in dogs using ultrasonic dimension gauge crystals. Slow infusions (more than 15 minutes) of MnCl2 or Gd-DTPA via an infusion pump had no significant hemodynamic effects. When given in just over 1 minute, Gd-DTPA produced elevated left ventricular (LV) end diastolic pressure and minor dilation of the ventricle and slowed diastolic filling. MnCl2, given rapidly, reduced systemic vascular resistance, resulting in hypotension. With both agents, these side effects waned after 5-10 minutes. It is concluded that both Gd-DTPA and MnCl2 can be given safely in 0.1-mm/kg doses when administered as a slow, continuous infusion. Slow, intravenous infusion of Gd-DTPA or MnCl2 is likely to be tolerated well by even severely ill individuals

250

Propofol infusion for sedation in the intensive care unit: preliminary report.  

OpenAIRE

Propofol (2,6,di-isopropylphenol) was given by continuous intravenous infusion to provide sedation after cardiac surgery in 30 patients and its effects compared with those of midazolam given to a further 30 patients. Propofol infusion allowed rapid and accurate control of the level of sedation, which was satisfactory for longer than with midazolam. Patients given propofol recovered significantly more rapidly from their sedation once they had fulfilled the criteria for weaning from artificial ...

Grounds, R. M.; Lalor, J. M.; Lumley, J.; Royston, D.; Morgan, M.

1987-01-01

251

Evaluation of SLOG/TCI-III pediatric system on target control infusion of propofol  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The target-controlled infusion-III (SLOG/TCI-III) system was derived from a model set up by the local pediatric population for target control infusion of propofol. Methods The current study aimed at evaluating the difference between target concentrations of propofol and performance, which was measured using the SLOG/TCI-III system in children. Thirty children fulfilling the I-II criteria according to American Society of Anesthesiology were enrolled in the study. The target...

Yang Wan-hua; Gu Hong-bin; Chen Bing; Li Juan; Fan Qiu-wei; Yuan Yong-fang; Wang Xiangdong

2011-01-01

252

Computed tomographic assessment of noninvasive intranasal infusions in dogs with fungal rhinitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of infusate administered to 12 dogs with fungal rhinitis, using a noninvasive, intranasal technique, was evaluated by computed tomography (CT). In every dog, contrast medium was identified on the postinfusion CT images, within the frontal sinuses, and throughout all areas of the nasal cavity. Adverse effects were transient and mild. The results of this study indicate that intranasal infusion may be a viable alternative to trephination of the frontal sinuses to administer antifungal medications in dogs with fungal rhinitis

253

Plasma infusions in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura complicating systemic lupus erythematosus—a successful outcome  

OpenAIRE

A severe form of acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) developed in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Infusions of large amounts of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) were added to steroid therapy and resulted in a rapid improvement and remission. Further episodes of thrombocytopenia and abdominal pains during a two-year follow-up were successfully treated with plasma alone and this indicates the important role of FFP infusions in the recovery of this patient.

Finkelstein, R.; Markel, A.; Carter, A.; Brook, J. G.

1982-01-01

254

Antimutagenic Activity and Radical Scavenging Activity of Water Infusions and Phenolics from Ligustrum Plants Leaves  

OpenAIRE

Water infusions of Ligustrum delavayanum and Ligustrum vulgare leaves and eight phenolics isolated therefrom have been assayed in vitro on ofloxacin-induced genotoxicity in the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis. The tested compounds luteolin, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, luteolin-7-rutinoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, apigenin-7-rutinoside, tyrosol and esculetin inhibited the mutagenic activity of ofloxacin (43 µM) in E. gracilis. Water infusions from leaves of L. delavayanum...

Milan Nagy; Lívia Križková; Pavel Mučaji; Juraj Krajčovič; Zuzana Kontšeková; František Šeršeň

2009-01-01

255

Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort)  

OpenAIRE

Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications...

Enrique Baca-García; Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla; Carlos Blanco2; Carmen Díaz-Sastre; María Mercedes Pérez-Rodríguez; Jerónimo Sáiz-Ruiz

2007-01-01

256

Modelling and active control of the Vacuum Infusion Process for composites manufacture  

OpenAIRE

Vacuum infusion technology, even though first reported more than 50 years ago, was not popular for mainstream fibre reinforced polymer composites manufacturing until recently. Its present-day popularity is due to the increasing emphasis on the manufacturing cost as well as environmental and health concerns. As a result, novel processes such as Vacuum Infusion (VI) and Seemans' Composite Resin Injection Moulding Process (SCRIMPTM), employing the same basic technology, have been developed. As l...

Modi, Dhiren

2008-01-01

257

Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters †  

OpenAIRE

Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood coun...

Rithiele Gonçalves; Vargas, Liane S.; Lara, Marcus V. S.; Angélica Güllich; Vanusa Mandredini; Luis Ponce-Soto; Sergio Marangoni; Dal Belo, Cha?riston A.; Mello-carpes, Pa?mela B.

2014-01-01

258

The contamination of intravenous fluids by writing on the infusion bag: Fact or fiction?  

OpenAIRE

Introduction -Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether Sharpie® brand black permanent marker ink will permeate through intravenous infusion bags. The practice of writing directly on infusion bags is a frequent yet controversial practice. There are no known written standards that exist which pertain to this practice. Methods – Five types of intravenous bags containing different solutions marked with black ink from a fine point felt tipped Sharpie® marker. Sample extractio...

James Daniel Langston; William Patrick Monaghan; Mellissa Bush

2013-01-01

259

Short-term glucosamine infusion increases islet blood flow in anesthetized rats  

OpenAIRE

Impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in rodents are associated with increased islet blood flow. If this is important for modulation of the endocrine function is at present unknown. We evaluated if glucosamine infusion, which induces peripheral insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, could be used to acutely increase islet blood flow. We infused anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 h with glucosamine (6 mg/kg body weight), in some cases followed by glucose administration. The ...

Gao, Xiang; Jansson, Leif; Persson, A. Erik G.; Sandberg, Monica

2013-01-01

260

Monomeric composition and linkage analysis of the polysaccharides present in the infusions of Fraxinus angustifolia leaves  

OpenAIRE

In the Trás-os-Montes region, the use of infusions of Fraxinus angustifolia dried leaves as a protection against high levels of cholesterol, blood pressure and uric acid is widespread. Pectic polysaccharides isolated from the infusions of some medicinal plants have been reported as biologically active [1,2]. Pectic poly-saccharides have been described as structurally complex polymers, exhibiting different polymeric building blocks: homogalacturonans (HG), rhamnogalacturonans-I (RG-I), rhamno...

Martins, Vitor Manuel Ramalheira; Coimbra, Manuel A.

2011-01-01

261

Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of cultivated thyme : antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic characterisation  

OpenAIRE

Bioactivity of thyme has been described, but mostly related to its essential oils, while studies with aqueous extracts are scarce. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract, as also their phenolic compounds, were evaluated and compared. Decoction showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (either phenolic acids or flavonoids), followed by infusion and hydroalcoholic extract. In general, the samples were effective against...

Martins, Nat Lia; Barros, Lillian; Santos-buelga, Celestino; Silva, S. Nia Carina; Henriques, Mariana; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2015-01-01

262

Effect of increasing intraperitoneal infusion rates on bupropion hydrochloride-induced seizures in mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not known if there is a relationship between input rate and incidence of bupropion-induced seizures. This is important, since different controlled release formulations of bupropion release the active drug at different rates. Methods We investigated the effect of varying the intraperitoneal infusion rates of bupropion HCl 120 mg/kg, a known convulsive dose50 (CD50, on the incidence and severity of bupropion-induced convulsions in the Swiss albino mice. A total of 69 mice, approximately 7 weeks of age, and weighing 21.0 to 29.1 g were randomly assigned to bupropion HCl 120 mg/kg treatment by intraperitoneal (IP administration in 7 groups (9 to 10 animals per group. Bupropion HCl was infused through a surgically implanted IP dosing catheter with infusions in each group of 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, and 240 min. The number, time of onset, duration and the intensity of the convulsions or absence of convulsions were recorded. Results The results showed that IP administration of bupropion HCl 120 mg/kg by bolus injection induced convulsions in 6 out of 10 mice (60% of convulsing mice in group 1. Logistic regression analysis revealed that infusion time was significant (p = 0.0004; odds ratio = 0.974 and increasing the IP infusion time of bupropion HCl 120 mg/kg was associated with a 91% reduced odds of convulsions at infusion times of 15 to 90 min compared to bolus injection. Further increase in infusion time resulted in further reduction in the odds of convulsions to 99.8% reduction at 240 min. Conclusion In conclusion, the demonstration of an inverse relationship between infusion time of a fixed and convulsive dose of bupropion and the risk of convulsions in a prospective study is novel.

Fleming Rosanna

2008-12-01

263

Anti-HLA antibody repertoire after IVIg infusion in highly sensitized patients waiting for kidney transplantation  

OpenAIRE

Polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment reduces crossmatch positivity and increases rates of transplantation in highly sensitised patients (HS). We quantified the panel reactive antibody (PRA) by microlymphocytotoxicity (MLCC), and we analysed anti-HLA class I and class II IgG specific antibody repertoire by Luminex before and after IVIg infusion alone in HS patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Five patients received three monthly infusions of 1 g/kg of IVIg. Serum samples...

Ferrari-lacraz, Sylvie; Aubert, Vincent; Buehler, Leo Hans; Pascual, Manuel Antonio; Andresen, Irmgard; Binet, Isabelle; Martin, Pierre-yves; Villard, Jean

2006-01-01

264

Continuous extrapleural infusion of ropivacaine 0.2% after cardiovascular surgery via the lateral thoracotomy approach  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: The pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine 0.2% were evaluated during a 48-hour continuous extrapleural infusion with 2 different infusion rates in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery. The hypotheses that no toxic plasma concentrations of ropivacaine would be reached and that proportionality exists among plasma concentrations and dosage used were tested. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, nonblinded study. SETTING: The investigation was performed as a single-center study in the Div...

Maurer, K.; Blumenthal, S.; Rentsch, K. M.; Schmid, E. R.

2008-01-01

265

Continuous versus Conventional Infusion of Amphotericin B Deoxycholate: A Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Treatment with Amphotericin B (AmB) deoxycholate, which is still used widely, particularly in low-resource countries, has been challenged due to nephrotoxicity. We sought to study whether continuous infusion of AmB deoxycholate reduces nephrotoxicity retaining, however, the effectiveness of the drug. Methods PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched to identify studies comparing the outcomes of patients receiving 24-h infusion of AmB (“continuous group”) and those receiving 2–6-h infusion of AmB (“conventional group”). Nephrotoxicity and all-cause mortality were the primary outcomes of the review, while treatment failure was the secondary outcome. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria; one randomized controlled trial, two prospective cohort studies, and two retrospective cohort studies. The majority of patients were neutropenic with an underlying hematologic malignancy. All 5 studies (392 patients) provided data regarding the development of nephrotoxicity. A non-significant trend towards lower nephrotoxicity was observed for patients receiving continuous infusion of AmB compared with those receiving conventional infusion [RR?=?0.61 (95% CI 0.36, 1.02)]. Four studies (365 patients) provided data regarding mortality; no relevant difference was detected between patients receiving continuous and those receiving conventional infusion of AmB [RR?=?0.81 (95% CI 0.36, 1.83)]. Data on treatment failure of the two methods of administration was insufficient for meaningful conclusions. Conclusion The available evidence from mainly non-randomized studies suggests that continuous infusion of AmB deoxycholate might offer an advantage over the conventional infusion regarding the development of nephrotoxicity, without compromising patient survival. Further randomized studies are needed to investigate this issue. PMID:24204739

Falagas, Matthew E.; Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E.; Tansarli, Giannoula S.

2013-01-01

266

Differential sleep-promoting effects of five sleep substances nocturnally infused in unrestrained rats.  

OpenAIRE

Sleep-inducing and sleep-maintaining effects of five different putative sleep substances were compared by the same nocturnal 10-hr intracerebroventricular infusion technique in otherwise saline-infused, freely moving male rats. Delta-sleep-inducing peptide (2.5 nmol), which induces electroencephalogram delta (slow)-wave patterns, was rapidly effective in increasing both slow-wave sleep and paradoxical sleep but the effects were not long-lasting. Muramyl dipeptide (2 nmol) induced excessive sl...

Inoue?, S.; Honda, K.; Komoda, Y.; Uchizono, K.; Ueno, R.; Hayaishi, O.

1984-01-01

267

Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions  

OpenAIRE

Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as infusions and presents therapeutic properties such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, being also included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm prepared as infusions were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in-vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showe...

Barros, Lillian; Duen?as, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Ine?s; Sousa, Maria Joa?o; Santos-buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2013-01-01

268

Cardiovascular Effects of Dobutamine and Phenylephrine Infusion in Sevoflurane-anesthetized Thoroughbred Horses  

OpenAIRE

To determine dose-dependent cardiovascular effects of dobutamine and phenylephrine during anesthesia in horses, increasing doses of dobutamine and phenylephrine were infused to 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, guaifenesin and thiopental and maintained with sevoflurane at 2.8% of end-tidal concentration in all horses. The horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency and infused 3 increasing doses of dobutamine (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 µg/kg/mi...

Ohta, Minoru; Kurimoto, Shinjiro; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Tokushige, Hirotaka; Mae, Naomi; Nagata, Shun-ichi; Mamada, Masayuki

2013-01-01

269

The infusion of fauna of water cleaning installations working with mechanical method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to our investigations 77 kinds of infusions are determined in the watercleaning installations, working with mechanical method. In the given article the description of watercleaning installations, spreading of infusions on taxons in water purifying basins, their changes according to the seasons, the number of dynamics on biotops, the comparison of siliofauna of cleaning installations on their role in the cleaning of water are analyzed

270

Chronic glucose infusion causes sustained increases in tubular sodium reabsorption and renal blood flow in dogs  

OpenAIRE

This study tested the hypothesis that inducing hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in dogs, by infusing glucose chronically intravenously, would increase tubular sodium reabsorption and cause hypertension. Glucose was infused for 6 days (14 mg·kg?1·min?1 iv) in five uninephrectomized (UNX) dogs. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal blood flow (RBF) were measured 18 h/day using DSI pressure units and Transonic flow probes, respectively. Urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) decreased signific...

Brands, Michael W.; Bell, Tracy D.; Rodriquez, Nancy A.; Polavarapu, Praveen; Panteleyev, Dmitriy

2008-01-01

271

Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows  

OpenAIRE

The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows....

Jmd, Enemark; Rj, Jørgensen; Lsb, Mellau

2001-01-01

272

Effects of various arterial infusion solutions on red blood cells in the newborn  

OpenAIRE

AIM—To examine in vitro the effects of brief contact with various infusion solutions on red blood cells from newborn infants, as occurs in the "waste" syringe during routine blood sampling from umbilical artery catheters. The mixture of blood and solution in the "waste" syringe is usually reinfused into the baby. Reinfused red blood cells may be damaged by the infusion solution. It is hypothesised that an isotonic amino acid solution would cause no red blood cell agglut...

Jackson, J.; Derleth, D.

2000-01-01

273

Systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat infusion in experimental normotensive sepsis  

OpenAIRE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to improve splanchnic perfusion in distinct shock states. We hypothesized that enalaprilat potentiates the benefits of early fluid resuscitation in severe experimental sepsis, particularly in the splanchnic region. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated mongrel dogs received an intravenous infusion of live Escherichia coli over a period of 30 min. Thereafter, two interventions were performed: fluid infusion (normal saline, 32 mL/kg ov...

Rahal L.; Garrido A.G.; Cruz Jr. R.J.; Rocha e Silva M.; Poli-de-Figueiredo L.F.

2006-01-01

274

Flow manipulation and control methodologies for vacuum infusion processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Vacuum Infusion Processes (VIPs) are very attractive composite manufacturing processes since large structures such as fuselages and wind blades can be fabricated in a cost effective manner. In VIPs, the fabric layers are placed on a one sided mold which is closed by enveloping the entire mold with a thin plastic film and evacuating the air out. The vacuum compresses the fabric and when a resin inlet is opened, resin flows into the mold. The resin is allowed to cure before demolding the structure. However, VIPs causes non-repeatable and problematic resin filling patterns due to the heterogeneous nature of the material, nesting between various layers, and the hand labor utilized for laying up the fabric. The design of the manufacturing process routinely involves a trial and error model which make manufacturing costs and development time difficult to estimate. The clear solution to improving the reliability and robustness of VIPs is to implement a system capable of on-line flow control. While on-line flow control has been studied and developed for other composite manufacturing processes, the VIPs have been largely ignored as there are few process parameters that lend themselves to effective flow control. In this work, two new processes were discovered with the goal of on-line control of VIPs in mind. These two processes referred to as Flow Flooding Chamber (FFC) and Vacuum Induced Preform Relaxation (VIPR) will be discussed. They both employ an external vacuum chamber to influence the permeability of the fabric temporarily which allows one to redirect the resin flow to resin starved regions of the mold. The VIPR process in addition uses a low and regulated vacuum pressure in the external chamber to increase the permeability of the fabric in a controllable manner. The objective is to understand how the VIPR process affects the resin flow in order to implement it into a complete flow control and automated environment which will reduce or eliminate the variability experienced. First, the effect on permeability is characterized, so the process can be simulated and the flow front patterns can be predicted. It was found that using the VIPR process in combination with tool side injection gates is a very effective method to control resin flow. Based on this understanding several control algorithms were developed to use the process in an automated manufacturing environment which were tested and validated in a virtual environment. To implement and demonstrate the approach, an experimental workstation was built and various infusion examples were performed in the automated environment to validate the capability of the VIPR process with the control methodologies. The VIPR process with control consistently performed better than the process without control. This contribution should prove useful in making VIPs more reliable in the production of large scale composite structures.

Alms, Justin B.

275

Effects of leucine, isoleucine, or threonine infusion on leucine metabolism in humans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leucine and/or its {alpha}-keto acid, {alpha}-ketoisocaproate (KIC), have been reported to spare protein in humans. To determine whether specific amino acid infusions affect whole-body protein metabolism as estimated by changes in leucine flux and oxidation, five groups of normal subjects were infused with saline, leucine, isoleucine, or threonine. Independent estimates of leucine metabolism were obtained using simultaneous infusions of ({sup 3}H)-leucine and {alpha}-({sup 14}C)ketoisocaproate. Nearly identical results were obtained using either tracer compared with the saline controls. Compared with the saline controls, leucine infusion (1) had no effect on estimated rates of appearance of endogenous leucine, (2) stimulated leucine oxidation, (3) decreased plasma concentrations of other amino acids, and (4) stimulated nonoxidized leucine disappearance in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, isoleucine and threonine infusions had no effect on leucine metabolism. Assuming the validity of the isotope model employed, these data suggest that the purported anabolic effect of leucine infusion on whole-body protein metabolism is mediated via stimulation of protein synthesis rather than decreased proteolysis.

Schwenk, W.F.; Haymond, M.W. (Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

1987-10-01

276

Effects of leucine, isoleucine, or threonine infusion on leucine metabolism in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leucine and/or its ?-keto acid, ?-ketoisocaproate (KIC), have been reported to spare protein in humans. To determine whether specific amino acid infusions affect whole-body protein metabolism as estimated by changes in leucine flux and oxidation, five groups of normal subjects were infused with saline, leucine, isoleucine, or threonine. Independent estimates of leucine metabolism were obtained using simultaneous infusions of [3H]-leucine and ?-[14C]ketoisocaproate. Nearly identical results were obtained using either tracer compared with the saline controls. Compared with the saline controls, leucine infusion (1) had no effect on estimated rates of appearance of endogenous leucine, (2) stimulated leucine oxidation, (3) decreased plasma concentrations of other amino acids, and (4) stimulated nonoxidized leucine disappearance in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, isoleucine and threonine infusions had no effect on leucine metabolism. Assuming the validity of the isotope model employed, these data suggest that the purported anabolic effect of leucine infusion on whole-body protein metabolism is mediated via stimulation of protein synthesis rather than decreased proteolysis

277

Depressed left ventricular performance. Response to volume infusion in patients with sepsis and septic shock  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volume infusion, to increase preload and to enhance ventricular performance, is accepted as initial management of septic shock. Recent evidence has demonstrated depressed myocardial function in human septic shock. We analyzed left ventricular performance during volume infusion using serial data from simultaneously obtained pulmonary artery catheter hemodynamic measurements and radionuclide cineangiography. Critically ill control subjects (n = 14), patients with sepsis but without shock (n = 21), and patients with septic shock (n = 21) had prevolume infusion hemodynamic measurements determined and received statistically similar volumes of fluid resulting in similar increases in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. There was a strong trend (p = 0.004) toward less of a change in left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) after volume infusion in patients with sepsis and septic shock compared with control subjects. The LVSWI response after volume infusion was significantly less in patients with septic shock when compared with critically ill control subjects (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate significantly altered ventricular performance, as measured by LVSWI, in response to volume infusion in patients with septic shock

278

Experimental intraperitoneal infusion of OK-432 in rats: Evaluation of peritoneal complications and pathology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: OK-432 is known to be a potent sclerosant of cystic lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both its safety and pathologic effects after the infusion of OK-432 into the peritoneal cavity of rats. Materials and methods: Twenty male rats were used in this study. Twelve rats were infused intraperitoneally with 0.2 Klinishe Einheit of OK-432 melted in 2 mL of normal saline (group 1: the treated group); four rats each were infused intraperitoneally with 0.5 mL of 99% ethanol (group 2) and normal saline (group 3), and served as the control groups. An abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed both before and after the infusions in all rats. Three rats in group 1 and one rat in each of groups 2 and 3 were sacrificed each week following the infusion. Gross and microscopic evaluations of the peritoneum and abdominal cavity were performed on each rat. Results: In group 1, the abdomen was clear on gross inspection and the peritoneum was unremarkable on microscopic examination. In group 2, mild-to-moderate peritoneal adhesions were revealed grossly, and inflammation and fibrosis of the peritoneum were demonstrated microscopically. In group 3, no specific abnormalities were noted on gross or microscopic examinations. Conclusion: Leakage or abnormal infusion of OK-432 solution into the peritoneal cavity during sclerotherapy of intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal cystic lesions does not result in any significant complications.

