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Sample records for scanning tunneling spectra

  1. Effect of orbital symmetry of the tip on scanning tunneling spectra of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Ilpo; Nieminen, Jouko; Markiewicz, R. S.; Bansil, A.

    2011-07-01

    We discuss how variations in the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip, whether unintentional or intentional, can lead to changes in topographic images and dI/dV spectra. We consider the possibility of utilizing functionalized tips in order to improve the sensitivity of STM experiments to local irregularities at the surface or hidden below the surface layers. The change in the tip symmetry can radically alter the contrast of the topographic image due to changes in tip-surface overlap. The dI/dV curves change their shape according to which sample bands the tip orbital tends to overlap. In addition, relative phases between competing tunneling channels can be inverted by changing the tip symmetry, which could help reveal the origin of a local irregularity in the tunneling spectrum.

  2. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Zhong (West Lafayette, IN); Reifenberger, Ronald G. (West Lafayette, IN); Andres, Ronald P. (West Lafayette, IN)

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  3. Evidence of strong correlations at the van Hove singularity in the scanning tunneling spectra of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Jouko; Suominen, Ilpo; Das, Tanmoy; Markiewicz, R. S.; Bansil, A.

    2012-06-01

    We present realistic multiband calculations of scanning tunneling spectra in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? over a wide doping range. Our modeling incorporates effects of a competing pseudogap and pairing gap as well as effects of strong electronic correlations, which are included by introducing self-energy corrections in the one-particle propagators. The calculations provide a good description of the two-gap features seen in experiments at low energies and the evolution of the van Hove singularity (VHS) with doping, and suggest a possible quantum critical point near the point where the VHS crosses the Fermi level.

  4. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  5. The scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly conceived microscope, based on a pure quantum phenomenon, is an ideal tool to study atom by atom the topography and properties of surfaces. Applications are presented: surface ''reconstruction'' of silicon, lamellar compound study, etc... Spectroscopy by tunnel effect will bring important information on electronic properties; it is presented with an application on silicon

  6. Tunneling spectra and superconducting gaps observed by scanning tunneling microscopy near the grain boundaries of FeSe{sub 0.3}Te{sub 0.7} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, K.C., E-mail: d943333@oz.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Li, Y.S. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Shen, Y.T. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wu, M.K. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chi, C.C. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: We prepared FeSe{sub 0.3}Te{sub 0.7} films with two orientations on the same MgO substrate by the pulsed laser deposition technique. The STM tunneling spectra in the grains with two orientations and boundary between them. Different superconducting gaps were observed in different orientations and their boundary. -- Abstract: We used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to study the tunneling spectra of FeSe{sub 0.3}Te{sub 0.7} films with two orientations of the ab-planes and a connection ramp between them. We discovered that by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method, the a- and b-axis of the FeSe{sub 0.3}Te{sub 0.7} film deposited on an Ar-ion-milled magnesium oxide (MgO) substrate were rotated 45 with respect to those of MgO, whereas the a- and b-axis of the film grown on a pristine MgO substrate were parallel to those of MgO. With photolithography and this technique, we can prepare FeSe{sub 0.3}Te{sub 0.7} films with two orientations on the same MgO substrate so that the connection between them forms a ramp at an angle of about 25 to the substrate plane. In the planar region, for either the 0 or 45 orientation, we observed tunneling spectra with a superconducting gap of about 5 meV and 1.78 meV, respectively. However, a much larger gap at about 18 meV was observed in the ramp region. Furthermore, we observed a small zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) inside the large gap at T = 4.3 K. The ZBCP becomes smaller with increasing temperature and disappeared at temperature above 7 K.

  7. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically resistor and the voltage drop would be measured by use of the lock-in amplifier.

  8. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  9. Low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was designed and built to operate at liquid helium temperature and was used to measure highly localized electron tunneling spectroscopy. Several instruments were built, all capable of operating in many different environments: air, vacuum, liquid helium and in a transfer gas. An adaptation of one particular design was made into an atomic force microscope capable of operating at low temperatures. Using a low temperature STM, three adsorbed molecular species (liquid crystals, sorbic acid, and carbon monoxide), deposited on a graphite substrate, have been imaged at 4.2K. The inelastic tunneling spectra of these adsorbates show strong peaks in dI/dV vs V curves at energies that correspond to known vibrational modes. The increase in conductance at the onset of inelastic tunneling was measured to be as high as 100 times. The spatial variation of the spectra was measured and was seen to change dramatically on the scale of angstroms, suggesting that individual molecular bonds could be measured. A theoretical model is presented to explain the contrast seen in the STM images of adsorbed molecules, thereby explaining why adsorbed molecules appear to be more conductive than the background. The microscope proved very useful for measuring the energy gap of high temperature superconductors. These materials often have submicron grain sizes. For LaSrCuO, YBaCuO, and BiCaSrCuO, the conductance curves showed a large energy gap suggesting a strongly coupled superconductor. The conductance curves also indicated that intergrain tunneling may occur and that the background conductance varied linearly with the applied voltage. The crystalline structure of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ was imaged by an STM operating in air and in ultra-high vacuum

  10. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael

    2010-12-13

    The present thesis deals with the electronic structure, work function and single-atom contact conductance of Pb thin films, investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The electronic structure of Pb(111) thin films on Ag(111) surfaces is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Quantum size effects, in particular, quantum well states (QWSs), play a crucial role in the electronic and physical properties of these films. Quantitative analysis of the spectra yields the QWS energies as a function of film thickness, the Pb bulk-band dispersion in {gamma}-L direction, scattering phase shifts at the Pb/Ag interface and vacuum barrier as well as the lifetime broadening at anti {gamma}. The work function {phi} is an important property of surfaces, which influences catalytic reactivity and charge injection at interfaces. It controls the availability of charge carriers in front of a surface. Modifying {phi} has been achieved by deposition of metals and molecules. For investigating {phi} at the atomic scale, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a widely used technique. STM measures an apparent barrier height {phi}{sub a}, which is commonly related to the sample work function {phi}{sub s} by: {phi}{sub a}=({phi}{sub s}+{phi}{sub t}- vertical stroke eV vertical stroke)/2, with {phi}{sub t} the work function of the tunneling tip, V the applied tunneling bias voltage, and -e the electron charge. Hence, the effect of the finite voltage in STM on {phi}{sub a} is assumed to be linear and the comparison of {phi}{sub a} measured at different surface sites is assumed to yield quantitative information about work function differences. Here, the dependence of {phi}{sub a} on the Pb film thickness and applied bias voltage V is investigated. {phi}{sub a} is found to vary significantly with V. This bias dependence leads to drastic changes and even inversion of contrast in spatial maps of {phi}{sub a}, which are related to the QWSs in the Pb films. It is shown how accurate quantitative information about work function differences can be obtained and how these differences depend on the QWSs in the Pb thin films. The electron transport properties and mechanical characteristics of atom-sized metallic contacts are of fundamental interest in view of future nanoscale device technologies. Proximity probes like STM, metal break junctions, and related techniques, together with computational methods for simulating tip-sample interactions, have made it possible to address this question. While the importance of atomic structure and bonding for transport through single-atom junctions has repeatedly been emphasized, investigations of the influence of subsurface bonding properties have been rare. Here, the contact formation of a STM tip approaching Pb(111) thin films supported on Ag(111) substrates is investigated. Contacts on monolayer films are found to differ from contacts made on thicker Pb films. This behavior is explained in terms of different vertical bonding-strengths due to a charge-transfer induced surface dipole. Furthermore, the single-atom contact conductance on Pb(111) films beyond the first monolayer is determined. It is shown that analyses based on hitherto widely used conventional conductance histograms may overestimate the single-atom contact conductance by as much as 20%. (orig.)

  11. Ultraviolet light emission from Si in a scanning tunneling microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Patrick; Berndt, Richard; Vexler, Mikhail I.

    2007-01-01

    Ultraviolet and visible radiation is observed from the contacts of a scanning tunneling microscope with Si(100) and (111) wafers. This luminescence relies on the presence of hot electrons in silicon, which are supplied, at positive bias on n- and p-type samples, through the injection from the tip, or, at negative bias on p-samples, by Zener tunneling. Measured spectra reveal a contribution of direct optical transitions in Si bulk. The necessary holes well below the valence band edge are injec...

  12. Picosecond Time Resolution in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Geoffrey, Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Over the past several years there has been increasing interest in spatially resolved information about the ultrafast dynamics of microscopic and atomic scale structures. Acquiring such information, which is of interest both from both scientific and technological perspectives, requires simultaneous achievement of the high spatial resolution of scanning tunneling microscopy and the high temporal resolution of ultrafast optical methods. Until recently, this combination has remained elusive. In this talk, two approaches to picosecond resolution in scanning tunneling microscopy of repetitive phenomena will be discussed. In each of these stroboscopic schemes, high speed signals are demodulated at the tunnel junction itself, and then detected with conventional low bandwidth electronics. In the first approach,^1 the intrinsic nonlinearity of the current-voltage characteristic in the STM is exploited to mix a fast signal with a short electrical ``probe'' pulse (in analogy with ultrafast optical cross-correlation techniques). These results will be compared to other recent experiments which use photoconductive switches to gate the tunneling current, and in which the geometric capacitance between the sample and the tip appears to play no role. In our second approach,^2 boxcar measurements of time-dependent STM signals are performed by varying the tunneling impedance through tip-sample distance modulation. This technique is implemented using a magnetostrictive tip to control the tunneling distance on nanosecond time scales. Just as pulsed optical spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy have separately revolutionized studies of the physical world on the levels of the ``ultrafast'' and the ``ultrasmall,'' the achievement of picosecond resolution in tunneling microscopy represents a new opportunity for the investigation of dynamic phenomena on microscopic and atomic scales. ǧlue 1truept Work done in collaboration with Mark R. Freeman, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ^1G. Nunes, Jr., and M.R. Freeman, Science 262, 1029 (1993). ^2M.R. Freeman and G. Nunes, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2633 (1993).

  13. Evidence of strong correlations at the Van Hove singularity in the scanning-tunneling spectra of superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, Arun; Nieminen, Jouko; Suominen, Ilpo; Das, Tanmoy; Markiewicz, Robert

    2012-02-01

    We present realistic multiband calculations of scanning tunneling spectra in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? over a wide doping range. Our modeling incorporates effects of a competing pseudogap and pairing gap as well as effects of strong electronic correlations, which are included by introducing self-energy corrections in the one-particle propagators. The calculations provide a good description of the two-gap features seen in experiments at low energies. In particular, the Van Hove singularity (VHS) in the underlying electronic states is found to split into a prominent incoherent feature at high energies and a weaker coherent part near the Fermi level which is strongly involved in gap formation. The progressive hybridization of the localized VHS into the Fermi surface with increasing doping is suggestive of Kondo physics which has been proposed previously for cuprates and heavy fermion compounds.

  14. Contrast mechanisms in photothermal scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, O.; Grafstrm, S.; Fritz, J.; Dey, S.; Kowalski, J.; Neumann, R.; Wrtge, M.; Zu Putlitz, G.

    1994-08-01

    By irradiation of the tunneling junction of a scanning tunneling microscope with intensity-modulated laser light a gap-width modulation due to thermal expansion of tip and sample was produced. Photothermal images were obtained by spatial mapping of the resulting modulation of the tunneling current or its logarithm. The various mechanisms responsible for the observed contrast are discussed quantitatively. In case of a highly corrugated gold film on mica the contrast arises mainly from either the current variations caused by the non-zero reaction time of the current control loop or from a geometry factor. In both cases the images reflect certain properties of the sample topography. On the other hand, for a liquid-crystal film adsorbed on graphite a contrast on a molecular scale was found which is attributed to variations of the effective barrier height.

  15. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  17. Scanning tunneling microscopy of biological molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) has been used to image a number of biological molecules including thrombospondin and glycoprotein 88 (GP88). In this paper, STM images which clearly resolve the morphology of these molecules are presented. Ultimately, it is hoped that STM will provide information about the interaction between these molecules after overcoming problems associated with sample preparation and reproducibility of results which are discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs

  18. Simulation of scanning tunneling spectroscopy of supported carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angle and energy dependent transmission of wave packets was calculated through a jellium potential model of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) junction containing different arrangements of carbon nanotubes. The total tunnel current as a function of STM bias was calculated by statistical averaging over a distribution of wave packets in the allowed energy window. Three tunneling situations were studied: (i) a STM tunnel junction with no nanotube present, (ii) one single wall nanotube in the STM junction, and (iii) a nanotube 'raft'. The effects of point contacts at the STM tip/nanotube, at the nanotube/substrate, and at both interfaces were also investigated. The theory allowed us to identify components of pure geometrical origin responsible for the asymmetry in the scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) spectrum of the carbon nanotubes with respect to bias voltage polarity. The calculations show that for tip negative bias the angular dependence of the transmission is determined by the tip shape. The particular tip shape introduces an asymmetry on the negative side of the STS spectrum. For tip positive bias the angular dependence of the transmission depends strongly on the nature of the nanosystem in the STM gap. While the transmission of the STM tunnel junction with no nanotube present can be well represented by a one dimensional model, all other geometries cause a large normal-transverse momentum mixing of the wave packet. A diffraction-grating-like behavior is seen in the angular dependence of the transmission of the nanotube raft. Point contacts between the nanotube and the substrate cause an asymmetry in the positive side of the STS spectrum. Calculated STS spectra are compared to experimental ones

  19. First-principles study of tunnel current between scanning tunneling microscopy tip and hydrogen-adsorbed Si(001) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, T; Endo, K; Hirose, K; Ono, Tomoya; Horie, Shinya; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Hirose, Kikuji

    2006-01-01

    A scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) image of a hydrogen-adsorbed Si(001) surface is studied using first-principles electron-conduction calculation. The resultant STM image and scanning tunneling spectroscopy spectra are in agreement with experimental results. The contributions of the $\\pi$ states of bare dimers to the tunnel current are markedly large, and the $\\sigma$ states of the dimers rarely affect the STM images. The tunnel currents do not pass through the centers of the dimers but go through the edges of the dimers with local loop currents. In addition, when the tip exists above the hydrogen-adsorbed dimer, there are certain contributions from the $\\pi$ state of the adjacing bare dimers to the tunnel current. This leads to the STM image in which the hydrogen-adsorbed dimers neighboring bare dimers look higher than those surrounded by hydrogen-adsorbed dimers. These results are consistent with the experimental images observed by STM.

  20. Atomic and Molecular Manipulation with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Sperl, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis structural, electronic, chemical properties and dynamic processes of adsorbed nanostructures on metal surfaces are investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM).

  1. Scanning tunneling microscope study of cadmium telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layered samples of cadmium telluride grown epitaxially on gallium arsenide substrates have been investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The surface geometric and electronic structures are both of interest. Techniques were developed to remove the native oxide by etching, or to create a fresh surface by cleaving, and to protect them from oxidation by employing mineral or paraffin oil media. STM studies were conducted within the protective medium. These techniques were adapted and tested for both etched and cleaved samples of Si, CdTe and HgTe. The current-voltage characteristics of the CdTe surface were investigated during dynamic changes of the tunnel current and barrier height while the probe-to-sample separation (gap) was static. Recorded values are shown for current versus bias for several constant gap values. A range of bias values has been employed to test a possible solution for the problem of interference between the contributions from geometric and electronic structure factors

  2. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2002-08-01

    Recent advances in low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy have provided new opportunities for investigating locally the geometric and electronic properties of nanostructures on surfaces. Four examples are chosen from our laboratory, which illustrate the power and the potential of this local approach. (i) Light emission from individual C 60 molecules on a Au(1 1 0) surface--challenges for an optical spectroscopic analysis on the scale of single molecules. (ii) Kondo effect of a single magnetic Ce adatom on Ag(1 1 1)--new perspectives for probing magnetic nanostructures. (iii) Two-dimensional self-assembly of supramolecular structures on metal surfaces--a step towards understanding and control of supramolecular aggregation. (iv) MgO on Ag(0 0 1): insulator at the ultrathin limit--new frontiers for the development of oxide heterostructure-based nanodevices.

  3. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of proximity superconductivity in epitaxial multilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natterer, Fabian D.; Ha, Jeonghoon; Baek, Hongwoo; Zhang, Duming; Cullen, William G.; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.; Kuk, Young; Stroscio, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on spatial measurements of the superconducting proximity effect in epitaxial graphene induced by a graphene-superconductor interface. Superconducting aluminum films were grown on epitaxial multilayer graphene on SiC. The aluminum films were discontinuous, with networks of trenches in the film morphology reaching down to exposed graphene terraces. Scanning tunneling spectra measured on the graphene terraces show a clear decay of the superconducting energy gap with increasing separation from the graphene-aluminum edges. The spectra were well described by BCS theory. The decay length for the superconducting energy gap in graphene was determined to be greater than 400 nm. Deviations in the exponentially decaying energy gap were also observed on a much smaller length scale of tens of nanometers.

  4. Energy gaps measured by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been used to measure energy gaps in the charge-density-wave (CDW) phases of the layer-structure dichalcogenides and in the high-temperature superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. Measured values of ?CDW at 4.2 K for 2H-TaSe2, 2H-TaS2, and 2H-NbSe2 are 80, 50, and 34 meV giving values of 2?CDW/kBTc equal to 15.2, 15.4, and 23.9, indicating strong coupling in these CDW systems. Measured values of ?CDW at 4.2 K in 1T-TaSe2 and 1T-TaS2 are ?150 meV for both materials giving 2?CDW/kBTc?5.8. STM scans of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 at 4.2 K resolve atoms on the BiOx layer and show possible variations in electronic structure. The energy gap determined from I versus V and dI/dV versus V curves is in the range 30--35 meV giving values of 2?/kBTc?8. Spectroscopy measurements with the STM can exhibit large zero-bias anomalies which complicate the analysis of the energy-gap structure, but adequate separation has been accomplished

  5. Fiber coupled ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1997-01-01

    waveguide. The measurements show that the probe works as a transient voltage detector in contact and a capacitively coupled transient field detector in tunneling mode. We do not measure the transient voltage change in the ohmic tunneling current. In this sense, the spatial resolution for propagating...... electrical pulses is better in contact mode than in tunneling mode. ©1997 American Institute of Physics....

  6. Scanning tunneling microscopy and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy studies of methyl isocyanide adsorbed on Pt(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was used to investigate the adsorption state of a single methyl isocyanide (MeNC) molecule on the Pt(111) surface at 4.7 K. We found that MeNC was resolved as a round-shaped protrusion in the STM image. The STM image of paired MeNC is highly protruded in comparison with that of isolated MeNC due to the charge transfer from Pt to MeNC. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy with the STM system (STM-IETS) was also employed in order to reveal the adsorption state of individual MeNC molecules on Pt(111). The STM-IETS spectrum of MeNC exhibits peaks at 8, 48 and 375 mV. Referring to the vibrational spectra reported previously, we assigned these peaks to the frustrated translation mode, PtC stretching mode and CH3 stretching mode, respectively. The absence of other vibrational modes could be due to a reduction of the elastic tunneling current.

  7. Investigation of local tunneling current noise spectra on the silicon crystal surfaces by means of STM/STS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a careful analysis of the local tunneling conductivity by means of ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) technique in the vicinity of low-dimensional structures on the Si(111)–(7 × 7) and Si(110)–(16 × 2) surfaces. The power-law exponent α of low-frequency tunneling current noise spectra is investigated for different values of the tunneling contact parameters: relaxation rates, the localized state coupling, and the tunneling barrier width and height

  8. Demonstration of high spatial resolution in ultrafast scanning tunnelling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarotski, Dzmitry; Taylor, Antoinette

    2001-03-01

    Achieving ultrafast time resolution in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in addition to its atomic spatial resolution is of great scientific interest. Possible solution is Junction Mixing Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (JM-STM) technique, which uses intrinsic nonlinearity of the current-voltage characteristics of the tunneling junction to sample time-varying properties of the material under investigation [1]. Using this method 20 nm spatial and 20 ps temporal resolution has been demonstrated [2]. However it is still far from true atomic resolution of conventional scanning tunnelling microscope. In this work we present data showing that using JM-STM it is possible to achieve spatial resolution of less than 2 nm with temporal resolution of crosses the border of the dot. 1. G. Nunes, M.R. Freeman, Science 262, 1029 (1993) 2. G.M. Steeves, A.Y. Elezzabi, M.R. Freeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(4), 504 (1998)

  9. Applications of terrestrial laser scanning for tunnels: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS technique in engineering surveys is gaining an increasing interest due to the advantages of non-contact, rapidity, high accuracy, and large scale. Millions of accurate 3D points (mm level accuracy can be delivered by this technique with a high point density in a short time (up to 1 million points per second, which makes it a potential technique for large scale applications in engineering environments such as tunnels, bridges, and heritage buildings. Tunnels, in particular those with long lengths, create great challenges for surveyors to obtain the satisfactory scanned data. This paper presents a short history of TLS techniques used for tunnels. A general overview of TLS techniques is given, followed by a review of several applications of TLS for tunnels. These applications are classified as: detecting geological features of drilling tunnels, monitoring the geometry of tunnels during excavation, making deformation measurements, and extracting features. The review emphasizes how TLS techniques can be used to measure various aspects of tunnels. It is clear that TLS techniques are not yet a common tool for tunnel investigations, but there is still a huge potential to excavate.

  10. Majorana fermion fingerprints in spin-polarised scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kotetes, Panagiotis; Mendler, Daniel; Heimes, Andreas; Schn, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the spatially resolved tunneling conductance of topological superconductors (TSCs) based on ferromagnetic chains, measured by means of spin-polarised scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM). Our analysis reveals novel signatures of MFs arising from the interplay of their strongly anisotropic spin-polarisation and the magnetisation content of the tip. We focus on the deep Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) limit where only YSR bound states localised in the vicinity of the adatoms govern the low...

  11. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on electron-boson interactions in superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Schackert, Michael Peter

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the experimental study of electron-boson interactions in superconductors by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy performed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at temperatures below 1 K. This new approach allows the direct measurement of the Eliashberg function of conventional superconductors as demonstrated on lead (Pb) and niobium (Nb). Preparative experiments on unconventional iron-pnictides are presented in the end.

  12. Scanning Tunneling Luminescence of Pentacene Nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Kabakchiev, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are promising materials for future electronic and electroluminescence applications. A detailed understanding of organic layers and nano-sized crystals down to single molecules can address fundamental questions of contacting organic semiconductors at the nanometer limit and obtaining luminescence from them. In this thesis, electroluminescence spectra from pentacene, a policyclic hydrocarbon (acene), are discussed. The luminescenc...

  13. Plasma etching of superconducting Niobium tips for scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Roychowdhury, A.; Dana, R; Dreyer, M.; Anderson, J. R.; C. J. Lobb; F.C. Wellstood

    2014-01-01

    We report a reproducible technique for the fabrication of sharp superconducting Nb tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Sections of Nb wire with 250 $\\mu$m diameter are dry etched in an SF$_6$ plasma in a Reactive Ion Etcher. The gas pressure, etching time and applied power are chosen to produce a self-sharpening effect to obtain the desired tip shape. The resulting tips are atomically sharp, with radii of less than 100 nm, and generate good STM im...

  14. Characterization of light emission from subphthalocyanine monolayers using scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagi, Hisao [Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: yanagi@kobe-u.ac.jp; Mukai, Hiroko [Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Nair, Meenakshi [Venture Business Laboratory, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2006-03-21

    Monolayers of subphthalocyanine were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy and self-assembled depositions on the Au (111) surface. Light emission from the monolayers was measured by photoexcitation as well as tunneling current excitation using scanning tunneling microscopy under ultrahigh vacuum. The photoexcited spectra of the monolayers deposited by both methods exhibited the fluorescence bands of {pi}-electronic transition of the subphthalocyanine macrocycle although their lifetime was very shortened due to quenching by the Au surface. The tunneling induced emission was taken from the self-assembled monolayers in which the subphthalocyanine molecules were chemically bound onto the surface by alkylthio substituents. The observed spectra were ascribed to the radiative decay of tip-induced surface plasmon of Au. The molecules in the self-assembled monolayers shifted the emission peak due to modification of the dielectric property and distance between the tip and surface.

  15. Magnon dispersion and life times of thin Ni films studied with inelastic scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Toyo Kazu; Urban, Nicolai; Balashov, Timofey; Takacs, Albert; Wulfhekel, Wulf [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Buczek, Pawel; Sandratskii, Leonid; Ernst, Arthur [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Ni films of thickness between 4 and 12 monolayers were grown epitaxially on a Cu(100) substrate. Using inelastic scanning tunneling spectroscopy at 4 K magnons in the Ni film were studied. In the thin films, the magnons are confined and thus quantized along the surface normal. For a film of n monolayers, n magnon modes normal to the surface are expected. In the experiments these modes appear as peaks in the inelastic tunnelling spectra. By measuring the peak position and widths the magnon energies and lifetimes can be obtained. The observed lifetimes strongly depend on the momentum of the magnons in agreement with non-adiabatic dynamic susceptibility calculations.

  16. A nanoscale gigahertz source realized with Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jck, Berthold, E-mail: b.jaeck@fkf.mpg.de; Eltschka, Matthias; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max-Planck-Institut fr Festkrperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hardock, Andreas [Institut fr Theoretische Elektrotechnik, Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21079 Hamburg (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fr Festkrperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut de Physique de la Matire Condense, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-01-05

    Using the AC Josephson effect in the superconductor-vacuum-superconductor tunnel junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), we demonstrate the generation of GHz radiation. With the macroscopic STM tip acting as a ?/4-monopole antenna, we first show that the atomic scale Josephson junction in the STM is sensitive to its frequency-dependent environmental impedance in the GHz regime. Further, enhancing Cooper pair tunneling via excitations of the tip eigenmodes, we are able to generate high-frequency radiation. We find that for vanadium junctions, the enhanced photon emission can be tuned from about 25?GHz to 200?GHz and that large photon flux in excess of 10{sup 20?}cm{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} is reached in the tunnel junction. These findings demonstrate that the atomic scale Josephson junction in an STM can be employed as a full spectroscopic tool for GHz frequencies on the atomic scale.

  17. Oxygen-free in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Ulstrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy under full electrochemical potential control (in situ STM) has been used extensively as an efficient method to characterize microstructures at solid/liquid interfaces at the atomic and molecular levels. However, under ambient conditions oxygen may interfere in open in...

  18. Exploring structural, electronic, magnetic, and vibrational properties of nanostructures with a scanning tunneling microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis spin-resolved and spin-integrated scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) are used to explore structural, electronic, magnetic, and vibrational properties of nanostructures on surfaces. STS of the differential conductance is performed at constant current and at constant distance. These modes of operation significantly affect peak positions and line shapes in spectra as well as patterns in spatial maps of the differential conductance. A normalization pr...

  19. Scanning tunneling microscopy III theory of STM and related scanning probe methods

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1996-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy III provides a unique introduction to the theoretical foundations of scanning tunneling microscopy and related scanning probe methods. The different theoretical concepts developed in the past are outlined, and the implications of the theoretical results for the interpretation of experimental data are discussed in detail. Therefore, this book serves as a most useful guide for experimentalists as well as for theoreticians working in the filed of local probe methods. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  20. Scanning tunneling microscopy: Critical dimension and surface roughness analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Files-Sesler, L.A.; Randal, J.N.; Harkness, D. (Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX (United States))

    Applications of a scanning tunneling microscope combined with an optical microscope for metrology are reported. The ability to perform critical linewidth measurements on device structures is demonstrated. The need for such a high-resolution metrology tool is illustrated by comparing scanning electron microscope and scanning tunneling microscope images of metal contacts for quantum devices which were fabricated by e-beam lithography and metal lift-off. These contacts are typically 100 nm in diameter and vary between 30 and 100 nm in height. Another topic being addressed is the effectiveness of annealing and electropolishing on the topography of stainless-steel tubing interior surfaces. This study was initiated to reduce particle entrapment in liquid and gas supply lines being designed for our new fabrication facilities at Texas Instruments.

  1. Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy for molecular science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and its application in molecular science are reviewed. STM can image individual atoms and molecules and thus is able to observe the results of molecular processes such as diffusion, desorption, configuration switching, bond-breaking and chemistry, on the atomic scale. This review will introduce time-resolved STM, its experimental limitations and implementations with particular emphasis on thermally activated and tunnelling current induced molecular processes. It will briefly examine the push towards ultrafast imaging. In general, results achieved by time-resolved STM demonstrate the necessity of both space and time resolution for fully characterizing molecular processes on the atomic scale.

  2. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.

  3. Spatially resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy on single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning tunneling microscope spectroscopy is used to study in detail the electronic band structure of carbon nanotubes as well as to locally investigate electronic features of interesting topological sites such as nanotube ends and bends. From a large number of measurements of the tunneling density-of-states (DOS) nanotubes can be classified, according to predictions, as either semiconducting (two-third of the total number of tubes) or metallic (one-third). The energy subband separations in the tunneling DOS compare reasonably well to theoretical calculations. At nanotube ends, spatially resolved spectra show additional sharp conductance peaks that shift in energy as a function of position. Spectroscopy measurements on a nanotube kink suggest that the kink is a heterojunction between a semiconducting and a metallic nanotube

  4. Crystal-edge scanning tunnelling spectroscopy on aluminium-doped magnesium diboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the first scanning tunnelling spectroscopy measurements on the edge of aluminium-doped magnesium diboride (Mg1-xAlxB2,x = 0.085) single crystals. To target their edge (∼30 μm thick) we have developed a low temperature STM facility featuring a home built compact STM head coupled to an inertially driven carriage. This allows linear submicronic positioning over millimetric distances. We demonstrate the capabilities of our system by showing reproducible tunnelling spectra obtained both parallel and perpendicular to the crystalline c axis. Tunnelling on the edge reveals the gap originating in the highly 2D σ band but in contrast with pure MgB2 does not show the signature of the π gap

  5. Crystal-edge scanning tunnelling spectroscopy on aluminium-doped magnesium diboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, C [DPMC, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Jenkins, N [DPMC, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Manuel, A A [DPMC, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Zhigadlo, N D [Laboratory for Solid State Physics ETHZ, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Karpinski, J [Laboratory for Solid State Physics ETHZ, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Fischer, Oe [DPMC, Universite de Geneve, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2006-08-15

    We report on the first scanning tunnelling spectroscopy measurements on the edge of aluminium-doped magnesium diboride (Mg{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}B{sub 2},x = 0.085) single crystals. To target their edge ({approx}30 {mu}m thick) we have developed a low temperature STM facility featuring a home built compact STM head coupled to an inertially driven carriage. This allows linear submicronic positioning over millimetric distances. We demonstrate the capabilities of our system by showing reproducible tunnelling spectra obtained both parallel and perpendicular to the crystalline c axis. Tunnelling on the edge reveals the gap originating in the highly 2D {sigma} band but in contrast with pure MgB{sub 2} does not show the signature of the {pi} gap.

  6. Crystal-edge scanning tunnelling spectroscopy on aluminium-doped magnesium diboride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, C.; Jenkins, N.; Manuel, A. A.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.; Fischer, Ø.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the first scanning tunnelling spectroscopy measurements on the edge of aluminium-doped magnesium diboride (Mg1-xAlxB2,x = 0.085) single crystals. To target their edge (~30 µm thick) we have developed a low temperature STM facility featuring a home built compact STM head coupled to an inertially driven carriage. This allows linear submicronic positioning over millimetric distances. We demonstrate the capabilities of our system by showing reproducible tunnelling spectra obtained both parallel and perpendicular to the crystalline c axis. Tunnelling on the edge reveals the gap originating in the highly 2D σ band but in contrast with pure MgB2 does not show the signature of the π gap.

  7. Plasma etching of superconducting Niobium tips for scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roychowdhury, A. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Dana, R.; Dreyer, M. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C. [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We have developed a reproducible technique for the fabrication of sharp superconducting Nb tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Sections of Nb wire with 250 μm diameter are dry etched in an SF₆ plasma in a Reactive Ion Etcher. The gas pressure, etching time, and applied power are chosen to control the ratio of isotropic to anisotropic etch rates and produce the desired tip shape. The resulting tips are atomically sharp, with radii of less than 100 nm, mechanically stable, and superconducting. They generate good STM images and spectroscopy on single crystal samples of Au(111), Au(100), and Nb(100), as well as a doped topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ at temperatures ranging from 30 mK to 9 K.