Kim, Dong Wook [Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Jin, E-mail: hakjink@pusan.ac.k [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Woo [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-15

279

Effects of erythrocyte infusion on VO2max at high altitude  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigated whether autologous erythrocyte infusion would ameliorate the decrement in maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) experienced by lowlanders when they ascend to high altitude. VO2max was measured in 16 men (treadmill running) at sea level (SL) and on the 1st (HA1) and 9th (HA9) days of high-altitude (4,300 m) residence. After VO2max was measured at SL, subjects were divided into two matched groups (n = 8). Twenty-four hours before ascent to high altitude, the experimental group received a 700-ml infusion of autologous erythrocytes and saline (42% hematocrit), whereas the control group received only saline. The VO2max of erythrocyte-infused [54 +/- 1 (SE) ml.kg-1.min-1] and control subjects (52 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) did not differ at SL before infusion. The decrement in VO2max on HA1 did not differ between groups, averaging 26% overall, despite higher (P <0.01) arterial hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and arterial O2 content in the erythrocyte-infused subjects. By HA9, there were no longer any differences in hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, or arterial O2 content between groups. No change in VO2max occurred between HA1 and HA9 for either group. Thus, despite increasing arterial O2-carrying capacity, autologous erythrocyte infusion did not ameliorate the decrement in VO2max at 4,300-m altitude.

Young, Jette Feveile; Sawka, M N

1996-01-01

280

Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods. In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As were determined in 105 black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions. The amount of heavy metals in black tea infusions were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP - AES. The mean?±?SD level of Pb in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.802?±?0.633, 0.993?±?0.667 and 1.367?±?1.06 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of Cd in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.135?±?0.274, 0.244?±?0.46 and 0.343?±?0.473 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. The mean level of As in 5, 15 and 60 min in infusion tea samples were 0.277?±?0.272, 0.426?±?0.402 and 0.563?±?0.454 mg/kg of tea dry weight, respectively. Also, the results showed that the locations and the infusion times influenced upon the amount of these metals (P?

Shekoohiyan Sakine

2012-12-01

281

Localized infusion of IGF-I results in skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) peptide levels have been shown to increase in overloaded skeletal muscles (G. R. Adams and F. Haddad. J. Appl. Physiol. 81: 2509-2516, 1996). In that study, the increase in IGF-I was found to precede measurable increases in muscle protein and was correlated with an increase in muscle DNA content. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that direct IGF-I infusion would result in an increase in muscle DNA as well as in various measurements of muscle size. Either 0.9% saline or nonsystemic doses of IGF-I were infused directly into a non-weight-bearing muscle of rats, the tibialis anterior (TA), via a fenestrated catheter attached to a subcutaneous miniosmotic pump. Saline infusion had no effect on the mass, protein content, or DNA content of TA muscles. Local IGF-I infusion had no effect on body or heart weight. The absolute weight of the infused TA muscles was approximately 9% greater (P muscles. IGF-I infusion resulted in significant increases in the total protein and DNA content of TA muscles (P hypertrophied TA was similar to that of the contralateral muscles. These results suggest that IGF-I may be acting to directly stimulate processes such as protein synthesis and satellite cell proliferation, which result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

Adams, G. R.; McCue, S. A.

1998-01-01

282

Phenolic profiles and antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activities of Greek herbal infusions; balancing delight and chemoprevention?  

Science.gov (United States)

Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of six herbal infusions - namely rosemary, Cretan dittany, St. John's Wort, sage, marjoram and thyme were assayed. Additionally, the infusion anticarcinogenic effect as to their ability to (a) scavenge free radicals, (b) inhibit cell growth, (c) decrease IL-8 levels and (d) regulate p65 subunit in epithelial colon cancer (HT29) and prostate (PC3) cancer cells was investigated. LC-DAD-MS and GC-MS analyses showed major qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic profiles of the infusions. All herbal infusions exhibited antiradical activity which correlated strongly with their total phenolic content. Infusions exhibited the potential to inhibit cell growth and to reduce IL-8 levels in HT29 colon and PC3 prostate cancer cells. The regulation reported in p65 subunit in HT29 treated with St John's Wort and in PC3 treated with thyme might point to the NF-?B as the molecular target underlying the effect of these infusions. PMID:24001836

Kaliora, Andriana C; Kogiannou, Dimitra A A; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Papassideri, Issidora S; Kalogeropoulos, Nick

2014-01-01

283

Histamine and Nt-methylhistamine in the circulation during intravenous infusion of histamine in normal volunteers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma levels of histamine and Nt-methylhistamine were measured simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography during the intravenous infusion of histamine acid phosphate in six normal volunteers. Progressive, dose-related increases in plasma histamine were noted, reaching a maximum value of 3.1 +/- 0.14 ng ml-1 corresponding to a maximum infusion rate of 180 ng kg-1 min-1 (means +/- SEM). Increases in plasma histamine were accompanied by a significant dose-related fall in mean diastolic blood pressure (baseline 74.0 +/- 4.4 mm Hg falling to 60.0 +/- 3.3 mm Hg at maximum infusion rate, p less than 0.001) and an increase in pulse rate (baseline 76.3 +/- 2.8 beats min-1 rising to 89.24 beats min-1 at maximum infusion rate, p less than 0.05). All subjects exhibited facial flushing, the threshold plasma histamine level for this effect being 1.3 +/- 0.15 ng ml-1 corresponding to an infusion rate of 60 ng kg-1 min-1. Elevation of plasma Nt-methylhistamine was seen in only one subject, who exhibited a level of 0.5 ng ml-1 at the highest infusion rate. These results suggest that measurements of plasma Nt-methylhistamine are unlikely to provide a useful index of histamine release into the circulation. PMID:3218606

Sheinman, B D; Devalia, J L; Wylie, G; Davies, R J

1988-12-01

284

Eggplant (Solanum melongena infusion has a modest and transitory effect on hypercholesterolemic subjects  

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Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena is consumed extensively in Brazil. It has been believed that infusion of a powdered preparation of the fruit may reduce serum cholesterol. However, there are few documented reports on its effects on cholesterol metabolism and its possible hypocholesterolemic effect has not been proved by well-controlled studies. The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of S. melongena on the serum cholesterol and triglycerides of 38 hypercholesterolemic human volunteers ingesting S. melongena infusion for five weeks. Thirty-eight hypercholesterolemic subjects receiving either S. melongena infusion (N = 19 or placebo (N = 19 participated in two clinical experiments in which the effect of S. melongena infusion was studied with (N = 16 or without (N = 38 dietary orientation. Total cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins A and B were measured in blood at the beginning of the experiment and three and five weeks thereafter. No differences were observed compared to control. Intraindividual analysis showed that S. melongena infusion significantly reduced the blood levels of total and LDL cholesterol and of apolipoprotein B. After dietary orientation, no intra- or intergroup differences were seen for any of the parameters analyzed. The results suggest that S. melongena infusion had a modest and transitory effect, which was not different from that obtained with standard orientation for dyslipidemia patients (diet and physical activities.

Guimarães P.R.

2000-01-01

285

Mechanical behaviour of composite materials made by resin film infusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Innovative composite materials are frequently used in designing aerospace, naval and automotive components. In the typical structure of composites, multiple layers are stacked together with a particular sequence in order to give specific mechanical properties. Layers are organized with different angles, different sequences and different technological process to obtain a new and innovative material. From the standpoint of engineering designer it is useful to consider the single layer of composite as macroscopically homogeneous material. However, composites are non homogeneous bodies. Moreover, layers are not often perfectly bonded together and delamination often occurs. Other violations of lamination theory hypotheses, such as plane stress and thin material, are not unusual and in many cases the transverse shear flexibility and the thickness-normal stiffness should be considered. Therefore the real behaviour of composite materials is quite different from the predictions coming from the traditional lamination theory. Due to the increasing structural performance required to innovative composites, the knowledge of the mechanical properties for different loading cases is a fundamental source of concern. Experimental characterization of materials and structures in different environmental conditions is extremely important to understand the mechanical behaviour of these new materials. The purpose of the present work is to characterize a composite material developed for aerospace applications and produced by means of the resin film infusion process (RFI). Different tests have been carried out: tensile, open-hole and filled-hole tensile, compressive, openhole and filled-hole compressive. The experimental campaign has the aim to define mechanical characteristics of this RFI composite material in different conditions: environmental temperature, Hot/Wet and Cold.

Barile, C.; Casavola, C.; Pappalettere, C.; Tursi, F.

2010-06-01

286

saline-infused sonohysterography: tips for achieving greater success.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saline-infused sonohysterography (SIS) may help improve visualization of the endometrium and endometrial cavity and assess tubal patency. Although most SIS procedures are straightforward, a variety of pitfalls may lead to an unsuccessful procedure or incomplete evaluation. SIS should be scheduled between days 4 and 10 of the patient's menstrual cycle, when the endometrium is at its thinnest, and physiologic changes during the secretory phase are not present. Performing preprocedure imaging serves many purposes, such as depicting hydrosalpinx, causes of uterine and adnexal tenderness, and pelvic inflammatory disease, as well as assessing the size and position of the uterus and the orientation of the cervix. It is important not to presume that fibroids are the cause of bleeding when the endometrium is obscured at preprocedure imaging. Obstacles to a successful procedure include issues related to patient anxiety and discomfort, which may be prevented or minimized at almost every step of the procedure. Inability to obtain access to the cervix is the most common cause of unsuccessful SIS; proper patient positioning in a semi-upright lithotomy position is important. Injection of air during any US-guided procedure may lead to shadowing that obscures the region of interest. Adequate distention of the endometrial cavity is crucial for successful SIS, and optimal positioning of the distended balloon may improve the degree of distention. However, poor distention may be indicative of an underlying pathologic condition. Knowledge of these pitfalls and the strategies to overcome them may prevent premature or unnecessary termination of an otherwise successful study. PMID:22084183

Allison, Sandra J; Horrow, Mindy M; Kim, Han Y; Lev-Toaff, Anna S

2011-01-01

287

Saline infusion sonohysterography versus hysteroscopy for uterine cavity evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The most frequent procedures performed on women with abnormal uterine bleeding are 2D and 3D ultrasound. The most common accepted approach for the management of abnormal uterine bleeding is 2D TV scan followed by therapeutic hysteroscopy. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess whether 3D saline infusion sonohysterography (3D SIS could replace diagnostic hysteroscopy (DH for the diagnosis of endometrial pathology, in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. Design and Setting: A prospective study in the ultrasound department of the Women?s Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to February 2010. Patients and Methods: 0One hundred and one patients with abnormal uterine bleeding, suspected to have endometrial abnormality by 2D and 3D transvaginal scan, were prospectively studied. Of these, 55 patients had undergone both 3D SIS and DH, followed by verification of results with histopathology. Results: Upon comparison of 3D SIS and DH individually with histopathology, specificity and sensitivity for 3D SIS were 67% and 100%, respectively, and for hysteroscopy 67% and 98%, respectively. In addition, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 98% and 100%, respectively, for 3D SIS, while for DH they were 98% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion: 3D SIS is a safe alternative to hysteroscopy. However, larger randomized controlled trials should be conducted to ascertain the validity and reliability of this advantageous, less-invasive procedure, for women with abnormal uterine bleeding, who require evaluation of the endometrial cavity.

Khan Faryal

2011-01-01

288

Mechanical behaviour of composite materials made by resin film infusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovative composite materials are frequently used in designing aerospace, naval and automotive components. In the typical structure of composites, multiple layers are stacked together with a particular sequence in order to give specific mechanical properties. Layers are organized with different angles, different sequences and different technological process to obtain a new and innovative material. From the standpoint of engineering designer it is useful to consider the single layer of composite as macroscopically homogeneous material. However, composites are non homogeneous bodies. Moreover, layers are not often perfectly bonded together and delamination often occurs. Other violations of lamination theory hypotheses, such as plane stress and thin material, are not unusual and in many cases the transverse shear flexibility and the thickness-normal stiffness should be considered. Therefore the real behaviour of composite materials is quite different from the predictions coming from the traditional lamination theory. Due to the increasing structural performance required to innovative composites, the knowledge of the mechanical properties for different loading cases is a fundamental source of concern. Experimental characterization of materials and structures in different environmental conditions is extremely important to understand the mechanical behaviour of these new materials. The purpose of the present work is to characterize a composite material developed for aerospace applications and produced by means of the resin film infusion process (RFI. Different tests have been carried out: tensile, open-hole and filled-hole tensile, compressive, openhole and filled-hole compressive. The experimental campaign has the aim to define mechanical characteristics of this RFI composite material in different conditions: environmental temperature, Hot/Wet and Cold.

Casavola C.

2010-06-01

289

Radiation therapy and arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced gallbladder cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The standard therapy is not yet established for the unresectable advanced gallbladder cancer (AGC). Here described is the outcome of authors' therapeutic protocol for AGC during the time Jan., 1989-Dec., 2008. Subjects are 73 patients (M 32/F 41, average age 65 y) with AGC of Stage IV. One shot arterial infusion (AI) of EEP regimen (etoposide (VP16)/4'epiadriamycin (EPIR)/cisplatin (CDDP)) is conducted via hepatic artery proper or common at the first angiography and one week later, external radiation therapy (RT), with about 30-50 Gy/6 fractions (actually, 12-61.6 Gy). AI is weekly done with FP regimen (CDDP/5-fluorouracil (FU)) through the reservoir indwelled in the gastroduodenal artery for 6 months where a metal stent for the stegnosis of bile duct is used if necessary after RT, and in recent days, additionally with biweekly CDDP/gemcitabin (GEM) regimen depending on patient's state after FP. As a result, RT is conducted to 62 cases (RT alone 8 cases), AI, 64 (alone, 10), and RT+AI, 54. Response is found to be 49% (CR 7 cases and PR, 28). Survivals 1- and 3-year are 39 and 6%, respectively, and average survival time, 408 days. Survival rate in (RT+AI) is significantly superior to that in AI alone and in RT alone. Prognosis in patients with jaundice, hepatic or duodenal invasion is significantly inferior to those without the symptom, and in non-responded cases, to responded cases. Complications like hepatic abscess are seen in 4 cases at 6 months after treatment. Foin 4 cases at 6 months after treatment. Four actual case-reports are presented in details with their images. Combination of RT+AI is suggested to be of utility for AGC, of which multi-center trial is awaited with addition of newer anti-cancers developed recently. (K.T.)

290

Thallium-201 infusion imaging and quantitation of experimental reactive hyperemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate quantitation of coronary artery blood flow may be important complimentary information to percent vessel stenosis determined by coronary angiography. Whether T1-201 can be used to identify and quantify rapid changes in blood flow through a major coronary artery was examined experimentally in open chest dogs with a cannulated, servoperfursed circumflex or left anterior descending coronary artery at a constant coronary perfusion pressure of 80mmHg. Blood flow with T1-201 (5 ?Ci/cc of blood) through the coronary artery was continuously recorded using a tubular electromagnetic flow probe. A mobile scintillation camera interfaced to a nuclear medicine computer was used to image and record myocardial count accumulation plotted as a function of time during the T1-201 infusion. Blood flow was calculated as the slope of myocardial count accumulation against time. Simulating total occlusion, perfusion was stopped for several 20 sec. periods to elicit reactive hyperemic responses. The changes in flow as measured by the flow probe, and by T1-201 were compared. Results demonstrated that scintillation camera recordings depicted coronary flow changes with a high degree of correlation to electromagnetic flow probe recordings (r = 0.85). Reactive hyperemia reaching a three-fold increase in flow was accurately demonstrated by a three-fold increase in slope of the T1-201 counts plotted against time. Any flow change by T1-201 corresponded in time to detection of similar flow changes by flow probe recordings. These findings support further development of this technique for eventual clinical use

291

Technical Sections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: 1. Detector Construction Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Head: Marek Stodulski, Ph.D., Deputy: Jacek Blocki, Ph.D. Eng. Personnel of 4 research staff members and 9 technical staff . Main subject of activity: design and construction of mechanical structures and cooling systems applied in high energy physics experiments. Includes research, development, prototyping and tests. Presently involved in the installation of the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine at CERN and in the design of new detectors (ICARUS, CASTOR and LUMICAL) at IFJ PAN. Also, research and development of new materials, such as carbon-carbon (C/C) composites. 2. Mechanical Engineering Section. Head: Jerzy Brzezicki, M.Sc. Eng., Deputy: Krzysztof Wisniewski, M.Sc. Eng. Personnel of 22 people. Activity: design and production of scientific apparatus. Construction of versatile equipment, including, e.g. electrically driven lock in the shield and automatic targets for beam diagnostics for the AIC-144 cyclotron, mechanisms supporting thermoluminescent readers (EU project MAESTRO), design and construction of an equipment for production of elements for ICARUS neutrino experiment (Gran Sasso), and series of equipment constructed for CERN i.e.: periscope instruments for visual inspection of LHC beam (6 items), optical tool for verification of LHC magnet transverse alignment before interconnection (1 item), line N protection covers (100 items), line N handling assembly (100 items), cooling system sung assembly (100 items), cooling system support (500 items), final production of the series of stesalite elements (? 100 items) for the cooling system of ATLAS experiment. 3. The Cyclotron Division. Head: Jacek Sulikowski, M.Sc. Personnel: 2 research staff members and 14 people of technical staff . Main subject of activity: modernization of the AIC-144 IFJ PAN cyclotron and its adaptation for medical purposes (proton/neutron radiotherapy, production of radioisotopes).Th is program includes extraction of 60 MeV proton and hellions and 30 MeV deuteron beams, purchase, installation and putting into operation of the new magnet power supply and the new PIG ion source. During last two years period we completed the modernization of the experimental hall No.1 and rebuilt the system of the beam transport lines. The proton beam was delivered to the box for an eye melanoma treatment. We have also continued the efforts on the analytical computer programme HELP for the calculation of main parameters of the beam dynamics (in cooperation with JINR Dubna). (author)

292

Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effect of ropivacaine during continuous epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of ropivacaine (2.5 mg/ml) during a 24-h continuous epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief in 20 patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were characterized using an open-label, increasing-dose design. METHODS: Through an epidural catheter inserted at T10-T12, a test dose of 7.5 mg ropivacaine was given 3 min before a bolus dose of 42.5 mg and immediately followed by a 24-h continuous epidural infusion with either 10 or 20 mg/h. Peripheral venous plasma samples were collected up to 48 h after infusion, and urinary excretion was followed up to the end of infusion. Postoperative pain at rest, on coughing, and at mobilization was assessed by means of a visual analog scale 2,4,6,8,12, and 24 h after the end of surgery. Sensory (pinprick) and motor block (modified Bromage scale) were assessed at the same intervals. RESULTS: The total plasma concentrations of ropivacaine increased markedly and consistently during the 24-h epidural infusion, in contrast to stable unbound concentrations. Both total and unbound plasma concentrations at the end of infusion were proportional to the total dose, although only the latter was proportional to the infusion rate. The total and unbound plasma clearance was independent of dose. Total mean clearance decreased on average by 21% (P < 0.001) during the last 12 h of epidural infusion, i.e., from 539 +/- 191 ml/min to 418 +/- 138 ml/min, indicating time-dependent kinetics. The unbound clearance also varied between estimates after 8 h of infusion and the end of treatment, i.e., a 5.3% decrease from 10.4 +/- 5.3 l/min to 9.5 +/- 3.9 l/min (P < 0.05). The unbound fraction of ropivacaine in plasma decreased during treatment, and this was related to the increase in alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentration. Pain was generally well controlled, and median visual analog scale scores during mobilization were less than 30 mm in patients receiving ropivacaine at 20 mg/h. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine were independent of dose, but total clearance decreased with time over 24 h. The consistent increase in total plasma concentration during the postoperative epidural infusion contrasted to much less variation in the unbound plasma concentrations of ropivacaine.