  8. Scanning Tunneling Microspectroscopy of Solids and Surfaces - Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical research on the bulk and surface properties of conductive solid state materials has been performed based on the techniques of scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy, often at cryogenic temperatures. The research has focused on the electronic properties, particularly the superconductivity, of high temperature superconductors and other layered systems. The superconducting electronic density of states N(E)=dI/dV of the high T(sub c) superconductor Bi(sub 2)Sr(sub 2)CaCu(sub 2)O(sub 8+(delta)) was measured with spatial resolution of 5 A at 4.2K. An internal superconducting proximity effect was inferred to operate between Cu and Bi based layers of the crystal in those regions where the Bi layers are metallic in nature. This research project supported the thesis research of several young scientists, and led to a significant number of published papers, presentations and reports

  9. Plasma etching of superconducting Niobium tips for scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a reproducible technique for the fabrication of sharp superconducting Nb tips for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Sections of Nb wire with 250 μm diameter are dry etched in an SF6 plasma in a Reactive Ion Etcher. The gas pressure, etching time, and applied power are chosen to control the ratio of isotropic to anisotropic etch rates and produce the desired tip shape. The resulting tips are atomically sharp, with radii of less than 100 nm, mechanically stable, and superconducting. They generate good STM images and spectroscopy on single crystal samples of Au(111), Au(100), and Nb(100), as well as a doped topological insulator Bi2Se3 at temperatures ranging from 30 mK to 9 K.

  10. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of graphite edges

    CERN Document Server

    Niimi, Y; Kambara, H; Tagami, K; Tsukada, M; Fukuyama, H; Fukuyama, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the electronic local density of states (LDOS) near single step edges at the surface of exfoliated graphite. In scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, we observed the $(\\sqrt{3} \\times \\sqrt{3}) R 30^{\\circ}$ and honeycomb superstructures both extending over 3$-$4 nm either from the zigzag or armchair edge. Calculations based on a density-functional derived non-orthogonal tight-binding model show that these superstructures can coexist if the two types of edge admix each other in real graphite step edges. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements near the zigzag edge reveal a clear peak in the LDOS at an energy below the Fermi energy by 20 meV. No such a peak was observed near the armchair edge. We concluded that this peak corresponds to the "edge state" theoretically predicted for graphene ribbons, since a similar prominent LDOS peak due to the edge state is obtained by the first principles calculations.

  11. Imaging atoms and molecules on surfaces by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review discusses nearly 30 years of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) work on high resolution imaging of numerous materials systems, giving a historical perspective on the field through the author's work. After a brief discussion of early STM and atomic force microscope (AFM) instrumentation development, the review discusses high resolution STM imaging on semiconductors, metals on semiconductors, Au(1 1 1), metal on metals including surface alloys, oxygen on metals, molecules adsorbed on metals, and AFM measurements of friction on graphite and mica.

  12. The electroluminescence and scanning tunneling microscopy of single molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Buker, John William

    2009-01-01

    The scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of single molecules has become a prominent experimental method in the field of molecular electronics. It has been found that in STM experiments, when an electric current flows through a single molecule, the molecule may luminesce. This electroluminescence, in conjunction with traditional STM data, provides a potentially important additional degree of freedom for understanding nanoscale systems. This thesis describes exploratory theoretical work on the n...

  13. Sub-Kelvin scanning tunneling microscopy on magnetic molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei(Huaqing College, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, 710055, China)

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic molecules have attracted lots interest. In this work, an ultra-stable and low noise scanning tunneling microscopy operating at 400 mK using He-3 (930 mK using He-4) has been developed. The magnetic behavior of different magnetic molecules on substrates, especially the exchange interaction between the magnetic ions, the magnetic anisotropy on the surface, the magnetic excitations as well as the Kondo effect, were studied by using STM.

  14. Studies of Novel Nanostructures by Cross- sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara, Lassana

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents structural and morphological studies of semiconductor nanostructures, namely quantum dots, nanowires and a dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor. These nanostructures are investigated on the atomic scale using cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (XSTM). Indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots in both an indium phosphide (InP) and GaAs matrix are studied. The InAs/InP quantum dots are shown to be vertically aligned and I present experimental and theoretical investigatio...

  15. Investigation of graphite surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy experiments on pyrolytic graphite at low voltages VT ? 0 reveal an anomalous surface corrugation. It can be understood from the energy dependent corrugation of the local density of states near EF, in good qualitative agreement with theory. The high lateral resolution of < 2 A and the observed giant corrugations seem to be adequately described by models which consider the special structure of the Fermi surface of graphite and its elastic properties. (orig.)

  16. A scanning tunneling microscope for a dilution refrigerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marz, M; Goll, G; Löhneysen, H v

    2010-04-01

    We present the main features of a home-built scanning tunneling microscope that has been attached to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator. It allows scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements down to the base temperature of the cryostat, T approximately 30 mK, and in applied magnetic fields up to 13 T. The topography of both highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and the dichalcogenide superconductor NbSe(2) has been imaged with atomic resolution down to T approximately 50 mK as determined from a resistance thermometer adjacent to the sample. As a test for a successful operation in magnetic fields, the flux-line lattice of superconducting NbSe(2) in low magnetic fields has been studied. The lattice constant of the Abrikosov lattice shows the expected field dependence proportional to 1/square root of B and measurements in the scanning tunneling spectroscopy mode clearly show the superconductive density of states with Andreev bound states in the vortex core. PMID:20441363

  17. A study of surfaces using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Graciela Ávila Bernal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweeping/scanning microscopes have become an experimental scientist’s hands and eyes in this century; they have become a powerful and necessary tool for nanoscale characterisation in education and research laboratories all around the world. This arti- cle presents the modifications made in the mechanical (isolation or designing an anti-vibration system and electrical (piezoelec- tric and scanning system characterisation implementation of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM, thereby allowing nanosca- le surfaces to be visualised and modified. A methodology for visualising and characterising surfaces using the aforementioned instrument is described, bidimensional quantification of up to 1,300 nm2, with ~15 nm resolution being reached. This experi- mental methodology took critical parameters for tunnelling current stability into account, such as scanning speed and microscope tip geometry and dimensions. This microscope’s versatility allowed defects in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG samples to be modified and visualised by applying a voltage between the tip and the sample. The concepts of topography scanning and lithography can be easily understood by using the instrument implemented here.

  18. Tip preparation for usage in an ultra-low temperature UHV scanning tunneling microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ernst, S. Wirth, M. Rams, V. Dolocan and F. Steglich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the preparation and characterization of tungsten tips for the use in UHV low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS, respectively. These specific environments require in situ facilities for tip conditioning, for further sharpening of the tips, as well as for reliable tip characterization. The implemented conditioning methods include direct resistive annealing, annealing by electron bombardment, and self-sputtering with noble gas ions. Moreover, results from in situ tip characterization by field emission and STM experiments were compared to ex situ scanning electron microscopy. Using the so-prepared tips, high resolution STM images and tunneling spectra were obtained in a temperature range from ambient down to 350 mK, partially with applied magnetic field, on a variety of materials.

  19. Low-current Scanning Tunneling Microscope for Nanoscale Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Kale

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the nanotechnology, which is still in its infancy, will depend on our ability todesign, build, replicate, and mass-produce usable nanoscale systems. At sub-nanometer lengthscales, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and the related techniques, collectively calledscanning probe microscopies, replace the optical microscopy for real-space imaging andmanipulation of materials. STM operation is based on measurement of current due to tunnelingof electrons across a finite potential barrier between the probe and the sample. In conventionalSTM, tunneling current of tens of nA and probe-sample distance of a few are maintained.These conditions, while necessary for atomic-scale imaging under ultra high vacuum environment,are not suited to handle nanostructures. Quantum structures deposited on a flat substrate usuallypresent a non-metallic sample, and the roughness levels involved are much too high forconventional STM. STM operation with low tunneling current (few pA and larger tunneling gap(several nm is preferred to overcome these difficulties. This paper presents experimental workand theoretical considerations for developing an atmospheric low-current STM (LC-STM.Researchers from diverse fields can build their own LC-STM for routine imaging and spectroscopy.Several design details are included keeping this aspect in mind.

  20. Theory and feasibility tests for a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunnelling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect subwavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the scatterer is in the near-field region. This means that, as the scatterer approaches the source, imaging of the scatterer with super-resolution can be achieved. Acoustic and elastic simulations support this concept, and a seismic experiment in an Arizona tunnel shows a TRM profile with super-resolution adjacent to the fault location. The SSTM is analogous to the optical scanning tunnelling microscopes having subwavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by the imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  1. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Superconductor Proximity Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are employed in order to investigate with nanometer spatial resolution the superconductor proximity effect. The samples are novel superconducting wires consisting of ordered arrays of sub-micron diameter normal metal (N) filaments, either Cu or Ni, embedded in a superconducting (S) NbTi matrix. Two main issues are addressed: 1) The evolution of the superconductor gap as a function of distance from the N/S boundary. We focus on the extent of penetration of superconductivity into N and on the recovery of the gap in S, which is found to occur on a scale much larger than expected. 2) Effects resulting from multiple Andreev reflections at the boundaries between the different constituents, namely, quasi-particle bound states and Tomasch oscillations. Such effects have not been previously studied in a geometry where tunneling takes place in parallel to the N/S interfaces

  2. Optical and electrical characterization at the nanoscale with a transparent probe of a scanning tunnelling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of scanning probe microscope, combining features of the scanning tunnelling microscope, the scanning tunnelling luminescence microscope with a transparent probe and the aperture scanning near-field optical microscope, is described. Proof-of-concept experiments were performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at varying temperature on GaAs/AlAs heterostructures.

  3. STM beyond vacuum tunnelling: scanning tunnelling hydrogen microscopy as a route to ultra-high resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Direct imaging is a fast and reliable method for the characterization of surfaces. When it comes to small surface structures in the size of the features e.g. in todays computer processors, classical optical imaging methods fail in resolving these structures. With the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) for the first time it became possible to image the structure of surfaces with atomic precision. However, the STM fails in resolving complex chemical structures like e.g. organ...

  4. STM beyond vacuum tunneling : scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy as a route to ultra-high resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Direct imaging is a fast and reliable method for the characterization of surfaces. When it comes to small surface structures in the size of the features e.g. in todays computer processors, classical optical imaging methods fail in resolving these structures. With the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) for the first time it became possible to image the structure of surfaces with atomic precision. However, the STM fails in resolving complex chemical structures ...

  5. Scanning tunneling microscopy of individual molecules: beyond imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimzewski, J. K.; Jung, T. A.; Cuberes, M. T.; Schlittler, R. R.

    1997-10-01

    We discuss several concepts of handling molecule-adsorbent and hetero-molecular structures on an individual molecular basis. Molecular recognition using scanning tunneling microscopy underpins the fundamental progress made. "Beyond imaging" implies repositioning, patterning, and exploring the functionality of individual molecules. Using porphyrin- and fullerene-based systems, we discuss issues such as conformational analysis, supramolecular systems, patterning, and the fabrication of a molecular adding machine. These examples form the beginnings of a bottom-up approach to fabrication and "sciengineering" from a molecule-by-molecule perspective.

  6. Scanning tunneling microscopy current--voltage characteristics of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to obtain images and current--voltage (I--V) curves of carbon nanotubes produced by arc discharge of carbon electrodes. The STM I--V curves indicate that carbon nanotubes with diameters from 2.0 to 5.1 nm have a metallic density of states. Using STM, we also observe nanometer-size graphene sheets which are four graphite layers thick. The STM images of carbon nanotubes are in good agreement with transmission electron microscope images. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society

  7. Pb on Mo(110) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupski, A.

    2009-07-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to investigate the growth behavior of ultrathin Pb films on the Mo(110) surface at room temperature. The analysis of STM measurements indicates that for a coverage ?1ML , the three-dimensional growth of the Pb islands with strongly preferred atomic scale magic height and flat top is observed. At coverages between 1ML3ML , the island height distribution shows peaks at relative heights corresponding to N=(2,4,6,7,and9) of Pb atomic layers.

  8. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  9. Scanning tunneling microscopy at millikelvin temperatures: Design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrud, Mark Avrum

    This dissertation reports on work toward the realization of a state-of-the-art scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy facility operating at milliKelvin temperatures in a dilution refrigerator. Difficulties that have been experienced in prior efforts in this area are identified. Relevant issues in heat transport and in the thermalization and electrical filtering of wiring are examined, and results are applied to the design of the system. The design, installation and characterization of the pumps, plumbing and mechanical vibration isolation, and the design and installation of wiring and fabrication and characterization of electrical filters are described.

  10. Electric field effects in scanning tunneling microscope imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Quaade, Ulrich; Grey, Francois

    1998-01-01

    We present a high-voltage extension of the Tersoff-Hamann theory of scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images, which includes the effect of the electric field between the tip and the sample. The theoretical model is based on first-principles electronic structure calculations and has no adjustable...... parameters. We use the method to calculate theoretical STM images of the monohydrate Si(100)-H(2x1) surface with missing hydrogen defects at -2V and find an enhanced corrugation due to the electric field, in good agreement with experimental images....

  11. A local view of the Kondo effect: scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fascinating many-body physics involved in the interaction of a single magnetic impurity with the conduction electrons of its nonmagnetic metallic host is reflected in un conventional phenomena in magnetism, transport properties and the specific heat. Characteristic low-energy excitations, termed the Kondo resonance, are generally believed to be responsible for this striking behaviour. However, in spite of an intense research for over more than 30 years, a direct spectroscopic observation of the Kondo resonance on individual magnetic adatoms withstood experimental efforts hitherto. Recently for the first time, two such scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS)/scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) experiments spatially resolved the electronic properties of individual magnetic adatoms displaying the Kondo effect. In particular, the observed Fano lineshape of the Kondo resonance reveals unambiguously the details of the quantum mechanical interference between the localized orbital and the conduction electrons on an atomic length scale. This achievement of the detection of individual magnetic atoms with atomic resolution opens new perspectives for probing magnetic nanostructures

  12. Scanning electron and tunneling microscopy of palladium-barium emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of study of metal-alloyed palladium-barium emitters' of modern very high frequency high-powered electronic vacuum tubes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) are presented. Since the Pd/Ba foil surface is fairly smooth and is not oxidized in air STM/STS investigations are carried out in air in normal laboratory environment. SEM and STM images show that the emitter surface has a complex porous structure. The cathode surface study by STS in tunneling gap modulation mode allowed to take a map of phase distribution with various work function values and high lateral resolution. Obtained images demonstrate the presence of three phases on the Pd/Ba emitter surface, viz. barium-oxygen compounds, intermetallic, and palladium. As it is seen from presented STS image the phase with a low work function value (barium oxides) is concentrated along boundaries of the substance inclusions with work function corresponding to the intemetallic compound Pd5Ba. This supports the model of low work function areas obtained via Ba segregation from the intermetallic compound and oxidation. The presented methods may be used in the Pd/Ba cathode manufacturing process for increasing the yield of electronic devices in microwave tube production and optimize the emitters' characteristics

  13. Scanning electron and tunneling microscopy of palladium barium emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiburin, V. B.; Volkov, U. P.; Semenov, S. V.; Semenov, A. S.

    2003-06-01

    The results of study of metal-alloyed palladium-barium emitters' of modern very high frequency high-powered electronic vacuum tubes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) are presented. Since the Pd/Ba foil surface is fairly smooth and is not oxidized in air STM/STS investigations are carried out in air in normal laboratory environment. SEM and STM images show that the emitter surface has a complex porous structure. The cathode surface study by STS in tunneling gap modulation mode allowed to take a map of phase distribution with various work function values and high lateral resolution. Obtained images demonstrate the presence of three phases on the Pd/Ba emitter surface, viz. barium-oxygen compounds, intermetallic, and palladium. As it is seen from presented STS image the phase with a low work function value (barium oxides) is concentrated along boundaries of the substance inclusions with work function corresponding to the intemetallic compound Pd 5Ba. This supports the model of low work function areas obtained via Ba segregation from the intermetallic compound and oxidation. The presented methods may be used in the Pd/Ba cathode manufacturing process for increasing the yield of electronic devices in microwave tube production and optimize the emitters' characteristics.

  14. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of the Topological Insulator Candidate YbB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihuai; He, Y.; Kim, D.-J.; Fisk, Z.; Hoffman, J. E.

    2015-03-01

    We report scanning tunneling microscopy studies of YbB6, a proposed topological insulator candidate with moderate correlation. The in-situ cleaved sample surface has two dominant morphologies: atomic square lattices and disordered rows, which likely correspond to Yb and B terminations, respectively. Spatially resolved dI / dV maps show enhanced tunneling due to the local perturbation of the tip-induced band bending. The dI / dV spectra reveal a bulk gap with distinct in-gap features near the Fermi level on different terminations. Our study presents nanoscale evidence for the interplay between surface structure, correlation and topological properties. The work at Harvard was supported by NSF-DMR-1410480 and NSERC (ZHZ).

  15. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy with a dilution refrigerator based scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design and operations of a compact cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope system combined with a dilution refrigerator. We obtained a minimum temperature of 260 mK at the sample position. Taking advantage of low-temperature measurement for the spectroscopy, inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) at 4.4 K was demonstrated for the octanethiol molecules in a self-assembled monolayer. The spectrum showed many vibrational features as in the case of a high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. We discuss the resolution of the IET signals focusing on its changes with the modulation voltage and the sample temperature. IETS at 260 mK is also presented with similar quality as in the case of 4.4 K, indicating that the vibration-dumping methods for the operation of the dilution refrigerator described in this paper are adequate

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of superconducting boron-doped diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terukazu Nishizaki, Yoshihiko Takano, Masanori Nagao, Tomohiro Takenouchi, Hiroshi Kawarada and Norio Kobayashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS experiments on (1 1 1-oriented epitaxial films of heavily boron-doped diamond grown by using the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. STM/STS measurements were performed by 3He-refrigerator based STM under ultra-high vacuum. The STM topography on the film surface shows a corrugation (with a typical size of ~1 ?m and grain-like microstructures (~520 nm. The tunneling conductance spectra do not show large spatial dependence and superconductivity is observed independent of the surface structures. The tunneling spectra are analyzed by the Dynes function and the superconducting energy gap is estimated to be ?=0.87 meV at T=0.47 K, corresponding to 2?/kBTc=3.7. The relatively large value of the broadening parameter ?=0.38 meV is discussed in terms of the inelastic electron scattering processes.

  17. Measurement of turbulence spectra using scanning pulsed wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    model and measured spectra are in good agreement at two analyzed heights for the u and w components of the velocity field. An interference phenomenon is observed, both in the model and the measurements, when the diameter of the scanning circle divided by the mean wind speed is a multiple of the time...

  18. Scanning tunneling microscopy of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons exfoliated onto H:Si(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radocea, Adrian; Mehdi Pour, Mohammad; Vo, Timothy; Shekhirev, Mikhail; Sinitskii, Alexander; Lyding, Joseph

    Atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are promising materials for next generation transistors due to their well-controlled bandgaps and the high thermal conductivity of graphene. The solution synthesis of graphene nanoribbons offers a pathway towards scalable manufacturing. While scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can access size scales required for characterization, solvent residue increases experimental difficulty and precludes band-gap determination via scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Our work addresses this challenge through a dry contact transfer method that cleanly transfers solution-synthesized GNRs onto H:Si(100) under UHV using a fiberglass applicator. The semiconducting silicon surface avoids problems with image charge screening enabling intrinsic bandgap measurements. We characterize the nanoribbons using STM and STS. For chevron GNRs, we find a 1.6 eV bandgap, in agreement with computational modeling, and map the electronic structure spatially with detailed spectra lines and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy. Mapping the electronic structure of graphene nanoribbons is an important step towards taking advantage of the ability to form atomically precise nanoribbons and finely tune their properties.

  19. Design of a high-speed electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanson, Y. I.; Schenkel, F.; Rost, M. J.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we present a bottom-up approach to designing and constructing a high-speed electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (EC-STM). Using finite element analysis (FEA) calculations of the frequency response of the whole mechanical loop of the STM, we analyzed several geometries to find the most stable one that could facilitate fast scanning. To test the FEA results, we conducted measurements of the vibration amplitudes using a prototype STM setup. Based on the FEA analysis and the measurement results, we identified the potentially most disturbing vibration modes that could impair fast scanning. By modifying the design of some parts of the EC-STM, we reduced the amplitudes as well as increased the resonance frequencies of these modes. Additionally, we designed and constructed an electrochemical flow-cell that allows STM imaging in a flowing electrolyte, and built a bi-potentiostat to achieve electrochemical potential control during the measurements. Finally, we present STM images acquired during high-speed imaging in air as well as in an electrochemical environment using our newly-developed EC-STM.

  20. Fully low voltage and large area searching scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which allows the tip to travel a large distance (millimeters) on the sample and take images (to find microscopic targets) anywhere it reaches without losing atomic resolution. This broad range searching capability, together with the coarse approach and scan motion, is all done with only one single piezoelectric tube scanner as well as with only low voltages (<15 V). Simple structure, low interference and high precision are thus achieved. To this end, a pillar and a tube scanner are mounted in parallel on a base with one ball glued on the pillar top and two balls glued on the scanner top. These three balls form a narrow triangle, which supports a triangular slider piece. By inertial stepping, the scanner can move the slider toward the pillar (coarse approach) or rotate the slider about the pillar (travel along sample surface). Since all the stepping motions are driven by the scanner's lateral bending which is large per unit voltage, high voltages are unnecessary. The technology is also applicable to scanning force microscopes (SFM) such as atomic force microscopes (AFM), etc

  1. Majorana fermion fingerprints in spin-polarised scanning tunnelling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotetes, Panagiotis; Mendler, Daniel; Heimes, Andreas; Schn, Gerd

    2015-11-01

    We calculate the spatially resolved tunnelling conductance of topological superconductors (TSCs) based on ferromagnetic chains, measured by means of spin-polarised scanning tunnelling microscopy (SPSTM). Our analysis reveals novel signatures of MFs arising from the interplay of their strongly anisotropic spin-polarisation and the magnetisation content of the tip. We focus on the deep Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) limit where only YSR bound states localised in the vicinity of the adatoms govern the low-energy as also the topological properties of the system. Under these conditions, we investigate the occurrence of zero/finite bias peaks (ZBPs/FBPs) for a single or two coupled TSC chains forming a Josephson junction. Each TSC can host up to two Majorana fermions (MFs) per edge if chiral symmetry is preserved. Here we retrieve the conductance for all the accessible configurations of the MF number of each chain. Our results illustrate innovative spin-polarisation-sensitive experimental routes for arresting the MFs by either restoring or splitting the ZBP in a predictable fashion via: (i) weakly breaking chiral symmetry, e.g. by the SPSTM tip itself or by an external Zeeman field and (ii) tuning the superconducting phase difference of the TSCs, which is encoded in the 4?-Josephson coupling of neighbouring MFs.

  2. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on low- and high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using some sophisticated modes of scanning tunneling spectroscopy the local density of states on two superconducting compounds in the superconductive state at 4.2 K were analyzed. On NbSe2 which is a type-II low-Tc material, the Abrikosov flux line lattice was imaged for various external magnetic fields up to BC2. The field-induced decrease of the vortex core radius for increasing magnetic field, which was recently predicted by a microscopic theory, could be clearly verified. On sputtered YBa2Cu3O7-δ films the measurements yielded some distinct types of the surface density of states involving gaps, being in accordance to the Bardeen endash Cooper endash Schrieffer theory, unexpectedly large gaps, Coulomb staircases, and zero-bias peaks. copyright 1996 American Vacuum Society

  3. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  4. High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy for molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can detect individual molecular configuration with its high spatial resolution ability, but some intrinsical and extrinsic factors result in the complexities of STM imaging of single molecules. By combining STM experimental work and theoretical simulation with the local density approximation based on Bardeen perturbation method, we have explored the atomic-scale configuration of the following molecular systems: C60 molecules adsorbed on Si(1 1 1)-(7x7); alkanethiol self-assembly monolayers on Au(1 1 1); C60 molecule imaged by STM tip adsorbed with another C60 molecule; O2 molecule adsorbed on Ag(1 1 0) and CO molecule adsorbed on Cu(1 1 1) imaged by CO chemically modified STM tip. Some related problems including: molecule-substrate interactions, STM imaging mechanism, chemically modified STM tip, etc., are discussed

  5. Oxygen-free in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Ulstrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    situ STM systems by diffusion through the solutions. Such interference can be serious for oxygen sensitive systems both for the target molecules themselves and for chemical linker molecules bound to the electrode surface for example, via Au-S bonding. This is strikingly illustrated in the present......Scanning tunneling microscopy under full electrochemical potential control (in situ STM) has been used extensively as an efficient method to characterize microstructures at solid/liquid interfaces at the atomic and molecular levels. However, under ambient conditions oxygen may interfere in open in...... report. We present here oxygen-free in situ STM, in which the samples are contained in an argon atmosphere which removes oxygen in the system. Interference from oxygen is profoundly reduced in this setup and demonstrated by three examples. Two of these are in situ STM of the intermediate-size sulfur...

  6. Metal-silicene interaction studied by scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Feng, Haifeng; Zhuang, Jincheng; Pu, Na; Wang, Li; Xu, Xun; Hao, Weichang; Du, Yi

    2016-01-27

    Ag atoms have been deposited on 3????3 silicene and???3?????3 silicene films by molecular beam epitaxy method in ultrahigh vacuum. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, we found that Ag atoms do not form chemical bonds with both 3????3 silicene and???3?????3 silicene films, which is due to the chemically inert surface of silicene. On 3????3 silicene films, Ag atoms mostly form into stable flat-top Ag islands. In contrast, Ag atoms form nanoclusters and glide on silicene films, suggesting a more inert nature. Raman spectroscopy suggests that there is more sp (2) hybridization in???3?????3 than in???7?????7/3????3 silicene films. PMID:26704018

  7. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the cleavage surface of bismuth crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of in situ studies of the surface structure of the cleavages of bismuth crystals by the method of scanning tunneling microscopy are presented. It is established that cleavage 'opens' the (111) surface with atomically smooth terraces of diatomic steps whose heights are equal to 0.4 nm or a multiple of this value. If the cleavage is made at room temperature, the boundaries of the terraces are usually curved and diffuse owing to the thermal motion with the activation energy of ∼700 K. The cleavage at liquid nitrogen or helium temperatures provides the formation of straight boundaries along the atomic rows on the surface. Twin interlayers of the quantized width of ∼7 nm are revealed. This width value indicates that the atomic planes on both sides of such interlayers intergrow with the interlayer planes inclined to them at a small angle

  8. Scanning tunnelling microscopy study of Au growth on Mo(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupski, A.

    2011-02-01

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) has been used to investigate the growth behaviour of ultra-thin Au films up to two monolayers thick on a Mo(110) surface at room temperature. An analysis of STM measurements indicates that the layer-by-layer growth for the first two layers of Au is observed. For submonolayer coverage gold prefers to nucleates along the [001] and [111] directions and creates one atom high islands on Mo terraces. The average diameter of the observed gold islands is about 12 5 nm. In the completed first layer, no ordered regions were observed. In addition, when the coverage increases to 1.2 ML, the decoration of the substrate steps by one atom high Au islands can be distinguished. As the sample is post-annealed to 800 K, the rearrangement of an existing film did occur and a Au-Mo surface alloy is formed.

  9. Imaging chemical disorder in cuprates using scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Huang, Dennis; Song, Can-Li; Chang, Tay-Rong; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Gu, Genda; Nieminen, Jouko; Bansil, Arun; Markiewicz, Robert; Hoffman, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    High-Tc cuprate superconductors are chemically, electronically and structurally inhomogeneous at the nanoscale. Although a body of theoretical work has predicted that local and global superconductivity may be dramatically impacted by particular dopant configurations, the exact positions of dopants introduced into cuprates to induce superconductivity are generally unknown. Here we use scanning tunneling microscopy to reveal the intra-unit-cell location of two different types of oxygen dopants in Bi2+ySr2-yCaCu2O8+x. Furthermore, we show the relationship between these interstitial oxygen dopants, oxygen vacancies, and a global structural buckling known as the supermodulation. We compare our findings to theoretical simulations. This research was supported by NSF Career grant DMR-0847433 and the New York Community Trust-George Merck Fund.

  10. Scanning tunneling microscope with two-dimensional translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.; Ng, K.-W.

    2011-01-01

    Since the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), it has been a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of materials. Typically STM designs capable of obtaining resolution on the atomic scale are limited to a small area which can be probed. We have built an STM capable of coarse motion in two dimensions, the z- and x-directions which are, respectively, parallel and perpendicular to the tip. This allows us to image samples with very high resolution at sites separated by macroscopic distances. This device is a single unit with a compact design making it very stable. It can operate in either a horizontal or vertical configuration and at cryogenic temperatures.

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of diazo dye monolayers on HOPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, J.; Probst, O.; Dey, S.; Grafstrm, S.; Kowalski, J.; Neumann, R.

    1995-05-01

    We report on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of monolayers of the diazo dye 4-[4-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenylazo]azobenzene (D2, summation formula C 20H 19N 5) on the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Monolayers of the dye were prepared by vapour deposition or by dissolving the molecules in the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB). The STM images show a double-row structure exhibiting different types of lattice defects and various domains. High-resolution images allow the identification of individual molecules and the observation of intramolecular contrast. The different orientations of the rows can be explained by a commensurate registry of the molecules with the substrate. A model for the unit cell is proposed.

  12. Thermal expansion of scanning tunneling microscopy tips under laser illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafstrm, S.; Schuller, P.; Kowalski, J.; Neumann, R.

    1998-04-01

    The periodic thermal expansion of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips arising under irradiation with power-modulated laser light has been investigated. The expansion was determined by comparison with a calibrated piezomotion measured in an STM, which was operated in the constant-current mode, and instrumental effects were corrected for. The experimental data concerning the frequency response of the thermal expansion for various geometries of the tip and for different positions of the laser focus are compared with theoretical results which were derived from a numerical solution of the equation of heat conduction. A very good agreement is found. The results are also interpreted in terms of simplified analytical expressions. Furthermore, the theoretical data are used to derive the response of the tip to fast transients of the light power as in the case of pulsed irradiation.

  13. Cleaved thin-film probes for scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, T.; Kurnosikov, O.; Barcones, B.; Swagten, H. J. M.; Koopmans, B.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an alternative type of probe for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Instead of using a needle-like tip made from a piece of metallic wire, a sharp-edged cleaved insulating substrate, which is initially covered by a thin conductive film, is used. The sharp tip is formed at the intersection of the two cleaved sides. Using this approach a variety of materials for STM probes can be used, and functionalization of STM probes is possible. The working principle of different probes made of metallic (Pt, Co, and CoB), indium-tin oxide, as well as Cu/Pt and Co/Pt multilayer films are demonstrated by STM imaging of clean Cu(001) and Cu(111) surfaces as well as the epitaxial Co clusters on Cu(111).

  14. A high stability and repeatability electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zhigang; Wang, Jihao; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-12-15

    We present a home built electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM) with very high stability and repeatability. Its coarse approach is driven by a closely stacked piezo motor of GeckoDrive type with four rigid clamping points, which enhances the rigidity, compactness, and stability greatly. It can give high clarity atomic resolution images without sound and vibration isolations. Its drifting rates in XY and Z directions in solution are as low as 84 pm/min and 59 pm/min, respectively. In addition, repeatable coarse approaches in solution within 2 mm travel distance show a lateral deviation less than 50 nm. The gas environment can be well controlled to lower the evaporation rate of the cell, thus reducing the contamination and elongating the measurement time. Atomically resolved SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} image on Au (111) work electrode is demonstrated to show the performance of the ECSTM.

  15. C58 on Au(111): a scanning tunneling microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajales, Noelia; Schmaus, Stefan; Miyamashi, Toshio; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Wilhelm, Jan; Walz, Michael; Stendel, Melanie; Bagrets, Alexej; Evers, Ferdinand; Ulas, Seyithan; Kern, Bastian; Bttcher, Artur; Kappes, Manfred M

    2013-03-14

    C58 fullerenes were adsorbed onto room temperature Au(111) surface by low-energy (~6 eV) cluster ion beam deposition under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The topographic and electronic properties of the deposits were monitored by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM at 4.2 K). Topographic images reveal that at low coverages fullerene cages are pinned by point dislocation defects on the herringbone reconstructed gold terraces (as well as by step edges). At intermediate coverages, pinned monomers act as nucleation centres for the formation of oligomeric C58 chains and 2D islands. At the largest coverages studied, the surface becomes covered by 3D interlinked C58 cages. STM topographic images of pinned single adsorbates are essentially featureless. The corresponding local densities of states are consistent with strong cage-substrate interactions. Topographic images of [C58]n oligomers show a stripe-like intensity pattern oriented perpendicular to the axis connecting the cage centers. This striped pattern becomes even more pronounced in maps of the local density of states. As supported by density functional theory, DFT calculations, and also by analogous STM images previously obtained for C60 polymers [M. Nakaya, Y. Kuwahara, M. Aono, and T. Nakayama, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11, 2829 (2011)], we conclude that these striped orbital patterns are a fingerprint of covalent intercage bonds. For thick C58 films we have derived a bandgap of 1.2 eV from scanning tunnelling spectroscopy data confirming that the outermost C58 layer behaves as a wide band semiconductor. PMID:23514509

  16. Fixing the Energy Scale in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy on Semiconductor Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mnnich, Gerhard; Donarini, Andrea; Repp, Jascha

    2013-01-01

    In scanning tunneling experiments on semiconductor surfaces, the energy scale within the tunneling junction is usually unknown due to tip-induced band bending. Here, we experimentally recover the zero point of the energy scale by combining scanning tunneling microscopy with Kelvin probe force spectroscopy. With this technique, we revisit shallow acceptors buried in GaAs. Enhanced acceptor-related conductance is observed in negative, zero, and positive band-bending regimes. An Anderson-Hubbard...