Erichsen, C J; Sjövall, J

1996-01-01

293

The influence of intestinal infusion of fats on small intestinal motility and digesta transit in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of duodenal and ileal infusion of nutrients on small intestinal transit of digesta, measured by the passage of phenol red marker, was studied in twelve pigs fitted with duodenal and ileal catheters, and a terminal ileal cannula. Changes in gastrointestinal motility were observed by electromyography and by use of an X-ray image intensifier in four of the pigs fitted additionally with nichrome wire electrodes in the gut wall and in seven pigs fitted only with a gastric catheter. Small intestinal transit time was unaffected by intestinal catheterization per se, or by duodenal or ileal infusion of glucose or peptone. It was reduced by duodenal infusion of fat or of some of the products of fat digestion including oleic acid and a monoglyceride containing unsaturated fatty acids (monoglyceride LS) but was not affected by infusion of glycerol, stearic acid or a monoglyceride containing saturated fatty acids (monoglyceride P). Ileal transit time was greatly reduced by ileal infusion of soya bean oil mixed with bile salts and lipase and by monoglyceride LS but not by soya bean oil alone. Total small intestinal transit time was reduced to a lesser degree by ileal infusion of soya bean oil mixed with bile salts and lipase and by monoglyceride LS and was unaffected by soya bean oil alone. The level of irregular spiking activity of the small intestine was greatly reduced by both duodenal and ileal infusion of fat, but rapidly propagated spike bursts were initiated from the point of infusion (identified radiologically as peristaltic rushes) many of which travelled right through to the ileo-caecal junction. It is concluded that intestinal infusion of fat accelerates small intestinal transit in pigs by induction of peristaltic rushes; that since the ileal transit times were more severely reduced than total small intestinal transit times by ileal infusion of fat the response is probably only seen over those areas of intestine in direct contract with the fat; and that the effect depends upon the presence of fat digestion products, i.e. the fatty acid and the monoglyceride, although probably only those containing unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:3559994

Gregory, P C; Rayner, V; Wenham, G

1986-10-01

294

3H-radioactivity measurement in the rat kidney after single injection of folic acid and continuous infusion of 3H-Thymidine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single i.v. injection of folic acid. Immediately afterwards, continuous intravenous infusion of 3H-Thymidine has been started. The animals have been sacrified after 0.5 up to 10.0 days for determination of the vital weight of the kidneys, of the wet weight of kidney sections (thickness 20 ?) after removal of the paraffine coat, and of the radioactivity per dry weight unit of the kidney in the 20 ? kidney section after residue-free incineration of tissue. The radioactivity per total kidney and the percentage of 3H-Thymidine radioactivity utilized by the whole kidney in relation to the infused 3H-Thymidine radioactivity have been calculated. The various data have been compared with results obtained by autoradiographic investigations on the same model under fully identical conditions. Excellent agreement has been found between the autoradiographically obtained curves of the 3H-Thymidine labelling indices in the epithelium and in the mesenchyma of the kidney on the one hand and the curves of the 3H-Radioactivity per dry weight unit of the kidney on the other. The method of sample preparation applied largely excludes unwanted 'radioactive contamination', so that the 3H-Thymidine radioactivity measurements in agreement with the autoradiographic data can be assumed to show an incorporation of 3H-Thymidine into newly developed DNA. The percentages of 3H-Thymidine radioactivity utilized by the kidney in relation to the quantity of infused 3H-Thymidine radioactivity are almost constant during folic acid induced proliferation. The strong decline in radioactivity per dry weight unit between 3.0 and 3.5 days coincides with the occurrence of blackened, desquamated tubulus epithelia in the tubular lumen which became necrotic, and with the simultaneous occurrence of radioactively labelled, monocytic cells in the blood. These phenomena are related to the cell loss. (orig./MG)

295

Effects of intracerebroventricular infusion of somatostatin-14 on peripheral glucoregulation in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Somatostatin (SST) is an inhibitory hormone that regulates numerous biological processes and circulates in two bioactive isoforms: SST-14 and SST-28. SST-14 is the predominant form in the hypothalamus and regulates the secretion of growth hormone (GH) (directly) and of thyroid-stimulating hormone (indirectly). In the periphery, SST is a potent inhibitor of glucagon and insulin secretion. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of i.c.v. administration of SST-14 on glucose metabolism. Twenty healthy adult dogs randomly received either a bolus i.c.v. infusion of 5, 25 or 50 ?g of SST-14 or an equivalent amount of artificial cerebrospinal fluid through an epicranial apparatus during fasting. The same experiment was repeated during concomitant intraduodenal infusion of glucose solution through a Mann-Bollman fistula. Serum levels of glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP), plasma SST and serum GH levels were assayed. Circulating levels of SST and GH did not change significantly during i.c.v. infusions. Bolus infusion of 50 ?g of SST-14 produced an increase in serum glucose levels at 10 min (94 ± 2.5 mg/dl at baseline versus 101 ± 3 mg/dl, P = 0.04) and significantly suppressed insulin levels, reaching maximal suppression at 60 min after infusion (9 ± 1.3 ?IU/ml at baseline versus 4.6 ± 0.5 ?IU/ml P = 0.04) in fasting animals. Similar results were obtained during intraduodenal infusion of glucose through a Mann-Bollman fistula. GIP levels did not change significantly during i.c.v. administration of SST-14. Intracerebroventricular infusion of SST-14 increases glucose and suppresses insulin levels in the periphery independently of circulating SST levels. PMID:24325321

Yavropoulou, M P; Kotsa, K; Pikilidou, M; Keisisoglou, I; Yovos, J G

2014-01-01

296

Cyclooxygenase-2 Suppresses the Anabolic Response to PTH Infusion in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported that the ability of continuously elevated PTH to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow stromal cell cultures was abrogated by an osteoclastic factor secreted in response to cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2)-produced prostaglandin E2. We now examine the impact of Cox2 (Ptgs2) knockout (KO) on the anabolic response to continuously elevated PTH in vivo. PTH (40 ?g/kg/d) or vehicle was infused for 12 or 21 days in 3-mo-old male wild type (WT) and KO mice in the outbred CD-1 background. Changes in bone phenotype were assessed by bone mineral density (BMD), ?CT and histomorphometry. PTH infusion for both 12 and 21 days increased femoral BMD in Cox2 KO mice and decreased BMD in WT mice. Femoral and vertebral trabecular bone volume fractions were increased in KO mice, but not in WT mice, by PTH infusion. In the femoral diaphysis, PTH infusion increased cortical area in Cox2 KO, but not WT, femurs. PTH infusion markedly increased trabecular bone formation rate in the femur, serum markers of bone formation, and expression of bone formation-related genes, growth factors, and Wnt target genes in KO mice relative to WT mice, and decreased gene expression of Wnt antagonists only in KO mice. In contrast to the differential effects of PTH on anabolic factors in WT and KO mice, PTH infusion increased serum markers of resorption, expression of resorption-related genes, and the percent bone surface covered by osteoclasts similarly in both WT and KO mice. We conclude that Cox2 inhibits the anabolic, but not the catabolic, effects of continuous PTH. These data suggest that the bone loss with continuously infused PTH in mice is due largely to suppression of bone formation and that this suppression is mediated by Cox2. PMID:25781979

Choudhary, Shilpa; Canalis, Ernesto; Estus, Thomas; Adams, Douglas; Pilbeam, Carol

2015-01-01

297

[Comparison of side effects of infusion of glucose and glucose substitutes at different doses].  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucose, fructose, sorbitol or xylitol were infused for four hours at different dose levels to metabolically healthy volunteers. The metabolic effects of the so-called glucose substitutes were compared to that of glucose. Even at very high doses (2.0 g/kg bodyweight per hour) of infusion of glucose or fructose a steady state was attained. This, however, was not the case with xylitol or sorbitol at lower doses (i.e. 0.5 g/kg bodyweight per hour), where no steady state was reached. The blood glucose concentration is not influenced by any of the glucose substitutes. During infusion of very high doses of fructose a small increase in serum insulin level is found, however, without any alteration in blood glucose concentration. Glucose as well as glucose substitutes cause an immediate suppression of free fatty acid concentrations in serum. In case of glucose there is a manifold increase in fatty acid concentration after the infusion is terminated. On the other hand, the free fatty acid concentration remains low even several hours following termination of the high-dosed fructose infusion. Theoretically one would expect an increase in triglyceride concentration, at least at the high dosed carbohydrate infusions. In contrast to this theoretical expectation, in the case of glucose and of xylitol a significant reduction of triglyceride concentration in serum was observed. Fructose and sorbitol did not exhibit this effect. Glucose and fructose are well utilized in metabolically healthy subjects. The maximum turnover rates for both polyols are lower. Unlike glucose, the glucose substitutes obviously do not cause any serious disturbation in hormonal regulations. Only in the case of glucose, counterregulation is seen following the termination of the infusion. PMID:735196

Förster, H; Boecker, S; Zagel, D

1978-12-01

298

Cyclooxygenase-2 Suppresses the Anabolic Response to PTH Infusion in Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported that the ability of continuously elevated PTH to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow stromal cell cultures was abrogated by an osteoclastic factor secreted in response to cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2)-produced prostaglandin E2. We now examine the impact of Cox2 (Ptgs2) knockout (KO) on the anabolic response to continuously elevated PTH in vivo. PTH (40 ?g/kg/d) or vehicle was infused for 12 or 21 days in 3-mo-old male wild type (WT) and KO mice in the outbred CD-1 background. Changes in bone phenotype were assessed by bone mineral density (BMD), ?CT and histomorphometry. PTH infusion for both 12 and 21 days increased femoral BMD in Cox2 KO mice and decreased BMD in WT mice. Femoral and vertebral trabecular bone volume fractions were increased in KO mice, but not in WT mice, by PTH infusion. In the femoral diaphysis, PTH infusion increased cortical area in Cox2 KO, but not WT, femurs. PTH infusion markedly increased trabecular bone formation rate in the femur, serum markers of bone formation, and expression of bone formation-related genes, growth factors, and Wnt target genes in KO mice relative to WT mice, and decreased gene expression of Wnt antagonists only in KO mice. In contrast to the differential effects of PTH on anabolic factors in WT and KO mice, PTH infusion increased serum markers of resorption, expression of resorption-related genes, and the percent bone surface covered by osteoclasts similarly in both WT and KO mice. We conclude that Cox2 inhibits the anabolic, but not the catabolic, effects of continuous PTH. These data suggest that the bone loss with continuously infused PTH in mice is due largely to suppression of bone formation and that this suppression is mediated by Cox2. PMID:25781979

Choudhary, Shilpa; Canalis, Ernesto; Estus, Thomas; Adams, Douglas; Pilbeam, Carol

2015-01-01

299

Use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET for the study of cerebral blood flow reactivity after acetazolamide infusion in patients with Behcet's disease  

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The purpose of this study was to characterise the nature of the baseline perfusion defects found in patients with Behcet's disease using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography in conjunction with acetazolamide test (Acz SPET). Eleven patients underwent both baseline and Acz SPET. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the areas with decreased perfusion (D-ROI) and, in the same section, on areas with normal perfusion (N-ROI). The ROIs were then repositioned on the corresponding section on Acz SPET. The mean ROI counts were then transformed into a perfusion index value (PIV) with reference to the global brain counts. In total we found 24 D-ROIs (17 in the cortical and 7 in subcortical grey matter). The influence of Acz infusion was selectively registered in the D-ROIs, where PIVs changed from 1.23{+-}0.17 (baseline SPET) to 1.63{+-}0.23 (Acz SPET) (P<0.001). No significant difference was seen in the N-ROIs (1.46{+-}0.21 and 1.40{+-}0.17, respectively, on baseline SPET and Acz SPET). Our results demonstrate that Acz infusion increases the regional cerebral blood flow within baseline grey matter perfusion defects. This finding suggests that baseline perfusion abnormalities could reflect a disconnection rather than local vasculitic involvement. (orig.)

Pupi, A.; Sestini, S.; Cristofaro, M.T.R. de; Meldolesi, U. [Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Nuclear Medicine Section, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Emmi, L.; Marchione, T.; Salvati, G.; Li Gobbi, F. [Department of Clinical Immuno-allergology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Massacesi, L. [Departments of Neurological and Psychiatrical Science, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

2000-06-01

300

Use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPET for the study of cerebral blood flow reactivity after acetazolamide infusion in patients with Behcet's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to characterise the nature of the baseline perfusion defects found in patients with Behcet's disease using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime single-photon emission tomography in conjunction with acetazolamide test (Acz SPET). Eleven patients underwent both baseline and Acz SPET. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the areas with decreased perfusion (D-ROI) and, in the same section, on areas with normal perfusion (N-ROI). The ROIs were then repositioned on the corresponding section on Acz SPET. The mean ROI counts were then transformed into a perfusion index value (PIV) with reference to the global brain counts. In total we found 24 D-ROIs (17 in the cortical and 7 in subcortical grey matter). The influence of Acz infusion was selectively registered in the D-ROIs, where PIVs changed from 1.23±0.17 (baseline SPET) to 1.63±0.23 (Acz SPET) (P<0.001). No significant difference was seen in the N-ROIs (1.46±0.21 and 1.40±0.17, respectively, on baseline SPET and Acz SPET). Our results demonstrate that Acz infusion increases the regional cerebral blood flow within baseline grey matter perfusion defects. This finding suggests that baseline perfusion abnormalities could reflect a disconnection rather than local vasculitic involvement. (orig.)

301

Comparison of infusions of commercially available garden products for collection of container-breeding mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2004, gravid-trap infusions made from commercially available garden products were compared in field assays to determine their attractiveness to ovipositing female mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted simultaneously at a residential site and at an auto salvage yard in Lee County, AL, each site having an abundance of container-breeding mosquitoes. Several infusion types were initially screened, from which the following 4 infusions were selected to be compared using gravid traps for their attractiveness to mosquitoes under field conditions: oak leaves, pine straw, red (dyed) hardwood mulch, and composted manure. Culex quinquefasciatus was the only species collected in greater numbers with gravid traps than with light traps, and the difference was more than 5-fold at both study sites. Gravid traps collected (mean +/- SD) 3.1 +/- 4.3 and 6.9 +/- 11.5 Cx. quinquefasciatus females at the residential and auto salvage sites, respectively. The response of Cx. quinquefasciatus females to infusions tested was variable, and no single infusion was consistently more attractive throughout the experiment. Gravid traps collected 1.7 +/- 1.9 and 4.7 +/- 4.4 Aedes albopictus females, 0.3 +/- 1.4 and 0.5 +/- 1.3 Cx. nigripalpus females, and 0.3 +/- 0.9 and 0.2 +/- 0.8 Cx. restuans females at the residential and auto salvage sites, respectively. Roughly 5-, 20- and 10-fold the numbers of females of Aedes albopictus, Cx. nigripalpus, and Cx. restuans were collected by light traps than by gravid traps at both sites. Aedes albopictus females did not demonstrate a preference for any of the infusions tested. Significant difference among infusions for Cx. restuans and Cx. nigripalpus were detected on just 1 trap-night. On this occasion, traps with red (dyed) hardwood mulch collected significantly more females of Cx. restuans and Cx. nigripalpus than did traps with other infusions. This work indicates that gravid traps are effective tools for collecting Cx. quinquefasciatus females, and a wide variety of organic materials may be used to produce infusions that can be used to attract ovipositing container-breeding mosquitoes. PMID:18666531

Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Mullen, Gary R

2008-06-01

302

Urokinase Lysis for Acute Left Subclavian Artery Thrombosis after Placement of Infusion Catheter: Report of Two Cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present two cases of acute subclavian and/or axillary arterial occlusion after transaxillary catheterization with an implantable port for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. They were successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy using intraarterial administration of urokinase without removal of the infusion catheter system. We consider that this treatment is suitable for managing acute thrombosis of the conduit artery after catheterization for hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy

303

The flavonoids casticin and artemetin are poorly extracted and are unstable in an Artemisia annua tea infusion  

OpenAIRE

A number of flavonoids including casticin and artemetin from Artemisia annua have shown synergism with artemisinin against Plasmodium falciparum, but it is unclear if flavonoids are also extracted into a tea infusion of the plant. Using a tea infusion preparation protocol that was reported to be highly effective for artemisinin extraction, we measured casticin and artemetin extraction. There was only a 1.8% recovery of casticin in the infusion while artemetin was undetectable. After 24 hr sto...

Weathers, Pj; Towler, Mj

2012-01-01

304

Arginine infusion in patients with septic shock increases nitric oxide production without haemodynamic instability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arginine deficiency in sepsis may impair nitric oxide (NO) production for local perfusion and add to the catabolic state. In contrast, excessive NO production has been related to global haemodynamic instability. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the dose-response effect of intravenous arginine supplementation in post-absorptive patients with septic shock on arginine-NO and protein metabolism and on global and regional haemodynamics. Eight critically ill patients with a diagnosis of septic shock participated in this short-term (8 h) dose-response study. L-Arginine-HCl was continuously infused [intravenously (IV)] in three stepwise-increasing doses (33, 66 and 99 ?mol·kg-1·h-1). Whole-body arginine-NO and protein metabolism were measured using stable isotope techniques, and baseline values were compared with healthy controls. Global and regional haemodynamic parameters were continuously recorded during the study. Upon infusion, plasma arginine increased from 48±7 to 189±23 ?mol·l-1 (means±S.D.; Pincreased de novo arginine (Pincreased NO production (Parginine infusion (Parginine infusion (P>0.05), whereas stroke volume (SV) increased (Pincrease in plasma arginine with intravenous arginine infusion in sepsis stimulates de novo arginine and NO production and reduces whole-body protein breakdown. These potential beneficial metabolic effects occurred without negative alterations in haemodynamic parameters, although improvement in regional perfusion could not be demonstrated in the eight patients with septic shock who were studied. PMID:25036556

Luiking, Yvette C; Poeze, Martijn; Deutz, Nicolaas E

2015-01-01

305

Chronic intrastriatal dopamine infusions in rats with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examined the effects of continuously supplied dopamine delivered directly into the dopamine-deficient striatum. Rats received unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra by stereotaxic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine and were tested for apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and general activity. Osmotic mini-pumps were filled with dopamine in various concentrations, implanted subcutaneously and connected to a cannula implanted directly into the striatum. The system delivered solution at a rate of .5 ..mu..l/hr for two weeks. Dopamine in a dosage of 0.5 ..mu..g/per hour reduced apomorphine-induced rotational behavior by a mean of 52 +/- 5.8% (mean +/- SEM n=20) with a maximal individual decrease of 99%. There was no change in general activity or increase in stereotype behavior. Infusions of vehicle solutions did not decrease rotational behavior. Spread of the infused dopamine and its metabolites was estimated by adding /sup 3/H-dopamine to the pumps in tracer quantities. Radioactivity was highly concentrated at the infusion site and decreased rapidly within a few mm from the infusion site. Continuous infusion methods may eventually prove to be effective in the treatment of nigro-striatal degenerative disease. 12 references, 4 figures.

Hargraves, R.; Freed, W.J.

1987-03-09

306

Intra-arterial cis-diamminedichloroplatinum infusion treatment for widespread hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of intra-arterial infusion of Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (C-DDP) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas with widespread involvement. We retrospectively analyzed 22 patients who between July 1994 and June 1996 had undergone intra-arterial c-DDP infusion therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas with widespread involvement. The hepatomas involved both lobes in ten, portal venous obstructions in fourteen, arterio-portal shunts in nine, and arterio-venous shunts in two. Proper hepatic artery was selected for infusion of 100 mg/BSA of C-DDP. The same procedure was repeated every 3 to 4 weeks, and the total number of infusions was 65. On the basis of WHO criteria, response was classified as complete remission, partial remission, stable, or progression of the disease. Six-month and one-year survival rates were estimated, and adverse reactions were evaluated. Although the response rate is not high, intra-arterial C-DDP infusion therapy can be used as an alternative treatment for hepatocellular carcinomas with widespread involvement; adverse reactions are tolerable. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs

307

Safety of adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging by a one-route infusion protocol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When adenosine stress testing is performed, a vein is generally accessed in each arm. To determine whether the one-route infusion protocol, that is, infusion via one upper arm vein, is safe, myocardial perfusion imaging was performed during adenosine stress testing in patients with angina pectoris. Sixty-six consecutive patients (43 men, 68±11 years of age) with suspected coronary artery disease were enrolled in this study. For the stress test, adenosine was injected at 120 ?g/kg/min for 6 minutes. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate did not show any significant changes after injection of the adenosine and radioisotope (RI) tracer. Adverse events during infusion of the adenosine were seen in 42 (64%) patients and included chest discomfort/oppression in 17 (26%) and dyspnea/throat discomfort in 15 (23%). On the other hand, adverse events just after infusion of the RI tracer occurred in 5 (8%) patients and included chest oppression in 2 (3%) and dyspnea in 1 (2%). Almost all adverse events disappeared quickly without treatment. Therefore, we concluded that adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging using a one-route infusion protocol is safe and useful to do for patients unable to secure veins in both arms. (author)

308

Backflow length predictions during flow-controlled infusions using a nonlinear biphasic finite element model.  