  17. Characterization of GaSb-based heterostructures by scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence and scanning tunnelling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storgards, J [Departamento de FIsica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mendez, B [Departamento de FIsica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Piqueras, J [Departamento de FIsica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Chenot, M [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Dimroth, F [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Bett, A W [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-01-21

    The luminescence of GaSb and AlGaSb layers grown on GaAs substrates by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy has been studied by means of cathodoluminescence (CL) using a scanning electron microscope. CL plane-view analysis reveals a distribution of defects, as misfit dislocations, in some of the structures. The luminescence bands observed in the GaSb layers are related to near band edge recombination and to an excess of Ga. In the case of AlGaSb/GaSb heterostructure emission bands related to the ternary compound and to donor-acceptor recombination are detected. In addition, with the aid of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), local electronic properties, such as conductance and surface energy gap, were studied in sample cross-sections. The results obtained from imaging and spectroscopy modes of STM enabled us to image the single AlGaSb layer.

  18. Characterization of GaSb-based heterostructures by scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence and scanning tunnelling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence of GaSb and AlGaSb layers grown on GaAs substrates by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy has been studied by means of cathodoluminescence (CL) using a scanning electron microscope. CL plane-view analysis reveals a distribution of defects, as misfit dislocations, in some of the structures. The luminescence bands observed in the GaSb layers are related to near band edge recombination and to an excess of Ga. In the case of AlGaSb/GaSb heterostructure emission bands related to the ternary compound and to donor-acceptor recombination are detected. In addition, with the aid of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), local electronic properties, such as conductance and surface energy gap, were studied in sample cross-sections. The results obtained from imaging and spectroscopy modes of STM enabled us to image the single AlGaSb layer

  19. Scanning tunneling microscope with long range lateral motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present our work on a recently built scanning tunneling microscope (STM), with coarse motion in two-dimensions. The tip of this STM can be translated a few millimeters in directions both parallel and perpendicular to the tip. This feature allows sampling of a larger area for experiments such as the study of how the electrical properties of charge density waves evolve between contacts, the proximity effect near a normal metal–superconducting interface, charge transport near the contact of a semiconductor interface, and for finding microscopically small samples like graphene. This STM is based on one of our previous one-dimensional designs. It utilizes orchestrated motion of six piezoelectric tubes in a slip–stick configuration in order to produce long range motion for the walker. This device is a single unit with a compact design making it very stable. It is stable enough to obtain atomic resolution on HOPG. It can operate in either a horizontal or vertical configuration and at cryogenic temperatures. It was designed entirely from non-magnetic materials for potential work in a magnetic field.

  20. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of phase change alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramaniam, Dinesh; Pauly, Christian; Pratzer, Marco; Liebmann, Marcus; Morgenstern, Markus [II. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Rausch, Pascal; Woda, Michael; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is a very promising candidate for the next generation of memories. In contrast to the standard Si-based RAM, PCRAM is a non-volatile storage system which exploits the high electrical contrast between the amorphous and the crystalline phase. However, the origin of this contrast is not well understood. Scanning tunneling microscopy gives insight into the local atomic structure and the electronic properties of phase change materials. Using the topography mode of STM, we realized images of Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} on the nanometer down to the atomic scale, revealing the morphology as well as the complex atomic arrangement of the sputter-deposited material. The spectroscopy mode enabled us to analyse the local density of states in the amorphous and crystalline phase. The band gap varied continuously from 0.5 eV in the amorphous phase to 0.2 eV in the crystalline phase. The Fermi level moved from the center of the gap in the amorphous phase into the valence band within the crystalline phase.

  1. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of phase change alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is a very promising candidate for the next generation of memories. In contrast to the standard Si-based RAM, PCRAM is a non-volatile storage system which exploits the high electrical contrast between the amorphous and the crystalline phase. However, the origin of this contrast is not well understood. Scanning tunneling microscopy gives insight into the local atomic structure and the electronic properties of phase change materials. Using the topography mode of STM, we realized images of Ge1Sb2Te4 on the nanometer down to the atomic scale, revealing the morphology as well as the complex atomic arrangement of the sputter-deposited material. The spectroscopy mode enabled us to analyse the local density of states in the amorphous and crystalline phase. The band gap varied continuously from 0.5 eV in the amorphous phase to 0.2 eV in the crystalline phase. The Fermi level moved from the center of the gap in the amorphous phase into the valence band within the crystalline phase.

  2. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Diamond Films and Optoelectronic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose M.

    1996-01-01

    We present a summary of the research, citations of publications resulting from the research and abstracts of such publications. We have made no inventions in the performance of the work in this project. The main goals of the project were to set up a Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond growth system attached to an UltraHigh Vacuum (UHV) atomic resolution Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) system and carry out experiments aimed at studying the properties and growth of diamond films using atomic resolution UHV STM. We successfully achieved these goals. We observed, for the first time, the atomic structure of the surface of CVD grown epitaxial diamond (100) films using UHV STM. We studied the effects of atomic hydrogen on the CVD diamond growth process. We studied the electronic properties of the diamond (100) (2x1) surface, and the effect of alkali metal adsorbates such as Cs on the work function of this surface using UHV STM spectroscopy techniques. We also studied, using STM, new electronic materials such as carbon nanotubes and gold nanostructures. This work resulted in four publications in refereed scientific journals and five publications in refereed conference proceedings.

  3. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy of Semiconductor Interfaces and Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur Reed

    In order to investigate the structural and electronic properties of semiconductor interfaces and alloys, the method of cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) has been employed. The prototypical MBE-grown AlGaAs/GaAs system has been used predominantly in this work. First, a comparison is made between microscopy and spectroscopy of samples prepared two different ways, namely (1) in-air cleavage followed immediately by ammonium sulfide passivation, and (2) ultra-high vacuum cleavage. These two methods are found to be complementary, the former providing the most useful electronic information and the latter essential for obtaining atomically-resolved structural information. The focus is then shifted to microscopy of clean surfaces prepared using only ultra-high vacuum cleavage. Studies of AlAs/GaAs short period superlattices examine the dependence of the interface formation on growth parameters such as interrupt time at the heterojunctions and substrate material. Regarding AlGaAs alloys, Al atoms appear mostly randomly distributed in the dilute (5% Al) alloy while for higher Al concentrations (20% or more), locally ordered regions are observed.

  4. Interpretation of scanning tunneling quasiparticle interference and impurity states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, Andreas; Choubey, P.; Berlijn, T.; Andersen, B. M.; Hirschfeld, P. J.

    2015-03-01

    We use a simple method of calculating inhomogeneous, atomic-scale phenomena in superconductors to obtain real-space conductance maps as measured in scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM). Our approach makes use of first principles Wannier functions in conjunction with self-consistent solutions of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations on a lattice to image superconducting phenomena. This method is a powerful tool since it captures correctly local symmetries on the surface that can be lower than the global lattice symmetry; it improves the spatial resolution from one pixel per lattice point to the sub-atomic scale; and simplifies the interpretation of STM data. As an example, we show how the pattern observed around a Zn impurity in BSCCO-2212, can be understood by accounting for the tails of the Cu Wannier functions, and thus compare perfectly to experimental findings. Further applications of this method include the investigation of impurity states in multiorbital systems as well as the study of quasi particle interference phenomena to enable a better understanding of novel phenomena in high temperature superconductors. P.C., A.K., and P.J.H. were supported by DOE DE-FG02-05ER46236, T.B. as a Wigner Fellow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and B.M.A. and A.K. by Lundbeckfond fellowship (Grant A9318).

  5. Evidence of s-Wave Subdominant Order Parameter in YBCO from Break Junction Tunneling Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Akimenko, A. I.; Bobba, F.; Giubileo, F.; Gudimenko, V.; Scarfato, A.; Cucolo, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    The tunneling spectra of YBa2Cu3O7 break-junctions have been investigated for the tunneling direction close to the node one. The zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) and Josephson current have been studied with temperature and magnetic field. The observed deep splitting of ZBCP which starts at Ts

  6. As-rich GaAs(001) surfaces observed during As4-irradition by scanning tunneling microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Tsukamoto, S; Orr, B G; Ohtake, A; Bell, G R; Koguchi, N; Tsukamoto, Shiro; Pristovsek, Markus; Orr, Bradford G.; Ohtake, Akihiro; Bell, Gavin R.; Koguchi, Nobuyuki

    2002-01-01

    As-rich GaAs (001) surfaces are successfully observed during As4-irradition by a system in which scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and molecular beam epitaxy can be performed simultaneously. With a substrate temperature of 440 C and an As4 partial pressure of 2x10-6 torr, reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns and reflectance anisotropy spectra confirm a c(4x4) As-stabilized surface. STM images clearly show alteration of the surface reconstructions while scanning. It is postulated that continual attachment / detachment of As molecules to and from the surface produces the observed dynamic behavior.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of scanning tunneling microscopy superconducting Nb tips having highly enhanced critical fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohen, A. [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR7588 au CNRS, Univ. Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)]. E-mail: kohen@gps.jussieu.fr; Noat, Y. [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR7588 au CNRS, Univ. Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Proslier, T. [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR7588 au CNRS, Univ. Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Lacaze, E. [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR7588 au CNRS, Univ. Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Aprili, M. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie en Lumiere Polarisee-CNRS ESPCI 10, rue Vauquelin 75005 Paris (France); Sacks, W. [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR7588 au CNRS, Univ. Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Roditchev, D. [Groupe de Physique des Solides, UMR7588 au CNRS, Univ. Paris 6 and Paris 7, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)

    2005-02-15

    We report a simple method for the fabrication of Niobium superconducting (SC) tips for scanning tunneling microscopy which allow atomic resolution. The tips, formed in situ by the mechanical breaking of a niobium wire, reveal a clear SC gap of 1.5 meV and a critical temperature T{sub c} = 9.2 {+-} 0.3 K, as deduced from Superconductor Insulator Normal metal (SIN) and Superconductor Insulator Superconductor (SIS) spectra. These match the values of bulk Nb samples. We systematically find an enhanced value of the critical magnetic field in which superconductivity in the tip is destroyed (around 1 T for some tips) up to five times larger than the critical field of bulk Nb (0.21 T). Such enhancement is attributed to a size effect at the tip apex.

  8. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy at surfaces of superconducting charge-transfer salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting materials based on organic charge-transfer salts are regarded as candidates for unconventional superconductors because their properties strongly deviate from the BCS theory, similar to the high-temperature superconductors. We study κ-[ET]2Cu[N(CN)2]Br-crystals. Previous measurements showed a surface contamination of the crystals. Because of that we developed an in-situ cleaving mechanism for the preparation of clean surfaces. Measurements on these cleaved crystals show an improved signal-to-noise ratio in the measured I(U) spectra and atomic flat surfaces in the topographic images (nanometer scale in the height profile). All investigations were done under UHV-conditions (5 . 10-11 mbar) using a scanning tunneling microscope at 5 K.

  9. The atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM) and scanning force (SFM) microscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM) and scanning force (SFM) microscopies. These analysis methods are based on different physical principles. Nevertheless, in all of them, a probe is situated at a few angstroms or at the direct contact of the studied sample and carries out a controlled scanning of the sample surface. Their physical principles and their running ways are described. Their potentialities and limits are given too. With these analysis methods, and more particularly with the AFM can be observed the crystal structure of isolated biological molecules and the tri dimensional structure of biological molecules which are inserted in artificial membranes. One of the future prospect of the AFM in biology is the direct observation of living cells. Indeed, it will offer the opportunity to follow, with time and in space, the individual cells behaviour and their morphological modifications. Others uses and developments of the AFM concerns the in situ analysis of mechanisms which govern the crystal growth or the direct viewing of a protein enzymatic activity. (O.M.). 37 refs., 7 figs

  10. 3D LASER SCANNING TECHNIQUE FOR THE INSPECTION AND MONITORING OF RAILWAY TUNNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Mei CHEN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Railway tunnel inspection and monitoring has predominantly been a visual and manual procedure, which is time-consuming and subjective, giving rise to variance in standards and quality. Thus, alternative, novel, automated techniques need to be developed, for more efficient and reliable tunnel examination. The reported research aimed to investigate the application of a laser scanning technique for the inspection of tunnel degradation and structural integrity. The proposed method may either substitute or supplement traditional survey techniques, being more efficient, and contributing thus to the standardisation of tunnel inspections. For the purpose of investigating the applicability and accuracy of laser scanning in tunnels, a set of tunnel lining models was constructed for laboratory tests, with the objective of determining the quality of the imaging. Initial tests were carried out using a performant laser scanner and demonstrated the feasibility of the concept. As a result, refined laboratory models were built, and experiments conducted, to establish the quality and precision of laser scanning imaging, for condition monitoring of tunnels. The experimental results indicate that the laser scanning technique used in this research has high potential for detecting the tunnel condition, monitoring the depth of weathered mortar, spalling bricks etc. with high accuracy in static scanning mode.

  11. Field emission characteristics of the scanning tunneling microscope for nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T.M.; Adams, D.P.; Marder, B.M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1413 (United States)

    1996-07-01

    We present a systematic study of the performance of scanning tunneling microscope (STM)-based, low energy electron beam lithography, using simulations of field emission from STM tips, emphasizing realistic conditions of tip geometry and operation. We calculate the potentials and electric field for a hemispherical model emitter in an axially symmetric system. Emission current density at the tip is calculated using the Fowler{endash}Nordheim equation, and current density at the sample is obtained by calculating trajectories of emitted electrons. We characterize the beam diameter at the sample as a function of emitter radius, tip{endash}sample bias, emission current, resist thickness, and tip work function. The beam diameter is primarily affected by the tip{endash}sample gap, increasing at larger gaps, characteristic of high bias and large tip curvature. For optimal tip radius the beam diameter increases linearly with bias from approximately 2 nm at 5 V to 25 nm at 50 V. Beam diameter is nearly independent of emission current over the range 0.05{endash}50 nA. Dielectric resist films cause an increase in beam diameter due to increased tip{endash}substrate gap. Beam diameter is very sensitive to tip work function, increasing dramatically for low work function tips. Tips comprised of asperities on flat surfaces produce significantly smaller beams compared to {open_quote}{open_quote}standard{close_quote}{close_quote} tips of the same emitter radius. However, for low bias ({lt}15 V) beam diameter becomes insensitive to tip geometry. We compare these simulations to selected experimental results to evaluate the limitations to performance and assess the feasibility of routine sub-10 nm structure fabrication using STM-based low energy electron beam lithography. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of glucose oxidase on gold surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Three immobilization methods have been used for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of glucose oxidase (GOD) on gold. They are based on a) physical adsorption from solution, b) microcontact printing and c) covalent bonding onto self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The STM images are used to provide information about the organization of individual GOD molecules and more densely packed monolayers of GOD on electrode surfaces, thus providing information of the role of interfacial structure on biosensor performance. The use of atomically flat gold substrates enables easy distinction of deposited enzyme features from the flat gold substrate. Microcontact printing is found to be a more reliable method than adsorption from solution for preparing individual GOD molecules on the gold surface STM images of printed samples reveal two different shapes of native GOD molecules. One is a butterfly shape with dimensions of 10 ± 1 nm x 6 ± 1 nm, assigned to the lying position of molecule while the second is an approximately spherical shape with dimensions of 6.5 ± 1 nm x 5 ± 1nm assigned to a standing position. Isolated clusters of 5 to 6 GOD molecules are also observed. With monolayer coverage, GOD molecules exhibit a tendency to organize themselves into a two dimensional array with adequate sample stability to obtain high-resolution STM images. Within these two-dimensional arrays are clearly seen repeating clusters of five to six enzyme molecules in a unit STM imaging of GOD monolayers covalently immobilized onto SAM (MPA) are considerably more difficult than when the enzyme is adsorbed directly onto the metal. Cluster structures are observed both high and low coverage despite the fact that native GOD is a negatively charged molecule. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of single wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoute, Jrme

    2010-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are fascinating candidates for fundamental studies of one dimensional materials as well as for future molecular electronics applications. Their electronic structure is directly linked to their chirality which controls their semiconducting of metallic character. The link between local electronic and atomic structure is a crucial parameter which can be investigated in detail by using Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS). STS measurements are dominated by a series of Van Hove singularities (VHS) which are usually successfully described by a tight-binding model. The energy position of these singularities and the related wavefunctions which can be seen as the molecular orbitals of CNTs are two fundamental characteristics of CNTs which will be discussed in details here. The experimental visualization of the wavefunctions associated to the VHS will be presented. They exhibit a symmetry breaking in semiconducting and metallic tubes which is well described by a tight-binding model. The energy position of the VHS will then be discussed in details. The recent experimental evidence of the major role of excitons in the optical transitions in CNTs has enlightened the importance of many-body effects in the electronic structure of CNTs. In STS experiments, the electronic gaps of semiconducting tubes supported by a metallic substrate are close to the optical transitions although STS is not sensitive to the excitons and should exhibit much larger VHS separation. We will discuss this issue and show the importance of many-body effects and tube-substrate interaction in the electronic bandgaps of semiconducting tubes.

  14. The study of transition metal surfaces and thin films with inverse photoemission and scanning tunnelling microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, L K

    1997-01-01

    clean Cr(001) and the thick films. This suggests that hybridisation between the substrate bands and the film bands and interface induced states are significant. The spectra taken from sub-monolayer coverages of Fe show marked intensity increase at the Fermi energy, this is a feature of LDOS calculations on Fe atoms at the Fe/Cr interface. Fe growth on surfaces of Cu(100) precovered with c(2x2)N has been studied with scanning tunnelling microscopy. The images show that the Fe does not grow on areas covered with nitrogen. Two different c(2x2)N templates have been used and the shape and size of the Fe islands is seen to be altered. The unoccupied electronic states at the surface of Cr(001) have been observed using k-resolved inverse photoemission. Normal incidence IPE spectra have been taken over a range of incident electron energies (14-24 eV). The spectra show only small variation with incident energy, this is attributed to densities of states effects due to the absence of symmetry allowed initial states at th...

  15. Scanning tunneling microscopy III theory of STM and related scanning probe methods

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1993-01-01

    While the first two volumes on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and its related scanning probe (SXM) methods have mainly concentrated on intro­ ducing the experimental techniques, as well as their various applications in different research fields, this third volume is exclusively devoted to the theory of STM and related SXM methods. As the experimental techniques including the reproducibility of the experimental results have advanced, more and more theorists have become attracted to focus on issues related to STM and SXM. The increasing effort in the development of theoretical concepts for STM/SXM has led to considerable improvements in understanding the contrast mechanism as well as the experimental conditions necessary to obtain reliable data. Therefore, this third volume on STM/SXM is not written by theorists for theorists, but rather for every scientist who is not satisfied by just obtaining real­ space images of surface structures by STM/SXM. After a brief introduction (Chap. 1), N. D. Lang first co...

  16. Spectroscopy of surface adsorbed molecules (scanning tunneling microscopy). Progress report, May 1, 1985-April 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the scanning tunneling microscopy program is given. This article contains a description of the design and fabrication of the microscope in addition to description of studies which use the microscope: studies of charge-density waves and studies of tunnel junctions doped with metals and semiconductors. 48 refs., 26 figs

  17. Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopic Studies of Dirac Fermions in Graphene and Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    wang K.-L.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report novel properties derived from scanning tunnelling spectroscopic (STS studies of Dirac fermions in graphene and the surface state (SS of a strong topological insulator (STI, Bi2Se3. For mono-layer graphene grown on Cu by chemical vapour deposition (CVD, strain-induced scalar and gauge potentials are manifested by the charging effects and the tunnelling conductance peaks at quantized energies, respectively. Additionally, spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking is evidenced by the alternating anti-localization and localization spectra associated with the zero-mode of two sublattices while global time-reversal symmetry is preserved under the presence of pseudo-magnetic fields. For Bi2Se3 epitaxial films grown on Si(111 by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE, spatially localized unitary impurity resonances with sensitive dependence on the energy difference between the Fermi level and the Dirac point are observed for samples thicker than 6 quintuple layers (QL. These findings are characteristic of the SS of a STI and are direct manifestation of strong topological protection against impurities. For samples thinner than 6-QL, STS studies reveal the openup of an energy gap in the SS due to overlaps of wave functions between the surface and interface layers. Additionally, spin-preserving quasiparticle interference wave-vectors are observed, which are consistent with the Rashba-like spin-orbit splitting.

  18. Surface confined metallosupramolecular architectures: formation and scanning tunneling microscopy characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan-Shan; Northrop, Brian H; Yuan, Qun-Hui; Wan, Li-Jun; Stang, Peter J

    2009-02-17

    Metallosupramolecular compounds have attracted a great deal of attention over the past two decades largely because of their unique, highly complex structural characteristics and their potential electronic, magnetic, optical, and catalytic properties. These molecules can be prepared with relative ease using coordination-driven self-assembly techniques. In particular, the use of electron-poor square-planar Pt(II) transition metals in conjunction with rigid, electron-rich pyridyl donors has enabled the spontaneous self-assembly of a rich library of 2D metallacyclic and 3D metallacage assemblies via the directional-bonding approach. With this progress in the preparation and characterization of metallosupramolecules, researchers have now turned their attention toward fully exploring and developing their materials properties. Assembling metallosupramolecular compounds on solid supports represents a vitally important step toward developing their materials properties. Surfaces provide a means of uniformly aligning and orienting these highly symmetric metallacycles and metallacages. This uniformity increases the level of coherence between molecules above that which can be achieved in the solution phase and provides a way to integrate adsorbed layers, or adlayers, into a solid-state materials setting. The dynamic nature of kinetically labile Pt(II)-N coordination bonds requires us to adjust deposition and imaging conditions to retain the assemblies' stability. Toward these aims, we have used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to image these adlayers and to understand the factors that govern surface self-assembly and the interactions that influence their structure and stability. This Account describes our efforts to deposit 2D rectangular and square metallacycles and 3D trigonal bipyramidal and chiral trigonal prism metallacages on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and Au(111) substrates to give intact assemblies and ordered adlayers. We have investigated the effects of varying the size, symmetry, and dimensionality of supramolecular adsorbates, the choice of substrate, the use of a molecular template, and the effects of chirality. Our systematic investigations provide insights into the various adsorbate-adsorbate and substrate-adsorbate interactions that largely determine the architecture of each assembly and affect their performance in a materials setting. Rational control over adlayer formation and structure will greatly enhance the potential of these supramolecules to be used in a variety of applications such as host-guest sensing/diagnostic systems, molecular electronic devices, and heterogeneous stereoselective synthesis and catalysis. PMID:19072706

  19. Development of a Millikelvin dual-tip Josephson scanning tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Anita

    In this thesis, I first describe the design and construction of a dual-tip millikelvin STM system. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and the setup includes vibration isolation, rf-filtered wiring, an ultra high vacuum (UHV) sample preparation chamber and sample transfer mechanism. Next I describe a novel superconducting tip fabrication technique. My technique involves dry-etching sections of 250 mum diameter Nb wire with an SF6 plasma in a reactive ion etcher. I present data taken with these tips on various samples at temperatures ranging from 30 mK to 9 K. My results demonstrate that the tips are superconducting, achieve good spectroscopic energy resolution, are mechanically robust over long time periods, and are atomically sharp. I also show data characterizing the performance of our system. This data is in the form of atomic resolution images, spectroscopy, noise spectra and simultaneous scans taken with both tips of the STM. I used these to examine the tip-sample stability, cross talk between the two tips, and to extract the effective noise temperature (˜185 mK) of the sample by fitting the spectroscopy data to a voltage noise model. Finally, I present spectroscopy data taken with a Nb tip on a Nb(100) sample at 30 mK. The enhanced spectroscopic resolution at this temperature allowed me to resolve peaks in the fluctuation-dominated supercurrent at sub-gap voltages. My analysis indicates that these peaks are due to the incoherent tunneling of Cooper pairs at resonant frequencies of the STM's electromagnetic environment. By measuring the response of the STM junction to microwaves, I identified the charge carriers in this regime as Cooper pairs with charge 2e. The amplitude of the response current scales as the square of the Bessel functions, indicating that the pair tunneling originates from photon assisted tunneling in the incoherent regime, rather than the more conventionally observed Shapiro steps in the coherent regime.

  20. First-principles theory of inelastic currents in a scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Thirstrup, C.; Xie, X.C.

    1998-01-01

    A first-principles theory of inelastic tunneling between a model probe tip and an atom adsorbed on a surface is presented, extending the elastic tunneling theory of Tersoff and Hamann. The inelastic current is proportional to the change in the local density of states at the center of the tip due to...... the addition of the adsorbate. We use the theory to investigate the vibrational heating of an adsorbate below a scanning tunneling microscopy tip. We calculate the desorption rate of PI from Si(100)-H(2 X 1) as a function of the sample bias and tunnel current, and find excellent a,agreement with...

  1. New approach towards imaging -DNA using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shirshendu Dey; Sushama Pethkar; Suguna D Adyanthaya; Murali Sastry; C V Dharmadhikari

    2008-06-01

    A new methodology to anchor -DNA to silanized -Si(111) surface using Langmuir Blodget trough was developed. The -Si (111) was silanized by treating it with low molecular weight octyltrichlorosilane in toluene. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) image of -DNA on octyltrichlorosilane deposited Si substrate shows areas exhibiting arrayed structures of 700 nm length and 40 nm spacing. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) at different stages depict a broad distribution of defect states in the bandgap region of -Si(111) which presumably facilitates tunneling through otherwise insulating DNA layer.

  2. Imaging of buried phosphorus nanostructures in silicon using scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, Lars [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); TOTAL Marketing Services, New Energies, La Dfense 10, 92069 Paris La Dfense Cedex (France); Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Hallam, Toby; Simmons, Michelle Y., E-mail: n.curson@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Schofield, Steven R. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Curson, Neil J., E-mail: n.curson@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate the locating and imaging of single phosphorus atoms and phosphorus dopant nanostructures, buried beneath the Si(001) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. The buried dopant nanostructures have been fabricated in a bottom-up approach using scanning tunneling microscope lithography on Si(001). We find that current imaging tunneling spectroscopy is suited to locate and image buried nanostructures at room temperature and with residual surface roughness present. From these studies, we can place an upper limit on the lateral diffusion during encapsulation with low-temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy.

  3. Imaging of buried phosphorus nanostructures in silicon using scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the locating and imaging of single phosphorus atoms and phosphorus dopant nanostructures, buried beneath the Si(001) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. The buried dopant nanostructures have been fabricated in a bottom-up approach using scanning tunneling microscope lithography on Si(001). We find that current imaging tunneling spectroscopy is suited to locate and image buried nanostructures at room temperature and with residual surface roughness present. From these studies, we can place an upper limit on the lateral diffusion during encapsulation with low-temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy.

  4. Electronic structure and tunneling resonance spectra of nanoscopic aluminum islands

    OpenAIRE

    Narvaez, Gustavo A.; Kirczenow, George

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of nanoscopic oxide-coated aluminum islands is investigated using a tight-binding model that incorporates the geometry, chemistry and disorder of the particle. The oxide coat is found to significantly increase the volume accessible to electrons at the Fermi level. The level statistics agree with random matrix theory predictions. States near the Fermi level show pronounced clustering regardless of disorder. It is suggested that the observed clusters of tunneling resona...

  5. Development of micro-four-point probe in a scanning tunneling microscope for in situ electrical transport measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Jian-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Gao, Chun-Lei; Qian, Dong; Liu, Canhua, E-mail: canhualiu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jfjia@sjtu.edu.cn; Jia, Jin-Feng, E-mail: canhualiu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jfjia@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Electrons at surface may behave differently from those in bulk of a material. Multi-functional tools are essential in comprehensive studies on a crystal surface. Here, we developed an in situ microscopic four-point probe (4PP) transport measurement system on the basis of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). In particular, convenient replacement between STM tips and micro-4PPs enables systematic investigations of surface morphology, electronic structure, and electrical transport property of a same sample surface. Performances of the instrument are demonstrated with high-quality STM images, tunneling spectra, and low-noise electrical I-V characteristic curves of a single-layer FeSe film grown on a conductive SrTiO{sub 3} surface.

  6. Development of micro-four-point probe in a scanning tunneling microscope for in situ electrical transport measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Long; Gao, Chun-Lei; Qian, Dong; Liu, Canhua; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Electrons at surface may behave differently from those in bulk of a material. Multi-functional tools are essential in comprehensive studies on a crystal surface. Here, we developed an in situ microscopic four-point probe (4PP) transport measurement system on the basis of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). In particular, convenient replacement between STM tips and micro-4PPs enables systematic investigations of surface morphology, electronic structure, and electrical transport property of a same sample surface. Performances of the instrument are demonstrated with high-quality STM images, tunneling spectra, and low-noise electrical I-V characteristic curves of a single-layer FeSe film grown on a conductive SrTiO3 surface.

  7. Development of micro-four-point probe in a scanning tunneling microscope for in situ electrical transport measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrons at surface may behave differently from those in bulk of a material. Multi-functional tools are essential in comprehensive studies on a crystal surface. Here, we developed an in situ microscopic four-point probe (4PP) transport measurement system on the basis of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). In particular, convenient replacement between STM tips and micro-4PPs enables systematic investigations of surface morphology, electronic structure, and electrical transport property of a same sample surface. Performances of the instrument are demonstrated with high-quality STM images, tunneling spectra, and low-noise electrical I-V characteristic curves of a single-layer FeSe film grown on a conductive SrTiO3 surface

  8. Spin polarised scanning tunneling probe for helical Luttinger liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sourin; Rao, Sumathi

    2010-01-01

    We propose a three terminal spin polarized stm setup for probing the helical nature of the Luttinger liquid edge state that appears in the quantum spin Hall system. We show that the three-terminal tunneling conductance strongly depends on the angle ($\\theta$) between the magnetization direction of the tip and the local orientation of the electron spin on the edge while the two terminal conductance is independent of this angle. We demonstrate that chiral injection of an electron into the helic...

  9. Local imaging of high mobility two-dimensional electron systems with virtual scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelliccione, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Bartel, J.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Sciambi, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    Correlated electron states in high mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs), including charge density waves and microemulsion phases intermediate between a Fermi liquid and Wigner crystal, are predicted to exhibit complex local charge order. Existing experimental studies, however, have mainly probed these systems at micron to millimeter scales rather than directly mapping spatial organization. Scanning probes should be well-suited to study the spatial structure of these states, but high mobility 2DESs are found at buried semiconductor interfaces, beyond the reach of conventional scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning techniques based on electrostatic coupling to the 2DES deliver important insights, but generally with resolution limited by the depth of the 2DES. In this letter, we present our progress in developing a technique called virtual scanning tunneling microscopy that allows local tunneling into a high mobility 2DES. Using a specially designed bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the tunnel coupling between two separate 2DESs is tunable via electrostatic gating, combined with a scanning gate, we show that the local tunneling can be controlled with sub-250?nm resolution.

  10. CT-scanning study of cross-sectional area of the carpal tunnel in cases of carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross-sectional area, transverse and anteroposterior diameter of the carpal tunnel were investigated by CT scanning in 68 cases of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and in 100 normal controls of both sexes. The cross-sectional areas of the carpal tunnel in idiopathic CTS of both sexes were significantly smaller, whereas those in secondary CTS were larger than in normal controls. In female wrists with idiopathic CTS narrowing of distal carpal tunnel was attributed to short transverse diameter in wrists with normally shaped hook of the hamate, or to decreased anteroposterior diameter in wrists with abnormally short hook of the hamate. The smallest cross-sectional area in both types of CTS and in normal controls is located at the proximal border of distal carpal tunnel (D 1 level). This coincides with the thickest portion of the flexor retinaculum and, together with our operative findings, supports the conclusion that the essential compression on the median nerve takes place at the D 1 level in idiopathic CTS. (author)

  11. Visualizing electron correlation by means of ab-initio scanning tunneling spectroscopy images of single molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Toroz, Dimitrios; Rontani, Massimo; Corni, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been a fundamental tool to characterize many-body effects in condensed matter systems, from extended solids to quantum dots. STM of molecules decoupled from the supporting conductive substrate has the potential to extend STM characterization of many body effects to the molecular world as well. In this article, we describe a many-body tunneling theory for molecules decoupled from the STM substrate, and we report on the use of standard quantum chemical me...

  12. Effects of temperature and other experimental variables on single molecule vibrational spectroscopy with the scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) was performed on single molecules with a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The peak intensity, width, position, and line shape of single molecule vibrational spectra were studied as a function of temperature, modulation bias, bias polarity, and tip position for the (C--H,C--D) stretching vibration of acetylene (C2H2,C2D2) on Cu(001). The temperature broadening of vibrational peaks was found to be a consequence of Fermi smearing as in macroscopic IETS. The modulation broadening of vibrational peaks assumed the expected form for IETS. Extrapolation of the peak width to zero temperature and modulation suggested an intrinsic width of ?4 meV due primarily to instrumental broadening. The inelastic tunneling cross section at negative bias was reduced by a factor of 1.7 for the C--H stretch mode. Low energy modes of other molecules did not show such a reduction. There was no evidence of a tip-induced Stark shift in the peak positions. The spatial variation of the inelastic signal was measured to determine the junction stability necessary for the acquisition of single molecule vibrational spectra

  13. The Kondo effect of an adatom in graphene and its scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the Kondo effect of a single magnetic adatom on the surface of graphene. The unique linear dispersion relation near the Dirac points in graphene makes it easier for the magnetic atom to form a local magnetic moment, which simply means that the Kondo resonance can be observed in a wider parameter region than in the metallic host. Our study indicates that the Kondo resonance, whenever the chemical potential is tuned away from the Dirac points, can indeed occur ranging from the Kondo regime, to the mixed valence, even to the empty orbital regime defined in the conventional metal host. While the Kondo resonance appears as a sharp peak in the Kondo regime, it has a peak-dip structure and/or an anti-resonance in the mixed valence and empty orbital regimes, which result from the Fano resonance due to the significant background due to dramatic broadening of the impurity level in graphene. We also study the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) spectra of the adatom and they show obvious particlehole asymmetry when the chemical potential is tuned by the gate voltages applied to the graphene. Finally, we explore the influence of the direct tunneling channel between the STM tip and the graphene on the Kondo resonance and find that the lineshape of the Kondo resonance is unaffected, which can be attributed to an unusually large asymmetry factor in graphene. Our study indicates that graphene is an ideal platform to systematically study Kondo physics and these results are useful to further stimulate relevant experimental studies on the system. (paper)

  14. Oxidation of a Single Carbon Monoxide Molecule Manipulated and Induced with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon monoxide molecule (CO) was positioned with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at various distances from an oxygen atom (O) on the Ag(110) surface at 13K. At the closest separation, carbon dioxide (CO2) production was induced by tunneling electrons. Direct reaction of a CO desorbed from the STM tip with an O atom on Ag(110) illustrates another catalytic oxidation mechanism. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy with the STM was used to monitor the vibrations of CO in its different environment

  15. Effects of the finite duration of quantum tunneling in laser-assisted scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous measurements of tunnel conductance in heterostructures and experiments with Josephson junctions suggest quantum tunneling has a definite duration. The authors use semiclassical methods to determine the effects of this delay on the tunneling current in a laser-assisted STM. A planar-planar STM model is used with the exact multiple image potential, and the energy distribution for a free-electron metal. It is necessary to average over the phase at barrier entry, and iteration with back propagated solutions is required to obtain the transmission coefficients for evenly spaced phases and specified energies at barrier entry. The simulations suggest that the dependence of the tunneling current on the wavelength of illumination can serve as a basis for determining the duration of barrier traversal. A power flux density of 1011 W/m2 would be required at several wavelengths from 1 to 10 μm. It is possible that thermal effects could be separated from the modeled phenomena by determining the time dependence of the tunneling current with a pulsed laser

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy I general principles and applications to clean and adsorbate-covered surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesendanger, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy I provides a unique introduction to a novel and fascinating technique that produces beautiful images of nature on an atomic scale. It is the first of three volumes that together offer a comprehensive treatment of scanning tunneling microscopy, its diverse applications, and its theoretical treatment. In this volume the reader will find a detailed description of the technique itself and of its applications to metals, semiconductors, layered materials, adsorbed molecules and superconductors. In addition to the many representative results reviewed, extensive references to original work will help to make accessible the vast body of knowledge already accumulated in this field.

  17. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of CdSe nanocrystals covalently bound to GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walzer, K.; Marx, E.; Greenham, N.C.; Stokbro, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    We present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements of CdSe nanocrystals covalently attached to doped GaAs substrates using monolayers of 1,6-hexanedithiol. STM measurements showed the formation of stable, densely packed, homogeneous monolayers of...... nanocrystals. STS measurements showed rectifying behaviour, with high currents at the opposite sample bias to that previously observed for CdSe nanocrystals adsorbed on Si substrates. We explain the rectifying behaviour by considering the interaction between the electronic states of the nanocrystals and the...

  18. Thin films of metal oxides on metal single crystals: Structure and growth by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies of the growth and structure of thin films of metal oxides grown on metal single crystal surfaces using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) are presented. The oxide overlayer systems studied are iron oxide and titanium oxide on the Pt(III) surface. The complexity of the metal oxides and large lattice mismatches often lead to surface structures with large unit cells. These are particularly suited to a local real space technique such as scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the symmetry that is directly observed with the STM elucidates the relationship of the oxide overlayers to the substrate as well as distinguishing, the structures of different oxides

  19. Scanning tunneling microscopy of initial nitridation processes on oxidized Si(100) surface with radical nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, R; Ikeda, H; Sakashita, M; Sakai, A; Yasuda, Y; Nakatsuka, O; Zaima, S

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the initial nitridation processes on oxidized Si(100) with radical nitrogen at a substrate temperature of 850degC using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). It is found that the thin oxide layer suppresses the changes of original Si step structures during nitridation, and this effect critically depends on the growth conditions of the oxide layer. Comparison of the nitride island morphology to the case of the clean surface suggests that the migration of the precursor during nitridation is suppressed by the oxygen in the layer. (author)

  20. Three-dimensional laser scanning for geometry documentation and construction management of highway tunnels during excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered. PMID:23112655

  1. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Gikas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered.

  2. Construction of a four tip scanning tunneling microscope/scanning electron microscope combination and conductivity measurements of silicide nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the combination of a four-tip scanning tunneling microscope with a scanning electron microscope is presented. By means of this apparatus it is possible to perform the conductivity measurements on the in-situ prepared nanostructures in ultra-high vacuum. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), it becomes possible to position the tunneling tips of the four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM), so that an arrangement for a four-point probe measurement on nanostructures can be obtained. The STM head was built according to the novel coaxial Beetle concept. This concept allows on the one hand, a very compact arrangement of the components of the STM and on the other hand, the new-built STM head has a good mechanical stability, in order to achieve atomic resolution with all four STM units. The atomic resolution of the STM units was confirmed by scanning a Si(111)-7 x 7 surface. The thermal drift during the STM operation, as well as the resonant frequencies of the mechanical structure of the STM head, were determined. The scanning electron microscope allows the precise and safe navigation of the tunneling tips on the sample surface. Multi tip spectroscopy with up to four STM units can be performed synchronously. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new-built apparatus the conductivity measurements were carried out on metallic yttrium silicide nanowires. The nanowires were prepared by the in-situ deposition of yttrium on a heated Si(110) sample surface. Current-voltage curves were recorded on the nanowires and on the wetting layer in-between. The curves indicate an existence of the Schottky barrier between the yttrium silicide nanowires and the silicon bulk. By means of the two-tip measurements with a gate, the insulating property of the Schottky barrier has been confirmed. Using this Schottky barrier, it is possible to limit the current to the nanowire and to prevent it from flowing through the silicon bulk. A four-tip resistance measurement with a gate has provided the resistance of the nanowire. From the dimensions of the nanowire the resistivity was calculated. The obtained resistivity was found to be in agreement with literature values. In addition, the contact resistances of the tunneling tips on the silicide nanowires were determined.

  3. Light amplification by stimulated emission from an optically pumped molecular junction in a scanning tunneling microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, K; Wang, X; Adler, H; Peisert, H; Chasse, T; Zhang, D; Meixner, A J

    2013-01-01

    Here, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate optical amplification and stimulated emission from a single optically pumped molecular tunneling junction of a scanning tunneling microscope. The gap between a sharp gold tip and a flat gold substrate covered with a self-assembled monolayer of 5-chloro-2-mercaptobenzothiazole molecules forms an extremely small optical gain medium. When electrons tunnel from the molecules highest occupied molecular orbital to the tip, holes are left behind. These can be repopulated by hot electrons induced by the laser-driven plasmon oscillation on the metal surfaces enclosing the cavity. Solving the laser-rate equations for this system shows that the repopulation process can be efficiently stimulated by the gap modes near field, TERS scattering from neighboring molecules acting as an optical seed. Our results demonstrate how optical enhancement inside the plasmonic cavity can be further increased by a stronger localization via tunneling through molecules. We anticipate that st...

  4. Correlation of scanning-tunneling-microscope image profiles and charge-density-wave amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning-tunneling-microscope (STM) studies of 4Hb-TaS2 and 4Hb-TaSe2 at 4.2 K show systematic correlation between the charge-density-wave (CDW) amplitude and the STM deflection. The 4Hb phases have both weak and strong CDW's in the trigonal prismatic and octahedral sandwiches, respectively. Scans on opposite faces of the same cleave allow a comparison of the STM response to the two types of CDW

  5. Spin-sensitive tunneling through individual terbium-phthalocyanine molecules by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terbium-Phthalocyanine double-decker molecules (TbPc2) belong to the class of single-molecule magnets, which could serve as the smallest building blocks of future information technology devices such as for quantum computers and data storage. Because of its high blocking temperature (>10 K), TbPc2 attracted considerable interests in recent years. Here, we locally address TbPc2 adsorbed on a ferromagnetic surface (Co nanoislands) with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. We detect a significant spin contrast by tunneling through TbPc2 molecules with intramolecular resolution. Thereby, the spin-polarization depends on the energy and the position within the molecule. We present our experimental data and discuss the origin of the magnetic contrast observed.

  6. Visible Light Emission from Atomic Scale Patterns Fabricated by the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, C.; Sakurai, M.; Stokbro, Kurt; Aono, M.

    1999-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) induced light emission from artificial atomic scale structures comprising silicon dangling bonds on hydrogen-terminated Si(001) surfaces has been mapped spatially and analyzed spectroscopically in the visible spectral range. The light emission is based on a nov...

  7. Local investigation of magnetic structures in superconductors by a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low temperature scanning tunneling microscope device was constructed which allows a simultaneous spectroscopic and morphological measurement up to 4.2 K and 1T. Layers of niobium and NbSe2 were measured and flux lines were determined. (WL)

  8. Spatio-temporal imaging of voltage pulses with an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Hvam, Jrn Mrcher

    1997-01-01

    Measurements on an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope with simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution are presented. We show images of picosecond pulses propagating on a coplanar waveguide and resolve their mode structures. The influence of transmission line discontinuities on the mode...... affect the imaging of the propagating pulses. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  9. First-principles modelling of scanning tunneling microscopy using non-equilibrium Green's functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, H.P.; Rauba, J.M.C.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Simmons, M.Y.; Hofer, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of electron transport processes in nano-scale architectures plays a crucial role in the development of surface chemistry and nano-technology. Experimentally, an important driving force within this research area has been the concurrent refinements of scanning tunneling microscopy...

  10. A development in the preparation of sharp scanning tunneling microscopy tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, J. P.; Pryds, N. H.; Glejbøl, K.; Mørch, Knud Aage; Thölén, A. R.; Christensen, Lars Nygaard

    1993-01-01

    An improved and reliable method for making sharp scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips is described. It is based on the widely used drop-off electrochemical etching procedure, here modified to improve the control of the tip shape. A second etching is applied not only to remove the oxide layer...

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy in TTF-TCNQ: Phase and amplitude modulated charge density waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.Z.; Gorard, J.C.; Pasquier, C.; Jerome, D.; Bechgaard, K.

    2003-01-01

    Charge density waves (CDWs) have been studied at the surface of a cleaved tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) single crystal using a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, between 300 and 33 K with molecular resolution. All CDW ph...

  12. Cytochrome C Dynamics at Gold and Glassy Carbon Surfaces Monitored by in Situ Scanning Tunnel Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Møller, Per; Pedersen, Marianne Vind; Ulstrup, Jens

    We have investigated the absorption of cytochrome c on gold and glassy carbon substrates by in situ scanning tunnel microscopy under potentiostatic control of both substrate and tip. Low ionic strength and potential ranges where no Faradaic current flows were used. Cyt c aggregates into flat...

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of thin foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Besenbacher, Flemming; Garnaes, Jorgen; Laegsgaard, Erik; Stensgaard, I.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements of x-ray mirrors are presented. The x-ray mirrors are 0.3 mm thick dip-lacquered aluminum foils coated with gold by evaporation, as well as state-of-the-art polished surfaces coated with gold, platinum, or iridium. The measurements...

  14. Pulse Plating on Gold Surfaces Studied by In Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1994-01-01

    Deposition of bulk copper on thin film gold surfaces is carried out by computer-aided pulse plating. It is demonstrated that the morphology of the copper deposit can be studied by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy both in potentiostatic experiments and in galvanostatic experiments. Optimized...

  15. Scanning tunnelling microscopy of real time defect motion on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Interface Physics group uses various types of Scanning Probe Microscopy to investigate the structure and dynamic behaviour of surfaces and interfaces. Topics that they are working on at present include surface diffusion, surface phase transitions, gas-surface interactions, nanotribology, and nanobiology. For example, from accurate measurements of the statistics of the observed jump lengths and of the waiting times between successive jumps, it has been deduced that the mobility of indium atoms on a copper surface is caused by the rapid, two-dimensional diffusion of a very low density of monatomic vacancies (missing copper atoms), through the first copper layer. Due to their ultrahigh diffusion rate, these vacancies remain 'invisible' for the STM at room temperature. It is important to realize that the slide-puzzle diffusion mechanism is also active when there is no embedded indium in the copper surface. The indium merely serves as a low density of 'tracer' particles, which enable us to follow the rearrangements continually taking place in the surface. What we learn from these observations is that not only adatoms, but also the atoms in a close-packed terrace of a metal surface are mobile at relatively low temperatures, e.g. room temperature. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  16. Tunneling conductance spectra of a metal/ferromagnet junction within a two-band model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a theory based on a scattering matrix approach to explain the tunneling spectroscopy of a metal/ferromagnet junction. The isotropic one-band free electron model was used to describe the energy dispersion relation of the electrons in a metal layer, while two-band approximation was used to examine the electronic dispersion relation within the ferromagnetic material. s-band and d-band coupling were considered using the two-band approximation. In this work, interfacial spin-flip scattering was neglected. The energy dispersion and tunneling conductance spectra were calculated to study the effect of the coupling strength between the two bands. With no coupling, the energy band will have the crossing point between the bands. In contrast, a gap is opened up at the crossing points. It was found that the size of the gap depends on the coupling strength. Some kinks occurred in the energy band corresponding to the crossing points. The rich features of conductance spectra occurring in the metallic regime have the effects more significant than those occurring in the tunneling regime. In both regimes the conductance spectrum becomes largest if the effective mass of free electrons in the majority of the bands in the ferromagnetic material is approximately in the same order as that of the free electrons in metals. - Highlights: ► Tunneling conductance spectra of two-band ferromagnet/superconductor are calculated. ► s-band and d-band of ferromagnet are mixed. ► The conductance spectra consist of several kinks, depending on the coupling strength. ► Two-band ferromagnet model is very essential.

  17. Effect of resonating paramagnetic centers on the current of the scanning tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioli, R.; Helman, J. S.

    1995-09-01

    We evaluate the amplitude of the Larmor frequency component of the scanning tunneling microscope current induced by a single resonating spin, in a model in which the tunneling barrier is modulated via spin-orbit interaction. From Kramer's theorem follows, however, that the barrier-height modulation cannot have Larmor components and such components in the current are caused by its nonlinear dependence with the barrier height. We obtain an effect which is five orders of magnitude smaller than that reported by Y. Manassen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2531 (1989)].

  18. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of the vortex state in NbSe2 using a superconducting tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vortex electronic structure in the multiband superconductor NbSe2 is studied by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) using a superconducting tip. The use of a superconducting tip (Pb) as a probe provides an enhancement of the different features related to the DOS of NbSe2 in the tunneling conductance curves. This use allows the observation of rich patterns of electronic states in the conductance images around the vortex cores in a wide range of temperature, as well as the simultaneous acquisition of Josephson current images in the vortex state

  19. Superconducting LiFeAs as seen by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the entire class of iron-based superconductors the material LiFeAs is of particular interest since an absence of nesting between electron and hole pockets suggests an unconventional type of pairing in this material. Using Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) and Spectroscopy (STS) we investigate topographic properties of the surface as well as the temperature dependency of the superconducting gap. The good agreement of our results with model calculations for the tunnelling conductance allows us to draw conclusions about the low energy properties of the superconducting system. Furthermore, we compare our results with Transport- and NMR-measurements.

  20. A Mechanism for Cutting Carbon Nanotubes with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Angel; Apell, S. Peter; Venema, Liesbeth C.; Dekker, Cees

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the local cutting of single-walled carbon nanotubes by a voltage pulse to the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. The tip voltage ($\\mid V \\mid \\ge $~3.8 eV) is the key physical quantity in the cutting process. After reviewing several possible physical mechanisms we conclude that the cutting process relies on the weakening of the carbon-carbon bonds through a combination of localized particle-hole excitations induced by inelastically tunneling electrons and elastic deformation ...

  1. Interaction of phosphine with Si(100) from core-level photoemission and real-time scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate the interaction of phosphine (PH3) on the Si(100)-2x1 surface at temperatures between 635 and 900 K. The hydrogen desorption, growth mode, surface morphology, and chemical composition and ordering of the surface layer are examined by synchrotron radiation core-level photoemission and real-time high-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The P 2p core-level spectra indicate that decomposition of PHn is complete above ∼550 K and the maximum P coverage is strongly influenced by the growth temperature, which governs the coverage of H-terminated sites. The scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images taken at real time during PH3 exposure indicate that a surface phosphorus atom readily and randomly displaces one Si atom from the substrate. The ejected Si diffuses, nucleates, and incorporates itself into islands or step edges, leading to similar growth behavior as that found in Si chemical vapor deposition. Line defects both perpendicular and parallel to the dimer rows are observed on the nearly P-saturated surface. Perpendicular line defects act as a strain relief mechanism. Parallel line defects result from growth kinetics. STM images also indicate that incorporating a small amount of phosphorus eliminates the line defects in the Si(100)-2xn surface

  2. Combined frequency modulated atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy detection for multi-tip scanning probe microscopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Ireneusz; Spiegelberg, Richard; Korte, Stefan; Voigtlnder, Bert

    2015-12-01

    A method which allows scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip biasing independent of the sample bias during frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) operation is presented. The AFM sensor is supplied by an electronic circuit combining both a frequency shift signal and a tunneling current signal by means of an inductive coupling. This solution enables a control of the tip potential independent of the sample potential. Individual tip biasing is specifically important in order to implement multi-tip STM/AFM applications. An extensional quartz sensor (needle sensor) with a conductive tip is applied to record simultaneously topography and conductivity of the sample. The high resonance frequency of the needle sensor (1 MHz) allows scanning of a large area of the surface being investigated in a reasonably short time. A recipe for the amplitude calibration which is based only on the frequency shift signal and does not require the tip being in contact is presented. Additionally, we show spectral measurements of the mechanical vibration noise of the scanning system used in the investigations.

  3. Combined frequency modulated atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy detection for multi-tip scanning probe microscopy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, Ireneusz [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-3) and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland); Spiegelberg, Richard; Korte, Stefan; Voigtländer, Bert [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-3) and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A method which allows scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip biasing independent of the sample bias during frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) operation is presented. The AFM sensor is supplied by an electronic circuit combining both a frequency shift signal and a tunneling current signal by means of an inductive coupling. This solution enables a control of the tip potential independent of the sample potential. Individual tip biasing is specifically important in order to implement multi-tip STM/AFM applications. An extensional quartz sensor (needle sensor) with a conductive tip is applied to record simultaneously topography and conductivity of the sample. The high resonance frequency of the needle sensor (1 MHz) allows scanning of a large area of the surface being investigated in a reasonably short time. A recipe for the amplitude calibration which is based only on the frequency shift signal and does not require the tip being in contact is presented. Additionally, we show spectral measurements of the mechanical vibration noise of the scanning system used in the investigations.

  4. EDITORIAL: Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science Three decades of scanning tunnelling microscopy that changed the course of surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra Rao, M. S.; Margaritondo, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    Three decades ago, with a tiny tip of platinum, the scientific world saw the real space imaging of single atoms with unprecedented spatial resolution. This signalled the birth of one of the most versatile surface probes, based on the physics of quantum mechanical tunnelling: the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). Invented in 1981 by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer of IBM, Zurich, it led to their award of the 1986 Nobel Prize. Atoms, once speculated to be abstract entities used by theoreticians for mere calculations, can be seen to exist for real with the nano-eye of an STM tip that also gives real-space images of molecules and adsorbed complexes on surfaces. From a very fundamental perspective, the STM changed the course of surface science and engineering. STM also emerged as a powerful tool to study various fundamental phenomena relevant to the properties of surfaces in technological applications such as tribology, medical implants, catalysis, sensors and biology—besides elucidating the importance of local bonding geometries and defects, non-periodic structures and the co-existence of nano-scale phases. Atom-level probing, once considered a dream, has seen the light with the evolution of STM. An important off-shoot of STM was the atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface mapping of insulating samples. Then followed the development of a flurry of techniques under the general name of scanning probe microscopy (SPM). These techniques (STM, AFM, MFM, PFM etc) designed for atomic-scale-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, have led to brand new developments in surface analysis. All of these novel methods enabled researchers in recent years to image and analyse complex surfaces on microscopic and nanoscopic scales. All of them utilize a small probe for sensing the surface. The invention of AFM by Gerd Binnig, Calvin Quate and Christopher Gerber opened up new opportunities for characterization of a variety of materials, and various industrial applications could be envisaged. AFM observations of thin-film surfaces give us a picture of surface topography and morphology and any visible defects. The growing importance of ultra-thin films for magnetic recording in hard disk drive systems requires an in-depth understanding of the fundamental mechanisms occurring during growth. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics covers all of the different aspects of SPM that illustrate the achievements of this methodology: nanoscale imaging and mapping (Chiang, and Douillard and Charra), piezoresponse force microscopy (Soergel) and STM engineering (Okuyama and Hamada, and Huang et al). Chiang takes the reader on a journey along the STM imaging of atoms and molecules on surfaces. Jesse and Kalinin explore the band excitations that occur during the corresponding processes. Jia et al propose STM and molecular beam epitaxy as a winning experimental combination at the interface of science and technology. Douillard and Charra describe the high-resolution mapping of plasmonic modes using photoemission and scanning tunnelling microscopy. Cricenti et al demonstrate the importance of SPM in material science and biology. Wiebe et al have probed atomic scale magnetism, revealed by spin polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy. In addition, Simon et al present Fourier transform scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and the possibility to obtain constant energy maps and band dispersion using local measurements. Lackinger and Heckl give a perspective of the use of STM to study covalent intermolecular coupling reactions on surfaces. Okuyama and Hamada investigated hydrogen bond imaging and engineering with STM. Soergel describes the study of substrate-dependent self-assembled CuPc molecules using piezo force microscope (PFM). We are very grateful to the authors and reviewers for the papers in this special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. Their contributions have provided a comprehensive picture of the evolution, status and potential of scanning probe microscopy, conveying to the readers the full excitement of this forefront domain of physics.

  5. Theoretical study of carbon-based tips for scanning tunnelling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C.; Abad, E.; Dappe, Y. J.; Cuevas, J. C.

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we present here a detailed theoretical analysis of the use of carbon-based conductive tips in scanning tunnelling microscopy. In particular, we employ ab initio methods based on density functional theory to explore a graphitic, an amorphous carbon and two diamond-like tips for imaging with a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), and we compare them with standard metallic tips made of gold and tungsten. We investigate the performance of these tips in terms of the corrugation of the STM images acquired when scanning a single graphene sheet. Moreover, we analyse the impact of the tip-sample distance and show that it plays a fundamental role in the resolution and symmetry of the STM images. We also explore in depth how the adsorption of single atoms and molecules in the tip apexes modifies the STM images and demonstrate that, in general, it leads to an improved image resolution. The ensemble of our results provides strong evidence that carbon-based tips can significantly improve the resolution of STM images, as compared to more standard metallic tips, which may open a new line of research in scanning tunnelling microscopy.

  6. Theoretical study of carbon-based tips for scanning tunnelling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzlez, C; Abad, E; Dappe, Y J; Cuevas, J C

    2016-03-11

    Motivated by recent experiments, we present here a detailed theoretical analysis of the use of carbon-based conductive tips in scanning tunnelling microscopy. In particular, we employ ab initio methods based on density functional theory to explore a graphitic, an amorphous carbon and two diamond-like tips for imaging with a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), and we compare them with standard metallic tips made of gold and tungsten. We investigate the performance of these tips in terms of the corrugation of the STM images acquired when scanning a single graphene sheet. Moreover, we analyse the impact of the tip-sample distance and show that it plays a fundamental role in the resolution and symmetry of the STM images. We also explore in depth how the adsorption of single atoms and molecules in the tip apexes modifies the STM images and demonstrate that, in general, it leads to an improved image resolution. The ensemble of our results provides strong evidence that carbon-based tips can significantly improve the resolution of STM images, as compared to more standard metallic tips, which may open a new line of research in scanning tunnelling microscopy. PMID:26861537

  7. Three-dimensional approach to scanning tunneling spectroscopy and application to Shockley states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the interpretation of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) data is analytically solved using a three-dimensional (3D) transfer Hamiltonian approach. We present an analytical model capable of including both the electronic structure of the sample and the symmetry of the tip states (s, pz, dz2, ...) and we discuss the role of these 3D aspects in tunneling. We applied this model to the case of Shockley states. This system, allowing a full analytical treatment, led us to a detailed simulation and comprehension of the tunneling process. A procedure for the recovery of the sample local density of states from STS measurements is then proposed and applied to both the simulated and the experimental STS data of Shockley states. Comparing this approach with other methods proposed in the literature, the importance of considering the 3D aspects in treating and interpreting STS data is demonstrated.

  8. a New Approach for Subway Tunnel Deformation Monitoring: High-Resolution Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wan, Y.; Gao, X.

    2012-07-01

    With the improvement of the accuracy and efficiency of laser scanning technology, high-resolution terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology can obtain high precise points-cloud and density distribution and can be applied to high-precision deformation monitoring of subway tunnels and high-speed railway bridges and other fields. In this paper, a new approach using a points-cloud segmentation method based on vectors of neighbor points and surface fitting method based on moving least squares was proposed and applied to subway tunnel deformation monitoring in Tianjin combined with a new high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner (Riegl VZ-400). There were three main procedures. Firstly, a points-cloud consisted of several scanning was registered by linearized iterative least squares approach to improve the accuracy of registration, and several control points were acquired by total stations (TS) and then adjusted. Secondly, the registered points-cloud was resampled and segmented based on vectors of neighbor points to select suitable points. Thirdly, the selected points were used to fit the subway tunnel surface with moving least squares algorithm. Then a series of parallel sections obtained from temporal series of fitting tunnel surfaces were compared to analysis the deformation. Finally, the results of the approach in z direction were compared with the fiber optical displacement sensor approach and the results in x, y directions were compared with TS respectively, and comparison results showed the accuracy errors of x, y, z directions were respectively about 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm. Therefore the new approach using high-resolution TLS can meet the demand of subway tunnel deformation monitoring.

  9. Manipulating individual dichlorotin phthalocyanine molecules on Cu(100) surface at room temperature by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Xiang, Feifei; Wang, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Danfeng; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Xueao; Chen, Wei; Wang, Li

    2014-12-01

    Single molecule manipulations have been achieved on dichlorotin phthalocyanine(SnCl2Pc) molecules adsorbed on Cu (100) at room temperature. Scanning tunneling microscopy observations directly demonstrate that the individual SnCl2Pc molecules can be moved along the [100] direction on Cu(100) surface by employing a scanning tunneling microscope tip fixed at the special position of the molecules. The orientation of the molecule can be switched between two angles of 28 with respect to the [011] surface direction in the same way. Dependences of the probability of molecular motion on the distances between the tip and the molecules reveal that the mechanism for such manipulation of a SnCl2Pc molecule is dominated by the repulsive interactions between the tip and the molecules. With the assistance of this manipulation process, a prototype molecular storage array with molecular orientation as information carrier and an artificial hydrogen bonded supramolecular structure have been constructed on the surface.

  10. Negative Differential Resistance in the Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Y; Hong, S; Reifenberger, R; Henderson, J I; Kubiak, C P; Xue, Yongqiang; Datta, Supriyo; Hong, Seunghun; Henderson, Jason I.; Kubiak, Cliff P.

    1999-01-01

    The conductance-voltage spectrum of molecular nanostructures measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) is generally assumed to reflect the local density of states of the molecule. This excludes the possibility of observing negative differential resistance (NDR). We report here the observation of NDR in the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-p-Terphenylthiol molecules on gold substrate measured using a platinum probe. We argue that the NDR arises from narrow structures in the local density of states at the tip apex atom and show that depending on the electrostatic potential profile across the system, NDR could be observed in one or both bias directions.

  11. Imaging by Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Deconvolution Resolving More Details of Surfaces Nanomorphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    Upon imaging, electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ESTM), scanning electrochemical micro-scopy (SECM) and in situ STM resolve information on electronic structures and on surface topography. At very high resolution, imaging processing is required, as to obtain information that relates to.......g., nanoelectronics and single-molecule probing. In principle, the ESTM is capable of sub-atomic resolution but many details at this level of magnification need further treatment of recorded data before real information is obtained. Deconvolution of the data according to the instrument response may explain some of...... current that generates the image. Tunneling through less-conductive molecules, such as organic molecules, DNA molecules or protein molecules, may be facilitated along channels of electronic conductivity or by transfer of protons generated electrochemically at the participating surfaces....

  12. Thermal mirror buckling in freestanding graphene locally controlled by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neek-Amal, M.; Xu, P.; Schoelz, J. K.; Ackerman, M. L.; Barber, S. D.; Thibado, P. M.; Sadeghi, A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of and control over the curvature of ripples in freestanding graphene are desirable for fabricating and designing flexible electronic devices, and recent progress in these pursuits has been achieved using several advanced techniques such as scanning tunnelling microscopy. The electrostatic forces induced through a bias voltage (or gate voltage) were used to manipulate the interaction of freestanding graphene with a tip (substrate). Such forces can cause large movements and sudden changes in curvature through mirror buckling. Here we explore an alternative mechanism, thermal load, to control the curvature of graphene. We demonstrate thermal mirror buckling of graphene by scanning tunnelling microscopy and large-scale molecular dynamic simulations. The negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene is an essential ingredient in explaining the observed effects. This new control mechanism represents a fundamental advance in understanding the influence of temperature gradients on the dynamics of freestanding graphene and future applications with electro-thermal-mechanical nanodevices.

  13. Scanning tunnelling microscopy and electronic structure of Mn clusters on Ag(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliewer, J.; Berndt, R. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Kiel (Germany); Minar, J.; Ebert, H. [University of Munich, Dept. Chemie und Biochemie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Small Mn clusters (Mn{sub 1}-Mn{sub 4}) are prepared by manipulation of Mn adatoms on Ag(111) with the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope. The apparent heights of the clusters are observed to increase monotonously from 1.6 A for a monomer to 2.2 A for a tetramer. Self-consistent calculations of the electronic structure of these clusters are in encouraging agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear and electronic resonance spectroscopy of single molecules by radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Müllegger, Stefan; Tebi, Stefano; Das, Amal K.; Schöfberger, Wolfgang; Faschinger, Felix; Koch, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing miniaturization in nanoscience and -technology challenges the sensitivity and selectivity of experimental analysis methods to the ultimate level of single atoms and molecules. A promising new approach, addressed here, focuses on the combination of two well-established complementary techniques that have proven to be very successful in their own fields: (i) low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), offering high spatial resolution for imaging and spectroscopy together wit...

  15. Structure of hydrated oligonucleotides studied by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, T W; Jeffrey, A. M.; DeRose, J. A.; Lyubchenko, Y L; Shlyakhtenko, L S; Harrington, R. E.; Appella, E.; LARSEN, J.; Vaught, A; Rekesh, D

    1993-01-01

    We have used the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to image several synthetic oligonucleotides adsorbed onto a positively charged Au(111) electrode. The molecules were deposited and imaged in aqueous electrolyte under potential control, a procedure that eliminated the problem of the substrate artifacts that had limited some previous STM studies. Experiments were carried out with two types of single-stranded molecules (11 and 20 bases long) and three types of double-stranded molecules (20 an...