Science.gov (United States)

A previously proposed finite element model that considers geometric and material nonlinearities and the free boundary problems that occur at the catheter tip and in the annular zone around the lateral surface of the catheter was revised and was used to fit a power-law formula to predict backflow length during infusions into brain tissue. Compared to a closed-form solution based on linear elasticity, the power-law formula for compliant materials predicted a substantial lower influence of the shear modulus and catheter radius on the backflow length, whereas the corresponding influence for stiffer materials was more consistent with the closed-form solution. The finite element model predicted decreases of the backflow length for reduction of the shear modulus for highly compliant materials (shear modulus less than 500 Pa) due to the increased area of infusion and the high fluid fraction near the infusion cavity that greatly increased the surface area available for fluid transfer and reduced the hydraulic resistance toward the tissue. These results show the importance of taking into account the material and geometrical nonlinearities that arise near the infusion surface as well as the change of hydraulic conductivity with strain for a proper characterization of backflow length during flow-controlled infusions into the brain. PMID:25154980

Orozco, Gustavo A; Smith, Joshua H; García, José J

2014-10-01

309

Effects of glucose infusion on neuroendocrine and cognitive parameters in Addison disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sucrose intake has been shown to suppress increased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in adrenalectomized rats, suggesting that increased cerebral energy supply can compensate for the loss of glucocorticoid feedback inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. We hypothesized that glucose infusion might acutely down-regulate increased ACTH secretion in patients with Addison disease. We studied 8 patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison group) with short-term discontinuation of hydrocortisone substitution and 8 matched healthy controls in 2 randomized conditions. Subjects received either intravenous glucose infusion (0.75 g glucose per kilogram body weight for 2.5 hours) or placebo. Concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, catecholamines, growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin were measured; and cognitive functions as well as neuroglycopenic and autonomic symptoms were assessed. The ACTH concentrations were not affected by glucose infusion either in the Addison or in the control group. Likewise, concentrations of cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, and glucagon remained unchanged in both groups. Neurocognitive performance and symptom scores were likewise not affected. Independent of glucose infusion, attention of the Addison patients was impaired in comparison with the control group. Our study in patients with Addison disease was not able to support the assumption of a compensatory effect of intravenous glucose infusion on hormonal parameters and neurocognitive symptoms in states of chronic cortisol deficiency. Further studies should examine whether different regimens of glucose administration are more effective. PMID:19709691

Klement, Johanna; Hubold, Christian; Hallschmid, Manfred; Loeck, Cecilia; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Lehnert, Hendrik; Born, Jan; Peters, Achim

2009-12-01

310

PENGARUH INFUS BUAH Foeniculum vulgare Mill PADA SIKLUS ESTRUS DAN BOBOT UTERUS TIKUS PUTIH  

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Full Text Available Buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill (adas secara tradisional untuk obat dan campuran jamu pengatur haid. Diduga buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill mempunyai pengaruh pada sistem reproduksi. Oleh karena itu, kami melakukan penelitian pengaruh infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill pada siklus estrus dan bobot uterus tikus putih.Infus diberikan secara oral sekali sehari selama 12 hari dengan dosis setara dengan 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan. Selama pemberian bahan, siklus estrus diperiksa setiap hari dan pada hari ke-13 diotopsi dan ditimbang bobot uterusnya.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menghambat fase estrus (masa subur. Infus setara dengan serbuk 7 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan kelihatan dapat menghambat fase estrus yang sangat nyata dibandingkan dengan akuades. Infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menurunkan bobot uterus, tetapi secara statistik tidak berbeda nyata dengan akuades. Kata kunci: Obat tradisional; Foeniculum vulgare Mill; Sistem Reproduksi

Sa'roni Sa'roni

2012-10-01

311

Trioctanoin infusion increases in vivo leucine oxidation: a lesson in isotope modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have reported that infusion of trioctanoin in conscious dogs had little effect on leucine oxidation but decreased the rate of appearance (Ra) and interconversion of leucine and its alpha-keto acid, alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC). To verify that these conclusions were independent of the leucine tracers and isotope models employed, the studies were repeated using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (4,5-/sup 3/H)KIC rather than (1-/sup 14/C)KIC and (4,5-/sup 3/H)leucine. In the present study, leucine oxidation calculated using the plasma (/sup 14/C)leucine or (/sup 14/C)KIC specific activities (SA) increased nearly twofold (P less than 0.001) during trioctanoin infusion in direct contrast to our previous results. When the data from either study were analyzed using the plasma SA of the leucine moiety reciprocal to the infused tracer as a potential indicator of the intracellular leucine SA, similar conclusions were obtained from either study: trioctanoin infusion in conscious dogs appears to increase whole-body leucine oxidation and does not decrease proteolysis. These studies challenge the validity of previously used isotope models of leucine metabolism and suggest that the plasma KIC SA during infusion of labeled leucine may most accurately reflect changes in whole-body leucine metabolism.

Rodriguez, N.; Schwenk, W.F.; Beaufrere, B.; Miles, J.M.; Haymond, M.W.

1986-09-01

312

Optimizing levodopa pharmacokinetics: intestinal infusion versus oral sustained-release tablets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous duodenal infusion of carbidopa/levodopa has been shown to control motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The authors compared the pharmacokinetics of levodopa and 3-O-methyldopa in patients with advanced PD after administration of an oral sustained-release levodopa preparation and after continuous intestinal levodopa infusion with a new formulation as a gel suspension. A randomized crossover trial was carried out in 12 patients. Carbidopa/levodopa was administered as an oral sustained-release tablet and by nasoduodenal continuous infusion for 3-week periods for each treatment. Plasma levodopa concentrations and motor performance were evaluated every 30 minutes during 3 test days of each treatment period. The average intraindividual coefficient of variation for the plasma levodopa concentrations after oral therapy was 34% and was significantly lower (14%, p < 0.01) during continuous infusion. Hourly video evaluations showed a significant increase in ON time during infusion and a significant decrease in OFF time and dyskinesia. Continuous intraduodenal delivery of a new carbidopa/levodopa formulation offers a means for markedly improved control of motor fluctuations in late stages of PD. PMID:12782919

Nyholm, Dag; Askmark, Håkan; Gomes-Trolin, Cecilia; Knutson, Tina; Lennernäs, Hans; Nyström, Christer; Aquilonius, Sten-Magnus

2003-01-01

313

Chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion for advanced oral cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concurrent chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion demonstrates good local control and overall survival rates due to the advantage of simultaneous infusion of anticancer agent with the synergistic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This study evaluated the therapeutic results, overall survival and local control rates in patients with advanced oral cancer treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion. A total of 688 patients with carcinoma of the head and neck were referred to our institution between January 2001 and December 2006. Among them, 175 patients with carcinoma of the oral cavity underwent definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy using retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion. Treatment consisted of superselective intra-arterial infusions (docetaxel, total 60 mg/m2, cisplatin, total 125-150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (total 50-60 Gy) for 5-6 weeks. Four weeks after the completion of all treatments, patients underwent biopsy of the primary lesion and radiological examinations. Complete response (CR) of the primary site was achieved in 160 (91.4%) of the 175 patients. Residual disease at the primary site was seen in 15 patients (8.6%), and 14 patients (8.0%) showed local recurrence during follow-up. Five-year survival and local control rates were 71.6% and 82.2%, respectively. (author)y. (author)

314

Recycling of an amino acid label with prolonged isotope infusion: Implications for kinetic studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate whether recycling of a labeled amino acid would occur after 24 h of infusion, two groups of normal volunteers were infused with [3H]leucine and alpha-[14C]-ketoisocaproate for 4 h and [2H3]leucine for either 4 or 24 h (groups I and II, respectively). Entry of [2H3]leucine at steady state into the plasma space was indistinguishable from its infusion rate for group I but 30% higher (P less than 0.001) than this rate for group II, demonstrating significant recycling of label. After discontinuation of the infusions, isotope disappearance from the plasma space was followed for 2 h. The 3H and 14C decay data for both groups suggest that plasma leucine and alpha- ketoisocaproate are derived from a single intracellular pool in the postabsorptive state. In group I, the 3H and 2H labels decayed identically; whereas, in group II, the decay of [2H3]-leucine and alpha- [2H3]ketoisocaproate was slower (P less than 0.01) than the decay of [3H]leucine and alpha-[3H]ketoisocaproate, confirming re-entry of label after a 24-h infusion. Therefore kinetic values calculated from models assuming no recycling of labeled amino acids are most likely not quantitative and must be interpreted with care when flux does not change or decreases

315

Chronic intrastriatal dopamine infusions in rats with unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examined the effects of continuously supplied dopamine delivered directly into the dopamine-deficient striatum. Rats received unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra by stereotaxic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine and were tested for apomorphine-induced rotational behavior and general activity. Osmotic mini-pumps were filled with dopamine in various concentrations, implanted subcutaneously and connected to a cannula implanted directly into the striatum. The system delivered solution at a rate of .5 ?l/hr for two weeks. Dopamine in a dosage of 0.5 ?g/per hour reduced apomorphine-induced rotational behavior by a mean of 52 +/- 5.8% (mean +/- SEM n=20) with a maximal individual decrease of 99%. There was no change in general activity or increase in stereotype behavior. Infusions of vehicle solutions did not decrease rotational behavior. Spread of the infused dopamine and its metabolites was estimated by adding 3H-dopamine to the pumps in tracer quantities. Radioactivity was highly concentrated at the infusion site and decreased rapidly within a few mm from the infusion site. Continuous infusion methods may eventually prove to be effective in the treatment of nigro-striatal degenerative disease. 12 references, 4 figures

316

Trioctanoin infusion increases in vivo leucine oxidation: a lesson in isotope modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have reported that infusion of trioctanoin in conscious dogs had little effect on leucine oxidation but decreased the rate of appearance (Ra) and interconversion of leucine and its alpha-keto acid, alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC). To verify that these conclusions were independent of the leucine tracers and isotope models employed, the studies were repeated using [1-14C]leucine and [4,5-3H]KIC rather than [1-14C]KIC and [4,5-3H]leucine. In the present study, leucine oxidation calculated using the plasma [14C]leucine or [14C]KIC specific activities (SA) increased nearly twofold (P less than 0.001) during trioctanoin infusion in direct contrast to our previous results. When the data from either study were analyzed using the plasma SA of the leucine moiety reciprocal to the infused tracer as a potential indicator of the intracellular leucine SA, similar conclusions were obtained from either study: trioctanoin infusion in conscious dogs appears to increase whole-body leucine oxidation and does not decrease proteolysis. These studies challenge the validity of previously used isotope models of leucine metabolism and suggest that the plasma KIC SA during infusion of labeled leucine may most accurately reflect changes in whole-body leucine metabolism

317

Direct vs. indirect pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis as a function of glucose infusion rate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was initiated to determine the influence of the rate of exogenous glucose administration on liver glycogen synthesis by the direct (glucose uptake and incorporation into glycogen) vs the indirect pathway (glucose degradation to 3-carbon intermediates, e.g., lactate, prior to incorporation into glycogen). Catheterized rats were fasted 2 days prior to receiving a 3 hr infusion of glucose at rates of 0 to 230 ?mol/min/kg containing tracer [6-3H]- and [U-14C]-glucose. Plasma glucose (r = 0.80), insulin (r = 0.90) and lactate (r = 0.84) were correlated with glucose infusion rate. The rate of liver glycogen deposition (0.46 +/- 0.03 ?mol/min/g) did not differ between a glucose infusion rate of 20 and 230 ?mol/min/kg. At the lowest and highest glucose infusion rates hepatic glycogenesis accounted for 87 +/- 6 and 9 +/- 1% of the total glucose load, respectively. The percent contribution of the direct pathways to glycogen deposition ([3H] specific activity in hepatic glycogen/[3H] specific activity in plasma glucose) increased from 16 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 5% from lowest to highest glucose infusion rates (prevailing plasma glucose concentrations: 9 +/- 1 and 21 +/- 2 mM, respectively). The results indicate that the relative contribution of the direct and indirect pathways of glucogen synthesis are dependent upon the glucose load or plasma glucose concentration

318

Distribution of acid sphingomyelinase in rodent and non-human primate brain after intracerebroventricular infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

One treatment approach for lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) is the systemic infusion of recombinant enzyme. Although this enzyme replacement is therapeutic for the viscera, many LSDs have central nervous system (CNS) components that are not adequately treated by systemic enzyme infusion. Direct intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of a high concentration of recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM) into the CNS over a prolonged time frame (hours) has shown therapeutic efficacy in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick A (NP/A) disease. To evaluate whether such an approach would translate to a larger brain, rhASM was infused into the lateral ventricles of both rats and Rhesus macaques, and the resulting distribution of enzyme characterized qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, ICV infusion of rhASM resulted in parenchymal distribution of enzyme at levels that were therapeutic in the NP/A mouse model. Enzyme distribution was global in nature and exhibited a relatively steep gradient from the cerebrospinal fluid compartment to the inner parenchyma. Additional optimization of an ICV delivery approach may provide a therapeutic option for LSDs with neurologic involvement. PMID:21777586

Ziegler, Robin J; Salegio, Ernesto A; Dodge, James C; Bringas, John; Treleaven, Christopher M; Bercury, Scott D; Tamsett, Thomas J; Shihabuddin, Lamya; Hadaczek, Piotr; Fiandaca, Massimo; Bankiewicz, Krystof; Scheule, Ronald K

2011-10-01

319

Antioxidant activity of oak (Quercus) leaves infusions against free radicals and their cardioprotective potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity and cardioprotective potential of leaves infusions and partially purified fractions of Quercus sideroxyla and Q. eduardii (red oaks) and Q. resinosa (white oak). Consumption of polyphenol-rich beverages derived from plants, such as oak may represent a beneficial diet in terms of cardiovascular protection. Infusions from Oak leaves were obtained and probed for total phenolics by Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals scavenging by DPPH test and Deoxy-D-ribose method, the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by FRAP and ORAC tests, inhibitions of Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity were measured. A HPLC analysis was performed by HPLC-MS. Bioactive polyphenols such as gallic and ellagic acids, catechin, quercetin and derivatives: naringenin and naringin were detected in Quercus infusions. A distinctive HPLC profile was observed among the red and white oak samples. Q. resinosa infusions have exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in comparison with the other species, although in the inhibition of LDL oxidation no differences were observed. In the inhibition of the ACE, Q. resinosa was more effective (IC50, 18 ppm) than Q. sideroxyla, showing same effect as the control Captopril. From the results it is possible to postulate that not only chelating activity is important in these infusions, especially in Q. resinosa. PMID:21848067

Rivas-Arreola, M J; Rocha-Guzmán, N E; Gallegos-Infante, J A; González-Laredo, R F; Rosales-Castro, M; Bacon, J R; Cao, Rong; Proulx, A; Intriago-Ortega, P

2010-06-01

320

Antioxidant Activity of Oak (Quercus Leaves Infusions against Free Radicals and their Cardioprotective Potential  

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Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity and cardioprotective potential of leaves infusions and partially purified fractions of Quercus sideroxyla and Q. eduardii (red oaks and Q. resinosa (white oak. Consumption of polyphenol-rich beverages derived from plants, such as oak may represent a beneficial diet in terms of cardiovascular protection. Infusions from Oak leaves were obtained and probed for total phenolics by Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals scavenging by DPPH test and Deoxy-D-ribose method, the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by FRAP and ORAC tests, inhibitions of Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL oxidation and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE activity were measured. A HPLC analysis was performed by HPLC-MS. Bioactive polyphenols such as gallic and ellagic acids, catechin, quercetin and derivatives: naringenin and naringin were detected in Quercus infusions. A distinctive HPLC profile was observed among the red and white oak samples. Q. resinosa infusions have exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in comparison with the other species, although in the inhibition of LDL oxidation no differences were observed. In the inhibition of the ACE, Q. resinosa was more effective (IC50, 18 ppm than Q. sideroxyla, showing same effect as the control Captopril. From the results it is possible to postulate that not only chelating activity is important in these infusions, especially in Q. resinosa.

Rong (Tsao Cao

2010-01-01

321

The contamination of intravenous fluids by writing on the infusion bag: Fact or fiction?  

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Full Text Available Introduction -Laboratory experiments were conducted to ascertain whether Sharpie® brand black permanent marker ink will permeate through intravenous infusion bags. The practice of writing directly on infusion bags is a frequent yet controversial practice. There are no known written standards that exist which pertain to this practice. Methods – Five types of intravenous bags containing different solutions marked with black ink from a fine point felt tipped Sharpie® marker. Sample extraction occurred after infusion bags had been warmed to 40 C or remained ambient.  Spectrophotometric scans and measurements were conducted at 300 to 600 NM on each solution contained in the experimental bags. Writing with Sharpie® pens on filter paper and surgical tape was also conducted. Results – A total of 17 experiments were conducted with intravenous bags of five different types of manufacture.  There appeared to be no visible or ultraviolet spectrophotometric evidence of leaching of the ink from Sharpie® pens. Four different lot numbers of Sharpie® pens were used. Surgical tape that was written on using Sharpie® markers readily exhibited visible evidence of permeability. Discussion - The experiments conducted would appear to indicate that the infusion containers tested maintained an intact barrier to the application of Sharpie® brand permanent marker ink. Writing on surgical tape does not stop the permeability of Sharpie® pens. This study could serve as a suitable pilot study for others to conduct a much more comprehensive study using a greater number of intravenous containers, solutions and ink markers.   Keywords: Fluid therapy, infusion, ink, intravenous, writing.

James Daniel Langston

2013-11-01

322

Compatibility of ketorolac tromethamine injection with common infusion fluids and administration sets.  

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The compatibility of ketorolac tromethamine injection with commonly used i.v. infusion solutions and administration set components was evaluated. The infusion solutions tested were 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride and 5% dextrose injection, Plasma-Lyte A pH 7.4 injection, Ringer's injection, and lactated Ringer's injection. The ketorolac tromethamine admixture concentration studied was 30 mg/50 mL for all solutions. Admixtures were stored in polyvinyl chloride bags and glass bottles at room temperature under fluorescent light and sampled at 0, 6, 24, and 48 hours. Chemical compatibility was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and physical compatibility was determined by visual analysis, counting of subvisible particles by HIAC, and pH measurements. Adsorption of ketorolac tromethamine to i.v. administration set components was also evaluated. Ketorolac tromethamine exhibited excellent physical and chemical stability in all six infusion solutions tested. No degradation of drug, formation of particulates, or adsorption to containers or infusion tubing was noted at any concentration for any of the solutions. After the solutions were mixed, the pH remained essentially unchanged. Ketorolac tromethamine injection was physically and chemically stable when mixed with a variety of commonly used infusion solutions and was not adsorbed to administration set components or to glass or polyvinyl chloride containers. PMID:2337102

Floy, B J; Royko, C G; Fleitman, J S

1990-05-01

323

Oviposition responses of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to experimental plant infusions in laboratory bioassays.  

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Attraction of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus to plant infusions was evaluated by using a modified sticky-screen bioassay that improved the resolution of mosquito responses to odorants. Under bioassay conditions, solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic analyses of the volatile marker chemical indole showed that odorants diffused from bioassay cups, forming a concentration gradient. Infusions were prepared by separately fermenting senescent leaves of eight plant species in well water. Plant infusions were evaluated over an 8-fold range of leaf biomass and/or a 28 d fermentation period. The responses of gravid females of both mosquito species varied with the plant species and biomass of plant materials used to make infusions, and with the length of the fermentation period. Infusions made from senescent bamboo (Arundinaria gigantea) and white oak (Quercus alba) leaves were significantly attractive to both mosquitoes. In general, infusions prepared by using low biomass of plant material over a 7-14 d fermentation period were most attractive to Ae. aegypti. In contrast, Ae. albopictus was attracted to infusions made using a wider range of plant biomass and over a longer fermentation period. Both mosquito species were more attracted to a non-sterile white oak leaf infusion than to white oak leaf infusion that was prepared using sterilized plant material and water, thus suggesting a role for microbial activity in the production of odorants that mediate the oviposition response of gravid mosquitoes. PMID:20521087

Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Xu, Ning; Böröczky, Katalin; Wesson, Dawn M; Abu Ayyash, Luma; Schal, Coby; Apperson, Charles S

2010-07-01

324

Management of intractable pain in cancer patients by implantable morphine infusion systems.  

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Ten patients underwent implantation of intrathecal morphine catheters with subcutaneous implantation of morphine Infusaid pumps for the treatment of intractable pain of malignant origin from May 1984 to October 1985. All patients exhibited a good initial response to intrathecal morphine and developed some degree of tolerance. All patients with bony metastasis and/or lumbarsacral plexopathy developed rapid tolerance.Depressive illness was noted in all patients undergoing a psychiatric evaluation prior to institution of morphine infusion therapy. Seventy percent of patients treated could be treated on an outpatient basis after pump implantation.Complications included a pump pocket infection requiring the removal of the implanted system. There was no pump failure, respiratory depression, urinary retention, or mortality related to the use of the morphine infusion system. It is recommended that intrathecal morphine infusion be instituted when narcotics have been identified as necessary for pain relief, before the development of significant systemic tolerance. PMID:3669090

Dennis, G C; DeWitty, R

1987-09-01

325

Thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography after isoproterenol infusion in diagnosing ischemia heart disease  

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Patients with obstructive atherosclerotic disease of the peripheral arteries are often unable to undergo a standard Treadmill test for evaluation of concomitant coronary artery diseases. To establish an alternative method of testing, 27 patients had intravenous infusion of isoproterenol, up to 1.0 ..mu..g/kg, in conjugation with myocardial thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). All underwent coronary angiography. Thallium-201 myocardial SPECT after isoproterenol infusion was found to have 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for detecting coronary artery diseases (stenotic or occluded coronary arteries with or without myocardial infarction) and 87 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for detecting stenotic coronary arteries with viable regional myocardium. No major complication was experienced during and after this study. It is concluded that serial thallium-201 myocardial SPECT after isoproterenol infusion is safe, reliable and useful for detecting coronary artery disease when standard exercise test is not feasible.

Aizawa, Nobuyuki; Kim, Kunikane; Hara, Yoshikuni; Shimizu, Toshio; Mitsui, Tamito; Yamazaki, Yuki; Suzuki, Yutaka.

1988-05-01

326

Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of cultivated thyme: antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic characterisation.  