  16. Coadsorption phases of CO and oxygen on Pd(111) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez, J.; Kim, S.; Cerdá, J.; Wintterlin, J.; Ertl, G

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption of CO on an oxygen precovered Pd(111) surface was investigated between 60 and 300 K. Applied methods were variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and video STM to analyze the coadsorption structures. The STM data are compared with simulated STM images for the various surface phases in order to identify the appropiate structural model for each case. Low-energy electron diffraction and reaction isotherms by means of mass spectrometry were used to correlate the ph...

  17. Masking generates contiguous segments of metal-coated and bare DNA for scanning tunneling microscope imaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlap, D D; García, R.; Schabtach, E; Bustamante, C.

    1993-01-01

    To date, no microscopic methods are available to confirm scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images of DNA. The difficulties encountered in repeating these images may be attributed to inadequate distribution of molecules on the substrate, poor adhesion to the substrate, or the low conductivity of the molecules. However, these factors are difficult to assess in an STM experiment where they may act simultaneously. A method to isolate these factors involves partly masking the deposited molecules...

  18. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of functional molecules on metal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xin

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is committed to the study of functional molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces by means of Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. It includes two main parts. In the first part the adsorption geometry of lander molecule (C90H98) on different metal surfaces is discussed. Three conformations as well as chiral structures of lander molecules on the terrace of Cu(100) are observed by STM. Electron scattering quantum chemical calculated results are compared with our experimental da...

  19. Tip preparation for usage in an ultra-low temperature UHV scanning tunneling microscope

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ernst, S. Wirth, M. Rams, V. Dolocan and F. Steglich

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the preparation and characterization of tungsten tips for the use in UHV low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS, respectively). These specific environments require in situ facilities for tip conditioning, for further sharpening of the tips, as well as for reliable tip characterization. The implemented conditioning methods include direct resistive annealing, annealing by electron bombardment, and self-sputtering with noble gas ions. Mor...

  20. Scanning tunnelling microscopy study of phosphorus dopants on the Si(001)2x1 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We report an atomic resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy study of phosphorus dopant surface segregation on the silicon (001)2x1 surface. An understanding of the surface segregation of dopants in Si is of fundamental interest and technological importance for the fabrication of a P in Si based quantum computer. Although there are a number of studies of surface segregation of boron in Si, a detailed study of P segregation has not yet been reported

  1. Defects in oxide surfaces studied by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Knig; Simon, Georg H; Lars Heinke; Leonid Lichtenstein; Markus Heyde

    2011-01-01

    Surfaces of thin oxide ?lms were investigated by means of a dual mode NC-AFM/STM. Apart from imaging the surface termination by NC-AFM with atomic resolution, point defects in magnesium oxide on Ag(001) and line defects in aluminum oxide on NiAl(110), respectively, were thoroughly studied. The contact potential was determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and the electronic structure by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). On magnesium oxide, different color centers, i.e., ...

  2. Measurements with an ultrafast scanning tunnelling microscope on photoexcited semiconductor layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    Summary form only given. We demonstrate the use of a ultrafast scanning tunnelling microscopes (USTM) for detecting laser-induced field transients on semiconductor layers. In principle, the instrument can detect transient field changes thus far observed as far-field THz radiation in the near......-field regime and resolve small signal sources. For photoexcited low temperature (LT) GaAs we can explain the signal by a diffusion current driven by the laser-induced carrier density gradient...

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Active nanocharacterization of nanofunctional materials by scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Fujita and Keisuke Sagisaka

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in the application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to nanofabrication and nanocharacterization are reviewed. The main focus of this paper is to outline techniques for depositing and manipulating nanometer-scale structures using STM tips. Firstly, the transfer of STM tip material through the application of voltage pulses is introduced. The highly reproducible fabrication of metallic silver nanodots and nanowires is discussed. The mechanism is thought to be spontaneou...

  4. Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilis Gikas

    2012-01-01

    Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the...

  5. Clean porphyrin films on a silver (111) surface:a Scanning Tunneling Microscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Comanici, Karmen

    2007-01-01

    In the work at hand a detailed scanning tunneling microscopy study of films of different porphyrin derivates on a Ag(111) surface has been performed under ultra high vacuum conditions at room temperature. The key focus was put on the porphyrin monolayer regime, the corresponding self-assembled phases and their electronic structure. Thermal sublimation in vacuum was the applied method to prepare films of various porphyrin molecules. With this method, it was possible to obtain films with high p...

  6. Phase change of tetrahedral amorphous-carbon by low energy electrons in a scanning tunnelling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low energy electron-based energy deposition in tetrahedral amorphous-carbon thin films by a scanning tunnelling microscope leads to a local phase change of the carbon. Both the mass density and the electrical resistivity are reduced indicating a graphitization. We expose nano-sized surface areas to field emitted low energy electrons under high vacuum conditions and investigate the temperature and electron energy dependence of the carbon phase change process. Supplementary topography measurements are performed by atomic force microscopy.

  7. Magnetic Tunnel Junctions and Superconductor/Ferromagnet Hybrids Investigated by Low-Temperature Scanning Laser Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Low-temperature scanning laser microscopy (LTSLM) allows the investigation of local properties in thin film structures in a broad temperature range. Depending on the sample under investigation, LTSLM can map various kinds of physical properties such as the current distribution or the magnetic microstructure. In this thesis, the correlation between local and integral magnetotransport properties in thin-film superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids and magnetic tunnel junctions are investigated...

  8. Fermi-level alignment at metal-carbon nanotube interfaces: application to scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Yongqiang; Datta, Supriyo

    1999-01-01

    At any metal-carbon nanotube interface there is charge transfer and the induced interfacial field determines the position of the carbon nanotube band structure relative to the metal Fermi-level. In the case of a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) supported on a gold substrate, we show that the charge transfers induce a local electrostatic potential perturbation which gives rise to the observed Fermi-level shift in scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements. We also discuss the relevan...

  9. Note: Fabrication and characterization of molybdenum tips for scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrozzo, P.; Tumino, F.; Facibeni, A.; Passoni, M.; Casari, C. S.; Li Bassi, A. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    We present a method for the preparation of bulk molybdenum tips for Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy and we assess their potential in performing high resolution imaging and local spectroscopy by measurements on different single crystal surfaces in UHV, namely, Au(111), Si(111)-7 7, and titanium oxide 2D ordered nanostructures supported on Au(111). The fabrication method is versatile and can be extended to other metals, e.g., cobalt.

  10. Atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy in a cryogen free dilution refrigerator at 15 mK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, A. M. J. den, E-mail: arthur.denhaan@gmail.com; Wijts, G. H. C. J.; Galli, F.; Oosterkamp, T. H. [Department of Interface Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333CA Leiden (Netherlands); Usenko, O. [Leiden Cryogenics, Kenauweg 11, 2331BA Leiden (Netherlands); Baarle, G. J. C. van; Zalm, D. J. van der [Leiden Spin Imaging (LSI), J.H. Oortweg 21, 2333CH Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-03-15

    Pulse tube refrigerators are becoming more common, because they are cost efficient and demand less handling than conventional (wet) refrigerators. However, a downside of a pulse tube system is the vibration level at the cold-head, which is in most designs several micrometers. We implemented vibration isolation techniques which significantly reduced vibration levels at the experiment. These optimizations were necessary for the vibration sensitive magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments at milli-kelvin temperatures for which the cryostat is intended. With these modifications we show atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy on graphite. This is promising for scanning probe microscopy applications at very low temperatures.

  11. Atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy in a cryogen free dilution refrigerator at 15 mK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse tube refrigerators are becoming more common, because they are cost efficient and demand less handling than conventional (wet) refrigerators. However, a downside of a pulse tube system is the vibration level at the cold-head, which is in most designs several micrometers. We implemented vibration isolation techniques which significantly reduced vibration levels at the experiment. These optimizations were necessary for the vibration sensitive magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments at milli-kelvin temperatures for which the cryostat is intended. With these modifications we show atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy on graphite. This is promising for scanning probe microscopy applications at very low temperatures

  12. Atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy in a cryogen free dilution refrigerator at 15 mK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Haan, A M J; Wijts, G H C J; Galli, F; Usenko, O; van Baarle, G J C; van der Zalm, D J; Oosterkamp, T H

    2014-03-01

    Pulse tube refrigerators are becoming more common, because they are cost efficient and demand less handling than conventional (wet) refrigerators. However, a downside of a pulse tube system is the vibration level at the cold-head, which is in most designs several micrometers. We implemented vibration isolation techniques which significantly reduced vibration levels at the experiment. These optimizations were necessary for the vibration sensitive magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments at milli-kelvin temperatures for which the cryostat is intended. With these modifications we show atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy on graphite. This is promising for scanning probe microscopy applications at very low temperatures. PMID:24689625

  13. Atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy in a cryogen free dilution refrigerator at 15 mK

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Haan, A. M. J.; Wijts, G. H. C. J.; Galli, F.; Usenko, O.; van Baarle, G. J. C.; van der Zalm, D. J.; Oosterkamp, T. H.

    2014-03-01

    Pulse tube refrigerators are becoming more common, because they are cost efficient and demand less handling than conventional (wet) refrigerators. However, a downside of a pulse tube system is the vibration level at the cold-head, which is in most designs several micrometers. We implemented vibration isolation techniques which significantly reduced vibration levels at the experiment. These optimizations were necessary for the vibration sensitive magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments at milli-kelvin temperatures for which the cryostat is intended. With these modifications we show atomic resolution scanning tunneling microscopy on graphite. This is promising for scanning probe microscopy applications at very low temperatures.

  14. Sub-barrier Coulomb effects on the interference pattern in tunneling ionization photoelectron spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Tian-Min

    2012-01-01

    We use a quantum trajectory-based semi-classical method to account for Coulomb interaction between the photoelectron and the parent ion in the classically forbidden, sub-barrier region during strong-field tunneling ionization processes. We show that---besides the well-known modification of the tunneling ionization probability---there is also an influence on the interference pattern in the photoelectron spectra. In the long-wavelength limit, the shift of the intra-cycle interference fringes caused by sub-barrier Coulomb effects in the laser polarization direction can be derived analytically. We compare our results with \\emph{ab initio} solutions of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and find good agreement in the long-wavelength regime, whereas the standard strong field approximation fails. We show that the nodal structure along low-order above-threshold ionization rings is also affected by sub-barrier Coulomb effects.

  15. Scanning Tunneling Imaging of Bio-Organic Molecules and Their Tunneling Properties: Fatty Acids, Their Derivatives and Cholesteryl Stearate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kousei; Arakawa, Hideo; Ikai, Atsushi

    1995-06-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy imaging was applied to long-chain fatty acids, their derivatives and cholesteryl stearate in the adsorbed state at the liquid-solid interface between phenyloctane and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Cerotic acid, lignoceric acid, stearic acid, sodium stearate, stearoyl amide, and stearoyl anilide all produced regular arrays of dark and bright bands. Bright bands in the images of all execept the last compound were assigned as side-by-side alignment of hydrocarbon chains based on the variation of the band width between the three fatty acids. In the case of stearoyl anilide, the bright part was assigned to aromatic ring structure and the wider dark area to the hydrocarbon part.

  16. A 10Â mK scanning tunneling microscope operating in ultra high vacuum and high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Enders, Axel; Stiepany, Wolfgang; Ast, Christian R.; Kern, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    We present design and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that operates at temperatures down to 10 mK providing ultimate energy resolution on the atomic scale. The STM is attached to a dilution refrigerator with direct access to an ultra high vacuum chamber allowing in situ sample preparation. High magnetic fields of up to 14 T perpendicular and up to 0.5 T parallel to the sample surface can be applied. Temperature sensors mounted directly at the tip and sample position verified the base temperature within a small error margin. Using a superconducting Al tip and a metallic Cu(111) sample, we determined an effective temperature of 38 ± 1 mK from the thermal broadening observed in the tunneling spectra. This results in an upper limit for the energy resolution of ΔE = 3.5kBT = 11.4 ± 0.3 μeV. The stability between tip and sample is 4 pm at a temperature of 15 mK as demonstrated by topography measurements on a Cu(111) surface.

  17. A 10 mK scanning tunneling microscope operating in ultra high vacuum and high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Enders, Axel; Stiepany, Wolfgang; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    We present design and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that operates at temperatures down to 10 mK providing ultimate energy resolution on the atomic scale. The STM is attached to a dilution refrigerator with direct access to an ultra high vacuum chamber allowing in situ sample preparation. High magnetic fields of up to 14 T perpendicular and up to 0.5 T parallel to the sample surface can be applied. Temperature sensors mounted directly at the tip and sample position verified the base temperature within a small error margin. Using a superconducting Al tip and a metallic Cu(111) sample, we determined an effective temperature of 38 ± 1 mK from the thermal broadening observed in the tunneling spectra. This results in an upper limit for the energy resolution of ΔE = 3.5 kBT = 11.4 ± 0.3 μeV. The stability between tip and sample is 4 pm at a temperature of 15 mK as demonstrated by topography measurements on a Cu(111) surface. PMID:23556826

  18. Theory of spin dynamics of magnetic adatoms traced by time-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Schüler, Michael; Berakdar, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been shown recently (Loth et al. Science 329, 1628 (2010)) to be extendable as to access the nanosecond, spin-resolved dynamics of magnetic adatoms and molecules. Here we analyze theoretically this novel tool by considering the time-resolved spin dynamics of a single adsorbed Fe atom excited by a tunneling current pulse from a spin-polarized STM tip. The adatom spin-configuration can be controlled and probed by applying voltage pulses between the substrate and the spin-polarized STM tip. We demonstrate how, in a pump-probe manner, the relaxation dynamics of the sample spin is manifested in the spin-dependent tunneling current. Our model calculations are based on the scattering theory in a wave-packet formulation. The scheme is nonpertubative and hence, is valid for all voltages. The numerical results for the tunneling probability and the conductance are contrasted with the prediction of simple analytical models and compared with experiments.

  19. Building a 3d Reference Model for Canal Tunnel Surveying Using Sonar and Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, E.; Charbonnier, P.; Foucher, P.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Guillemin, S.; Koehl, M.

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining canal tunnels is not only a matter of cultural and historical preservation, but also a commercial necessity and a security issue. This contribution adresses the problem of building a full 3D reference model of a canal tunnel by merging SONAR (for underwater data recording) and LASER data (for the above-water parts). Although both scanning devices produce point clouds, their properties are rather different. In particular, SONAR data are very noisy and their processing raises several issues related to the device capacities, the acquisition setup and the tubular shape of the tunnel. The proposed methodology relies on a denoising step by meshing, followed by the registration of SONAR data with the geo-referenced LASER data. Since there is no overlap between point clouds, a 3-step procedure is proposed to robustly estimate the registration parameters. In this paper, we report a first experimental survey, which concerned the entrance of a canal tunnel. The obtained results are promising and the analysis of the method raises several improvement directions that will help obtaining more accurate models, in a more automated fashion, in the limits of the involved technology.

  20. Influence of atomic tip structure on the intensity of inelastic tunneling spectroscopy data analyzed by combined scanning tunneling spectroscopy, force microscopy, and density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Norio; Gustafsson, Alexander; Peronio, Angelo; Paulsson, Magnus; Arai, Toyoko; Giessibl, Franz J.

    2016-04-01

    Achieving a high intensity in inelastic scanning tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is important for precise measurements. The intensity of the IETS signal can vary by up to a factor of 3 for various tips without an apparent reason accessible by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) alone. Here, we show that combining STM and IETS with atomic force microscopy enables carbon monoxide front-atom identification, revealing that high IETS intensities for CO/Cu(111) are obtained for single-atom tips, while the intensity drops sharply for multiatom tips. Adsorption of the CO molecule on a Cu adatom [CO/Cu/Cu(111)] such that the molecule is elevated over the substrate strongly diminishes the tip dependence of IETS intensity, showing that an elevated position channels most of the tunneling current through the CO molecule even for multiatom tips, while a large fraction of the tunneling current bypasses the CO molecule in the case of CO/Cu(111).

  1. Design and Construction of a Low-Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope for Spectroscopic Applications on Model Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The functionalization of surfaces of thin oxide films, synthesized on conductive, crystalline supports either intrinsically as consequence of the film growth or extrinsically by controlled insertion of adsorption centers is the focus of this study. The surfaces are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy and conductance mapping. Results from auxiliary model calculations based on density functional theory are presented as well. A new experimental setup wa...

  2. Scanning tunneling microscope with three-dimensional interferometer for surface roughness measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toru; Yamaguchi, Masataka; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    1995-03-01

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been known for its high lateral resolution, but its unreliable vertical accuracy has prevented it from being widely used as a profiler for roughness and step height measurements. An STM equipped with an optical interferometer to calibrate STM tip feedback controlled motion in the Z direction along with interferometers for monitoring X and Y raster scanning has been developed. The resolution of the interferometer was 0.12 nm rms. Maximum line scanning distance is 250 μm and the motion in this direction is secured by a parallel spring mechanism. Step height and pitch measurements on a surface topography standard agree in nanometer scale with the certified value of the standard. The result of high accuracy roughness measurement with the STM supports the common observation that STM measurement gives larger roughness than interferometric measurement.

  3. Aluminum corrosion: Correlations of corrosion rate with surface coverage and tunneling spectra of organic inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Q. Q.; Love, P. J.; Bayman, A.; Hansma, P. K.

    Thin films of evaporated aluminum form a convenient model system for studying corrosion and corrosion inhibition on aluminum because (1) corrosion can be conveniently and continuously monitored by both electrical resistance measurements and optical transmission, (2) surface coverage of inhibitor species can be measured by either radiotracer techniques or tunneling spectroscopy and (3) the nature of surface adsorbed species can be determined with tunneling spectroscopy. The corrosion rate for these films is of order 20 ?m/year in pure water at flow rates of order 20 cm/s. The corrosion is inhibited by roughly one order of magnitude by monolayer surface coverages of the surface species that result when acetic acid, benzoic acid, cupferron or ethylene glycol are added to the water. At surface coverages of order 1/100 of a monolayer, the corrosion rate is increased by roughly an order of magnitude for the first three additives but not for ethylene glycol. From the previous studies of tunneling spectra, it is clear that the acetic and benzoic acids lose a proton to become benzoate and acetate ions on the surface. The ethylene glycol loses the protons from both of its OH groups during bonding. The spectrum of the adsorbed cupferron species is presented but not analyzed.

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy simulations of poly(3-dodecylthiophene) chains adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, M; Latil, S; Rubio, A; Scifo, L

    2006-01-01

    We report on a novel scheme to perform efficient simulations of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) of molecules weakly bonded to surfaces. Calculations are based on a tight binding (TB) technique including self-consistency for the molecule to predict STM imaging and spectroscopy. To palliate the lack of self-consistency in the tunneling current calculation, we performed first principles density-functional calculations to extract the geometrical and electronic properties of the system. In this way, we can include, in the TB scheme, the effects of structural relaxation upon adsorption on the electronic structure of the molecule. This approach is applied to the study of regioregular poly(3-dodecylthiophene) (P3DDT) polymer chains adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Results of spectroscopic calculations are discussed and compared with recently obtained experimental dat

  5. A variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscope capable of single-molecule vibrational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and performance of a variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is presented. The microscope operates from 8 to 350 K in ultrahigh vacuum. The thermally compensated STM is suspended by springs from the cold tip of a continuous flow cryostat and is completely surrounded by two radiation shields. The design allows for in situ dosing and irradiation of the sample as well as for the exchange of samples and STM tips. With the STM feedback loop off, the drift of the tip-sample spacing is approximately 0.001 Angstrom/min at 8 K. It is demonstrated that the STM is well-suited for the study of atomic-scale chemistry over a wide temperature range, for atomic-scale manipulation, and for single-molecule inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. Construction and performance of a dilution-refrigerator based spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U R; Enayat, M; White, S C; Wahl, P

    2013-01-01

    We report on the set-up and performance of a dilution-refrigerator based spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscope. It operates at temperatures below 10 mK and in magnetic fields up to 14T. The system allows for sample transfer and in situ cleavage. We present first-results demonstrating atomic resolution and the multi-gap structure of the superconducting gap of NbSe(2) at base temperature. To determine the energy resolution of our system we have measured a normal metal/vacuum/superconductor tunneling junction consisting of an aluminum tip on a gold sample. Our system allows for continuous measurements at base temperature on time scales of up to ≈170 h. PMID:23387660

  7. Electronic effects in scanning tunneling microscopy: Moir pattern on a graphite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zhao Y.; Kuiper, Pieter

    1993-12-01

    We observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) a hexagonal superlattice on graphite with a period of 66 . Direct measurement of the angle between lattice vectors confirmed that the superlattice is a Moir pattern caused by a 2.1 rotation of the topmost (0001) plane with respect to the bulk. The STM corrugation of 2.6 is not due to physical buckling, but to differences in electronic structure between AA-stacked, normal AB-stacked, and rhombohedral CAB-stacked graphite. The high tunneling current of AA-stacked regions is in agreement with the high density of states at the Fermi level calculated for AA graphite. The Moir pattern changes, both the amplitude and the shape, with bias voltage. The observation provides a basis for a comparative study of surface electronic structures with different subsurface layer configuration, which is a vital test of our understanding of STM.

  8. Thermal mirror buckling transitions in a pristine freestanding graphene membrane investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelz, Kevin; Meunier, Vincent; Kumar, Pradeep; Neek-Amal, Mehdhi; Thibado, Paul; Peeters, Francois

    2015-03-01

    Freestanding graphene membranes are not flat, but rather display an array of ripples with alternating curvature. By applying a local force using a scanning tunneling microscope tip, we can pull out these ripples, causing the graphene membrane to reversibly rise and fall. By increasing the tunneling current and exploiting the negative coefficient of thermal expansion, we can increase the strain in the graphene membrane causing an irreversible transition from this flexible state to a rigid configuration. This transition typically happens when the graphene membrane reaches 60-70% of the total graphene height. We successfully model this transition as the transition of a spin-half Ising magnet where the ripples are modeled as Ising spins. The buckling transition can be interpreted as the transition from an antiferromagnetic state, to a ferromagnetic state. In addition, four critical exponents are measured. These results provide insight into the role of the negative thermal expansion of graphene.

  9. An EHT based model for Single Molecule Incoherent Resonant Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Raza, H

    2007-01-01

    We report Extended Huckel theory (EHT) based mean-field incoherent Non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) transport model, for single molecule scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), with dephasing due to elastic and inelastic scattering within the self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA) and report a procedure for tip modeling based on EHT basis set modification. We use this model to study the effect of the temperature dependent elastic dephasing, due to low energy phonon modes in far-infrared range for which hf is much less than kT, on the resonant conduction through highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level. Furthermore, we report inelastic off-resonant tunneling results, showing peak in second derivative due to one phonon mode. Finally, we suggest that dephasing should be included in room temperature molecular transport calculations.

  10. Radio-frequency excitation of single molecules by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have upgraded a low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) with a radio-frequency (RF) modulation system to extend STM spectroscopy to the range of low energy excitations (<1 meV). We studied single molecules of a stable hydrocarbon π-radical weakly physisorbed on Au(111). At 5 K thermal excitation of the adsorbed molecules is inhibited due to the lack of short-wavelength phonons of the substrate. We demonstrate resonant excitation of mechanical modes of single molecules by RF tunnelling at 115 MHz, which induces structural changes in the molecule ranging from controlled diffusion and modification of bond angles to bond breaking as the ultimate climax (resonance catastrophe). Our results pave the way towards RF-STM-based spectroscopy and controlled manipulation of molecular nanostructures on a surface. (paper)

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy on GaN and InGaN surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optelectronic devices based on gallium nitride (GaN) and indium gallium nitride (InGaN) are in the focus of research since more than 20 years and still have great potential for optical applications. In the first part of this work non-polar surfaces of GaN are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In SEM and AFM, the (1 anti 100)- and especially the (anti 2110)-plane are quite corrugated. For the first time, the (anti 2110)-plane of GaN is atomically resolved in STM. In the second part InGaN quantum dot layers are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and STM. The STMmeasurements show the dependency of surface morphology on growth conditions in the metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Nucleation, a new MOVPE-strategy, is based on phase separations on surfaces. It is shown that locally varying density of states and bandgaps can be detected by STS, that means bandgap histograms and 2D-bandgap-mapping. (orig.)

  12. Adsorption of oxygen on Pt3Sn(111) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and x-ray photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of oxygen on the (111) surface of the Pt3Sn alloy was studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and x-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD). As Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy ion scattering, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate, upon oxygen exposure (range 10000 L, with the sample at circa 770 K) Sn segregates to the surface and forms a two-dimensional tin-oxygen layer. In the x-ray photoemission spectra no pronounced chemical shift is visible that would indicate a thicker tin oxide layer. After exposure to 10000 L O2 at 770 K low-energy electron diffraction shows a streaky2x2 pattern with additional spots. Scanning tunneling microscopy images show a surface with a 2x2periodicity characterized by an high defect density. The corrugation of this surface is substantially higher than that of the clean surface. After annealing in vacuum at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 K, a sharp 4x4 low-energy electron diffraction pattern can be observed. STM then reveals a superlattice of depressions, the remaining protrusions are slightly laterally displaced from their 2x2 positions. X-ray photoelectron diffraction intensities of the 4x4 phase show hardly any change for Pt 4f, whereas Sn3d azimuthal curves measured at higher polar angles are substantially modified after oxygen exposure. In order to understand the nature of the features observed in the STM images, the experimental XPD curves were compared with single and multiple scattering cluster calculations performed for various structural models. On the basis of these results we propose a model involving the reconstruction of the substrate surface

  13. Antenna-based ultrahigh vacuum microwave frequency scanning tunneling microscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Zhang, Jun; Kelly, Kevin F.

    2011-05-01

    The instrumental synthesis of high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with the ability to measure differential capacitance with atomic scale resolution is highly desirable for fundamental metrology and for the study of novel physical characteristics. Microwave frequency radiation directed at the tip-sample junction in an STM system allows for such high-resolution differential capacitance information. This ability is particularly critical in ultrahigh vacuum environments, where the additional parameter space afforded by including a capacitance measurement would prove powerful. Here we describe the modifications made to a commercial scanning tunneling microscope to allow for broad microwave frequency alternating current scanning tunneling microscopy (ACSTM) in ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a relatively simple loop antenna and microwave difference frequency detection. The advantages of our system are twofold. First, the use of a removable antenna on a commercial STM prevents interference with other UHV processes while providing a simple method to retrofit any commercial UHV-STM with UHV-ACSTM capability. Second, mounting the microwave antenna on a translator allows for specific tuning of the system to replicate experimental conditions between samples, which is particularly critical in sensitive systems like organic thin films or single molecules where small changes in incident power can affect the results. Our innovation therefore provides a valuable approach to give nearly any commercial STM, be it an ambient or UHV system, the capability to measure atomic-scale microwave studies such as differential capacitance or even single molecule microwave response, and it ensures that experimental ACSTM conditions can be held constant between different samples.

  14. Multilevel memristor effect in metal-semiconductor core-shell nanoparticles tested by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sudipto; Pal, Amlan J.

    2015-05-01

    We have grown gold (Au) and copper-zinc-tin-sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals and Au-CZTS core-shell nanostructures, with gold in the core and the semiconductor in the shell layer, through a high-temperature colloidal synthetic approach. Following usual characterization, we formed ultrathin layers of these in order to characterize the nanostructures in an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of individual nanostructures showed the memristor effect or resistive switching from a low- to a high-conducting state upon application of a suitable voltage pulse. The Au-CZTS core-shell nanostructures also show a multilevel memristor effect with the nanostructures undergoing two transitions in conductance at two magnitudes of voltage pulse. We have studied the reproducibility, reversibility, and retentivity of the multilevel memristors. From the normalized density of states (NDOS), we infer that the memristor effect is correlated to a decrease in the transport gap of the nanostructures. We also infer that the memristor effect occurs in the nanostructures due to an increase in the density of available states upon application of a voltage pulse.We have grown gold (Au) and copper-zinc-tin-sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals and Au-CZTS core-shell nanostructures, with gold in the core and the semiconductor in the shell layer, through a high-temperature colloidal synthetic approach. Following usual characterization, we formed ultrathin layers of these in order to characterize the nanostructures in an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of individual nanostructures showed the memristor effect or resistive switching from a low- to a high-conducting state upon application of a suitable voltage pulse. The Au-CZTS core-shell nanostructures also show a multilevel memristor effect with the nanostructures undergoing two transitions in conductance at two magnitudes of voltage pulse. We have studied the reproducibility, reversibility, and retentivity of the multilevel memristors. From the normalized density of states (NDOS), we infer that the memristor effect is correlated to a decrease in the transport gap of the nanostructures. We also infer that the memristor effect occurs in the nanostructures due to an increase in the density of available states upon application of a voltage pulse. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01161b

  15. An automatic method for atom identification in scanning tunnelling microscopy images of Fe-chalcogenide superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perasso, A; Toraci, C; Massone, A M; Piana, M; Gerbi, A; Buzio, R; Kawale, S; Bellingeri, E; Ferdeghini, C

    2015-12-01

    We describe a computational approach for the automatic recognition and classification of atomic species in scanning tunnelling microscopy images. The approach is based on a pipeline of image processing methods in which the classification step is performed by means of a Fuzzy Clustering algorithm. As a representative example, we use the computational tool to characterize the nanoscale phase separation in thin films of the Fe-chalcogenide superconductor FeSex Te1-x , starting from synthetic data sets and experimental topographies. We quantify the stoichiometry fluctuations on length scales from tens to a few nanometres. PMID:26291960

  16. Electronic structure of nanoscale iron oxide particles measured by scanning tunneling and photoelectron spectroscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Preisinger, M.; Krispin, M.; Rudolf, T; Horn, S.; Strongin, D. R.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure of nano-sized iron oxide by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) as well as by photoelectron spectroscopy. Nano particles were produced by thermal treatment of Ferritin molecules containing a self-assembled core of iron oxide. Depending on the thermal treatment we were able to prepare different phases of iron oxide nanoparticles resembling gamma-Fe2O3, alpha-Fe2O3, and a phase which apparently contains both gamma-Fe2O3 and a...

  17. Charge ordering in stoichiometric FeTe: Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yin, Wei-Guo; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    We use scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to reveal a unique stripy charge order in a parent phase of iron-based superconductors in stoichiometric FeTe epitaxy films. The charge order has unusually the sameusually halfperiod as the spin order. We also found highly anisotropic electron band dispersions being large and little along the ferromagnetic (crystallographic b ) and antiferromagnetic (a ) directions, respectively. Our data suggest that the microscopic mechanism is likely of the Stoner type driven by interatomic Coulomb repulsion Vi j, and that Vi j and charge fluctuations, so far much neglected, are important to the understanding of iron-based superconductors.

  18. Structure and Reactions of Carbon and Hydrogen on Ru(0001): A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Mugarza, Aitor; Cerda, Jorge; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-09-09

    The interaction between carbon and hydrogen atoms on a Ru(0001) surface was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Density Functional Theory (DFT) and STM image calculations. Formation of CH species by reaction between adsorbed H and C was observed to occur readily at 100 K. When the coverage of H increased new complexes of the form CH+nH (n = 1, 2 and 3) were observed. These complexes, never observed before, might be precursors for further hydrogenation reactions. DFT analysis reveals that a considerable energy barrier exists for the CH+H {yields} CH{sub 2} reaction.

  19. Scanning tunneling microscopy of monoatomic gold chains on vicinal Si(335) surface: experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, M.; Kwapinski, T.; Jalochowski, M. [Institute of Physics and Nanotechnology Center, M. Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2005-02-01

    We study electronic and topographic properties of the Si(335) surface, containing Au wires parallel to the steps. We use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) supplemented by reflection of high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) technique. The STM data show the space and voltage dependent oscillations of the distance between STM tip and the surface which can be explained within one band tight binding Hubbard model. We calculate the STM current using nonequilibrium Keldysh Green function formalism. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Investigations of the superconducting proximity effect in normal conducting and ferromagnetic materials using scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconducting proximity effect (SPE) describes the mutual influence of a normal conductor and a superconductor in electrical contact. Due to the Anderson reflection at the interface the single electron based current in the normal conductor can be transformed into a dissipation free current due to Cooper pairs. Theoretical expectations on the local quasi particle density of states on layered systems with aluminum (BCS superconductor), gold and silver were compared with scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. Palladium was also studied using the proximity effect with respect to a strong electron-phonon coupling with simultaneous ferromagnetism. Another topic was the study of superconductor/ferromagnetic layer structures.

  1. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips

    OpenAIRE

    A. Roychowdhury; Gubrud, M. A.; Dana, R.; Anderson, J. R.; C.J. Lobb; Wellstood, F. C.; Dreyer, M

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows \\textit{in situ} transfer from an ultra high vacuum (UHV) preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Othe...

  2. Construction of a Versatile Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kambara, H.; Matsui, T.; Niimi, Y.; Fukuyama, H.

    2007-01-01

    We constructed a dilution-refrigerator (DR) based ultra-low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (ULT-STM) which works at temperatures down to 30 mK, in magnetic fields up to 6 T and in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Besides these extreme operation conditions, this STM has several unique features not available in other DR based ULT-STMs. One can load STM tips as well as samples with clean surfaces prepared in a UHV environment to an STM head keeping low temperature and UHV conditions. After the...

  3. In situ scanning tunnelling microscopy of redox molecules. Coherent electron transfer at large bias voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Theories of in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) of molecules with redox levels near the substrate and tip Fermi levels point to 'spectroscopic' current-overpotential features. Prominent features require a narrow 'probing tip', i.e. a small bias voltage, eV(bias), compared with the...... substrate and tip Fermi levels. STM here involves coherent two-step interfacial electron transfer between the redox level and the enclosing substrate and tip. We have also extended previous experimental in situ STM studies of the blue copper protein Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin, adsorbed on Au(111), to...

  4. Atomic-scale structure of dislocations revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy and molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper; Morgenstern, K.; Schiøtz, Jakob; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Braun, K.F.; Rieder, K.H.; Laegsgaard, E.; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    The intersection between dislocations and a Ag(111) surface has been studied using an interplay of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and molecular dynamics. Whereas the STM provides atomically resolved information about the surface structure and Burgers vectors of the dislocations, the...... simulations can be used to determine dislocation structure and orientation in the near-surface region. In a similar way, the subsurface structure of other extended defects can be studied. The simulations show dislocations to reorient the partials in the surface region leading to an increased splitting width...

  5. Direct observation of long chain alkane bilayer films on graphite by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watel, G.; Thibaudau, F.; Cousty, J.

    1993-01-01

    The interface between a solution of hexatriacontane (n-C 36H 74) in decane and the basal plane of graphite has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy at room temperature. For the first time, we show that a second layer which is rotated by 60° with respect to the first layer may grow at the interface. We demonstrate that the carbon skeleton of the molecule is parallel to the graphite surface. We propose a model for the arrangement of the molecular layers and an explanation for the origin of the second layer rotation.

  6. Scanning tunneling spectroscopic evidence for granular metallic conductivity in conducting polymeric polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, D; Kim, J; Gallagher, M C; Willis, R F

    1992-06-19

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and point-probe electrical conductivity measurements of electrochemically protonated films of the emeraldine-base form of the conducting polymer, polyaniline are reported. The conductivity varies spatially, dependent on the size (L(M) \\m=~\\ 200 to 300 angstroms) of granular metallic regions which relate directly to the inhomogeneous micromorphology of the electrodeposited films. The normalized conductivity at zero bias is observed to increase with doping, indicating an increase in states at the Fermi level. The STM electronic measurements also show regions of negative differential resistance. Negative differential resistance is observed for all samples, although more frequently on less oxidized samples. PMID:17841086

  7. A low temperature scanning tunneling microscope for electronic and force spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we describe and test a novel way to extend a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with the capability to measure forces. The tuning fork that we use for this is optimized to have a high quality factor and frequency resolution. Moreover, as this technique is fully compatible with the use of bulk tips, it is possible to combine the force measurements with the use of superconductive or magnetic tips, advantageous for electronic spectroscopy. It also allows us to calibrate both the amplitude and the spring constant of the tuning fork easily, in situ and with high precision

  8. Adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with transport measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system at the cleaved InSb surfaces is investigated in magnetic fields up to 14 T using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy combined with transport measurements. We show that an enhanced Zeeman splitting in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is explained by an exchange enhancement of spin splitting and potential disorder, both of which are obtained from the spatially averaged density of states (DOS). Moreover, the Altshuler–Aronov correlation gap is observed in the spatially averaged DOS at 0 T

  9. Selective laser removal of the dimer layer from Si(100) surfaces revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of laser-irradiated Si(100) surfaces shows that the dimerized outermost layer can be selectively removed by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a fluence below the melt threshold. The atoms in the laser-uncovered second layer are close to positions of a bulk terminated (1x1) structure, but with a slight pairing, while dimers retain a (2x1) configuration in the first layer. The pairing distance and fraction of the remaining dimers decrease with increasing laser exposures. The laser-uncovered layer also remains free of vacancies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Fermi-level alignment at metal-carbon nanotube interfaces application to scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Y; Xue, Yongqiang; Datta, Supriyo

    1999-01-01

    At any metal-carbon nanotube interface there is charge transfer and the induced interfacial field determines the position of the carbon nanotube band structure relative to the metal Fermi-level. In the case of a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) supported on a gold substrate, we show that the charge transfers induce a local electrostatic potential perturbation which gives rise to the observed Fermi-level shift in scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements. We also discuss the relevance of this study to recent experiments on carbon nanotube transistors and argue that the Fermi-level alignment will be different for carbon nanotube transistors with low resistance and high resistance contacts.

  11. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. Influence of the tip on measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief introduction of the spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM), its measurement techniques are described based on our recent experimental results. We have observed anomalously high spin contrast for epitaxially grown Mn(001)/Fe(001) samples. This phenomenon can be attributed to a single atom or a cluster of Mn attached to the apex of the thin film Fe tip. This interpretation is supported by a recent first-principle calculation of model magnetic tips. These results stress the importance of the identification of the magnetic tip and its precise control at an atomic level for the purpose of SP-STM measurement. (author)

  12. Illuminating structural transformation of Ir(110): A high-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-temperature scanning tunneling microscope investigation of Ir(110) reveals that the originally {331} faceted room-temperature surface flattens upon heating to form (1x3)+(1x1) and eventually (1x2) missing row reconstructed terraces at about 800 K, thus finally resolving a long-standing controversy on its equilibrium configuration. The surprising structural transformations can be explained by a surface stress related mechanism that is consistent also with the reconstruction behavior of the other low index planes of the noble metals

  13. Photochemical Reactions in Self-Assembled Organic Monolayers Characterized by using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Li, Min; Kang, ShiZhao

    2016-03-16

    Research on the supramolecular self-assembly behavior at interfaces is of great importance to improving the performance of nanodevices that are based on optical functional materials. In this Minireview, several photoinduced isomerization and polymerization reactions in self-assembled organic monolayers on surfaces are discussed. Typical organic molecules contain azobenzene, alkynyl, or olefins groups. The feature surface base is a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface or a gold surface. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is used as a strong tool to characterize new species' structures before and after illumination. PMID:26797865

  14. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy studies of angle-dependent van Hove singularities on twisted graphite surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Luo, Hong

    2013-12-01

    Slightly misoriented surface graphene layer on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) can result in Moir patterns (MP). Two van Hove singularity (VHS) peaks in the density of states are observed with scanning tunneling spectroscopy on a series of the MPs with different periods on HOPG surface, flanking the Fermi energy. The energy difference between the two VHS peaks (?EVHS) is linearly proportional to the sine of interlayer rotation angle. A similar relation between ?EVHS and MP periods has recently been reported on twisted graphene layers. Compared to the case of twisted graphene layers, the Fermi velocity of MPs on a HOPG surface is found to be larger, and the interlayer hopping is enhanced.

  15. Laser-induced scanning tunneling microscopy: Linear excitation of the junction plasmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonhee; Perdue, Shawn M.; Whitmore, Desiré; Apkarian, V. Ara

    2010-09-01

    We introduce the cross-polarized double-beat method for localized excitation of the junction plasmon of a scanning tunneling microscope with femtosecond laser pulses. We use two pulse trains derived from a Ti:sapphire laser operating at a repetition frequency of fs=76 MHz, with a relative shift between their carrier frequencies ωa/2π=fs+fb controlled with an acousto-optic modulator. The trains are cross-polarized and collinearly focused on the junction, ensuring constant radiation flux. The anisotropic susceptibility of the junction plasmon mixes the fields, which modulate the tunneling current at fb (the difference between carrier beat and repetition frequency) at base-band frequencies that can be used for direct detection of the tunneling current. The interferometric cross-correlation of the pulses and the polarization dependence of the mixing identify the coupling to the radiation to be through the coherent z-displacement of the tip plasmon. Single Ag atoms are used to demonstrate microscopy under irradiation. In the linear coupling regime, the laser-induced displacement of the plasmon is operationally indistinguishable from the mechanical displacement of the junction gap.

  16. Total quantitative recording of elemental maps and spectra with a scanning microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of data recording and analysis has been developed by means of which simultaneously all data from a scanning instrument such as a microprobe can be quantitatively recorded and permanently stored, including spectral outputs from several detectors. Only one scanning operation is required on the specimen. Analysis is then performed on the stored data, which contain quantitative information on distributions of all elements and spectra of all regions

  17. Wind Tunnel Testing of a One-Dimensional Laser Beam Scanning and Laser Sheet Approach to Shock Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokars, Roger; Adamovsky, Grigory; Anderson, Robert; Hirt, Stefanie; Huang, John; Floyd, Bertram

    2012-01-01

    A 15- by 15-cm supersonic wind tunnel application of a one-dimensional laser beam scanning approach to shock sensing is presented. The measurement system design allowed easy switching between a focused beam and a laser sheet mode for comparison purposes. The scanning results were compared to images from the tunnel Schlieren imaging system. The tests revealed detectable changes in the laser beam in the presence of shocks. The results lend support to the use of the one-dimensional scanning beam approach for detecting and locating shocks in a flow, but some issues must be addressed in regards to noise and other limitations of the system.

  18. Optical spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy studies of molecular adsorbates and anisotropic ultrathin films. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemminger, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    The bonding, chemistry and ordering of molecular adsorbates on well defined single crystal surfaces and in ultrathin films was to be studied in an effort to develop sufficient fundamental understanding to allow the controlled preparation of anisotropic ultrathin films of organic monolayers. In this research the authors combine the use of optical probes (Raman spectroscopy, laser induced thermal desorption with Fourier transform mass spectrometry detection) with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and conventional methods of UHV surface science (Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and thermal desorption spectroscopy). The conventional surface probes provide well tested methods for the preparation and characterization of single crystal substrates. The optical probes used in the experiments provide powerful methods for the molecular identification of adsorbates in monolayers and ultrathin films. Scanning tunneling microscopy provides one with the ability to determine the detailed molecular level ordering of the molecular adsorbates. The emphasis of this research is on more complex molecular absorbates some of which are monomer precursors to ultrathin polymer films. Enhanced methods of Raman spectroscopy have been developed for the study of monolayer adsorbates on surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum environments. This report gives an overview of recent research results, including the construction of UHV variable temperature STM, analysis of STM images, growth and chemistry of intermetallic single crystal ultrathin films, and electron beam induced chemistry of tetracyanoquinodimethane.

  19. Atomic-scale mapping of electronic structures across heterointerfaces by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ya-Ping; Huang, Bo-Chao; Shih, Min-Chuan; Huang, Po-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Interfacial science has received much attention recently based on the development of state-of-the-art analytical tools that can create and manipulate the charge, spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom at interfaces. Motivated by the importance of nanoscale interfacial science that governs device operation, we present a technique to probe the electronic characteristics of heterointerfaces with atomic resolution. In this work, the interfacial characteristics of heteroepitaxial structures are investigated and the fundamental mechanisms that pertain in these systems are elucidated through cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (XSTM). The XSTM technique is employed here to directly observe epitaxial interfacial structures and probe local electronic properties with atomic-level capability. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy experiments with atomic precision provide insight into the origin and spatial distribution of electronic properties across heterointerfaces. The first part of this report provides a brief description of the cleavage technique and spectroscopy analysis in XSTM measurements. The second part addresses interfacial electronic structures of several model heterostructures in current condensed matter research using XSTM. Topics to be discussed include high-κ‘s/III-V’s semiconductors, polymer heterojunctions, and complex oxide heterostructures, which are all material systems whose investigation using this technique is expected to benefit the research community. Finally, practical aspects and perspectives of using XSTM in interface science are presented.

  20. Submolecular Electronic Mapping of Single Cysteine Molecules by in Situ Scanning Tunneling Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Nazmutdinov, R. R.; Zinkicheva, T. T.; Bronshtein, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    We have used L-Cysteine (Cys) as a model system to study the surface electronic structures of single molecules at the submolecular level in aqueous buffer solution by a combination of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (in situ STM), electrochemistry including voltammetry and chronocou......We have used L-Cysteine (Cys) as a model system to study the surface electronic structures of single molecules at the submolecular level in aqueous buffer solution by a combination of electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (in situ STM), electrochemistry including voltammetry and...... tip. The computational images recast as constant-current-height profiles show that the most favorable molecular orientation is the adsorption of cysteine as a radical in zwitterionic form located on the bridge between the Au(I 10) atomic rows and with the amine and carboxyl group toward the solution...... bulk. The correlation between physical location and electronic contrast of the adsorbed molecules was also revealed by the computational data. The present study shows that cysteine packing in the adlayer on Au(110) from the liquid environment is in contrast to that from the ultrahigh-vacuum environment...

  1. Study of the resistive switching of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageev, O. A.; Blinov, Yu. F.; Il'in, O. I.; Konoplev, B. G.; Rubashkina, M. V.; Smirnov, V. A.; Fedotov, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of an external electric field on the electromechanical properties and regularities of the resistive switching of a vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VA CNT) has been studied experimentally using scanning tunneling microscopy. It has been shown that the VA CNT resistivity ratio in the high- and low-resistance states is higher than 25 as the distance between the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) probe and the VA CNT is 1 nm at a voltage of 8 V and depends on the voltage applied between the probe and the VA CNT. The proposed mechanism of resistive switching of VA CNTs is based on an instantaneous deformation and induction of a VA CNT internal electric field as a result of the sharp change in the time derivative of the external electric field strength. The obtained results can be used for the design and fabrication of resistive energy-efficient memory elements with a high density of storage cells on the basis of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes.

  2. Bulk crystalline copper electrodeposition on polycrystalline gold surfaces observed by in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1994-01-01

    Bulk copper electrodeposition onto technical gold surfaces in electrolytes of 0.05 M H2SO4 and 1 mM CuSO4 was investigated by in-situ scanning tunnelling microscopy at fixed overpotentials. At potentials between -60 and -30 mV the growth of bulk copper proceeds in cycles of nucleation, agglomerat......Bulk copper electrodeposition onto technical gold surfaces in electrolytes of 0.05 M H2SO4 and 1 mM CuSO4 was investigated by in-situ scanning tunnelling microscopy at fixed overpotentials. At potentials between -60 and -30 mV the growth of bulk copper proceeds in cycles of nucleation......, agglomeration and crystallization. Crystalline copper is seen as involving an intermediate stage in the progress of growth. The final stage in the growth involves an equilibrium of copper electrochemically dissolving and precipitating. The drift velocity was measured for a gold surface subjected to flame...... annealing and subsequently installed in the cell compartment. It was found that the drift velocity decays with time in an exponential-like manner, and a 70 min waiting time before experiments with atomic resolution is recommended. Atomic resolution on Au(111) has been obtained, and an apparent surface...

  3. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Two-Dimensional Ordering at the Liquid Crystal-Graphite Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy was used to study the self assembled two dimensional structure of ferroelectric liquid crystals physiadsorbed onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Five materials were studied. MDW 74, MDW 75, MDW 291, and MDW 365 are all stereoisomers with three chiral centers. Each possesses a phenyl benzoate core, an epoxide ring and two alkyl tails. W7 was also studied. It has the same core but has a saturated ether instead of an epoxide in the short tail and contains only one chiral center. These materials were deposited onto graphite and the first adsorbed monolayer was imaged by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy. All form two dimensional crystals on this surface which were resolved with near atomic resolution. Core regions are distinguishable from tail regions because of enhanced tunneling through core regions which causes them to image brightly. The hydrogens on the alkyl tails of the molecules fit almost exactly into the holes in the honeycomb graphite surface. This interaction is thought to anchor the molecules to the surface and determine the packing structure. The molecules form a heteroepitaxial monolayer on the graphite. The observed two dimensional crystals are composed of molecular dimers with the molecules oriented antiparallel. The crystals exhibit P2 symmetry. Orientational grain boundaries, slip planes, twinning and polymorphism are all observed. W7 was observed with a truly crystalline phase and a phase of one dimensional crystalline rows with variable inter-row registration. This phase is best described as one dimensional stacking disordered. The location of neighboring rows is limited to three sites each separated by one graphite unit cell. The relative displacements between neighboring rows show nearest neighbor and next nearest neighbor interactions. This can be modeled using a one dimensional three state Potts model. The boundary between these two phases is dynamic. An exact registration scheme on the graphite is proposed based on the lateral and angular measurements from these images.

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of sodium-chloride overlayers on the stepped Cu(311) surface: Experimental and theoretical study

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, F E; Repp, J; Meyer, G

    2005-01-01

    The physical properties of ultrathin NaCl overlayers on the stepped Cu(311) surface have been characterized using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy, and density functional calculations. Simulations of STM images and differential conductance spectrum were based on the Tersoff-Hamann approximation for tunneling with corrections for the modified tunneling barrier at larger voltages and calculated Kohn-Sham states. Characteristic features observed in the STM images can be directly related to calculated electronic and geometric properties of the overlayers. The measured apparent barrier heights for the mono-, bi-, and trilayers of NaCl and the corresponding adsorption-induced changes in the work function, as obtained from the distance dependence of the tunneling current, are well reproduced by and understood from the calculated results. The measurements revealed a large reduction of the tunneling conductance in a wide voltage region, resembling a band gap. However, the simulated spectrum showed ...

  5. Scanning magnetic tunnel junction microscope for high-resolution imaging of remanent magnetization fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, E. A.; Bruno, A. C.; Carvalho, H. R.; Weiss, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Scanning magnetic microscopy is a new methodology for mapping magnetic fields with high spatial resolution and field sensitivity. An important goal has been to develop high-performance instruments that do not require cryogenic technology due to its high cost, complexity, and limitation on sensor-to-sample distance. Here we report the development of a low-cost scanning magnetic microscope based on commercial room-temperature magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors that typically achieves spatial resolution better than 7 µm. By comparing different bias and detection schemes, optimal performance was obtained when biasing the MTJ sensor with a modulated current at 1.0 kHz in a Wheatstone bridge configuration while using a lock-in amplifier in conjunction with a low-noise custom-made preamplifier. A precision horizontal (x-y) scanning stage comprising two coupled nanopositioners controls the position of the sample and a linear actuator adjusts the sensor-to-sample distance. We obtained magnetic field sensitivities better than 150 nT/Hz1/2 between 0.1 and 10 Hz, which is a critical frequency range for scanning magnetic microscopy. This corresponds to a magnetic moment sensitivity of 10-14 A m2, a factor of 100 better than achievable with typical commercial superconducting moment magnetometers. It also represents an improvement in sensitivity by a factor between 10 and 30 compared to similar scanning MTJ microscopes based on conventional bias-detection schemes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument, two polished thin sections of representative geological samples were scanned along with a synthetic sample containing magnetic microparticles. The instrument is usable for a diversity of applications that require mapping of samples at room temperature to preserve magnetic properties or viability, including paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, nondestructive evaluation of materials, and biological assays.

  6. Scanning magnetic tunnel junction microscope for high-resolution imaging of remanent magnetization fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning magnetic microscopy is a new methodology for mapping magnetic fields with high spatial resolution and field sensitivity. An important goal has been to develop high-performance instruments that do not require cryogenic technology due to its high cost, complexity, and limitation on sensor-to-sample distance. Here we report the development of a low-cost scanning magnetic microscope based on commercial room-temperature magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors that typically achieves spatial resolution better than 7 µm. By comparing different bias and detection schemes, optimal performance was obtained when biasing the MTJ sensor with a modulated current at 1.0 kHz in a Wheatstone bridge configuration while using a lock-in amplifier in conjunction with a low-noise custom-made preamplifier. A precision horizontal (x–y) scanning stage comprising two coupled nanopositioners controls the position of the sample and a linear actuator adjusts the sensor-to-sample distance. We obtained magnetic field sensitivities better than 150 nT/Hz1/2 between 0.1 and 10 Hz, which is a critical frequency range for scanning magnetic microscopy. This corresponds to a magnetic moment sensitivity of 10–14 A m2, a factor of 100 better than achievable with typical commercial superconducting moment magnetometers. It also represents an improvement in sensitivity by a factor between 10 and 30 compared to similar scanning MTJ microscopes based on conventional bias-detection schemes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument, two polished thin sections of representative geological samples were scanned along with a synthetic sample containing magnetic microparticles. The instrument is usable for a diversity of applications that require mapping of samples at room temperature to preserve magnetic properties or viability, including paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, nondestructive evaluation of materials, and biological assays. (paper)

  7. An approach to long-range electron transfer mechanisms in metalloproteins: In situ scanning tunneling microscopy with submolecular resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Esben P.; Jens E. T. Andersen; Kharkats, Yu. I.; Kuznetsov, A. M.; Nichols, R.J.; Zhang, J.-D.; Ulstrup, Jens

    1999-01-01

    In situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of redox molecules, in aqueous solution, shows interesting analogies and differences compared with interfacial electrochemical electron transfer (ET) and ET in homogeneous solution. This is because the redox level represents a deep indentation in the tunnel barrier, with possible temporary electronic population. Particular perspectives are that both the bias voltage and the overvoltage relative to a reference electrode ca...

  8. Terthiophene on Au(111: A scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berndt Koslowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Terthiophene (3T molecules adsorbed on herringbone (HB reconstructed Au(111 surfaces in the low coverage regime were investigated by means of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM and spectroscopy (STS under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The 3T molecules adsorb preferentially in fcc regions of the HB reconstruction with their longer axis oriented perpendicular to the soliton walls of the HB and at maximum mutual separation. The latter observation points to a repulsive interaction between molecules probably due to parallel electrical dipoles formed during adsorption. Constant-separation (I-V and constant-current (z-V STS clearly reveal the highest occupied (HOMO and lowest unoccupied (LUMO molecular orbitals, which are found at −1.2 eV and +2.3 eV, respectively. The HOMO–LUMO gap corresponds to that of a free molecule, indicating a rather weak interaction between 3T and Au(111. According to conductivity maps, the HOMO and LUMO are inhomogeneously distributed over the adsorbed 3T, with the HOMO being located at the ends of the linear molecule, and the LUMO symmetrically with respect to the longer axis of the molecule at the center of its flanks. Analysis of spectroscopic data reveals details of the contrast mechanism of 3T/Au(111 in STM. For that, the Shockley-like surface state of Au(111 plays an essential role and appears shifted outwards from the surface in the presence of the molecule. As a consequence, the molecule can be imaged even at a tunneling bias within its HOMO–LUMO gap. A more quantitative analysis of this detail resolves a previous discrepancy between the fairly small apparent STM height of 3T molecules (1.4–2.0 nm, depending on tunneling bias and a corresponding larger value of 3.5 nm based on X-ray standing wave analysis. An additionally observed linear decrease of the differential tunneling barrier at positive bias when determined on top of a 3T molecule is compared to the bias independent barrier obtained on bare Au(111 surfaces. This striking difference of the barrier behavior with and without adsorbed molecules is interpreted as indicating an adsorption-induced dimensionality transition of the involved tunneling processes.

  9. The tip-sample water bridge and light emission from scanning tunnelling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light emission spectrum from a scanning tunnelling microscope (LESTM) is investigated as a function of relative humidity and shown to provide a novel and sensitive means for probing the growth and properties of a water meniscus on the nanometre scale. An empirical model of the light emission process is formulated and applied successfully to replicate the decay in light intensity and spectral changes observed with increasing relative humidity. The modelling indicates a progressive water filling of the tip-sample junction with increasing humidity or, more pertinently, of the volume of the localized surface plasmons responsible for light emission; it also accounts for the effect of asymmetry in structuring of the water molecules with respect to the polarity of the applied bias. This is juxtaposed with the case of a non-polar liquid in the tip-sample nanocavity where no polarity dependence of the light emission is observed. In contrast to the discrete detection of the presence/absence of a water bridge in other scanning probe experiments through measurement of the feedback parameter for instrument control, LESTM offers a means of continuously monitoring the development of the water bridge with sub-nanometre sensitivity. The results are relevant to applications such as dip-pen nanolithography and electrochemical scanning probe microscopy.

  10. Temperature dependence of the superconducting proximity effect quantified by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we present the first systematic study on the temperature dependence of the extension of the superconducting proximity effect in a 1–2 atomic layer thin metallic film, surrounding a superconducting Pb island. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) measurements reveal the spatial variation of the local density of state on the film from 0.38 up to 1.8 K. In this temperature range the superconductivity of the island is almost unaffected and shows a constant gap of a 1.20 ± 0.03 meV. Using a superconducting Nb-tip a constant value of the proximity length of 17 ± 3 nm at 0.38 and 1.8 K is found. In contrast, experiments with a normal conductive W-tip indicate an apparent decrease of the proximity length with increasing temperature. This result is ascribed to the thermal broadening of the occupation of states of the tip, and it does not reflect an intrinsic temperature dependence of the proximity length. Our tunneling spectroscopy experiments shed fresh light on the fundamental issue of the temperature dependence of the proximity effect for atomic monolayers, where the intrinsic temperature dependence of the proximity effect is comparably weak

  11. Determination of the DOS in Nb(110) from scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the electronic structure of Nb(110)/Al2O3(0001) by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) at 6.2 K. To enable a comprehensive analysis of the local electronic structure of niobium, we employ standard I-V as well as I-z and dI/dz-z spectroscopy. The experimental results will be discussed in the framework of a recently developed method for recovering the electronic density of states (DOS) from STS data. Based on the one-dimensional WKB approximation this method should enable recovering the DOS of the sample semi-quantitatively, and it should allow principally a deconvolution of tip and sample DOS. In this contribution we first elucidate the effect of data evaluation on the recovered DOS separating contributions from the bulk and the surface. We then try to deconvolute the DOS of tip and sample at least partially by comparing I-V data and differential barrier measurements taken at different locations of the sample with the same tunneling tip

  12. Electron-phonon coupling in C{sub 60} as revealed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Katharina J.; Schulze, Gunnar; Pascual, Jose Ignacio [Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany); Frederiksen, Thomas; Arnau, Andres [Donostia International Physics Center, Donostia (Spain); Monturet, Sergio [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Lorente, Nicolas [Centro de Investigaciones en Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Bellaterra (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Electron-phonon coupling is of major importance for charge transport through single molecule tunneling junctions. In most experimental implementations of molecular junctions the electronic coupling of the molecular orbitals with substrate states leads to a significant broadening, thus obscuring electron-phonon coupling effects. Here, we investigate the electronic structure of single C{sub 60} molecules adsorbed on top of a self-assembled pattern of alternating tetraphenyladamantane and C{sub 60}. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy reveals that these molecules exhibit properties similar to the free molecule, such as a large gap of 3.7 eV and a narrow LUMO resonance of only {approx}60 meV line width. The LUMO resonance is followed by a broad weaker peak at about 240 meV higher energy. By density functional calculations including the Jahn-Teller effect, we show that this broad feature is induced by a complex coupling of the C{sub 60} vibrational eigenmodes with the LUMO resonance.

  13. Atomic-scale electrochemistry on the surface of a manganite by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Rama K., E-mail: rvv@ornl.gov; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); ORNL Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Gianfrancesco, Anthony G. [UT/ORNL Bredesen Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); ORNL Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); UT/ORNL Bredesen Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2015-04-06

    The doped manganese oxides (manganites) have been widely studied for their colossal magnetoresistive effects, for potential applications in oxide spintronics, electroforming in resistive switching devices, and are materials of choice as cathodes in modern solid oxide fuel cells. However, little experimental knowledge of the dynamics of the surfaces of perovskite manganites at the atomic scale exists. Here, through in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we demonstrate atomic resolution on samples of La{sub 0.625}Ca{sub 0.375}MnO{sub 3} grown on (001) SrTiO{sub 3} by pulsed laser deposition. Furthermore, by applying triangular DC waveforms of increasing amplitude to the STM tip, and measuring the tunneling current, we demonstrate the ability to both perform and monitor surface electrochemical processes at the atomic level, including formation of oxygen vacancies and removal and deposition of individual atomic units or clusters. Our work paves the way for better understanding of surface oxygen reactions in these systems.

  14. Temperature dependence of the superconducting proximity effect quantified by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stępniak, A.; Caminale, M.; Leon Vanegas, A. A.; Oka, H.; Sander, D., E-mail: sander@mpi-halle.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Kirschner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Here, we present the first systematic study on the temperature dependence of the extension of the superconducting proximity effect in a 1–2 atomic layer thin metallic film, surrounding a superconducting Pb island. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) measurements reveal the spatial variation of the local density of state on the film from 0.38 up to 1.8 K. In this temperature range the superconductivity of the island is almost unaffected and shows a constant gap of a 1.20 ± 0.03 meV. Using a superconducting Nb-tip a constant value of the proximity length of 17 ± 3 nm at 0.38 and 1.8 K is found. In contrast, experiments with a normal conductive W-tip indicate an apparent decrease of the proximity length with increasing temperature. This result is ascribed to the thermal broadening of the occupation of states of the tip, and it does not reflect an intrinsic temperature dependence of the proximity length. Our tunneling spectroscopy experiments shed fresh light on the fundamental issue of the temperature dependence of the proximity effect for atomic monolayers, where the intrinsic temperature dependence of the proximity effect is comparably weak.

  15. Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy -- a local and direct probe of the superconducting order parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hikari; Dynes, Robert; Barber Jr., Richard. P.; Ono, S.; Ando, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Direct measurements of the superconducting superfluid on the surface of vacuum-cleaved Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta (BSCCO) samples are reported. These measurements are accomplished via Josephson tunneling into the sample using a novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM) equipped with a superconducting tip. The spatial resolution of the STM of lateral distances less than the superconducting coherence length allows it to reveal local inhomogeneities in the pair wavefunction of the BSCCO. Instrument performance is demonstrated first with Josephson measurements of Pb films followed by the layered superconductor NbSe2. The relevant measurement parameter, the Josephson ICRN product, is discussed within the context of both BCS superconductors and the high transition temperature superconductors. The local relationship between the ICRN product and the quasiparticle density of states (DOS) gap are presented within the context of phase diagrams for BSCCO. Excessive current densities can be produced with these measurements and have been found to alter the local DOS in the BSCCO. Systematic studies of this effect were performed to determine the practical measurement limits for these experiments. Alternative methods for preparation of the BSCCO surface are also discussed.

  16. Temperature dependence of the superconducting proximity effect quantified by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stępniak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present the first systematic study on the temperature dependence of the extension of the superconducting proximity effect in a 1–2 atomic layer thin metallic film, surrounding a superconducting Pb island. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS measurements reveal the spatial variation of the local density of state on the film from 0.38 up to 1.8 K. In this temperature range the superconductivity of the island is almost unaffected and shows a constant gap of a 1.20 ± 0.03 meV. Using a superconducting Nb-tip a constant value of the proximity length of 17 ± 3 nm at 0.38 and 1.8 K is found. In contrast, experiments with a normal conductive W-tip indicate an apparent decrease of the proximity length with increasing temperature. This result is ascribed to the thermal broadening of the occupation of states of the tip, and it does not reflect an intrinsic temperature dependence of the proximity length. Our tunneling spectroscopy experiments shed fresh light on the fundamental issue of the temperature dependence of the proximity effect for atomic monolayers, where the intrinsic temperature dependence of the proximity effect is comparably weak.

  17. Interfacial self-assembly of amino acids and peptides: Scanning tunneling microscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Liu, Yibiao; Zhang, Xueji

    2011-12-01

    Proteins play important roles in human daily life. To take advantage of the lessons learned from nature, it is essential to investigate the self-assembly of subunits of proteins, i.e., amino acids and polypeptides. Due to its high resolution and versatility of working environment, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a powerful tool for studying interfacial molecular assembly structures. This review is intended to reflect the progress in studying interfacial self-assembly of amino acids and peptides by STM. In particular, we focus on environment-induced polymorphism, chiral recognition, and coadsorption behavior with molecular templates. These studies would be highly beneficial to research endeavors exploring the mechanism and nanoscale-controlling molecular assemblies of amino acids and polypeptides on surfaces, understanding the origin of life, unravelling the essence of disease at the molecular level and deeming what is necessary for the ``bottom-up'' nanofabrication of molecular devices and biosensors being constructed with useful properties and desired performance.

  18. Magnetic fingerprint of individual Fe4 molecular magnets under compression by a scanning tunnelling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jacob A. J.; Malavolti, Luigi; Lanzilotto, Valeria; Mannini, Matteo; Yan, Shichao; Ninova, Silviya; Totti, Federico; Rolf-Pissarczyk, Steffen; Cornia, Andrea; Sessoli, Roberta; Loth, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) present a promising avenue to develop spintronic technologies. Addressing individual molecules with electrical leads in SMM-based spintronic devices remains a ubiquitous challenge: interactions with metallic electrodes can drastically modify the SMM's properties by charge transfer or through changes in the molecular structure. Here, we probe electrical transport through individual Fe4 SMMs using a scanning tunnelling microscope at 0.5 K. Correlation of topographic and spectroscopic information permits identification of the spin excitation fingerprint of intact Fe4 molecules. Building from this, we find that the exchange coupling strength within the molecule's magnetic core is significantly enhanced. First-principles calculations support the conclusion that this is the result of confinement of the molecule in the two-contact junction formed by the microscope tip and the sample surface.