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Bioactivity of thyme has been described, but mostly related to its essential oils, while studies with aqueous extracts are scarce. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract, as also their phenolic compounds, were evaluated and compared. Decoction showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (either phenolic acids or flavonoids), followed by infusion and hydroalcoholic extract. In general, the samples were effective against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris and Enterobacter sakazakii) bacteria, with decoction presenting the most pronounced effect. This sample also displayed the highest radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Data obtained support the idea that compounds with strong antioxidant and antibacterial activities are also water-soluble. Furthermore, the use of thyme infusion and decoction, by both internal and external use, at recommended doses, is safe and no adverse reactions have been described. PMID:25148969

Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-01-15

327

Clinical analysis of trans-reformed-catheter infusion for treatment of fallopian tube obstruction  

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Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of trans-reformed-catheter infusion for treatment of fallopian tube obstruction with Yuebei infertility. Methods: 86 cases of fallopian tube obstruction were recanalized by trans-reformed-catheter infusion. Results: 86 cases with 169 obstructive fallopian tube altogether, among them 119 were recanalized by once of this procedure, 33 by twice. The total effective rate was 89.9%. 86 cases were all followed up including 39 cases got pregnant after once of this procedure, 18 got pregnant after twice of the performance. The total pregnancy rate reached 66.3%. Conclusions: Trans-reformed-catheter infusion therapy is a safe and effective method to treat infertility resulted from fallopian tube obstruction

328

Dialysis Access Graft Thrombolysis: Randomized Study of Pulse-Spray Versus Continuous Urokinase Infusion  

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Purpose: To compare pulse-spray to continuous-infusion thrombolysis with high-dose urokinase in thrombosed dialysis access grafts. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed. From August 1992 to September 1993, 30 thrombosed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts in 24 patients were included, 15 grafts in each group. The success of thrombolysis, mean time to thrombolysis, mean urokinase dose, and 60-day patency rate were evaluated. Results: In the pulse-spray group, the mean time to thrombolysis was 72 min with a mean urokinase dose of 560,000 U. The 60-day patency rate was 71%. In the continuous-infusion group, the mean infusion time to thrombolysis was 55 min with a mean dose of 479,000 U. The 60-day patency rate was 73%. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was found between the two techniques in the mean time to thrombolysis, the mean urokinase dose used, or the 60-day patency rate

329

The antioxidant activity and thermal stability of lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) infusion.  

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Because of its good sensorial attributes, lemon verbena is used as a primary ingredient in infusions and nonalcoholic drinks. The present study was designed to assess the antioxidant activity (AA) of lemon verbena infusion (LVI) as well as the thermal stability of its AA and the content of polyphenolic compounds. The values reflecting the AA of LVI, including AA index, fast scavenging rate against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical scavenging, are higher than those of many herbal infusions and antioxidant drinks estimated from reported data. In addition, the slope lag time and specific oxyradical antioxidant capacity values of LVI are comparable to those of a commercial antioxidant drink based on green tea. Hence, LVI is a source of bifunctional antioxidants, and thus in vivo studies of the antioxidant capacity of LVI would be useful to evaluate its potential as an ingredient in antioxidant drinks. PMID:21434775

Abderrahim, Fatima; Estrella, Seyer; Susín, Cristina; Arribas, Silvia M; González, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

2011-05-01

330

Antimutagenic Activity and Radical Scavenging Activity of Water Infusions and Phenolics from Ligustrum Plants Leaves  

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Full Text Available Water infusions of Ligustrum delavayanum and Ligustrum vulgare leaves and eight phenolics isolated therefrom have been assayed in vitro on ofloxacin-induced genotoxicity in the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis. The tested compounds luteolin, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, luteolin-7-rutinoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, apigenin-7-rutinoside, tyrosol and esculetin inhibited the mutagenic activity of ofloxacin (43 µM in E. gracilis. Water infusions from leaves of L. delavayanum and L. vulgare showed higher antimutagenic effect (pt < 0.001. The activity of these samples against ofloxacin (86 µM-induced genotoxicity was lower, but statistically significant (pt < 0.05, excluding the water infusion of L. delavayanum leaves (pt < 0.01. Efficacy of quercetin, luteolin-7-rutinoside, apigenin-7-rutinoside was insignificant. The antimutagenic effect of most phenolics we studied could be clearly ascribed to their DPPH scavenging activity, substitution patterns and lipophilicity.

Milan Nagy

2009-01-01

331

The intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom enhances memory persistence in rats.  

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Previous research has shown that crotamine, a toxin isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces the release of acetylcholine and dopamine in the central nervous system of rats. Particularly, these neurotransmitters are important modulators of memory processes. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of crotamine infusion on persistence of memory in rats. We verified that the intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine (1 ?g/?l; 1 ?l/side) improved the persistence of object recognition and aversive memory. By other side, the intrahippocampal infusion of the toxin did not alter locomotor and exploratory activities, anxiety or pain threshold. These results demonstrate a future prospect of using crotamine as potential pharmacological tool to treat diseases involving memory impairment, although it is still necessary more researches to better elucidate the crotamine effects on hippocampus and memory. PMID:24813333

Vargas, Liane S; Lara, Marcus V S; Gonçalves, Rithiele; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

2014-07-01

332

Selective intra arterial infusion chemotherapy for malignant nasal and paranasal sinus tumors  

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Since 1998, we have treated 14 malignant nasal and paranasal sinus tumor patients with selective intra arterial infusion chemotherapy. We report results for 7 of maxillary sinus, 3 of sphenoid sinus 1 of ethmoid sinus, and 3 of the nasal cavity. Only 1 maxillary sinus case involved recurrence. Intra arterial infusions of cisplatin (100 mg/body) was delivered rapidly to the tumor and usually repeated for 4 times. Conventional external-beam irradiation (2 Gy per fraction x 30) was also used. Complete response cases were 9 of 14 and control of the local lesion found in all new cases. These results indicate that intra arterial infusion therapy is effective against advanced malignant nasal and paranasal sinus tumors. (author)

333

[Residual pesticide concentrations after processing various types of tea and tea infusions].  

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The effects of processing to produce various types of tea or infusion on the levels of pesticide residues in tea were investigated for three insecticides (chlorfenapyr, pyrimiphos-methyl, and clothianidin). Tea plants were sprayed with one of the three pesticides and cultivated under cover. The levels of pesticide residues in tea decreased after processing according to the time and temperature of heating, as well as fermentation. Although significant differences were not observed among the three pesticides in the ratio of decreased of pesticide concentration after processing to green tea, clothianidin, which is a neonicotinoid insecticide and has a lower log Pow value, tended to be transferred more than the other two insecticides into infusions. However, no significant difference in the ratios of clothianidin transferred to infusions was observed among green tea with three different leaf sizes. PMID:24025203

Kondo, Takahide; Watanabe, Ayaka; Shitara, Hiroshi; Kaburagi, Yasuo; Shibata, Masahisa; Kanda, Noriko; Kurokawa, Chieko; Inoue, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Togawa, Masayuki; Ozawa, Akihito; Uchiyama, Toru; Koizumi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Yoriyuki; Masuda, Shuichi; Maitani, Tamio

2013-01-01

334

Superselective cerebral arterial infusion of BCNU in high-grade glioma: The radiologist's point of view  

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Twenty-seven patients with high-grade glioma were candidates for superselective cerebral infusion of BCNU after surgery and radiation therapy. A total of 59 catheterizations were undertaken using an 8-F guiding catheter through which a 2.5 F balloon catheter was propelled into the main arterial trunk feeding the tumor. Ten procedures were stopped because of arterial spasm with transient deficit or prolonged catheterization time. Forty-nine infusions of 150-200 mg of BCNU were carried out, each lasting 3 hours. In 75% of patients, stabilization or improvement was noted on CT scan 5 weeks after treatment. This study demonstrates the safety of supraophthalmic catheterization, the feasibility of prolonged catheterization, and the relative effectiveness of low-dose BCNU infused over a long period of time

335

Continuous subcutaneous infusion of lidocaine for persistent hiccup in advanced cancer.  

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Persistent hiccup can cause anorexia, weight loss, disabling sleep deprivation, anxiety, and depression. Therefore, relief of persistent hiccup is important for advanced cancer patients and their family. Most reports on this condition are case series reports advocating the use of baclofen, haloperidol, gabapentin, and midazolam. However, these medications are occasionally ineffective or accompanied by intolerable side effects. The sodium channel blocker lidocaine has been shown to be effective in treating a variety of disorders thought to involve neuropathic mechanisms. Intravenous administration of lidocaine is common but efficacy has also been reported for subcutaneous infusion. In advanced cancer patients, subcutaneous infusion is easy, advantageous, and accompanied by less discomfort. We report a case of severe and sustained hiccup caused by gastric cancer that was successfully treated with a continuous subcutaneous infusion of lidocaine (480 mg (24 ml)/day) without severe side effects. PMID:22661318

Kaneishi, Keisuke; Kawabata, Masahiro

2013-03-01

336

Transarterial infusion chemotherapy with a combination of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil in advanced pancreatic carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the effectiveness of transarterial infusion chemotherapy of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil in advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Methods: Twenty-two patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma were treated with transarterial infusion chemotherapy. Gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil was administered to the patients via an interarterial catheter. Then the tumor response rate and clinical benefit were observed. Results: A clinical benefit was obtained in 8 patients (36.4%). The tumor response rate was 13.6%. Median survival for all the patients was 6.1 months. Median time to tumor progression was 2.9 months. Conclusion: Transarterial infusion chemotherapy with a combination of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil appears to have good clinical benefit and may prolong the survival time of patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma

337

PENGARUH INFUS BEBERAPA TANAMAN OBAT TERHADAP TEKANAN DARAH DAN FAAL JANTUNG KUCING  

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Full Text Available The 10 percent infusion of Sericoccalyx crispus BL administered intravenously at dose 1 ml/kg did not alter the cardiovascular system of the anaesthetized cat. Piper betle LINN and Euphatorium triplinerve VAHL at the same dose of administration decreased the blood pressure with short onset and duration. One milliliter of a 10 percent infusion of Curcuma domestica VAHL decreased the blood pressure of the anaesthetized cat slowly and lasting about 3 hours reaching its maximal depression at one hour after injection. The action on the heart rate, contractility and autonomic ganglion is not clear. A direct action, after reaction of substance or after formation of a substance, on the blood vessels is sugested to be the most probable mechanism of action of this crude infusion of Curcuma domestica.

B. Dzulkarnain

2012-09-01

338

Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer  

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Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where water droplets nucleate immersed within the oil. The combination of surface energy heterogeneity, reduced oil-water interfacial energy, and surface structuring enabled drastically increased nucleation densities while maintaining easy condensate removal and low contact angles. Accordingly, on oil-infused heterogeneous nanostructured copper oxide surfaces, we demonstrated approximately 100% increase in heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensation surfaces in the presence of non-condensable gases. This work offers a distinct approach utilizing surface chemistry and structuring together with liquid-infusion for enhanced condensation heat transfer.

Xiao, Rong; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

2013-06-01

339

Analysis of the environmental impact of insulin infusion sets based on loss of resources with waste.  

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Insulin pump therapy [continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)] requires regular change of infusion sets every 2-3 days in order to minimize the risk of skin irritations or other adverse events. This has been discussed to be a potential burden to the environment. The purpose of this analysis was to perform an environmental assessment of insulin pump infusion sets based on loss of resources occurring during incineration of the discarded products and by means of a lifecycle concept used to weight a material in relation to its rareness on earth and its consumption. In addition to five infusion sets (Inset30, InsetII, Comfort, Quick-set, and Cleo), a patch pump (Omnipod) was also included in this analysis. The annual loss in waste of the so called "person reserve" of 3 days of catheter use was compared with daily consumption of a cup of coffee in a disposable paper cup and to a soft drink in an aluminum can. The weight-based loss in resources through waste for the infusion sets (except for Cleo) corresponded to 70-200% of the loss of resources for a coffee cup (Cleo, 320%; Omnipod, 1,821,600%) and to 1-3% of the loss from an aluminum soft drink can (Cleo, 5%; Omnipod, 31,200%). The loss or resources by use of infusion sets used in insulin pump therapy appears to be low and is similar to the burden induced by the uptake of one cup of coffee per day. The loss or resources with regular CSII is considerably lower than the loss or resources induced by patch pumps. PMID:21880223

Pfützner, Andreas; Musholt, Petra B; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjoern; Nilsson, Nils H; Forst, Thomas

2011-07-01

340

Ribose infusion accelerates thallium redistribution with early imaging compared with late 24-hour imaging without ribose.  

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To determine if early (4-h) thallium-201 imaging with ribose infusion would enhance detection of thallium redistribution better than late (24-h) imaging without ribose infusion, 15 patients with coronary artery disease underwent thallium stress tests by both methods within 2 weeks. All 15 patients had quantitative coronary angiography. After immediate postexercise planar imaging during the first of two exercise tests, patients were randomized to receive either intravenous ribose (3.3 mg/kg per min) or a control infusion of saline solution for 30 min. Images performed at 4 h for the ribose study were compared with those at 24 h for the saline control study. During the second test, exercise was carried to the same rate-pressure product and each patient received the opposite infusion. Four-hour postexercise images after ribose infusion identified 21 reversible defects not seen in the 24-h saline study. Three reversible defects were seen only in saline studies, but not with ribose at 4 h (p less than 0.01); 15 reversible defects were seen with both tests. When analyzed with respect to the 31 vascular territories supplied by a coronary artery with a greater than 50% stenosis, 8 territories had reversible defects present in the ribose but not the saline study and the saline study did not demonstrate reversible defects in territories that were seen in the ribose study (p less than 0.01). In 14 of these territories, reversible defects were seen with both tests. In 6 of 15 patients, additional vascular territories with reversible defects were identified after ribose infusion. It is concluded that ribose enhances the detection of thallium redistribution at 4 h compared with 24-h control images in patients with coronary artery disease and, therefore, substantially improves the identification of viable ischemic myocardium. PMID:1960313

Hegewald, M G; Palac, R T; Angello, D A; Perlmutter, N S; Wilson, R A

1991-12-01

341

Nerve excitability changes after intravenous immunoglobulin infusions in multifocal motor neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy.  

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Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) infusions may provide clinical benefits in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The short delay in the clinical response to IVIg therapy is not consistent with a process of remyelination or axonal regeneration. We assessed whether or not the efficacy of IVIg infusions in MMN and CIDP could reflect changes in axonal membrane properties and nerve excitability. Ulnar motor nerve excitability was studied before and after three to five consecutive days of IVIg infusions (0.4 g/kg/day) in 10 patients with MMN, 10 patients with CIDP, and 10 neurological controls (CTRLs). Excitability recovery cycle, stimulus-response and strength-duration properties were investigated. The recovery cycle parameters (absolute and relative refractory period durations, refractoriness and supernormality) were similar in all groups and did not change after IVIg infusions. At baseline, patients with CIDP, but not with MMN, showed a reduced strength-duration time constant (chronaxie) and increased rheobase when compared to CTRLs. After IVIg infusions, strength-duration time constant remained stable in CTRLs, but decreased in patients with MMN or CIDP. Rheobase increased in the three groups after treatment. The decreased strength-duration time constant after IVIg infusions in patients with MMN or CIDP could reflect a reduction of persistent Na(+) current, able to limit intraaxonal Na(+) accumulation and then to produce neuroprotective effects. However, this could also reflect compensatory mechanisms that did not directly underlie the therapeutic effect. Whatever the underlying process, this result revealed that IVIgs were able to produce early nerve excitability changes. PMID:20219211

Boërio, Delphine; Créange, Alain; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Guéguen, Antoine; Bertrand, Dominique; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

2010-05-15

342

Natriuretic peptide infusion reduces myocardial injury during acute ischemia/reperfusion  

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Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a natriuretic peptide infusion during reperfusion can reduce cardiomyocyte ischemia–reperfusion damage. Materials and methods: The effect of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity was assessed in vitro and in vivo: the cellular effect was determined by assessment of intracellular caspase activity and troponin T release from cultured HL-1 cells subjected to short-term hypoxia–reperfusion. Cardiac effects were further examined in pigs (n=25) that had been subjected to 1 h of regional cardiac ischemia, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Results: HL-1 cardiomyocytes responded to exogenous BNP with increased cGMP activity (?3-fold, P=0.0037) and hypoxia–reperfusion with increased vascular endothelial growth factor and BNPmRNA contents (2.3- and 2.5-fold, respectively, P<0.0001) and caspase activity (2.9-fold, P=0.03), but without a decrease in apoptotic changes in the BNP-stimulated cells. Pigs tolerated the BNP and CD-NP (a CNP analogue) infusion well,with a decrease in systemic blood pressure (?15 mmHg) and increased diuresis compared with the controls. Left ventricular pressure decreased in the pigs that received BNP infusion compared with controls (P=0.02). A similar trend was observed in the pigs that received CD-NP infusion, although this was not significant (P=0.3). BNP and CD-NP infusion in pigs reduced total cardiac troponin T release by 46 and 40%, respectively (P=0.0015 and 0.0019), and were associated with improved RNA integrity in the ischemic left ventricular region (P<0.05). Conclusion: We report that natriuretic peptide infusion in vivo reduces cardiomyocyte injury in acute ischemia–reperfusion, possibly through indirect mechanisms (e.g. increased diuresis and vasodilation). The results suggest a role for natriuretic peptide therapy in human cardiac ischemia.

Kousholt, Birgitte S.; Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed

2012-01-01

343

CT enhancement of acute cerebral infarction following long-term continuous contrast infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this experimental study, we employed a long-term (3 hours) continuous-drip infusion of the contrast medium (200 ml of meglumine amidtrizoate) rather than the conventional bolus injection. On admission, four-vessel angiography was performed on all 14 patients. Within 3 days after the onset of the disease, CT scan was carried out repeatedly just prior to contrast infusion, immediately after the end of the continuous-contrast infusion, and additionally, in 4 cases, 3 hours after the end of the contrast infusion. The Haunsfield number was calculated in 3 regions of interest (Radius 5) in the infarction. Positive enhancement was observed in 10 out of the 14 patients (71 %). Among them, 4 out of 5 patients in whom no vascular obstraction on angiography, but marked low-density areas with a mass effect on CT were observed, showed moderate to marked enhancement. In these 4 patients, a temporary cerebral ischemia due to vascular embolization was considered. From the other 4 patients in whom the additional CT scan was performed 3 hours after the end of the contrast infusion, a blood sample was obtained at each of the 3 CT scannings. The iodine concentrations of the blood samples were measured, and their Haunsfield numbers were calculated in the water phantom. The above two parameters were well correlated in a linear function. Among the 4 patients, Gado's tissue-blood ratio (the Haunsfield number of the CT lesion is divided by that of the blood sample) was more than 17.2 % immthe blood sample) was more than 17.2 % immediately after, and more than 54.7 % 3 hours after, the contrast infusion. Thus, we could conclude that the break-down of the BBB which was demonstrated by a long-term high-blood-concentration level of the contrast medium is an earlier event in human cerebral infarction than is usually accepted. The findings are compatible with our results in animal experiments. (author)

344

Tracer measured substrate turnover requires arterial sampling downstream of infusion site  

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Measurement of metabolite turnover (Rt) with radioactive tracers is done by either infusing tracer venously and sampling specific activity (SA) arterially (V-A modes), or by infusing into the aorta and sampling venous blood (A-V mode). Using the Fick principle, the necessity for using the V-A mode can be demonstrated. If tracer is infused into the left ventricle, in a steady state the Rt is the product of arterial trace concentration, the cardiac output, and the tracer extraction ratio for the whole body. This is expressed as: Rt = Ca x Qx ((*Ca - *Cv)/*Ca) (Eq1) where C=trace concentration (?mol/ml), *C=tracer conc. (dpm/ml), a=arterial, v-=mixed venous, and Q=cardiac output (ml/min). Rearranging the equation: Rt = Qx(*Ca - *Cv)/SAa = F/SAa (Eq2) where SAa is *Ca/Ca, and Qx (*Ca-*Cv) equals the infusion rate (F). The authors compared Eqs1 and 2 (Rt = F/SAa) in 3 anesthetized dogs in which [1-14C] lactate was infused into the left ventricle, and blood was sampled arterially downstream from the infusion site and in the pulmonary artery. Eqs 1 and 2 gave similar results for Rt (45.9 vs. 43.9 ?mol/kg min), while substituting SAv for SAa (A-V mode) into Eq 2 gave a higher Rt (53.6). When SAv (A-V mode) is used, the specific activity seen by the tissues (SAa) is not considered in the calculation of Rt. Therefore, only the V-A mode meets the requirements for tracer measured metabolite turnover

345

Microfabricated infuse-withdraw micropump component for an integrated inner-ear drug-delivery platform.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the major challenges in treatment of auditory disorders is that many therapeutic compounds are toxic when delivered systemically. Local intracochlear delivery methods are becoming critical in emerging treatments and in drug discovery. Direct infusion via cochleostomy, in particular, is attractive from a pharmacokinetics standpoint, as there is potential for the kinetics of delivery to be well-controlled. Direct infusion is compatible with a large number of drug types, including large, complex molecules such as proteins and unstable molecules such as siRNA. In addition, hair-cell regeneration therapy will likely require long-term delivery of a timed series of agents. This presents unknown risks associated with increasing the volume of fluid within the cochlea and mechanical damage caused during delivery. There are three key requirements for an intracochlear drug delivery system: (1) a high degree of miniaturization (2) a method for pumping precise and small volumes of fluid into the cochlea in a highly controlled manner, and (3) a method for removing excess fluid from the limited cochlear fluid space. To that end, our group is developing a head-mounted microfluidics-based system for long-term intracochlear drug delivery. We utilize guinea pig animal models for development and demonstration of the device. Central to the system is an infuse-withdraw micropump component that, unlike previous micropump-based systems, has fully integrated drug and fluid storage compartments. Here we characterize the infuse-withdraw capabilities of our micropump, and show experimental results that demonstrate direct drug infusion via cochleostomy in animal models. We utilized DNQX, a glutamate receptor antagonist that suppresses CAPs, as a test drug. We monitored the frequency-dependent changes in auditory nerve CAPs during drug infusion, and observed CAP suppression consistent with the expected drug transport path based on the geometry and tonotopic organization of the cochlea. PMID:25686902

Tandon, Vishal; Kang, Woo Seok; Spencer, Abigail J; Kim, Ernest S; Pararas, Erin E L; McKenna, Michael J; Kujawa, Sharon G; Mescher, Mark J; Fiering, Jason; Sewell, William F; Borenstein, Jeffrey T

2015-04-01

346

Promoting Active Learning in Technology-Infused TILE Classrooms at the University of Iowa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this case study, the authors describe the successful implementation of technology-infused TILE classrooms at the University of Iowa. A successful collaboration among campus units devoted to instructional technologies and teacher development, the TILE Initiative has provided instructors with a new set of tools to support active learning. The authors detail the implementation of the TILE classrooms, the process of training instructors to design effective instruction for these classrooms, and an assessment project that helps improve the process of ensuring faculty can successfully facilitate learning activities in a technology-infused learning environment.