  19. Elemental structure in Si(110)-'16x2' revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic structures of the clean Si(110)-'16x2' surface are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). High-resolution STM images reveal that the elemental structure in the '16x2' is a pair of pentagons. In the empty-states images the elemental structure is clearly resolved in ten protrusions, while in eight in the filled-states images. In order to clarify the atomic arrangement of the pentagons, we pay attention to the disordered area where the elemental structures are isolated on the bulk-terminated surface. The bulk-terminated surface structure, on which the pentagons are located, is well understood by the rotational-relaxation structural model. In consideration of the registry of the pentagon for the rotational-relaxation structure, a 'tetramer-interstitial' model is proposed for the elemental structure, together with three other possible structural models

  20. Oxidation of GaSb(100) and its control studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic-scale knowledge and control of oxidation of GaSb(100), which is a potential interface for energy-efficient transistors, are still incomplete, largely due to an amorphous structure of GaSb(100) oxides. We elucidate these issues with scanning-tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The unveiled oxidation-induced building blocks cause defect states above Fermi level around the conduction-band edge. By interconnecting the results to previous photoemission findings, we suggest that the oxidation starts with substituting second-layer Sb sites by oxygen. Adding small amount of indium on GaSb(100), resulting in a (4 × 2)-In reconstruction, before oxidation produces a previously unreported, crystalline oxidized layer of (1 × 3)-O free of gap states

  1. Magnetotransport in Graphene on the Nano Scale measured by Scanning Tunneling Potentiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Philip; Druga, Thomas; Kotzott, Thomas; Ulbrich, Rainer; Schneider, Alexander; Wenderoth, Martin

    The method of scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP) has been introduced by Muralt and Pohl as a technique for mapping the electrochemical potential locally. Here we present a new home-built low-temperature STP setup with applicable magnetic field of up to 6T to study the spatial evolution of the voltage drop at extended defects in graphene with high-resolution. We show that the voltage drop at a monolayer-bilayer boundary in graphene clearly extends spatially up to a few nanometers into the bilayer and hence is not located strictly at the structural defect. Moreover, different scattering mechanisms can be disentangled. Besides, we perform magnetotransport STP measurements mapping the local electrochemical potential as a function of the applied magnetic field. This allows us to identify localized and delocalized contributions to the magnetoresistance in epitaxial-grown graphene and to reveal the contribution of defects. This work was supported by the priority program 1459 ``Graphene'' of the German Science Foundation.

  2. Surface structure of niobium-dioxide overlayer on niobium(100) identified by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; An, B.; Xu, X.; Fukuyama, S.; Yokogawa, K.; Yoshimura, M.

    2001-05-01

    The surface structures of an oxide overlayer on Nb(100) single crystal formed by numerous cycles of Ar-ion sputtering and flash annealing at 1973 K in an ultra-high-vacuum chamber have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. Flat terraces with a monatomic step height of Nb(100) are observed; where two orthogonal domains are alternately evident. A ladder-like (310) structure of Nb(100) with no long-range order is identified at atomic resolution in the domain on the terrace. The ladder-like (310) structure is interpreted to be a modulated NbO2(010) overlayer on the Nb(100) surface and an atomic structural model of the ladder-like (310) structure is proposed.

  3. Covalently Immobilised Cytochrome C Imaged by In Situ Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Olesen, Klaus G.; Danilov, Alexey I.; Foverskov, Carl Erik; Møller, Per; Ulstrup, Jens

    1997-01-01

    further link to glutaric dialdehyde which immobilises the protein molecules. Cyt c is immobilised on Au(ll!) by reaction with N-acetylcystein and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide. Imaging by in situ STM in a 20 mM phosphate buffer electrolyte with a Au/AuOx reference electrode could then be......In situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging of cytochrome c (cyt c) on polycrystalline Pt surfaces and on Au(lll) was achieved first by covalent immobilisation of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTS) brought to react with oxide present on the Pt surfaces. Covalently bound 3-APTS forms a...... achieved, Protein was identified as hemispherical features on the surface with close to molecular resolution and with a quite different character compared both to the bare metal surfaces and to metal surfaces with only linker molecules attached. No subunits or side chains were visible, but the protein...

  4. Voltammetry and In Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Cytochrome c Nitrite Reductase on Au(111)-Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwyer, James; Zhang, Jingdong; Butt, Julea; Ulstrup, Jens

    2006-01-01

    density and orientational distribution of NrfA molecules are disclosed. The submonolayer coverage resolved by in situ STM is readily reconciled with the failure to detect nonturnover signals in cyclic voltammetry of the NrfA films. The molecular structures show a range of lateral dimensions. These are...... suggestive of a distribution of orientations that could account for the otherwise anomalously low turnover number calculated for the total population of adsorbed NrfA molecules when compared with that determined for solutions of NrfA. Thus, comparison of the voltammetric signals and in situ STM images offers...... enzyme undergoes direct electron exchange with the electrode. The adsorbed NrfA has been imaged to molecular resolution by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (in situ STM) under full electrochemical potential control and under conditions where the enzyme is electrocatalytically active. Details of the...

  5. Electronic structure of nanoscale iron oxide particles measured by scanning tunneling and photoelectron spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    Preisinger, M; Rudolf, T; Horn, S; Strongin, D R

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure of nano-sized iron oxide by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) as well as by photoelectron spectroscopy. Nano particles were produced by thermal treatment of Ferritin molecules containing a self-assembled core of iron oxide. Depending on the thermal treatment we were able to prepare different phases of iron oxide nanoparticles resembling gamma-Fe2O3, alpha-Fe2O3, and a phase which apparently contains both gamma-Fe2O3 and alpha-Fe2O3. Changes to the electronic structure of these materials were studied under reducing conditions. We show that the surface band gap of the electronic excitation spectrum can differ from that of bulk material and is dominated by surface effects.

  6. InAs/GaAs(001) molecular beam epitaxial growth in a scanning tunnelling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth on InAs on GaAs(001) has attracted great interest and investigation over the past few decades primarily due to the opto-electronic properties of the self-assembled quantum dot (QD) arrays formed. Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) has been extensively employed to investigate the complicated and spontaneous mechanism of QD growth via molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Classically, combined MBE-STM requires quenching the sample after growth and transferring it to an arsenic-free high vacuum chamber which houses the STM system. However, without access to the phenomenon as a dynamic process a basic understanding remains elusive. In order to access surface dynamics, MBE and STM must be combined into a single element. The system herein discussed allows the operation of MBE sources in an STM system relating to InAs/GaAs(001) surfaces.

  7. Hydrogen adsorption on Ru(001) studied by Scanning TunnelingMicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatarkhanov, Mous; Rose, Franck; Fomin, Evgeny; Ogletree, D.Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-01-18

    The adsorption of hydrogen on Ru(001) was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy at temperatures around 50 K. Hydrogen was found to adsorb dissociatively forming different ordered structures as a function of coverage. In order of increasing coverage {theta} in monolayers (ML) these were ({radical}3 x {radical}3)r30{sup o} at {theta} = 0.3 ML; (2 x 1) at {theta} = 0.50 ML, (2 x 2)-3H at {theta} = 0.75, and (1 x 1) at {theta} = 1.00. Some of these structures were observed to coexist at intermediate coverage values. Close to saturation of 1 ML, H-vacancies (unoccupied three fold fcc hollow Ru sites) were observed either as single entities or forming transient aggregations. These vacancies diffuse and aggregate to form active sites for the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen.

  8. Ultra-high vacuum compatible optical chopper system for synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao; Cummings, Marvin; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin; Rosenmann, Daniel; Preissner, Curt; Freeland, John W.; Kersell, Heath; Hla, Saw-Wai; Rose, Volker

    2016-01-01

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  9. Strongly compressed Bi (111) bilayer films on Bi2Se3 studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-thin Bi films show exotic electronic structure and novel quantum effects, especially the widely studied Bi (111) film. Using reflection high-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we studied the structure and morphology evolution of Bi (111) thin films grown on Bi2Se3. A strongly compressed, but quickly released in-plane lattice of Bi (111) is found in the first three bilayers. The first bilayer of Bi shows a fractal growth mode with flat surface, while the second and third bilayer show a periodic buckling due to the strong compression of the in-plane lattice. The lattice slowly changes to its bulk value with further deposition of Bi

  10. Structure investigation of Cellobiohydrolase I from Trichoderma pseudokoningii S38 with a scanning tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Liu, J.; Gao, P. J.; Ma, L. P.; Shi, D. X.; Pang, S. J.

    Cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) was isolated from a cellulolytic fungal strain Trichoderma pseudokoningii S38, and its ultrastructure was investigated with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The STM images showed that the shape of intact CBH I was tadpole-like, consisting of a big head and a long tail. It could be deduced that the head domain was the core protein for the catalytic function, and the long tail was the cellulose binding domain for substrate binding. Thus, for this enzyme molecule, functional differentiation is reflected in the structure peculiarities. This is the first direct observation of the three-dimensional structure of intact CBH I from real space at nanometer scale. The functional mechanism is also discussed.

  11. Low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy on high quality Nb(110) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High quality Nb(110) films were prepared by evaporation onto (0001)oriented sapphire substrates at 850 C and analyzed in situ by Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (LT-STS). In this way, the superconducting gap in the quasi-particle density of states (DOS) of Nb(110) is investigated. The incomplete opening of this gap at 5.3 K can be attributed to the somewhat higher tip temperature of ? 7 K. Significant structures in the I-V data positioned symmetrically around zero energy and matching nicely known phonon energies of Nb indicate strong coupling behavior of this superconductor. These results suggest attempting an evaluation of the corresponding Eliashberg function, ?2F(?).

  12. Strongly compressed Bi (111) bilayer films on Bi2Se3 studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R.; Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L.; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2015-09-01

    Ultra-thin Bi films show exotic electronic structure and novel quantum effects, especially the widely studied Bi (111) film. Using reflection high-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we studied the structure and morphology evolution of Bi (111) thin films grown on Bi2Se3. A strongly compressed, but quickly released in-plane lattice of Bi (111) is found in the first three bilayers. The first bilayer of Bi shows a fractal growth mode with flat surface, while the second and third bilayer show a periodic buckling due to the strong compression of the in-plane lattice. The lattice slowly changes to its bulk value with further deposition of Bi.

  13. Detailed analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy images of the Si(001) reconstructed surface with buckled dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, H; Endo, K; Hirose, K; Mori, Y

    2000-01-01

    The adequate interpretation of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of the clean Si(001) surface is presented. We have performed both STM observations and {\\it ab initio} simulations of STM images for buckled dimers on the clean Si(001) surface. By comparing experimental results with theoretical ones, it is revealed that STM images depend on the sample bias and the tip-sample separation. This enables us to elucidate the relationship between the corrugation in STM images and the atomic structure of buckled dimers. Moreover, to elucidate these changes, we analyze details of the spatial distributions of the $\\pi$, $\\pi^{\\ast}$ surface states and $\\sigma$, $\\sigma^{\\ast}$ Si-Si bond states in the local density of states which contribute to STM images.

  14. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of organic monolayers adsorbed on the rhodium(111) crystal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernota, Paul D.

    1999-08-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy studies were carried out on ordered overlayers on the (111) surface of rhodium. These adsorbates include carbon monoxide (CO), cyclohexane, cyclohexene, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, para-xylene, and meta-xylene. Coadsorbate systems included: CO with ethylidyne, CO with para- and meta-xylene, and para-xylene with meta-xylene. In the case of CO, the structure of the low coverage (2x2) overlayer has been observed. The symmetry of the unit cell in this layer suggests that the CO is adsorbed in the 3-fold hollow sites. There were also two higher coverage surface structures with ({radical}7x{radical}7) unit cells. One of these is composed of trimers of CO and has three CO molecules in each unit cell. The other structure has an additional CO molecule, making a total of four. This extra CO sits on a top site.

  15. Construction of a Versatile Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Kambara, H; Niimi, Y; Fukuyama, H

    2007-01-01

    We constructed a dilution-refrigerator (DR) based ultra-low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (ULT-STM) which works at temperatures down to 20 mK, in magnetic fields up to 6 T and in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Besides these extreme operation conditions, this STM has several unique features not available in other DR based ULT-STMs. One can load STM tips as well as samples with clean surfaces prepared in a UHV environment to an STM head keeping low temperature and UHV conditions. After then, the system can be cooled back to the base temperature within 3 hours. Due to these capabilities, it has a variety of applications not only for cleavable materials but also for almost all conducting materials. The present ULT-STM has also an exceptionally high stability in the presence of magnetic field and even during field sweep. We describe details of its design, performance and applications for low temperature physics.

  16. A theoretical model for single-molecule incoherent scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-molecule scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), with dephasing due to elastic and inelastic scattering, is of some current interest. Motivated by this, we report an extended Hueckel theory (EHT)-based mean-field non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) transport model with electron-phonon scattering treated within the self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA). Furthermore, a procedure based on EHT basis set modification is described. We use this model to study the effect of the temperature-dependent dephasing due to low lying modes in the far-infrared range for which ??BT, on the resonant conduction through the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of a phenyl dithiol molecule bonded to fcc-Au(111) contact. We finally propose to include dephasing in room temperature molecular resonant conduction calculations.

  17. A theoretical model for single-molecule incoherent scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, H [NSF Network for Computational Nanotechnology and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: hr89@cornell.edu

    2008-11-05

    Single-molecule scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), with dephasing due to elastic and inelastic scattering, is of some current interest. Motivated by this, we report an extended Hueckel theory (EHT)-based mean-field non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) transport model with electron-phonon scattering treated within the self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA). Furthermore, a procedure based on EHT basis set modification is described. We use this model to study the effect of the temperature-dependent dephasing due to low lying modes in the far-infrared range for which {Dirac_h}{omega}<

  18. A theoretical model for single-molecule incoherent scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, H.

    2008-11-01

    Single-molecule scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), with dephasing due to elastic and inelastic scattering, is of some current interest. Motivated by this, we report an extended Hckel theory (EHT)-based mean-field non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) transport model with electron-phonon scattering treated within the self-consistent Born approximation (SCBA). Furthermore, a procedure based on EHT basis set modification is described. We use this model to study the effect of the temperature-dependent dephasing due to low lying modes in the far-infrared range for which \\hbar \\omega \\ll k_{\\mathrm {B}}T , on the resonant conduction through the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of a phenyl dithiol molecule bonded to fcc-Au(111) contact. We finally propose to include dephasing in room temperature molecular resonant conduction calculations.

  19. Surface structure and spectroscopy of charge-density wave materials using scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has been used to study the effects of Fe doping on the charge-density wave (CDW) structure in NbSe3 and 1T-TaS2. In NbSe3 small amounts of Fe reduce both CDW gaps by 25--30% and change the relative CDW amplitudes of the high and low temperature CDWs. The CDW amplitudes remain strong on all three chains of the surface unit cell with no evident disorder. In 1T-Fe0.05Ta0.95S2 the Fe introduces substantial disorder in the CDW pattern, but the local CDW amplitude remains strong. The CDW energy gap is reduced by approximately 50% and the resistive anomaly at the commensurate-incommensurate transition is removed. The STM in both the image and spectroscopy modes can detect subtle changes in CDW structure due to impurities

  20. Scanning tunneling microscopy of charge-density waves in NbSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge-density wave (CDW) structure in NbSe3 due to the two independent CDWs has been imaged by scanning tunneling microscopy. As predicted by band structure considerations the CDW modulation is observed to be substantially localized on different chains for the separate CDWs. At 77K where only the high temperature CDW exists a relatively weak modulation with a single component along the /bar b/-axis is observed. At 4.2K the low temperature CDW contributes a much stronger /approximately/4/bar b/0 /times/ 2/rvec c/0 superlattice modulation. The combination of atomic resolution and CDW modulations allows an unambiguous identification of the chain structure to be made. 9 refs., 5 figs

  1. Investigation of laser-induced effects in molecular layers by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafstrm, S.; Schuller, P.; Kowalski, J.; Neumann, R.

    Aiming at the detection of laser-induced currents caused by resonant optical excitation of adsorbed molecules with a scanning tunneling microscope, we have developed a method that provides access to very small laser-induced effects normally hidden in the thermal background. An optical compensation setup based on two lasers with different wavelengths for controlling very precisely the thermal signal, together with a special scheme for signal averaging and interpolation, provides access to laser-induced signals down to <100 fA. We apply this method to molecular films consisting of islands of the dye perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) embedded in the liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB). Under complete compensation of the background, a statistically significant residual laser-induced current has been observed on the PTCDA islands with a magnitude of 125 fArms at a modulated laser intensity of 3.5 kWrms/cm2.

  2. Scanning tunnelling microscopy study of atomic hydrogen adsorption on the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied initial atomic hydrogen adsorption onto Si(111) 7 x 7 adatoms by scanning tunnelling microscopy in an ultrahigh vacuum. Adatom reaction probabilities were measured as a function of atomic hydrogen exposure time for room-temperature and hightemperature surfaces. Hydrogen uptake was well represented by Langmuir adsorption at 361 and 414 K, while depression of uptake was seen at 481 K after one of six adatoms was terminated by hydrogen. Hydrogen adsorption had positive adsorption correlations between adjacent centre adatoms and corner adatoms across the 7 x 7 half unit. These correlations were enhanced at 481 K. In accordance with the positive reaction correlation between these adjacent adatoms, the average number of reacted adatoms in adjacent 7 x 7 half units was also enhanced as the number of reacted adatoms increased in the half unit

  3. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy of semiconductor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of a semiconductor vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) device viewed in cross section on an atomic scale are reported. The strained layer In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs multiple-quantum wells (MQWs) in the laser active region are imaged with atomic resolution. For the first time, the interface roughness of In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs MQWs is revealed by imaging spectroscopically different individual indium and gallium atoms. It was found that STM images can directly map the interface electronic structure of Al0.67Ga0.33As/GaAs multiple layers in the Bragg reflectors of the VCSEL. The images reflect enhanced or reduced interface electron concentration in regions with a spatial extension of ∼100 A. The bias effect is also discussed in the imaging of heterostructures

  4. Measurement of Quantized Conductance in Gallium Using a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. B.; Vandervoort, K. G.

    1998-03-01

    A scanning tunneling microscope was employed to form nanometer diameter wires in gallium in various states. Nanowires form when objects come in and out of contact, much like the filaments that form when you step on a piece of gum and pull your foot away. When nanowires form, quantized steps in conductance occur and can be measured. The low melting point of gallium was utilized to study the quantized conductance dependence on the physical state of the metal. For temperatures adequately below gallium's melting point, quantized effects are seen that correspond to other studies performed on gold, copper, and aluminum. At temperatures near the melting point of gallium, there appears to be a weaker quantum effect. By varying the type of STM tip, the dependence on the contact metal was observed. Statistical analysis of conductance steps was performed and will be discussed.

  5. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of lead sulfide quantum wells fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the use of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to investigate one-dimensional quantum confinement effects in lead sulfide (PbS) thin films. Specifically, quantum confinement effects on the band gap of PbS quantum wells were explored by controlling the PbS film thickness and potential barrier height. PbS quantum well structures with a thickness range of 1-20 nm were fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Two barrier materials were selected based on barrier height: aluminum oxide as a high barrier material and zinc oxide as a low barrier material. Band gap measurements were carried out by STS, and an effective mass theory was developed to compare the experimental results. Our results show that the band gap of PbS thin films increased as the film thickness decreased, and the barrier height increased from 0.45 to 2.19 eV.

  6. Invited Article: Autonomous assembly of atomically perfect nanostructures using a scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major goal of nanotechnology is to develop the capability to arrange matter at will by placing individual atoms at desired locations in a predetermined configuration to build a nanostructure with specific properties or function. The scanning tunneling microscope has demonstrated the ability to arrange the basic building blocks of matter, single atoms, in two-dimensional configurations. An array of various nanostructures has been assembled, which display the quantum mechanics of quantum confined geometries. The level of human interaction needed to physically locate the atom and bring it to the desired location limits this atom assembly technology. Here we report the use of autonomous atom assembly via path planning technology; this allows atomically perfect nanostructures to be assembled without the need for human intervention, resulting in precise constructions in shorter times. We demonstrate autonomous assembly by assembling various quantum confinement geometries using atoms and molecules and describe the benefits of this approach

  7. How the vortex lattice of a superconductor becomes disordered: a study by scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetmayer, M

    2015-01-01

    Order-disorder transitions take place in many physical systems, but observing them in detail in real materials is difficult. In two- or quasi-two-dimensional systems, the transition has been studied by computer simulations and experimentally in electron sheets, dusty plasmas, colloidal and other systems. Here I show the different stages of defect formation in the vortex lattice of a superconductor while it undergoes an order-disorder transition by presenting real-space images of the lattice from scanning tunneling spectroscopy. When the system evolves from the ordered to the disordered state, the predominant kind of defect changes from dislocation pairs to single dislocations, and finally to defect clusters forming grain boundaries. Correlation functions indicate a hexatic-like state preceding the disordered state. The transition in the microscopic vortex distribution is mirrored by the well-known spectacular second peak effect observed in the macroscopic current density of the superconductor. PMID:25784605

  8. Interfacial scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) of chalcogenide/metal hybrid nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Comparing band gaps values obtained optically with STS. • Comparing direct imaging with calculated dimensions. • STS determination of the interfacial band bending of metal/chalcogenide. - Abstract: The electronic structure at the interface of chalcogenide/metal hybrid nanostructure (CdSe–Au tipped) had been studied by UHV scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) technique at room temperature. This nanostructure was synthesized by a phase transfer chemical method. The optical absorption of this hybrid nanostructure was recorded, and the application of the effective mass approximation (EMA) model gave dimensions that were confirmed by the direct measurements using the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as the high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The energy band gap obtained by STS agrees with the values obtained from the optical absorption. Moreover, the STS at the interface of CdSe–Au tipped hybrid nanostructure between CdSe of size about 4.1 ± 0.19 nm and Au tip of size about 3.5 ± 0.29 nm shows a band bending about 0.18 ± 0.03 eV in CdSe down in the direction of the interface. Such a result gives a direct observation of the electron accumulation at the interface of CdSe–Au tipped hybrid nanostructure, consistent with its energy band diagram. The presence of the electron accumulation at the interface of chalcogenides with metals has an important implication for hybrid nanoelectronic devices and the newly developed plasmon/chalcogenide photovoltaic solar energy conversion

  9. Construction of a Dual-Tip Scanning Tunneling Microscope: a Prototype Nanotechnology Workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Mark Alan

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation describes the construction and performance of a dual-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The microscope was built as a prototype nanotechnology workstation, a general purpose instrument designed to give a researcher the ability to investigate and manipulate nanometer scale structures. Chapter One describes the genesis and development of the concept of nanotechnology, from the atomic hypothesis of Democritus to modern developments in synthetic chemistry. Nanometer scale electronics (molecular electronics) is introduced and the state of the art in this field is described. The dual-tip scanning probe microscope is proposed as a way to address individual molecular electronic devices, a key goal in realizing nanometer scale electronic technology. Investigation of microtubules, a proposed nanometer scale intracellular biological information processing system, is also discussed. Chapter Two reviews the history and fundamental physics of STM, along with the related techniques of Field Ion Microscopy (FIM) and Ballistic Electon Emission Microscopy (BEEM). BEEM is used to introduce the physics of the dual -tip STM. Other dual-probe systems are also described. Chapter Three covers the design and construction of the dual-tip STM. Both hardware and software are described in detail. Chapter Four presents the results obtained with the dual-tip STM, including dual-tip images and noise measurements for the electronic circuitry. The last chapter, Chapter Five, contains suggested design changes for improving the performance of the dual -tip microscope and descriptions of experiments that can be performed with an improved instrument. Design and use of a nanotechnology workstation in the fields of semiconductor electronics, molecular electronics and cellular biology is discussed. Investigation of neurons grown on a silicon chip with a dual-tip STM system is proposed. Four Appendices present a noise model of the STM tunneling gap and preamplifier, describe calibration of the piezoelectric scanners that move the probe tips, and list the software that controls the system.

  10. Investigation of cross-sectional area of the carpal canal by CT scanning as a factor causing carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross-sectional area of the carpal tunnel in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy controls was measured using CT scanning to investigate the relationship between the cross-sectional area and the occurrence of this syndrome. The cross-sectional area in patients with idiopathic CTS was significantly narrowed at the levels of proximal part (Pm) where scaphoid and pisiform bones were visualized and of the distal part (D1, D2) where the trapezium and hook of hamate were visualized, as compared with the controls, suggesting that the median nerve within the carpal tunnel is easily compressed at the level D1. Narrowing of the cross-sectional area of the carpal tunnel can be estimated by measuring the transverse and antero-posterior diameters. (namekawa, k.)

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy I general principles and applications to clean and absorbate-covered surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesendanger, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Since the first edition of "Scanning 'funneling Microscopy I" has been pub­ lished, considerable progress has been made in the application of STM to the various classes of materials treated in this volume, most notably in the field of adsorbates and molecular systems. An update of the most recent develop­ ments will be given in an additional Chapter 9. The editors would like to thank all the contributors who have supplied up­ dating material, and those who have provided us with suggestions for further improvements. We also thank Springer-Verlag for the decision to publish this second edition in paperback, thereby making this book affordable for an even wider circle of readers. Hamburg, July 1994 R. Wiesendanger Preface to the First Edition Since its invention in 1981 by G. Binnig, H. Rohrer and coworkers at the IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has devel­ oped into an invaluable surface analytical technique allowing the investigation of real-space surface structures at th...

  12. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy study on exfoliated single-layer MoSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Dadgar, Ali; Ross, Frances M.; Pasupathy, Abhay N.

    2015-03-01

    Monolayer transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) MX2 (M = Mo, W, Ti etc; X = S, Se, Te) are a new platform for exploring new electronic and optical phenomena and functionality. However, much remains to be understood about their chemical and local electronic properties when taken to the monolayer limit. We will discuss a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study on exfoliated single-layer MoSe2 using a 4-probe STM system. The ability to carry out scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in our system allows us to easily locate and measure single-layer MoSe2 flakes that are mechanically exfoliated on a SiO2/Si substrate and are only a few micrometers in lateral size. Using a combination of imaging and spectroscopy, we will discuss the chemical purity and nature of defect states in this monolayer material. Using a electrostatic back gate, we will describe measurements of the single-particle electronic bandgap as a function of the chemical potential.

  13. Preparation of scanning tunneling microscopy tips using pulsed alternating current etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, Victor A.; Thaker, Avesh A.; Derouin, Jonathan; Valencia, Damian N.; Farber, Rachael G.; Gebel, Dana A.; Killelea, Daniel R., E-mail: dkillelea@luc.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Loyola University Chicago, 1068 W. Sheridan Rd., Chicago, Illinois 60660 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    An electrochemical method using pulsed alternating current etching (PACE) to produce atomically sharp scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips is presented. An Arduino Uno microcontroller was used to control the number and duration of the alternating current (AC) pulses, allowing for ready optimization of the procedures for both Pt:Ir and W tips using a single apparatus. W tips prepared using constant and pulsed AC power were compared. Tips fashioned using PACE were sharper than those etched with continuous AC power alone. Pt:Ir tips were prepared with an initial coarse etching stage using continuous AC power followed by fine etching using PACE. The number and potential of the finishing AC pulses was varied and scanning electron microscope imaging was used to compare the results. Finally, tip quality using the optimized procedures was verified by UHV-STM imaging. With PACE, at least 70% of the W tips and 80% of the Pt:Ir tips were of sufficiently high quality to obtain atomically resolved images of HOPG or Ni(111)

  14. Preparation of scanning tunneling microscopy tips using pulsed alternating current etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical method using pulsed alternating current etching (PACE) to produce atomically sharp scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips is presented. An Arduino Uno microcontroller was used to control the number and duration of the alternating current (AC) pulses, allowing for ready optimization of the procedures for both Pt:Ir and W tips using a single apparatus. W tips prepared using constant and pulsed AC power were compared. Tips fashioned using PACE were sharper than those etched with continuous AC power alone. Pt:Ir tips were prepared with an initial coarse etching stage using continuous AC power followed by fine etching using PACE. The number and potential of the finishing AC pulses was varied and scanning electron microscope imaging was used to compare the results. Finally, tip quality using the optimized procedures was verified by UHV-STM imaging. With PACE, at least 70% of the W tips and 80% of the Pt:Ir tips were of sufficiently high quality to obtain atomically resolved images of HOPG or Ni(111)

  15. Vectorial mapping of noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure of semiconducting FeSe surface with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Xiaole [Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Xianfeng [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L., E-mail: clgao@sjtu.edu.cn; Jia, Jin-Feng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing (China); Luo, Weidong, E-mail: wdluo@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing (China)

    2016-02-08

    Antiferromagnetic semiconductors gain increasing interest due to their possible application in spintronics. Using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy operating in a vector field, we mapped the noncollinear antiferromagnetic spin structure of a semiconducting hexagonal FeSe surface on the atomic scale. The surface possesses an in-plane compensated Néel structure which is further confirmed by first-principles calculations.

  16. Adsorption of human insulin on single-crystal gold surfaces investigated by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy and electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Anna Christina; Zhang, Jingdong; Steensgaard, D.B.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    We have explored the adsorption of zinc-free human insulin on the three low-index single-crystalline Au(111)-, Au(100)- and Au(110)-surfaces in aqueous buffer (KH2PO4, pH 5) by a combination of electrochemical scanning tunnelling microscopy (in situ STM) at single-molecule resolution and linear s...

  17. Low conductive support for thermal insulation of a sample holder of a variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzelka, Pavel; Vonka, J.; Musilová, Věra

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 8 (2013), 085103:1-6. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA TA ČR TE01020233 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Thermal conductiviy * Scanning tunneling microscope Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.584, year: 2013

  18. Atomic structure of screw dislocations intersecting the Au(111) surface: A combined scanning tunneling microscopy and molecular dynamics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Schiøtz, Jakob; Dahl-Madsen, Bjarke; Horch, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The atomic-scale structure of naturally occurring screw dislocations intersecting a Au(111) surface has been investigated both experimentally by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and theoretically using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The step profiles of 166 dislocations were measured using...

  19. Vectorial mapping of noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure of semiconducting FeSe surface with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiferromagnetic semiconductors gain increasing interest due to their possible application in spintronics. Using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy operating in a vector field, we mapped the noncollinear antiferromagnetic spin structure of a semiconducting hexagonal FeSe surface on the atomic scale. The surface possesses an in-plane compensated Néel structure which is further confirmed by first-principles calculations

  20. Organic Molecular Thin Films: Growth, Structure, and Manipulation Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Taylor J. Z.

    Room temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (RT-STM) has been used to observe the growth modes, morphologies and crystal structures of sub-monolayer (ML) to multilayer thin films of phthalocyanines (H2Pc and CuPc), C60 fullerenes, and CuPc:C60 composites, grown on the Cu(111) surface. In addition to imaging these films, STM has been used to manipulate the various molecules via hot tunneling electron injection. At sub-ML coverage the phthalocyanines are mobile on the Cu(111) and form a diffuse 2D gas. Molecules in this mobile phase can be immobilized on the substrate through exposure to tunneling electrons at a bias voltage exceeding a threshold value. The bias threshold value and strength of the induced molecular immobilization is dependent on the particular phthalocyanine molecule/substrate combination. At approximately one ML coverage the phthalocyanine molecules become sterically confined and lie flat on the Cu(111), forming an ordered 2D lattice. As coverage is increased beyond 1ML in the Cu(111)-CuPc system, the molecule-substrate interaction diminishes in strength and the intermolecular interaction becomes dominant, causing the molecular crystal lattice parameters to evolve towards the bulk α-phase. This trend continues for the layer-by-layer growth of three complete ML, and then gives way to 3D island growth at a coverage of 4 ML. The 3D island growth mode of the pure CuPc films is dramatically suppressed by the inclusion of C60 during deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and STM studies reveal that the CuPc molecular packing is altered upon C 60 inclusion, producing disordered CuPc-C60 interfaces. The ordered molecular stacking of CuPc is found to be disrupted completely when C60 concentration reaches 30 wt.%. This disorder in the CuPc:C 60 composites is explained in terms of the relative strengths of the intermolecular interactions. Furthermore, an understanding of these relative interaction strengths is exploited to grow ordered composite films, through selective sequential depositions.