Sam Van Horne

2012-06-01

347

Gentamicin persistence in rat endolymph and perilymph after a two-day constant infusion.  

OpenAIRE

The kinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear fluids of rats were studied up to 15 days after cessation of a 2-day constant infusion of 10 micrograms/min. In endolymph, the concentration of gentamicin persisted at about 1 microgram/ml for up to 15 days, precluding the determination of the half-life of the drug in this fluid. In perilymph, gentamicin cleared more slowly than after a shorter period of infusion. These results suggest that the tissues of the inner ear could bind the aminoglycoside ...

Tran Ba Huy, P.; Meulemans, A.; Wassef, M.; Manuel, C.; Sterkers, O.; Amiel, C.

1983-01-01

348

Late Infusion of Cloned Marrow Fibroblasts Stimulates Endogenous Recovery from Radiation-Induced Lung Injury  

OpenAIRE

In the current study, we used a canine model of radiation-induced lung injury to test the effect of a single i.v. infusion of 10×106/kg of marrow fibroblasts on the progression of damage following 15 Gy exposure to the right lung. The fibroblasts, designated DS1 cells, are a cloned population of immortalized cells isolated from a primary culture of marrow stromal cells. DS1 cells were infused at week 5 post-irradiation when lung damage was evident by imaging with high-resolution computed tom...

Iwata, Mineo; Madtes, David K.; Abrams, Kraig; Lamm, Wayne J. E.; Glenny, Robb W.; Nash, Richard A.; Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Torok-storb, Beverly

2013-01-01

349

Dose proportional pharmacokinetics of alprostadil (prostaglandin E1) in healthy volunteers following intravenous infusion.  

OpenAIRE

Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) (30, 60, 120 micrograms) was administered by intravenous infusion over a 120 min period in an open, three way randomized, cross-over study to 12 healthy male volunteers. For the evaluation of PGE1, PGE0 and 15-keto-PGE0, blood samples were drawn prior to, during and after the infusion. Analytical measurements were performed by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization triple stage quadruple mass spectrometry, a highly specific and sensitive GC/MS/MS-method. D...

Cawello, W.; Leonhardt, A.; Schweer, H.; Seyberth, H. W.; Bonn, R.; Lomeli, A. L.

1995-01-01

350

A comprehensive clinical review of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (INFUSE® Bone Graft)  

OpenAIRE

The combination of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier has been shown to induce bone formation in a number of preclinical and clinical investigations. In 2002, rhBMP-2/ACS at a 1.5-mg/cc concentration (INFUSE® Bone Graft, Medtronic Spinal and Biologics, Memphis, TN) was FDA-approved as an autograft replacement for certain interbody spinal fusion procedures. In 2004, INFUSE® Bone Graft was approved for open tibial fractures ...

Mckay, William F.; Peckham, Steven M.; Badura, Jeffrey M.

2007-01-01

351

Auditory function after continuous infusion of gentamicin to high-risk newborns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Audiometry was performed at four years of age in 69 of 105 surviving children who had received continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin during neonatal intensive care. A hearing loss of 20 dB was found in 2 of them (3%), corresponding to that shown in other studies of survivors following neonatal intensive care. Free field audiometry performed in another 7 children and questionnaires returned from 13 of the remaining 29 gave no suspicion of hearing loss. Thus there is no indication that continuous 24 hours intravenous infusion of gentamicin causes more hearing impairment than intermittent intravenous or intramuscular administration. PMID:2603707

Colding, H; Andersen, E A; Prytz, S; Wulffsberg, H; Andersen, G E

1989-11-01

352

Continuous Drug Infusion for Diabetes Therapy: A Closed-Loop Control System Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While a typical way for diabetes therapy is discrete insulin infusion based on long-time interval measurement, in this paper, we design a closed-loop control system for continuous drug infusion to improve the traditional discrete methods and make diabetes therapy automatic in practice. By exploring the accumulative function of drug to insulin, a continuous injection model is proposed. Based on this model, proportional-integral-derivative (PID and fuzzy logic controllers are designed to tackle a control problem of the resulting highly nonlinear plant. Even with serious disturbance of glucose, such as nutrition absorption at meal time, the proposed scheme can perform well in simulation experiments.

Jiming Chen

2008-03-01

353

Comparison of recovery of propofol and methohexital sedation using an infusion pump.  

OpenAIRE

Two sedative anesthetic agents administered by an infusion pump were compared during third molar surgery. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II volunteers were randomly allocated to two groups. All subjects received supplemental oxygen via a nasal hood, fentanyl (0.0007 mg/kg intravenous [i.v.] bolus), and midazolam (1 mg/2 min) titrated to effect. Patients then received either 0.3 mg/kg of methohexital or 0.5 mg/kg of propofol via an infusion pump. Upon completion o...

Cohen, M.; Eisig, S.; Kraut, R. A.

1996-01-01

354

Intravenous infusion of adenosine but not inosine stimulates respiration in man.  

OpenAIRE

The effects on respiration of intravenous infusions of the endogenous nucleoside adenosine and its deaminated metabolite, inosine, administered in random order, single-blind, were compared in six healthy volunteers. The infusion rate of each nucleoside was initially 3.1 mg min-1 and was increased stepwise every 2 min, as tolerated, up to a possible maximum of 23.4 mg ml-1. The maximum dose rates received by all subjects were 8.5 mg min-1 for adenosine and 16.8 mg min-1 for inosine. Adenosine ...

Reid, P. G.; Watt, A. H.; Routledge, P. A.; Smith, A. P.

1987-01-01

355

Theoretical, clinical and pharmacokinetic aspects of cancer chemotherapy administered by continuous infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter reviews some of the theoretical and empirical aspects of the administration of anti-cancer drugs by continuous intravenous infusion in conjunction with radiation therapy. The variables contributing to schedule dependence of anti-cancer drugs are discussed. A table shows the improved therapeutic index of Bleomycin by continuous infusion in mice. The use of Cytarabine, a pyrimidine anti-metabolite which kills cells during S-phase or DNA synthesis, is examined. Fluorouracil and Doxorubicin are examined and several other drugs including vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, and cisplatin are discussed

356

15O-water constant infusion system for clinical routine application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For measurements of extravascular water in the lungs, we have set up a constant infusion system for 15O-water. 15O is produced by 8 MeV deuteron bombardment of nitrogen containing 0.2% oxygen. About 20m from the target, the molecular oxygen passes a control station for calibration, purification and analysis and is then led on for about 30m to the 15O-water production and infusion system right besides the PET imaging device. The system has been used in clinical routine studies on more than 200 patients during the past 3 years without adverse effects in any case. (author)

357

Evaluation of lipiodol infusion-CT for the diagnosis of hepatobiliary tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipiodol infusion-CT(Lip-CT) performed in 42 patients with hepatobiliary tumor was evaluated. Lip-CT made it possible to identify the margin and structure of main tumor. In the detection of small intrahepatic metastases, Lip-CT was more useful than infusion hepatic arteriography(IHA), balloon occluded hepatic arteriography (BOHA) and contrast enhancement-CT(CE-CT). Therefore, it was considered that Lip-CT was useful for the diagnosis of hepatobiliary tumor and the invasion to portal vein or inferior vena cava. (author)

358

Post-ruminal or intravenous infusions of carbohydrates or amino acids to dairy cows 2. Late lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of post-ruminal and intravenous infusions of wheat starch or glucose (CHO) or a mixture of amino acids (AA) on milk protein yield, nitrogen (N) utilisation, plasma metabolites and mammary extraction rate of dairy cows in late lactation. Eight cow, ruminally fistulated, was assigned to two 4 × 4 Latin squares during 14-day periods, where the last 7 days were for infusions. Infusions were: (1) starch in the abomasum (SP), (2) glucose in the blood (GB), (3) AA in the abomasum (AP), and (4) AA in the blood (AB). The experiment started 165 ± 4 days (mean ± s.e.) post partum (milk yield 22.5 ± 1.1 kg) Daily amounts of nutrients infused were 257, 283, 233, and 260 g for SP, GB, AP and AB, respectively. The cows were fed a basal diet consisting of a concentrate mixture and grass silage (55:45 on a dry-matter (DM) basis), where total dry-matter intake (DMI) was 13.3 kg/day. Milk production was affected by site of infusion within substrate, whereas infusion substrates within infusion site (CHO or AA) were of minor importance. Responses to intravenous infusions (GB or AB) were similar to those in early lactation, but more pronounced. Compared with SP infusion, GB infusion increased ( P losses of metabolic faecal nitrogen (MFN) by abomasal than by intravenous infusions, but the catabolism of AA was lower than in early lactation indicated by no difference ( P 0.05) on plasma EAA or BCAA. It is concluded that it is the nutrient supply and not the lactation stage per se that is important for the response in milk production. Nevertheless, stage of lactation affects the N metabolism and the response in plasma hormone concentrations even when cows are in negative energy balance in both lactation stages. PMID:22444408

Schei, I; Danfær, A; Mydland, L T; Volden, H

2007-05-01

359

In vivo tracking of 111In-oxine labeled mesenchymal stem cells following infusion in patients with advanced cirrhosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Several animal and few human studies suggest the beneficial role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in liver cirrhosis. However, little is known about the fate of MSCs after infusion in cirrhotic patients. We evaluated stem cell biodistribution after peripheral infusion of MSCs in four cirrhotic patients. Methods: After three passages of MSCs, the patients received a total of 250-400x106 cells, of which only 50% of the cells were labeled. Specific activities of 0.21-0.67 MBq/106 cells were maintained for the injected labeled MSCs. Planar whole-body acquisitions (anterior/posterior projections) were acquired immediately following infusion as well as at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 7th and 10th days after cell infusion. Results: After intravenous infusion, the radioactivity was first observed to accumulate in the lungs. During the following hours to days, the radioactivity gradually increased in the liver and spleen, with spleen uptake exceeding that in the liver in all patients. Region-of-interest analysis showed that the percentage of cells homing to the liver (following decay and background corrections and geometric mean calculation) increased from 0.0%-2.8% at immediately post-infusion images to 13.0-17.4% in 10th-day post-infusion. Similarly, the residual activities in the spleen increased from 2.0%-10.2% at immediately post-infusion images to 30.1%-42.2% in 10th-day post-infusion. During the same period, the residual activDuring the same period, the residual activities in the lungs decreased from 27.0-33.5% to 2.0-5.4%. Conclusion: The infusion of MSCs labeled with 111In-oxine through a peripheral vein is safe in cirrhosis. Cell labeling with 111In-oxine is a suitable method for tracking MSC distribution after infusion.

360

EC infuses Serbian nuclear relic cleanup with critical donation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: As part of the Vinca Institute Nuclear Decommissioning (VIND) Programme, the Serbian government and the IAEA recently signed an $8.63 million (EUR 5.46 million) framework agreement with the European Commission to help fund activities related to decommissioning of the aging Cold War-era nuclear reactor. The European donation is the largest in the project's history, and the infusion of funds is vital to complete a crucial stage of the decommissioning programme. 'Thanks to the impressive contribution by the European Commission, we're one step closer to completing this important and complex project,' said John J. Kelly, the IAEA's Special Programme Manager for VIND. 'With radioactive waste, disused sources, and leaking spent fuel that's almost 45 years old, the Vinca site presents huge radiological challenges.' The task at Vinca is a mammoth undertaking, and the work is split into three major projects. In the first and most expensive project, old Soviet fuel, some of which is high-enriched uranium (HEU) that could be converted to weapons-grade material, must be safely repackaged and then prepared and repatriated to Russia for reprocessing. Once completed, the VIND spent fuel shipment will comprise the largest shipment of spent research reactor fuel in the European theatre, and extra shipping casks have already been built for the project through funding received from the USA. In the second VIND project, thousands of containers of unprocessed radioactive waste and disused sealed radioactive sources must be removed from old, degraded storage buildings, conditioned and packaged for safe, secure storage, and placed into new storage facilities, The new storage facilities are currently under construction and should be ready later this year. The third VIND project focuses on decommissioning of the research reactor. The reactor's draft decommissioning plan is almost finished, and plans are in place to begin some decommissioning and dismantlement activities in 2009. In addition to the radiological legacy at Vinca, security had long been a source of concern. The reactor has been offline since 1984, and much of the dangerous material and facilities were inadequately protected. Thanks to funding and other support activities provided by the Serbian government and the USA for security upgrades and police support, overall site security has been substantially improved over the past two years. Yet more needs to be done, and time is running out. Along with the EC's recent donation, an additional $25 million must be raised by 2010 to meet a crucial deadline. The fuel needs to be shipped back to Russia by the end of 2010 or the job falls off the shipping schedule, and potential funding for VIND would also dry up should the 2010 target date be missed. VIND is the largest one-house programme within the IAEA, and the EC contribution is the largest single contribution ever received for a Technical Cooperation (TC) national project. 'The EC support was absolutely crucial to the life of the programme, but we have quite a way to go to find the remaining $25 million for the project,' said Kelly. 'The EC contribution serves as a great example and encourages other potential donors to invest in an important and successful project.' Background: Located on the outskirts of Belgrade, the 'Institute for Nuclear Sciences (Vinca)' was set up as a research centre in the former Yugoslavia in the 1950s. A civilian nuclear research reactor loaded with high-enriched uranium was housed at the site. The area was also a central radioactive waste collection and consolidation centre for the former Yugoslavia. The grounds at Vinca accumulated all the former country's dangerous radioactive waste and other radioactive sources for nearly 45 years, and though the reactor went offline in 1984, the radioactive waste and sources received from around the country continued to pile up. International concern about Vinca mushroomed in the 1990s after the break-up of the former Yugoslavia, which led to increased international cooperation to remediate the site and reduce the

361

Intravascular streaming and variable delivery to brain following carotid artery infusions in the Sprague-Dawley rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracarotid artery infusions in animals are commonly performed in studies of the blood-brain barrier and in chemotherapy trials. Implicit in the analysis of these experiments is that the infusate will be distributed to the territory of the internal carotid artery in a manner that is proportional to blood flow. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine if poor infusate mixing with blood due to intravascular streaming occurred during intracarotid artery drug infusions and if it could be eliminated with fast retrograde infusion. In three experimental groups, a radiolabeled flow tracer--14C-iodoantipyrine (IAP)--was infused retrograde through the external carotid artery into the common carotid artery at slow, medium, and fast rates (0.45, 1.5, and 5.0 ml/min). In a control group, IAP was injected intravenously (i.v.). Local isotope concentrations in the brain were determined by quantitative autoradiography, and the variability of isotope delivery was assessed in the frontoparietal cortex, temporal cortex, and caudate putamen of all animals. Streaming phenomena were manifest in all selected anatomic areas after the slow and medium rates of intraarterial infusion. After fast intracarotid infusion or i.v. injection, there was uniform distribution of isotope in the same brain regions

362

Evaluation for intravenous, arterial and local infusion of a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RK28 on rabbit VX2 tumor system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the radiosensitizing effect of intraarterial, intravenous and local infusion of a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RK28 on rabbit VX2 tumor system. Six rabbits were treated in each infusion group. VX2 tumor was implanted in the left hind leg. Tumor grown up to 3 cm in diameter was treated with 15 Gy of X-ray irradiation just after infusion of radiosensitizer RK28 (80 mg/kg.b.w.). Intratumoral and serum mean concentration of RK28 and its metabolites were measured. Tumor regression curve and survival time were analyzed. The following results were obtained. Mean concentration of RK28 was about 2.5 times greater in local infusion and 1.5 times in intraarterial infusion than in intravenous infusion. Significant regression of tumor was obtained in intraarterial infusion (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in survival time. These data suggest that the usefulness of intraarterial infusion of RK28 for local control using intraoperative radiation therapy and brachytherapy. (author)

363

99Tcm-MIBI imaging with liposomal prostaglandin E1 infusion to detect viable myocardium in post-myocardial infarction patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The pharmacological efficiencies of liposomal prostaglandin E1 (Lipo-PGE1) infusion and nitrate infusion on 99Tcm-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) imaging detection of viable myocardium in post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients were compared in the current study. Methods: Thirty-two patients with MI underwent 99Tcm-MIBI imaging at rest, nitrate infusion and Lipo-PGE1 infusion respectively. The semi-quantitative analysis of 99Tcm-MIBI imaging was carried out in 16 segments over each left ventricle. Results: Abnormal 99Tcm-MIBI distribution in 216 segments (42.2%) at rest, 178 segments (34.8%) at nitrate infusion, and 184 segments (35.9%) at Lipo-PGE1 infusion were identified. Among the 216 abnormal segments at rest, 89 (41.2%) and 81 (37.5%) were found improved after nitrate infusion and Lipo-PGE1 infusion respectively. Detecting viable myocardium with Lipo-PGE1 infusion imaging was accordant with that of nitrate infusion imaging in 89.8% of the cases. The mean uptake scores of abnormal segments at rest, nitrate infusion, and Lipo-PGE1 infusion were 15.3 ± 3.3, 10.5 ± 1.4 (P1 infusion imaging can be used for detection of viable myocardium in patients with MI. (authors) patients with MI. (authors)

364

Modeling and optimization of tissue 10B concentration and dosimetry for arbitrary BPA-F infusion schedules in humans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separate compartmental models have been derived for the concentration of 10B resulting from BPA-F infusion in the central vascular space (i.e., blood or, more appropriately, plasma) and in glioblastoma multiforme and normal brain. By coupling the model for the temporal variation of 10B concentration in the central vascular space with that for tissue, the dynamic behavior of the 10B concentration and the resulting dosimetry in the relevant tissues and blood may be predicted for arbitrary infusion schedules. This coupled model may be used as a tool for identifying the optimal time for BNCT irradiation and optimal BPA-F infusion schedule (i.e., temporal targeting) in humans without the need for expensive and time-consuming pharmacokinetic studies for every infusion schedule considered. This model was used to analyze the concentration profiles resulting from a wide range of infusion schedules and their implications for dosimetry. (author)

365

Multiplexed fibre optic sensors for monitoring resin infusion, flow, and cure in composite material processing  

Science.gov (United States)

The infusion, flow and cure of RTM6 resin in a carbon fibre reinforced composite preform have been monitored using a variety of multiplexed fibre optic sensors. Optical fibre Fresnel sensors and tilted fibre Bragg grating (TFBG) sensors were configured to monitor resin infusion/flow in-plane of the component. The results obtained from the different sensors were in good agreement with visual observations. The degree of cure was monitored by Fresnel sensors via a measurement of the refractive index of the resin which was converted to degree of cure using a calibration determined from Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Fibre Bragg grating sensors fabricated in highly linearly birefringent fibre were used to monitor the development of transverse strain during the cure process, revealing through-thickness material shrinkage of about 712 ?? and residual strain of 223 ??. An alternative approach to infusion monitoring, based on an array of multiplexed tapered optical fibre sensors interrogated using optical frequency domain reflectometry, was also investigated in a separate carbon fibre preform that was infused with RTM6 resin.

Chehura, Edmon; Jarzebinska, Renata; Da Costa, Elisabete F. R.; Skordos, Alexandros A.; James, Stephen W.; Partridge, Ivana K.; Tatam, Ralph P.

2013-04-01

366

Critical Success Factors in The Infusion of Instructional Technologies for Open Learning in Development Settings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article seeks to identify critical success factors for the appropriate infusion of instructional technologies to advance open learning in higher education within developing settings. Describe here is a descriptive account of a two-year case study based on the author’s personal analysis of, and reflection on, factors that contributed to the infusion of instructional technologies to advance open learning at the University of Botswana. The first critical success factors identified in this article include: a clear vision, support of committed leadership, and dedicated personnel/ change agents to ensure successful project implementation. The second critical success factor identified was the need for all involved to fully appreciate and understand the systemic nature of the infusion of instructional technologies for open learning purposes, as well as garner the commitment of strategic partners working in related systems. Finally highlighted, are the requirements needed to address the complex nature of the infusion of instructional technologies into the University’s educational offerings. It is hoped that those involved in education in developing countries, and particularly those desirous of advancing open learning through the use of instructional technologies, will find this descriptive analysis useful. Indeed, those of us involved in implementing instructional technologies in developing nations are still in the initial stages of this exciting yet challenging endeavour.

Philip M. Uys

2003-10-01

367

Subcutaneous Infusion Ports Via the Internal Jugular Vein: Single Center Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Our purpose is to report and review the results and early complications of subcutaneous infusion port placement by our interventional radiology department. Materials and Methods: Three-hundred twenty-five subcutaneous infusion ports were placed in 320 patients between January 2005 and May 2010. Ports were placed under both general and local anesthesia. Five patients were catheterized twice. The internal jugular veins were used for access. Both ultrasono-graphic and fluoroscopic guidance were used in our interventions. Retrospectively, we evaluated the ports’ duration time. Results: Our technical success rate was 100% and only five complications occurred during port placement. The common carotid arteries were punctured in three patients but bleeding stopped ten minutes following withdrawal of the needle and artery compression. An air embolism occurred in two patients and both were successfully treated with good positioning and suctioning. Early catheter removal was required in five patients. One patient had a right internal jugular vein thrombosis, three patients had catheter occlusions and two patients had catheter fractures. The mean duration of catheter usage was 354 days (range: 2 to 1,478 days). Conclusion: Image guided placement of infusion ports has a greater success rate and lower early complication rate when compared with the unguided series. The right internal jugular vein is the first choice for infusion port access. PMID:25610128

Karaman, Bulent; Andic, Cagatay; Oren, Nisa Cem; Battal, Bilal; Ustunsoz, Bahri

2010-01-01

368

Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Oviposition Response to Organic Infusions from Common Flora of Suburban Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the oviposition response of Aedes albopictus to six organic infusions. Laboratory and field placed ovitraps baited with water oak (Quercus nigra L.), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill) and St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze), as well as two-species mixture...

369

Using Qualitative Research to Assess Teaching and Learning in Technology-Infused TILE Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter describes the results of an assessment project whose purpose was to improve the faculty-development program for instructors who teach in technology-infused TILE (Transform, Interact, Learn, Engage) classrooms at the University of Iowa. Qualitative research methods were critical for (1) learning about how students and instructors…

Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek; Saichaie, Kem; Jesse, Maggie; Florman, Jean C.; Ingram, Beth F.

2014-01-01

370

Clinical application of infusion catheter-directed thrombolysis for deep venous thrombosis in lower extremities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of infusion catheter-directed thrombolysis for deep venous thrombosis in lower extremities. Methods: Between April 2003 and October 2004, thirty-two patients with deep venous thrombosis of left lower extremities underwent infusion catheter-directed thrombolysis with urokinase and anti-coagulation, among which 11 cases were treated with placement of inferior vena cava filters, 10 with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of left common iliac veins and 2 with stents placed in the common iliac veins. Results: Average time of infusion catheter placement was (7.7±2.3) days. Edema of diseased limbs subsided completely in 28 patients and partially in 4. Complete thrombolysis of left lower extremity deep veins was achieved in 29 patients including 12 cases with left iliac venous compression syndrome, and partial thrombolysis in 3 patients. There were no complications of hemorrhage or pulmonary embolism. Conclusions: Infusion catheter-directed thrombolysis of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis is a safe and effective method. (authors)

371

Cardiac tamponade in an infant during contrast infusion through central venous catheter for chest computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complications from central venous catheterization include infectious conditions, pneumothorax, hemothorax and venous thrombosis. Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade hardly occurs, and in infants is generally caused by umbilical catheterization. The authors describe the case of cardiac tamponade occurred in an infant during chest computed tomography with contrast infusion through a central venous catheter inserted into the right internal jugular vein. (author)

372

Effectiveness of Diversity Infusion Modules on Students' Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diversity infusion modules provided to university students in a predominantly white homogeneous community. A mixed-method approach using a pre-post retrospective design was used to measure attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about diversity issues, and included a comparison group…

Saleh, Mahasin F.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Boateng, Alice

2011-01-01

373

Infusion of glucose and lipids at physiological rates causes acute endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been implicated as a cause for obesity-related insulin resistance; however, what causes ER stress in obesity has remained uncertain. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that macronutrients can cause acute (ER) stress in rat liver. Examined were the effects of intravenously infused glucose and/or lipids on proximal ER stress sensor activation (PERK, eIF2-?, ATF4, Xbox protein 1 (XBP1s)), unfolded protein response (UPR) proteins (GRP78, calnexin, calreticulin, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), stress kinases (JNK, p38 MAPK) and insulin signaling (insulin/receptor substrate (IRS) 1/2 associated phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)) in rat liver. Glucose and/or lipid infusions, ranging from 23.8 to 69.5 kJ/4 h (equivalent to between ~17% and ~50% of normal daily energy intake), activated the proximal ER stress sensor PERK and ATF6 increased the protein abundance of calnexin, calreticulin and PDI and increased two GRP78 isoforms. Glucose and glucose plus lipid infusions induced comparable degrees of ER stress, but only infusions containing lipid activated stress kinases (JNK and p38 MAPK) and inhibited insulin signaling (PI3K). In summary, physiologic amounts of both glucose and lipids acutely increased ER stress in livers 12-h fasted rats and dependent on the presence of fat, caused insulin resistance. We conclude that this type of acute ER stress is likely to occur during normal daily nutrient intake. PMID:21475143

Boden, Guenther; Song, Weiwei; Duan, Xunbao; Cheung, Peter; Kresge, Karen; Barrero, Carlos; Merali, Salim

2011-07-01

374

Induction of second trimester abortion by intraamniotic instillation of Rivanol (ethacridine) combined with oxytocin infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report our experience of 0.1% intraamniotic Rivanol in the interruption of 100 midtrimester pregnancies (15-24 gestation weeks). The mean injection to abortion interval was 37.2h and there were no complications. Intraamniotic Rivanol injection combined with oxytocin infusion seemed an effective and safe method for terminating second trimester pregnancies. PMID:2106839

Gardó, S; Nagy, M

1990-01-01

375

Infusions of artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of phenolic acids and flavonoids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (milk thistle) are two herbs well-known for their efficiency in the prevention/treatment of liver injuries, among other chronic diseases. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize specific bioactive components, phenolic compounds, in hydromethanolic extracts but also in infusions (the most commonly used preparations) obtained from the whole plant of milk thistle and artichoke. The phenolic profiles were accessed using HPLC-DAD-MS/ESI. Infusions of both species presented higher phenolic contents than the hydromethanolic extracts. Milk thistle presented a similar phenolic composition between the two preparations, revealing only differences in the quantities obtained. Nevertheless, artichoke revealed a slightly different profile considering infusion and hydromethanolic extracts. Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was the major flavonoid found in milk thistle, while luteolin-7-O-glucuronide was the most abundant in artichoke. Therefore, infusions of both artichoke and milk thistle represent a good source of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic acids and flavonoids. PMID:25367590

Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-01-01

376

Actions of prolonged ghrelin infusion on gastrointestinal transit and glucose homeostasis in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ghrelin is produced by enteroendocrine cells in the gastric mucosa and stimulates gastric emptying in healthy volunteers and patients with gastroparesis in short-term studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of intravenous ghrelin on gastrointestinal motility and glucose homeostasis during a 6-h infusion in humans.

Falkén, Y; Hellström, P M

2010-01-01

377

[The content of Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in selected species of herbs and herb infusions].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was the recognition of the contents and distributions of calcium, magnesium, iron and copper in 6 herb species (matricaria chamomila, tilia cordata, equisetum arvense, melissa officinalis, mentha piperita, hypericum perforatum) and in the herb infusions. The samples were digested using a microwave oven, and the elements concentration was determined by AAS method. The following levels of Ca, Mg, Mg and Cu in the herbs were determined: 6872-19802 mg/kg Ca, 4630-8530 mg/kg Mg, 149.9-415.6 mg/kg Fe and 15.15-24.64 mg/kg Cu. The values of extractions in the infusions of herb were as follows: 16.1-73.8% Ca, 14.4-37.3% Mg, 5.1-9.7% Fe, 13.1-21.8% Cu. This indicates, that a very small part of the iron can be potentially treated as a bioavailable fraction for persons, using plant drugs as infusions. One glass of infusion (250 cm3) contain elements in quantities corresponding to: 0.78-2.61% average daily dietary intake (ADDIs) of Ca, 0.76-1.36% ADDIs of Mg, 0.26-0.38% ADDIs of Cu and only 0.15-0.33% ADDIs of Fe. PMID:18666620

Raczuk, Jolanta; Biardzka, Elzbieta; Daruk, Justyna

2008-01-01

378

Intraarterial Infusion Therapy via a Subcutaneous Port for Limb-Threatening Ischemia: A Pilot Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To present the initial results of a new percutaneously implantable catheter port system (PIPS) used for long-term intraarterial infusion therapy in patients with severe ischemic limb disease. Methods: Ten patients with deep, extended ischemic ulcerations (all 10) and osteomyelitis (6/10) of the foot received intraarterial infusions of prostaglandine E1 and antibiotics, if indicated, via a new port catheter system with the port placed subcutaneously above the groin after percutaneous introduction and the catheter tip placed into the superficial or deep femoral artery. Results: Port implantation and repeated port access were uncomplicated. During the follow-up period (mean 11 months, range 1 week-50 months), port migration, leakage, or infection was not observed. Three catheters thrombosed and were opened by fibrinolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator instilled via the port. Treatment success was achieved in 8 patients: relief from rest pain (8 patients), reduction of ulcer size (4/8), and complete healing (4/8). Limb savage rate was 80%. In 2 patients amputation could not be avoided. Conclusion: Selective long-term arterial infusion therapy presents a valuable therapeutic regimen for limb salvage. With the new catheter port system, repeated local intraarterial infusion is safe and simple

379

Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as an infusion and presents therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, also being included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm, prepared as infusions, were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showed a similar phenolic profile, presenting differences only in the quantities found of each compound. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant compound, being higher in commercial samples, especially in tea bag sample (55.68mg/g of infusion) and lower in in vitro cultured sample (15.46mg/g). Moreover, dimers, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in lemon balm. Only one flavonoid, luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide was found in all the samples, ranging from 8.43mg/g in commercial granulate sample to 1.22mg/g in in vitro cultured sample. Overall, cultivated and in vitro cultured samples presented the lowest amounts of phenolic compounds (59.59 and 30.21mg/g, respectively); otherwise, commercial samples showed the highest contents (109.24mg/g for tea bag and 101.03mg/g for granulate sample). The present study shows that infusion of lemon balm can be a source of phenolic compounds, known for their bioactive effects. PMID:23017385

Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Inês; Sousa, Maria João; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-01-01

380

Investigation of absorption and utilisation of amino acids infused into the cecum of growing pigs. 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over a period of 4 days 15N-lysine was infused into two growing female pigs (live weight approximately 50 kg) through a cecal cannula. The feeding was restrictive (1,400 g dry matter/day) and, with regard to lysine, it did not meet the requirements. In a 7-days experiment the N and 15N content was measured periodically in feces and urine, in various fractions of the blood and in selected slaughtering samples. From the 15N infused 3-5% were excreted as lysine in the feces, another 5% were in other amino acids of the bacterial protein. The disappearance rate of 15N' from the large intestine was >= 90%. 78-88% of this 15N' was excreted with the urine in form of 15N-urea. Obviously the infused amino acid was decomposed to NH3 in the large intestine and then absorbed. The absorbed ammonia was changed into urea in the ornithine cycle and excreted in urine. The recovery rate of the 15N infused as 15N-lysine was 93 and 84%, resp. Incorporation of 15N in to serum protein or other body protein could not be detected so that the remaining difference of 7-16% cannot necessarily be interpreted as incorporation rate of 15N into the body protein. Under practical conditions the maximal utilisation of lysine from the feed in the large intestine is 1.6% and should be inconsiderable

381

Effect of sepsis on VLDL kinetics: responses in basal state and during glucose infusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gram-negative sepsis on the kinetics and oxidation of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acids was assessed in conscious dogs in the normal state and 24 h after infusion of live Escherichia coli. VLDL, labeled with [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitic acid, was used to trace VLDL kinetics and oxidation, and [1-13C]palmitic acid bound to albumin was infused simultaneously to quantify kinetics and oxidation of free fatty acid (FFA) in plasma. Sepsis caused a fivefold increase in the rate of VLDL production (RaVLDL). In the control dogs, the direct oxidation of VLDL-fatty acids was not an important contributor to their overall energy metabolism, but in dogs with sepsis, 17% of the total rate of CO2 production could be accounted for by VLDL-fatty acid oxidation. When glucose was infused into dogs with insulin and glucagon levels clamped at basal levels (by means of infusion of somatostatin and replacement of the hormones), RaVLDL increased significantly in the control dogs, but it did not increase further in dogs with sepsis. The authors conclude that the increase in triglyceride concentration in fasting dogs with gram-negative sepsis is the result of an increase in VLDL production and that the fatty acids in VLDL can serve as an important source of energy in sepsis

382

On the preliminary design of hyperthermia treatments based on infusion and heating of magnetic nanofluids.  

Science.gov (United States)

We study a magnetic-nanoparticle-mediated hyperthermia treatment by considering both the nanofluid infusion and the subsequent thermal activation of the infused nanoparticles. Our study aims at providing a quantitative framework, which is currently missing, for the design of hyperthermia treatments. In more detail, we consider a heterogeneous spherical tumor, and we obtain a simplified analytical expression for the nanoparticles concentration profile during the infusion. We then exploit such an expression in order to compute the steady-state temperature profile achieved through the heating step. Despite the simplifications introduced to enable the analytical derivations, we account for many physically relevant aspects including tissue heterogeneity, poroelasticity, blood perfusion, and nanoparticles absorption onto tissue. Moreover, our approach permits to elucidate the effects on the final temperature profile of the following control parameters: infusion duration and flow rate, nanoparticles concentration in the nanofluid, magnetic field intensity and frequency. We present illustrative numerical results, based on parameters values taken from experimental studies, which are consistent with previous numerical investigations and current hyperthermia approaches. In particular, we obtain optimal working curves which could be effectively used for planning real procedures. While not laying any claims of generality, this work takes a preliminary yet quantitative step toward the design of hyperthermia treatments. PMID:25640871

Di Michele, F; Pizzichelli, G; Mazzolai, B; Sinibaldi, E

2015-04-01

383

Dose response of subcutaneous GLP-1 infusion in patients with type 2 diabetes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate the dose-response relationship of the recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (rGLP-1) administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) in subjects with type 2 diabetes, with respect to reductions in fasting, postprandial and 11-h serum glucose profiles.

Torekov, Signe SØrensen; Kipnes, M S

2011-01-01

384

Levodopa infusion therapy in Parkinson disease: state of the art in 2004.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orally administered levodopa, in combination with a decarboxylase inhibitor, is the gold standard therapy for Parkinson disease (PD). The problems in management of motor fluctuations in the advanced stages of the disorder are due to the close relationship between plasma levodopa levels and availability of dopamine at striatal receptor sites. The fluctuating levodopa concentrations are mainly explained by the fact that levodopa absorption only occurs in the proximal small intestine. The patient's motor function thus depends on gastric emptying, which is erratic and may even be delayed in PD. Oral therapy with sustained-release formulations and COMT inhibitors have not solved the problems satisfactorily. Therefore, infusions of levodopa by intravenous and enteral (duodenal/jejunal) routes of administration have been studied. In this review of the literature on clinically relevant levodopa infusion studies, it is shown that improvements regarding fluctuations in both plasma levodopa levels and motor performance have been repeatedly reported. The results acquired so far suggest that levodopa infusion is a safe and efficacious therapy. Recent drug delivery development and long-term studies have shown that infusion is a clinically feasible alternative to treat advanced PD. PMID:15602106

Nyholm, Dag; Aquilonius, Sten-Magnus

2004-01-01

385

Development and Implementation of a Curriculum Infusion Plan for Alcohol Abuse Education in a College Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: College binge drinking continues to be a pervasive issue across campuses nationwide. Though curriculum infusion (CI) has been shown to be an effective strategy to reduce students' negative consequences related to alcohol, information about the process is limited. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the content and…

Kenney, Sarah; Grim, Melissa

2015-01-01

386

Antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of infusions from leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants are the main source of molecules with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties that aid the natural defence systems of cells and may be involved in the preservation of human health, particularly preventing all the physiopathological conditions where oxidative damage is a hallmark. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. is a medicinal plant of the Achillea millefolium aggregate (yarrow) traditionally used, particularly in mountain areas, as an infusion or alcohol extract for its digestive, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity and cytoprotective activity against oxidative stress of infusions obtained from the leaves and inflorescences of Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb., assessed by chemical (free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and Folin Ciocalteu assay) and biological assays (in vitro model of cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in PC12 cells line). Infusions of leaves had the highest antioxidant properties and cytoprotective activity. The antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with the total phenolic content but not with the cytoprotective profile. Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has good antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, suggesting further investigations on its chemical composition and potential health value, particularly for traditionally prepared infusions of leaves. PMID:19067389

Giorgi, Annamaria; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Speranza, Giovanna; Cosentino, Marco; Lecchini, Sergio; Cocucci, Maurizio

2009-04-01

387

Combinatorial study of a gold nanoparticle infusion process in a polymer film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel two-step process is described for infusion of gold nanoparticles (5–20 nm typical diameter) into a polymer film. The technique is demonstrated for the first time in a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU). An amine-functional monomer, 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, and a free-radical photoinitiator are infused into the surface of the TPU, followed by photopolymerization. An amine-functional semi-interpenetrating network (SIPN) is created within a shallow (?100 ?m) surface layer. In the second step, a gold salt, HAuCl4·3H2O, is infused into the SIPN from a ternary solvent mixture, and redox reaction with the immobilized amine functional groups produces Au0 nanoparticles. Combinatorial processing is conducted to visualize the interdependent effects of two variables, monomer soak time (t1) and gold salt solution soak time (t2). Combinatorial infusion is accomplished by creating orthogonal gradients in t1 and t2 in a square TPU plate, allowing examination of sample color, particle size, and polydispersity over a wide range of parameter space. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is employed as non-invasive means to characterize the Au0 particles at three locations in the plate. SAXS measurements are validated by TEM analysis of Au0 particle size in a reference sample. A rationale is developed for changing particle size and polydispersity through variatze and polydispersity through variation of simple process parameters.

388

Institutional Change: The Infusion of Human Relations into Preservice Teacher Education Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The strengthening of human relations education in the preparation of teachers has become legitimately and necessarily the responsibility of each institution engaged in preservice teacher education. Infusion--the permeation of all dimensions of a teacher education program with the development of the concepts, skills, and attitudes necessary to good…

Cole, Donna J.; And Others

389

DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the final reporting installment of the DOE project titled DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES. This rerport includes a summary of the work completed to date including the experimental methods used to acheive the results, discussions, conclusions and implications of the final product delivered by the project.

Kamshad, Kourosh

2013-12-31

390

Guide to intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for pancreatic cancers (draft text)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pancreatic cancer is one of most malignant solid tumors. Trans-arterial infusion chemotherapy has been used for the inoperable pancreatic cancers. The local drug concentration in intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is much higher than that in intravenous chemotherapy. Thus, a better therapeutic effect can be surely achieved, the disease-related symptoms can be well improved, the patient's survival time can be markedly prolonged, and the liver metastases can be effectively reduced. This paper aims to suggest a more detailed and standardized therapeutic scheme to perform intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for inoperable pancreatic cancers, focusing on the relevant concept, contraindications, indications, preoperative preparation, methods of operation, postoperative treatment, the prevention and treatment of complications, etc. The scheme will help domestic interventional physicians to make reasonable decisions in their clinical practice. Of course, the scheme proposed here is not a mandatory standard, and it can not resolve all the problems which might be encountered in employing intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer. Therefore, the interventional physicians should fully understand the most useful medical evidence of a given patient and sincerely take the patient's own will into consideration before an individualized and reasonable therapeutic plan is able to be worked out. (authors)

391

An uncontrolled Phase II study of constant infusion vincristine-adriamycin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the toxicity and responses to the combination of vincristine and adriamycin given as a three-day constant infusion in patients with neuroectodermal tumors, Wilms' tumor and hepatoblastoma who have failed to respond to, or who relapsed after, prior treatment with drug combinations including bolus vincristine and adriamycin and radiation therapy

392

Safety of Chemotherapeutic Infusion or Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied Exclusively by the Cystic Artery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization by way of the cystic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied exclusively by the cystic artery. Methods: Between Jan 2002 and Dec 2011, we performed chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization using iodized oil for the treatment of 27 patients with HCC supplied exclusively by the cystic artery. Computed tomography (CT) scans, digital subtraction angiograms, and medical records were retrospectively reviewed by consensus. Results: The cystic artery originated from the main right hepatic artery in 24 (89 %) patients, from the right anterior hepatic artery in 2 (7 %) patients, and from the left hepatic artery in 1 (4 %) patient. Selective catheterization of the cystic artery was achieved in all patients. Superselection of tumor-feeding vessels from the cystic artery was achieved in 7 patients (26 %). Chemotherapeutic infusion was performed in 18 patients (67 %), and chemoembolization was performed in 9 patients (33 %). There were no major complications and only 2 minor complications, including vasovagal syncope and nausea with vomiting. Individual tumor response supplied exclusively by the cystic artery at the follow-up enhanced CT scan were complete response (n = 16), partial response (n = 3), and stable disease (n = 8). Conclusion: HCC supplied exclusively by the cystic artery can be safely treated without severe complications by chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization using iodized oil through the cystic artery

393

Increased dietary sodium alters Fos expression in the lamina terminalis during intravenous angiotensin II infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

These studies examined the effects of increased dietary sodium on expression of Fos, the protein product of c-fos, in forebrain structures in the rat following intravenous infusion with angiotensin II (AngII). Animals were provided with either tap water (Tap) or isotonic saline solution (Iso) as their sole drinking fluid for 3-5 weeks prior to testing. Rats were then implanted with catheters in a femoral artery and vein. The following day, the conscious, unrestrained animals received iv infusion of either isotonic saline (Veh), AngII, or phenylephrine (Phen) for 2 h. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously throughout the procedure. Brains were subsequently processed for evaluation of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-Li IR) in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), the subfornical organ (SFO), and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Fos-Li IR was significantly increased in the SFO and OVLT of animals consuming both Tap and Iso following AngII, but not Phen, compared to Veh infusions. Furthermore, Fos-Li IR in the MnPO was increased following AngII infusion in rats consuming a high sodium diet, but not in animals drinking Tap. These data suggest that increased dietary sodium sensitizes the MnPO neurons to excitatory input from brain areas responding to circulating AngII. PMID:17214984

Bealer, Steven L; Metcalf, Cameron S; Heyborne, Ryan

2007-03-01

394

Protective Effect of Black Tea Infusion on Aflatoxin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are potent inducers of hepatotoxicity. Objective The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of black tea infusion on aflatoxin—induced hepatotoxicity in male mice. Methods A 2% black tea infusion in drinking water was prepared and orally administered along with aflatoxin (750 and 1500 ?g/kg body weight) for 30 days. Morphological investigation, body weight and organ weight calculations and histopathological analysis were carried out. Serum hepatic marker enzymes namely alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were estimated. Results The results clearly indicated that aflatoxin treatment for 30 days caused significant dose-dependent reduction in body weight and increase in liver weight. The activities of ALT and AST were found to be elevated while protein content was found to be decreased in aflatoxin-treated mice as compared to vehicle control. Histopathological analysis showed hepatocellular necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization along with fatty infiltration in toxin-treated animals. Results revealed significant (p aflatoxin-induced damages in body weight, organ weight, serum chemistry and histopathological features in aflatoxin plus black tea infusion administered mice in a dose dependant manner. Conclusion It is concluded from the present study that supplementation of black tea infusion can be beneficial in positively modulating aflatoxin-induced alterations in liver.

Jha, Anamika; Krithika, Rajesh; Manjeet, Dave; Verma, Ramtej J.

2012-01-01

395

Shortening infusion time for high-dose methotrexate alters antileukemic effects : a randomized prospective clinical trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To determine whether shortening the infusion duration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX; 1 g/m(2)) affects the in vivo accumulation of active methotrexate polyglutamates (MTXPG(1-7)) in leukemia cells and whether this differs among major acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) subtypes.

Mikkelsen, Torben S; Sparreboom, Alex

2011-01-01

396

Clinical safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted SynchroMed EL infusion pumps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Patients with implanted SynchroMed spinal infusion pumps (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) routinely undergo magnetic resonance imaging at our institution. In August 2008, Medtronic issued an urgent medical device correction report regarding several pumps. Because of the rare potential ''for a delay in the return of proper drug infusion'' and ''for a delay in the logging of motor stall events,'' ''a patient's pump must be interrogated after MRI exposure in order to confirm proper pump functionality.'' This is particularly important in patients receiving intrathecal baclofen, for whom a delay in return of proper pump infusion could lead to life-threatening baclofen withdrawal syndrome. The objective of this report is to present our experience and protocol of performing magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted SynchroMed EL pumps. We retrospectively reviewed records of 86 patients with implanted SynchroMed EL spinal infusion pumps who underwent 112 examinations on 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanners from September 1, 1998 to July 7, 2004. No SynchroMed EL pumps were damaged by magnetic resonance imaging, and the programmable settings remained unchanged in all patients. Our data suggest that SynchroMed EL pump malfunction is indeed rare after routine clinical 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging examinations. However, based on the Medtronic correction report, we perform pump interrogation before and after imaging. (orig.)

Diehn, Felix E.; Wood, Christopher P.; Watson, Robert E.; Hunt, Christopher H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Mauck, William D. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Anesthesiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Burke, Michelle M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Rochester, MN (United States)

2011-02-15

397

Effect of hypovolemia, infusion, and oral rehydration on gradual onset +Gz acceleration tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of blood withdrawal, blood infusion, and oral fluid intake on +Gz tolerance at an acceleration rate of 0.5 G/min. Six healthy men aged 21-27 yr were centrifuged after the withdrawal of 400 ml of blood (hypovolemia) from each man; they were centrifuged again following blood infusion (Phase I). Three weeks later the men were accelerated after similar hypovolemia and again after consuming 800 ml of an isotonic NaCl drink (Phase II). Phase I hypovolemia resulted in a reduction in tolerance in all subjects from a mean control level of 6.42 + or - 0.35 min to 5.45 + or - 0.17 min (-15.1%, p less than 0.05). Both infusion and drinking returned tolerances to control levels. During acceleration there were significant (p less than 0.05) increases in plasma vasopressin levels to 35 pg/ml; these were not influenced appreciably by infusion or drinking. In all acceleration runs there was an obligatory shift (loss) of plasma volume and electrolytes, especially potassium, regardless of the experimental treatments. Oral rehydration is shown to be as effective as blood replacement in restoring +Gz acceleration tolerance decrements due to hypovolemia.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Haines, R. F.; Rositano, S. A.; Montgomery, L. D.; Keil, L. C.

1976-01-01

398

Changes in plasma methionine and total homocysteine levels in patients receiving methotrexate infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methotrexate reduces intracellular pools of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and could result in reduced conversion of homocysteine to methionine by methionine synthetase. This study was designed to investigate the effects of moderate dose to very high dose methotrexate on methionine and total homocysteine as reflections of methotrexate induced intracellular events. Methionine and total homocysteine were measured prior to, during, and following twenty-six 24-h i.v. infusions of 33.6 g/m2 methotrexate (very high dose methotrexate) in 16 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and seven 4-h i.v. infusions of 8 g/m2 methotrexate (high dose methotrexate) in 5 children with osteogenic sarcoma. Amino acids were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry. Mean methionine levels decreased by 70.0 +/- 3.1% (SE) with very high dose methotrexate and 72.6 +/- 5.9% with high dose methotrexate at 24 and 4.5 h, respectively, after beginning methotrexate infusions. Mean total homocysteine levels increased by 61.7 +/- 3.1% with very high dose methotrexate and 55.6 +/- 17.5% with high dose methotrexate at 36 and 24 h, respectively, after beginning methotrexate infusions. No consistent or significant changes were noted in levels of total cysteine, leucine, isoleucine, or valine. Similar changes did not occur in patients receiving prednisone, vincristine, daunomycin, and intrathecal methotrexate as therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. These changes in homocysteine and methionine may reflect biological effects of methotrexate that may predict cytotoxicity of methotrexate. PMID:2790801

Broxson, E H; Stork, L C; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P; Kolhouse, J F

1989-11-01

399

A Contemporary Simulation Infused in the Business Communication Curriculum: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examines students' reactions to a contemporary simulation infused in the business communication curriculum. Results show that students indicated the experience helped them learn how to work better as a team, how to maintain composure, how the business world works, and how to improve their communication. Students also verified…

Drury-Grogan, Meghann L.; Russ, Travis L.

2013-01-01

400

A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion on analgesic requirements and postoperative pain after TKA.

Andersen, Karen V; Bak, Marie

2010-01-01

401

Reconceptualizing Equity Pedagogy in Technology Teacher Education: A Double Infusion Model  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we propose to infuse multicultural concepts into the technology core courses that are taught in undergraduate teacher education programs. The need to do so was realized as a result of participation in a Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) grant and the subsequent formation of an equity team that ultimately…

McShay, James; Leigh, Patricia Randolph

2005-01-01

402

Effects of glycerol infusion on cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in patients with intracranial tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glycerol is one of the most popular drugs frequently used to improve brain edema, which is associated with intracranial tumors. To evaluate the effects of glycerol infusion, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen metabolism were studied in 8 patients with positron emission computed tomography (PET) before and after glycerol infusion. Regional CBF, oxygen utilization (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were measured with continuous inhalation of 0-15 labeled carbon dioxide and oxygen, and bolus inhalation of 0-15 labeled carbon monoxide. Following the control measurements, 250 to 300 ml of 10% glycerol was infused intravenously within 20 min, and the repeat measurements were performed. In the control study, 6/8 cases showed decreased CBF and CMRO2 in the cerebral cortices, while the other two had normal CMRO2 with high OEF. After glycerol infusion, an increase in CBF was observed in all cases, whereas CMRO2 increased only in the cases with low CMRO2 at the control state, and didn't change in the two cases with normal CMRO2, in which OEF decreased to the normal level. These results indicated the important role of auto-regulation mechanism for oxygen metabolism to maintain neuronal activities against the changes in CBF. However, CMRO2 also decreased in the cases with severely diminished CBF, and glycerol improved both CBF and CMRO2 in these cases

403

ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS FROM THE INFUSION AND METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Baccharis incarum (WEDD. PERKINS  

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Full Text Available In the traditional medicine of the South American highlands, the infusion and decoction of aerial parts of “tola”, Baccharis incarum (Wedd. Perkins (Asteraceae is orally taken as an antiseptic, antipyretic and digestive or externally applied to relieve pain and infammation. A plant infusion and methanolic (MeOH extract of the aerial parts were compared for main constituents by HPLC-MS as well as assessed for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities. Assay-guided fractionation of the polar extracts was carried out using the ABTS•+ autographic as well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis bioautographic test. Seven compounds were isolated from the polar extracts and identifed as chlorogenic acid, 3’,4’,5,7-tetrahydroxyfavone; dicaffeoyl quinic acid; 3’,4’,5,7-tetrahydroxy-3,6-dimethoxyfavone; 3’,4’,5,7-tetrahydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy favone, 4’,5,7-trihydroxy-3’,3,6,8-tetramethoxyfavone and 4’,5-dihydroxy-3’,3,6,7,8-pentamethoxyfavone. The main constituents from the methanol extract and infusion were caffeic acid derivatives. This is the frst report on the constituents of B. incarum infusion and show clear differences with previous phytochemical studies on the same plant. All isolated compounds showed antioxidant activity with SC50 values of 1 to 10 µg/ml. The isolated favones were active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis with MICs in the range 100 and >200 µg/ml.

IRIS CATIANA ZAMPINI

2009-12-01

404

Connecting Research and Practice: An Experience Report on Research Infusion with SAVE  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA systems need to be highly dependable to avoid catastrophic mission failures. This calls for rigorous engineering processes including meticulous validation and verification. However, NASA systems are often highly distributed and overwhelmingly complex, making the software portion of these systems challenging to understand, maintain, change, reuse, and test. NASA's systems are long-lived and the software maintenance process typically constitutes 60-80% of the total cost of the entire lifecycle. Thus, in addition to the technical challenges of ensuring high life-time quality of NASA's systems, the post-development phase also presents a significant financial burden. Some of NASA's software-related challenges could potentially be addressed by some of the many powerful technologies that are being developed in software research laboratories. Many of these research technologies seek to facilitate maintenance and evolution by for example architecting, designing and modeling for quality, flexibility, and reuse. Other technologies attempt to detect and remove defects and other quality issues by various forms of automated defect detection, architecture analysis, and various forms of sophisticated simulation and testing. However promising, most such research technologies nevertheless do not make the transition from the research lab to the software lab. One reason the transition from research to practice seldom occurs is that research infusion and technology transfer is difficult. For example, factors related to the technology are sometimes overshadowed by other types of factors such as reluctance to change and therefore prohibits the technology from sticking. Successful infusion might also take very long time. One famous study showed that the discrepancy between the conception of the idea and its practical use was 18 years plus or minus three. Nevertheless, infusing new technology is possible. We have found that it takes special circumstances for such research infusion to succeed: 1) there must be evidence that the technology works in the practitioner's particular domain, 2) there must be a potential for great improvements and enhanced competitive edge for the practitioner, 3) the practitioner has to have strong individual curiosity and continuous interest in trying out new technologies, 4) the practitioner has to have support on multiple levels (i.e. from the researchers, from management, from sponsors etc), and 5) to remain infused, the new technology has to be integrated into the practitioner's processes so that it becomes a natural part of the daily work. NASA IV&V's Research Infusion initiative sponsored by NASA's Office of Safety & Mission Assurance (OSMA) through the Software Assurance Research Program (SARP), strives to overcome some of the problems related to research infusion.

Lindvall, Mikael; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.; Ackermann, Christopher; Reid, W. Mark; Ganesan, Dharmalingam; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen; Godfrey, Sally

2009-01-01

405

Oxytocin- or low-dose prostaglandin F2 alpha-infusion for stimulation of labor after primary rupture of membranes. A prospective, randomized trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One hundred consecutive women with singleton pregnancies and primary rupture of membranes (PROM) after 36 weeks of gestation were included in a prospective, randomized trial of intravenous infusion of oxytocin (up to 30 mIU/min) versus low-dose prostaglandin F2 alpha(PGF2 alpha, up to 6.0 micrograms/min). Cesarean section was performed in 12 patients because of suspected disproportion or intra-uterine asphyxia. Effective contractions or labor progress failed to become established within 8 hours in another 4 women stimulated with PGF2 alpha and 2 stimulated by oxytocin. The stimulation delivery time (hours) for the remaining 82 women treated with PGF2 alpha or oxytocin, respectively was 8.7 against 12.1 for initial Bishop score less than 5 (p less than 0.01), (Mann-Whitney test), 7.2 vs. 7.1 for Bishop score 5-8 and 5.7 vs. 4.2 for Bishop score greater than 8. Patients with initial Bishop score less than 5 seemed to need analgetics less often when treated with PGF2 alpha than with oxytocin. Frequencies of sideeffects and instrumental deliveries as well as the fetal outcome were similar for the two treatment schedules. The results of the study suggest that low-dose PGF2 alpha infusion may be the more appropriate treatment for women with an unfavorable initial Bishop score.

MØller, M; Thomsen, A C

1987-01-01

406

Successful management of difficult infusion-associated reactions in a young patient with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI receiving recombinant human arylsulfatase B (galsulfase [Naglazyme]).  

Science.gov (United States)

Our patient with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI received enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human arylsulfatase B (galsulfase [Naglazyme, BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc, Novato, CA]) shortly after approval by the US Food and Drug Administration. After 1 month of weekly infusions, the patient developed significant infusion-associated reactions and could not tolerate therapy at the recommended infusion rate. We were able to continue treatment successfully by the addition of steroids to the premedication regimen and by significantly reducing the rate of drug infusion. Over the next several months, the patient's infusion rate was slowly increased and the premedications were weaned. We demonstrate that by significantly reducing the rate of infusions and adjusting the premedication regimen, galsulfase infusions can continue with no additional observance of infusion-associated reactions. PMID:18250117

Kim, Katherine H; Decker, Celeste; Burton, Barbara K

2008-03-01

407

Position statement: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in very young children with type 1 diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin pump therapy has become increasingly popular for the treatment of type 1 diabetes in pediatric patients. Although significant experience has accrued with the use of this modality in older children and adolescents, much less data are available regarding continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in the very young. Policies of individual physician practices and insurance companies vary widely, and there is currently no consensus regarding the appropriateness of insulin pump therapy in the under 6 age group. However, we have witnessed in recent years a significant increase in the number of clinical trials investigating the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in young patients, and reports of > 100 preschool-aged diabetic children treated with insulin pumps are available in the literature. Although these studies have been of relatively short duration (insulin pump therapy results in a sustained improvement in glycemic control in this age group, risks associated with these devices in the hands of reliable adults who are managing diabetes in very young children are low. Parental satisfaction related to the increased flexibility that continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion affords anecdotally seems to be high, although formal examination of parental stress and health-related quality of life in this setting has been minimal. Important questions remain regarding selection of appropriate candidates for insulin pump therapy, whether benefits of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion outweigh the costs, and what eventual outcomes will be in children treated with pumps from a very young age. Long-term follow-up of medical, psychological, and neurocognitive parameters in these young patients will be paramount. Our goal with this review is to summarize efficacy and safety of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in children insulin pumps in this population, and propose clinical management guidelines that could be useful for both practitioners and third-party payers alike. PMID:17015512

Eugster, Erica A; Francis, Gary

2006-10-01

408

Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, creatine-kinase (CK, creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days, respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ? 0.01, while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ? 0.01. Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain, carbonyl (plasma and brain and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ? 0.01. Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required.

Rithiele Gonçalves

2014-11-01

409

Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters †  

Science.gov (United States)

Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ? 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ? 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ? 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. PMID:25380458

Gonçalves, Rithiele; Vargas, Liane S.; Lara, Marcus V. S.; Güllich, Angélica; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A.; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B.

2014-01-01

410

Intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus alters plasma and brain biochemical parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ? 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ? 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ? 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. PMID:25380458

Gonçalves, Rithiele; Vargas, Liane S; Lara, Marcus V S; Güllich, Angélica; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

2014-11-01

411

Carotid artery infusions for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of taxanes in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

When proposing the use of a drug, drug combination, or drug delivery into a novel system, one must assess the pharmacokinetics of the drug in the study model. As the use of mouse models are often a vital step in preclinical drug discovery and drug development, it is necessary to design a system to introduce drugs into mice in a uniform, reproducible manner. Ideally, the system should permit the collection of blood samples at regular intervals over a set time course. The ability to measure drug concentrations by mass-spectrometry, has allowed investigators to follow the changes in plasma drug levels over time in individual mice. In this study, paclitaxel was introduced into transgenic mice as a continuous arterial infusion over three hours, while blood samples were simultaneously taken by retro-orbital bleeds at set time points. Carotid artery infusions are a potential alternative to jugular vein infusions, when factors such as mammary tumors or other obstructions make jugular infusions impractical. Using this technique, paclitaxel concentrations in plasma and tissue achieved similar levels as compared to jugular infusion. In this tutorial, we will demonstrate how to successfully catheterize the carotid artery by preparing an optimized catheter for the individual mouse model, then show how to insert and secure the catheter into the mouse carotid artery, thread the end of the catheter out through the back of the mouse's neck, and hook the mouse to a pump to deliver a controlled rate of drug influx. Multiple low volume retro-orbital bleeds allow for analysis of plasma drug concentrations over time. PMID:25407935

Jacobs, Joely D; Hopper-Borge, Elizabeth A

2014-01-01

412

Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy after intravenous infusion of adenosine triphosphate disodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility and safety of thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy after the intravenous infusion of adenosine triphosphate disodium (ATP)(Adetphos, Kowa) were studied in eight patients with angina pectoris and/or old myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography (CAG) was performed by the conventional method in all patients. ATP was infused for 5 min and thallium was injected at 3 min after the start of ATP infusion. ATP was given at 0.12 mg/min/kg in two patients (group A), 0.16 mg/min/kg in three patients (group B), 0.20 mg/min/kg in one patient (group C), and 0.28 mg/min/kg in two patients (group D). SPECT images were obtained at 10 min and 180 min after thallium injection. No significant hemodynamic changes were observed in groups A and B. Severe hypotension was observed in group C and one member of group D. Chest pain was experienced by one patient in group A, two in group B, one in group C, and both of the two in group D. ST depression on the electrocardiogram (ECG) was documented in one patient each of groups B and C. In one patient of group D, the study was discontinued because of complete atrioventricular block persistent for 5 beats. The correlation between thallium imaging and CAG was unclear in group A, reasonable in groups B and C, and obscure in group D because of side effects. None of the patients who developed side effects of ATP were administered sublingual nitroglycerin or intravenous aminophylline. Their symptoms or ECG changes improved spontaneousmptoms or ECG changes improved spontaneously within 2 min and disappeared within 5 min after termination of infusion. In conclusion, the optimal ATP regimen for this purpose was considered to be a 5 min infusion at 0.16 mg/kg/min and this method was found to be feasible and safe. (author)

413

Status of NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2001, the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. These in-space propulsion technologies have broad applicability to future competed Discovery and New Frontiers mission solicitations, and are potentially enabling for future NASA flagship and sample return missions currently being considered. This paper provides status of the technology development of several in-space propulsion technologies that are ready for infusion into future missions. The technologies that are ready for flight infusion are: 1) the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance; 2) NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 3) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; and aerothermal effect models. Two component technologies that will be ready for flight infusion in FY12/13 are 1) Advanced Xenon Flow Control System, and 2) ultra-lightweight propellant tank technology advancements and their infusion potential will be also discussed. The paper will also describe the ISPT project s future focus on propulsion for sample return missions: 1) Mars Ascent Vehicles (MAV); 2) multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) needed for sample return missions from many different destinations; and 3) electric propulsion for sample return and low cost missions. These technologies are more vehicle-focused, and present a different set of technology infusion challenges. Systems/Mission Analysis focused on developing tools and assessing the application of propulsion technologies to a wide variety of mission concepts.

Anderson, David; Pencil, Eric; Vento, Dan; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Hahne, David; Munk, Michelle

2011-01-01

414

Population pharmacokinetics of extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam in hospitalized patients with nosocomial infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

While extended infusions of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) are increasingly used in practice, the effect of infusion on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of TZP has not been widely assessed. To assess its effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of TZP, seven serum samples were collected from 11 hospitalized patients who received 3.375 g TZP intravenously for 4 h every 8 h. Population pharmacokinetic models were fit to the PK data utilizing first-order, Michaelis-Menten (MM), and parallel first-order/MM clearance. A population PK model with first-order clearance w