  1. Construction of a sub-Kelvin ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope in high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ungdon

    A sub-Kelvin ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM) high magnetic field has been designed and constructed, and has been tested at ˜ 1K and in high magnetic field up to 9 teslas. A four-chamber ultrahigh vacuum system creates reliable environment for tip and sample preparation, surface characterization, and exchanging samples, tips, and evaporating materials. The pressure of chambers is in the low 10 -11 torr range. Various metal atoms and organic molecules can be deposited at room or low temperatures by home-made evaporators. The whole system is mounted on a custom vibration isolation table. A bottom loading ultrahigh vacuum compatible helium-3 cryostat with 9 tesla superconducting magnet is mounted above the vacuum chambers. The Besocke type scanner is modified to meet the requirements of sub-Kelvin temperature and high magnetic field. The scanner is mounted at the bottom of the cryostat insert, which is driven by a bellows type linear translator. The scanner is at the center of the superconducting magnet for measurements at sub-Kelvin temperatures in high magnetic field. With the scanner at the bottom 25 K position, tips and samples can be exchanged. The cryostat has two separate helium-4 reservoirs for the non-bakeable NbTi superconducting magnet and UHV space. The inner liquid helium reservoir provides a low radiation heat leak to the scanner at sub-Kelvin temperatures. Two layers of aluminum shields make use of the enthalpy of the cold He-4 vapor for radiation shielding. Detachable 25 K thermal anchoring to the STM scanner cools down the STM scanner very effectively. With 15 ml liquid helium-3, a holding time of more than 50 hours at 0.4 K base temperature was obtained, and it will be increased some more with new modifications. Combined manipulating single atoms and molecules to make artificial nanometer size structures, with high resolution spectroscopy techniques of high resolution inelastic tunneling spectroscopy and spin-polarized tunneling spectroscopy, we can study nanometer size systems, especially invoking single spin centers in more detail.

  2. Mirror Buckling Transitions in Freestanding Graphene Membranes Induced through Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelz, James K.

    Graphene has the ability to provide for a technological revolution. First isolated and characterized in 2004, this material shows promise in the field of flexible electronics. The electronic properties of graphene can be tuned by controlling the shape of the membrane. Of particular interest in this endeavor are the thermal ripples in graphene membranes. Years of theoretical work by such luminaries as Lev Landau, Rudolf Peierls, David Mermin and Herbert Wagner have established that 2D crystals should not be thermodynamically stable. Experimental research on thin films has supported this finding. Yet graphene exists, and freestanding graphene films have been grown on large scales. It turns out that coupling between the bending and stretching phonons can stabilize the graphene in a flat, albeit rippled phase. These ripples have attracted much attention, and recent work has shown how to arrange these ripples in a variety of configurations. In this thesis, I will present work done using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to interact with freestanding graphene membranes. First I will present STM images of freestanding graphene and show how these images show signs of distortion under the electrostatic influence of the STM tip. This electrostatic attraction between the STM tip and the graphene sample can be used to pull on the graphene sample. At the same time, by employing Joule heating in order to heat graphene using the tunneling current, and exploiting the negative coefficient of thermal expansion, a repulsive thermal load can be generated. By repeatedly pulling on the graphene using the electrostatic potential, while sequentially increasing the setpoint current we can generate a thermal mirror buckling event. Slowly heating the graphene using the tunneling current, prepares a small convex region of graphene under the tip. By increasing thermal stress, as well as pulling using the out of plane electrostatic force, the graphene suddenly and irreversibly switches the sign of its curvature. This event is discovered using STM measurements and supplemented by molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, I will show how to characterize this transition using the famed Ising model. The ripples are modeled as individual Ising spins, which at low temperature exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling. By heating the graphene membrane, the strain increases, changing the antiferromagnetic coupling to ferromagnetic coupling, which characterizes the irreversible transition from a soft, flexible state to a rigid configuration.

  3. Towards automated discrimination of lipids versus peptides from full scan mass spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dittwald

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although physicochemical fractionation techniques play a crucial role in the analysis of complex mixtures, they are not necessarily the best solution to separate specific molecular classes, such as lipids and peptides. Any physical fractionation step such as, for example, those based on liquid chromatography, will introduce its own variation and noise. In this paper we investigate to what extent the high sensitivity and resolution of contemporary mass spectrometers offers viable opportunities for computational separation of signals in full scan spectra. We introduce an automatic method that can discriminate peptide from lipid peaks in full scan mass spectra, based on their isotopic properties. We systematically evaluate which features maximally contribute to a peptide versus lipid classification. The selected features are subsequently used to build a random forest classifier that enables almost perfect separation between lipid and peptide signals without requiring ion fragmentation and classical tandem MS-based identification approaches. The classifier is trained on in silico data, but is also capable of discriminating signals in real world experiments. We evaluate the influence of typical data inaccuracies of common classes of mass spectrometry instruments on the optimal set of discriminant features. Finally, the method is successfully extended towards the classification of individual lipid classes from full scan mass spectral features, based on input data defined by the Lipid Maps Consortium.

  4. Combining scanning tunneling microscopy and synchrotron radiation for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy with chemical, electronic, and magnetic contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation with scanning tunneling microscopy opens the path to high-resolution imaging with chemical, electronic, and magnetic contrast. Here, the design and experimental results of an in-situ synchrotron enhanced x-ray scanning tunneling microscope (SXSTM) system are presented. The system is designed to allow monochromatic synchrotron radiation to enter the chamber, illuminating the sample with x-ray radiation, while an insulator-coated tip (metallic tip apex open for tunneling, electron collection) is scanned over the surface. A unique feature of the SXSTM is the STM mount assembly, designed with a two free-flex pivot, providing an angular degree of freedom for the alignment of the tip and sample with respect to the incoming x-ray beam. The system designed successfully demonstrates the ability to resolve atomic-scale corrugations. In addition, experiments with synchrotron x-ray radiation validate the SXSTM system as an accurate analysis technique for the study of local magnetic and chemical properties on sample surfaces. The SXSTM system's capabilities have the potential to broaden and deepen the general understanding of surface phenomena by adding elemental contrast to the high-resolution of STM. -- Highlights: ► Synchrotron enhanced x-ray scanning tunneling microscope (SXSTM) system designed. ► Unique STM mount design allows angular DOF for tip alignment with x-ray beam. ► System demonstrates ability to resolve atomic corrugations on HOPG. ► Studies show chemical sensitivity with STM tip from photocurrent and tunneling. ► Results show system's ability to study local magnetic (XMCD) properties on Fe films.

  5. Understanding scanning tunneling microscopy contrast mechanisms on metal oxides: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönig, Harry; Todorović, Milica; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Schwendemann, Todd C; Rodrigo, Lucía; Altman, Eric I; Pérez, Rubén; Schwarz, Udo D

    2013-11-26

    A comprehensive analysis of contrast formation mechanisms in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments on a metal oxide surface is presented with the oxygen-induced (2√2×√2)R45° missing row reconstruction of the Cu(100) surface as a model system. Density functional theory and electronic transport calculations were combined to simulate the STM imaging behavior of pure and oxygen-contaminated metal tips with structurally and chemically different apexes while systematically varying bias voltage and tip-sample distance. The resulting multiparameter database of computed images was used to conduct an extensive comparison with experimental data. Excellent agreement was attained for a large number of cases, suggesting that the assumed model tips reproduce most of the commonly encountered contrast-determining effects. Specifically, we find that depending on the bias voltage polarity, copper-terminated tips allow selective imaging of two structurally distinct surface Cu sites, while oxygen-terminated tips show complex contrasts with pronounced asymmetry and tip-sample distance dependence. Considering the structural and chemical stability of the tips reveals that the copper-terminated apexes tend to react with surface oxygen at small tip-sample distances. In contrast, oxygen-terminated tips are considerably more stable, allowing exclusive surface oxygen imaging at small tip-sample distances. Our results provide a conclusive understanding of fundamental STM imaging mechanisms, thereby providing guidelines for experimentalists to achieve chemically selective imaging by properly selecting imaging parameters. PMID:24111487

  6. Analysis of oxygen and hydrogen adsorption on Nb(100) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface structure of Nb(100) under the condition of cleaning, oxidation and hydrogen adsorption is observed by STM (scanning tunneling microscopy). The results obtained are followings; (1) (3 x 1)-O→(4 x 1)-O→c(2 x 2)-O→clean(1 x 1)structure was observed by atom level, and these atomic models of structures and STM images were verified by the first-principles calculations, (2) when the clean(1 x 1) structure exposed to hydrogen, dissociative adsorption of hydrogen was observed and Nb hydride cluster formed on the surface at room temperature. It was heated at about 450 - 670 K in UHV, the cluster decomposed into hydrogen and (1 x 1) structure with linear defect was formed. The c(2 x 2)-O structure by oxygen adsorption transformed into (1 x 1)-H structure with OH and Nb hydride cluster under hydrogen gas at room temperature. When it was heated in UHV at 640 K, OH desorbed from the surface and (1 x 1) structure with linear defect was generated. The surface of (3 x 1)-O structure was not changed by hydrogen. (S.Y.)

  7. Dynamic covalent chemistry of bisimines at the solid/liquid interface monitored by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; El Garah, Mohamed; Haar, Sébastien; Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic covalent chemistry relies on the formation of reversible covalent bonds under thermodynamic control to generate dynamic combinatorial libraries. It provides access to numerous types of complex functional architectures, and thereby targets several technologically relevant applications, such as in drug discovery, (bio)sensing and dynamic materials. In liquid media it was proved that by taking advantage of the reversible nature of the bond formation it is possible to combine the error-correction capacity of supramolecular chemistry with the robustness of covalent bonding to generate adaptive systems. Here we show that double imine formation between 4-(hexadecyloxy)benzaldehyde and different α,ω-diamines as well as reversible bistransimination reactions can be achieved at the solid/liquid interface, as monitored on the submolecular scale by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy imaging. Our modular approach enables the structurally controlled reversible incorporation of various molecular components to form sophisticated covalent architectures, which opens up perspectives towards responsive multicomponent two-dimensional materials and devices.

  8. Copper intercalation at the interface of graphene and Ir(111) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicot, M., E-mail: muriel.sicot@univ-lorraine.fr; Fagot-Revurat, Y.; Kierren, B.; Vasseur, G.; Malterre, D. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, CNRS Universit de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre ls Nancy (France)

    2014-11-10

    We report on the intercalation of a submonolayer of copper at 775?K underneath graphene epitaxially grown on Ir(111) studied by means of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 77?K. Nucleation and growth dynamics of Cu below graphene have been investigated, and, most importantly, the intercalation mechanism has been identified. First, LEED patterns reveal the pseudomorphic growth of Cu on Ir under the topmost graphene layer resulting in a large Cu in-plane lattice parameter expansion of about 6% compared to Cu(111). Second, large-scale STM topographs as a function of Cu coverage show that Cu diffusion on Ir below graphene exhibits a low energy barrier resulting in Cu accumulation at Ir step edges. As a result, the graphene sheet undergoes a strong edges reshaping. Finally, atomically-resolved STM images reveal a damaged graphene sheet at the atomic scale after metal intercalation. Point defects in graphene were shown to be carbon vacancies. According to these results, a Cu penetration path beneath graphene is proposed to occur via metal aided defect formation with no or poor self healing of the graphene sheet. This work illustrates the fact that Cu intercalation is harmful for graphene grown on Ir(111) at the atomic scale.

  9. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Anita; Gubrud, M. A.; Dana, R.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Dreyer, M.

    2014-04-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of CuxBi2Se3. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 μeV.

  10. Theoretical characterisation of point defects on a MoS2 monolayer by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C.; Biel, B.; Dappe, Y. J.

    2016-03-01

    Different S and Mo vacancies as well as their corresponding antisite defects in a free-standing MoS2 monolayer are analysed by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) simulations. Our theoretical methodology, based on the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function formalism within the density functional theory (DFT) approach, is applied to simulate STM images for different voltages and tip heights. Combining the geometrical and electronic effects, all features of the different STM images can be explained, providing a valuable guide for future experiments. Our results confirm previous reports on S atom imaging, but also reveal a strong dependence on the applied bias for vacancies and antisite defects that include extra S atoms. By contrast, when additional Mo atoms cover the S vacancies, the MoS2 gap vanishes and a bias-independent bright protrusion is obtained in the STM image. Finally, we show that the inclusion of these point defects promotes the emergence of reactive dangling bonds that may act as efficient adsorption sites for external adsorbates.

  11. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roychowdhury, Anita [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Gubrud, M. A.; Dana, R.; Dreyer, M. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C. [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of Cu{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 ?eV.

  12. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of CuxBi2Se3. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 μeV

  13. A 30 mK, 13.5 T scanning tunneling microscope with two independent tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Anita; Gubrud, M A; Dana, R; Anderson, J R; Lobb, C J; Wellstood, F C; Dreyer, M

    2014-04-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of an ultra-low temperature, high-field scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with two independent tips. The STM is mounted on a dilution refrigerator and operates at a base temperature of 30 mK with magnetic fields of up to 13.5 T. We focus on the design of the two-tip STM head, as well as the sample transfer mechanism, which allows in situ transfer from an ultra high vacuum preparation chamber while the STM is at 1.5 K. Other design details such as the vibration isolation and rf-filtered wiring are also described. Their effectiveness is demonstrated via spectral current noise characteristics and the root mean square roughness of atomic resolution images. The high-field capability is shown by the magnetic field dependence of the superconducting gap of CuxBi2Se3. Finally, we present images and spectroscopy taken with superconducting Nb tips with the refrigerator at 35 mK that indicate that the effective temperature of our tips/sample is approximately 184 mK, corresponding to an energy resolution of 16 μeV. PMID:24784617

  14. Defects in oxide surfaces studied by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas König

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfaces of thin oxide films were investigated by means of a dual mode NC-AFM/STM. Apart from imaging the surface termination by NC-AFM with atomic resolution, point defects in magnesium oxide on Ag(001 and line defects in aluminum oxide on NiAl(110, respectively, were thoroughly studied. The contact potential was determined by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM and the electronic structure by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS. On magnesium oxide, different color centers, i.e., F0, F+, F2+ and divacancies, have different effects on the contact potential. These differences enabled classification and unambiguous differentiation by KPFM. True atomic resolution shows the topography at line defects in aluminum oxide. At these domain boundaries, STS and KPFM verify F2+-like centers, which have been predicted by density functional theory calculations. Thus, by determining the contact potential and the electronic structure with a spatial resolution in the nanometer range, NC-AFM and STM can be successfully applied on thin oxide films beyond imaging the topography of the surface atoms.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Active nanocharacterization of nanofunctional materials by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Fujita and Keisuke Sagisaka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM to nanofabrication and nanocharacterization are reviewed. The main focus of this paper is to outline techniques for depositing and manipulating nanometer-scale structures using STM tips. Firstly, the transfer of STM tip material through the application of voltage pulses is introduced. The highly reproducible fabrication of metallic silver nanodots and nanowires is discussed. The mechanism is thought to be spontaneous point-contact formation caused by field-enhanced diffusion to the apex of the tip. Transfer through the application of z-direction pulses is also introduced. Sub-nanometer displacement pulses along the z-direction form point contacts that can be used for reproducible nanodot deposition. Next, the discovery of the STM structural manipulation of surface phases is discussed. It has been demonstrated that superstructures on Si(001 surfaces can be reverse-manipulated by controlling the injected carriers. Finally, the fabrication of an atomic-scale one-dimensional quantum confinement system by single-atom deposition using a controlled point contact is presented. Because of its combined nanofabrication and nanocharacterization capabilities, STM is a powerful tool for exploring the nanotechnology and nanoscience fields.

  16. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy reveals a silicon dangling bond charge state transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Hatem; Taucer, Marco; Rashidi, Mohammad; Koleini, Mohammad; Livadaru, Lucian; Pitters, Jason; Cloutier, Martin; Salomons, Mark; Wolkow, Robert A.

    2015-07-01

    We report the study of single dangling bonds (DBs) on a hydrogen-terminated silicon (100) surface using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. By investigating samples prepared with different annealing temperatures, we establish the critical role of subsurface arsenic dopants on the DB electronic properties. We show that when the near-surface concentration of dopants is depleted as a result of 1250 °C flash anneals, a single DB exhibits a sharp conduction step in its I(V) spectroscopy that is not due to a density of states effect but rather corresponds to a DB charge state transition. The voltage position of this transition is perfectly correlated with bias-dependent changes in the STM images of the DB at different charge states. Density functional theory calculations further highlight the role of subsurface dopants on DB properties by showing the influence of the DB-dopant distance on the DB state. We discuss possible theoretical models of electronic transport through the DB that could account for our experimental observations.

  17. Copper intercalation at the interface of graphene and Ir(111) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the intercalation of a submonolayer of copper at 775 K underneath graphene epitaxially grown on Ir(111) studied by means of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 77 K. Nucleation and growth dynamics of Cu below graphene have been investigated, and, most importantly, the intercalation mechanism has been identified. First, LEED patterns reveal the pseudomorphic growth of Cu on Ir under the topmost graphene layer resulting in a large Cu in-plane lattice parameter expansion of about 6% compared to Cu(111). Second, large-scale STM topographs as a function of Cu coverage show that Cu diffusion on Ir below graphene exhibits a low energy barrier resulting in Cu accumulation at Ir step edges. As a result, the graphene sheet undergoes a strong edges reshaping. Finally, atomically-resolved STM images reveal a damaged graphene sheet at the atomic scale after metal intercalation. Point defects in graphene were shown to be carbon vacancies. According to these results, a Cu penetration path beneath graphene is proposed to occur via metal aided defect formation with no or poor self healing of the graphene sheet. This work illustrates the fact that Cu intercalation is harmful for graphene grown on Ir(111) at the atomic scale

  18. Scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the surface structures of natural MoS 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeong Sook; Roh, Hee-Sook; Park, Seong-Ju; Yi, Jae-Yel; Lee, El-Hang

    1994-08-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images of natural MoS 2 revealed protrusions with a diameter of 30-40 and ring-type structures with two different diameters of 40 and 80 on the surface. The STM images were taken varying the tip bias voltage from -0.04 to -1.1 eV. Ring-type structures existed in the whole range of tip bias voltages used, but the ring intensity which was subtracted by the background drastically decreased at tip bias voltages beyond -0.9 eV. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images of the same MoS 2 sample did not show such structures. In order to understand the origin of the ring-type structures observed on the natural MoS 2 surface, the impurities in the sample were analyzed by using glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). The concentrations of the major impurities such as V and Ti were comparable to the average number density of ring structures on the sample. STM and AFM images suggest that the ring-type structures appear as an electronic effect due to the sinuous band structure caused by two kinds of band bending near the impurities included in the MoS 2 sample.

  19. Towards optically-integrated scanning tunneling microscopy studies of defects in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Anne; Lang, Evan; Werner, Kevin; Chowdhury, Enam; Gupta, Jay

    As electronic devices approach the nanoscale, their function is increasingly dependent on the local environment of individual defects. We are developing a combination of optical illumination and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques to study how the properties of individual defects depend on aspects of the local environment, such surface or defect proximity, applied electric fields, and illumination. Here we present studies of individual Zn and Er impurities in GaAs(110).We use controlled motion of the STM tip during voltage sweeps to resolve previously hidden in-gap states of Zn acceptors and probe Zn further from the surface than previously accessible. We discovered two classes of Zn acceptors, one with defect states that did not shift with tip-induced band bending (TIBB), and one with states that do. Similar behavior was observed for above-gap illumination, consistent with the surface photovoltage effect (SPV). For Er on GaAs(110), we discovered three different adsorption states sharing two different sites. We found defect states near the conduction band edge, which shifted with TIBB as well as IR illumination resonant with the Er f-shell transitions.

  20. Self-Organized Graphene Nanoribbons on SiC(0001) Studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, David; Zhang, Baiqian; Hoang, Tien; First, Phillip

    2012-02-01

    Graphene nanoribbons grown directly on nanofacets of SiC(0001) offer an attractive union of top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques. Nanoribbons have been shown to form on the facets of templated silicon carbide substrates,ootnotetextSprinkle et al., Nat. Nanotech. 5, 727 (2010). but also appear spontaneously along step-bunches on vicinal SiC(0001) miscut slightly towards . These self-organized graphene nanoribbons were characterized with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) in ultra-high vacuum. Our measurements indicate that the graphene forms a continuous ``buffer layer'' across the SiC(0001) terraces during nanoribbon formation, with the zigzag edge of the buffer layer aligned parallel to the step-bunched nanofacets. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) was used to characterize the topography and electrical characteristics of the graphene nanoribbons. These measurements indicate that the graphene nanoribbons are highly-crystalline with predominantly zigzag edges.

  1. Theoretical characterisation of point defects on a MoS2 monolayer by scanning tunnelling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzlez, C; Biel, B; Dappe, Y J

    2016-03-11

    Different S and Mo vacancies as well as their corresponding antisite defects in a free-standing MoS2 monolayer are analysed by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) simulations. Our theoretical methodology, based on the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function formalism within the density functional theory (DFT) approach, is applied to simulate STM images for different voltages and tip heights. Combining the geometrical and electronic effects, all features of the different STM images can be explained, providing a valuable guide for future experiments. Our results confirm previous reports on S atom imaging, but also reveal a strong dependence on the applied bias for vacancies and antisite defects that include extra S atoms. By contrast, when additional Mo atoms cover the S vacancies, the MoS2 gap vanishes and a bias-independent bright protrusion is obtained in the STM image. Finally, we show that the inclusion of these point defects promotes the emergence of reactive dangling bonds that may act as efficient adsorption sites for external adsorbates. PMID:26862020

  2. Interaction of scanning tunneling microscopy tip with mesoscopic islands at the atomic-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performing atomic-scale simulations, we study the interaction of the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip with mesoscopic islands at zero bias voltage. Our calculations reveal tip-induced shape transitions in Co islands on Cu(100) as the tip approaches the surface. The structure of the islands and of the tip are found to depend strongly on the tip-substrate distance. A significant influence of the tip on atomic diffusion on the top and at the edges of the islands is demonstrated. The size-dependent strain relief in the islands caused by the tip and by the substrate is found to play a key role in atomistic processes on islands. Our results show that, for certain tip-surface separations, the hopping diffusion of Co adatoms on the top of Co islands and the upward mass transport at the edge of the islands can be strongly enhanced. Our findings point out the possibility of manipulating atomic motion on mesoscopic islands using the STM tip. (letter to the editor)

  3. A New Scanning Tunneling Microscope Reactor Used for High Pressure and High Temperature Catalysis Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Feng; Tang, David C.; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-05-12

    We present the design and performance of a home-built high-pressure and high-temperature reactor equipped with a high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope (STM) for catalytic studies. In this design, the STM body, sample, and tip are placed in a small high pressure reactor ({approx}19 cm{sup 3}) located within an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber. A sealable port on the wall of the reactor separates the high pressure environment in the reactor from the vacuum environment of the STM chamber and permits sample transfer and tip change in UHV. A combination of a sample transfer arm, wobble stick, and sample load-lock system allows fast transfer of samples and tips between the preparation chamber, high pressure reactor, and ambient environment. This STM reactor can work as a batch or flowing reactor at a pressure range of 10{sup -13} to several bars and a temperature range of 300-700 K. Experiments performed on two samples both in vacuum and in high pressure conditions demonstrate the capability of in situ investigations of heterogeneous catalysis and surface chemistry at atomic resolution at a wide pressure range from UHV to a pressure higher than 1 atm.

  4. Ag/ZnO hybrid systems studied with scanning tunnelling microscopy-based luminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascua, Leandro; Stavale, Fernando; Nilius, Niklas; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-03-01

    Coupled metal/oxide systems are prepared by depositing and embedding Ag nanoparticles into crystalline ZnO films grown on Au(111) supports. The morphology and optical properties of the compounds are investigated by topographic imaging and luminescence spectroscopy performed in a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). The luminescence of bare ZnO is governed by the band-recombination and a Zn-vacancy related peak. After Ag deposition, two additional maxima are detected that are assigned to the in-plane and out-of-plane plasmon in Ag nanoparticles and have energies below and slightly above the oxide band-gap, respectively. Upon coating the particles with additional ZnO, the out-of-plane plasmon redshifts and loses intensity, indicating strong coupling to the oxide electronic system, while the in-plane mode broadens but remains detectable. The original situation can be restored by gently heating the sample, which drives the silver back to the surface. However, the optical response of pristine ZnO is not recovered even after silver evaporation at high temperature. Small discrepancies are explained with changes in the ZnO defect landscape, e.g., due to silver incorporation. Our experiments demonstrate how energy-transfer processes can be investigated in well-defined metal/oxide systems by means of STM-based spectroscopic techniques.

  5. Compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with in-situ sample preparation capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungdae [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Hyoungdo; Schroeder, Allan; Shih, Chih-Kang, E-mail: shih@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Qin, Shengyong [Department of Physics, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); ICQD, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Kim, Sang-ui [Department of Physics and EHSRC, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Daejin [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We report on the design of a compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) having in-situ sample preparation capability. The in-situ sample preparation chamber was designed to be compact allowing quick transfer of samples to the STM stage, which is ideal for preparing temperature sensitive samples such as ultra-thin metal films on semiconductor substrates. Conventional spring suspensions on the STM head often cause mechanical issues. To address this problem, we developed a simple vibration damper consisting of welded metal bellows and rubber pads. In addition, we developed a novel technique to ensure an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) seal between the copper and stainless steel, which provides excellent reliability for cryostats operating in UHV. The performance of the STM was tested from 2 K to 77 K by using epitaxial thin Pb films on Si. Very high mechanical stability was achieved with clear atomic resolution even when using cryostats operating at 77 K. At 2 K, a clean superconducting gap was observed, and the spectrum was easily fit using the BCS density of states with negligible broadening.

  6. Compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with in-situ sample preparation capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungdae; Nam, Hyoungdo; Qin, Shengyong; Kim, Sang-ui; Schroeder, Allan; Eom, Daejin; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-09-01

    We report on the design of a compact low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) having in-situ sample preparation capability. The in-situ sample preparation chamber was designed to be compact allowing quick transfer of samples to the STM stage, which is ideal for preparing temperature sensitive samples such as ultra-thin metal films on semiconductor substrates. Conventional spring suspensions on the STM head often cause mechanical issues. To address this problem, we developed a simple vibration damper consisting of welded metal bellows and rubber pads. In addition, we developed a novel technique to ensure an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) seal between the copper and stainless steel, which provides excellent reliability for cryostats operating in UHV. The performance of the STM was tested from 2 K to 77 K by using epitaxial thin Pb films on Si. Very high mechanical stability was achieved with clear atomic resolution even when using cryostats operating at 77 K. At 2 K, a clean superconducting gap was observed, and the spectrum was easily fit using the BCS density of states with negligible broadening.

  7. Probing the location of displayed cytochrome b562 on amyloid by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyloid fibres displaying cytochrome b562 were probed using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) in vacuo. The cytochromes are electron transfer proteins containing a haem cofactor and could, in principle, mediate electron transfer between the tip and the gold substrate. If the core fibres were insulating and electron transfer within the 3D haem network was detected, then the electron transport properties of the fibre could be controlled by genetic engineering. Three kinds of STM images were obtained. At a low bias (562 was not detected by STM, which was attributed to low adhesion, whereas a monomeric multi-haem protein, GSU1996, was readily imaged. We conclude that the fibre superstructure may be intermittently conducting, that the cytochromes have been seen within the fibres and that they are too far apart for detectable current flow between sites to occur. We predict that GSU1996, being 10 nm long, is more likely to mediate successful electron transfer along the fibre as well as being more readily detectable when displayed from amyloid. (paper)

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of X-ray Spectra from Scanning Electron Microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weber, Charles F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate x-ray spectra generated within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine elemental composition of small samples. This will be accomplished by performing Monte Carlo simulations of the electron and photon interactions in the sample and in the x-ray detector. The elemental inventories will be determined by an inverse process that progressively reduces the difference between the measured and simulated x-ray spectra by iteratively adjusting composition and geometric variables in the computational model. The intended benefit of this work will be to develop a method to perform quantitative analysis on substandard samples (heterogeneous phases, rough surfaces, small sizes, etc.) without involving standard elemental samples or empirical matrix corrections (i.e., true standardless quantitative analysis).

  9. Two-photon-induced hot-electron transfer to a single molecule in a scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating in the tunneling regime was irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses. A photoexcited hot electron in the STM tip resonantly tunnels into an excited state of a single molecule on the surface, converting it from the neutral to the anion. The electron-transfer rate depends quadratically on the incident laser power, suggesting a two-photon excitation process. This nonlinear optical process is further confirmed by the polarization measurement. Spatial dependence of the electron-transfer rate exhibits atomic-scale variations. A two-pulse correlation experiment reveals the ultrafast dynamic nature of photoinduced charging process in the STM junction. Results from these experiments are important for understanding photoinduced interfacial charge transfer in many nanoscale inorganic-organic structures.

  10. Realizing a Four-Step Molecular Switch in Scanning Tunneling Microscope Manipulation of Single Chlorophyll-a Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Iancu, V; Iancu, Violeta; Hla, Saw-Wai

    2006-01-01

    Single chlorophyll-a molecules, a vital resource for the sustenance of life on Earth, have been investigated by using scanning-tunneling-microscope manipulation and spectroscopy on a gold substrate at 4.6 K. The chlorophyll-a binds on Au(111) via its porphyrin unit while the phytyl-chain is elevated from the surface by a support of four CH3 groups. By injecting tunneling electrons from the STM-tip, we are able to bend the phytyl-chain, which enable switching of four molecular conformations in a controlled manner. Statistical analyses and structural calculations reveal that all reversible switching mechanisms are initiated by a single tunnelling-electron energy-transfer process, which induces bond rotation within the phytyl-chain.

  11. Engineering the emission of light from a scanning tunneling microscope using the plasmonic modes of a nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, Eric; Marguet, Sylvie; Canneson, Damien; Rogez, Benoît; Boer-Duchemin, Elizabeth; Dujardin, Gérald; Teperik, Tatiana V.; Marinica, Dana-Codruta; Borisov, Andrey G.

    2016-01-01

    The inelastic tunnel current in the junction formed between the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the sample can electrically generate optical signals. This phenomenon is potentially of great importance for nano-optoelectronic devices. In practice, however, the properties of the emitted light are difficult to control because of the strong influence of the STM tip. In this work, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the sought-after, well-controlled emission of light from an STM tunnel junction may be achieved using a nonplasmonic STM tip and a plasmonic nanoparticle on a transparent substrate. We demonstrate that the native plasmon modes of the nanoparticle may be used to engineer the light emitted in the substrate. Both the angular distribution and intensity of the emitted light may be varied in a predictable way by choosing the excitation position of the STM tip on the particle.

  12. Use of in situ scanning tunneling microscopy for the study of dye sensitization of semiconductor electrodes. Progress report, September 15, 1992--August 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, B.

    1995-12-31

    In the three years of this contract, the authors have set up a state-of-the-art computer-controlled photoelectrochemical characterization laboratory with facilities to measure Mott-Schottky behavior, photocurrent spectra and photocurrent voltage curves on semiconductor electrodes. They have also set up a Bridgeman crystal growth furnace for preparing their own single crystals of SnS{sub 2} and other semiconductor materials for the photoelectrochemical studies. The first boules of SnS{sub 2} have recently been prepared. They have also modified a scanning tunneling microscope to perform photo-STM experiments to spatially resolve photocurrents on semiconductor surfaces. In addition, the acquisition of a Ti:sapphire laser system from the DOE-URI program will give us the power and flexibility in the light source to provide a better chance of single molecule detection. The results on sensitization will be summarized below.

  13. A first principles scanning tunneling potentiometry study of an opaque graphene grain boundary in the ballistic transport regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a theoretical interpretation of scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP), formulated within the Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function description of quantum transport. By treating the probe tip as an electron point source/sink, it is shown that this approach provides an intuitive bridge between existing theoretical interpretations of scanning tunneling microscopy and STP. We illustrate this through ballistic transport simulations of the potential drop across an opaque graphene grain boundary, where atomistic features are predicted that might be imaged through high resolution STP measurements. The relationship between the electrochemical potential profile measured and the electrostatic potential drop across such a nanoscale defect is also explored in this model system. (paper)

  14. Design and properties of a cryogenic dip-stick scanning tunneling microscope with capacitive coarse approach control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, R; Hnke, T; Baumann, D; Kaiser, M; Nag, P K; Voigtlnder, R; Lindackers, D; Bchner, B; Hess, C

    2014-01-01

    We present the design, setup, and operation of a new dip-stick scanning tunneling microscope. Its special design allows measurements in the temperature range from 4.7K up to room temperature, where cryogenic vacuum conditions are maintained during the measurement. The system fits into every (4)He vessel with a bore of 50mm, e.g., a transport dewar or a magnet bath cryostat. The microscope is equipped with a cleaving mechanism for cleaving single crystals in the whole temperature range and under cryogenic vacuum conditions. For the tip approach, a capacitive automated coarse approach is implemented. We present test measurements on the charge density wave system 2H-NbSe2 and the superconductor LiFeAs which demonstrate scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy data acquisition with high stability, high spatial resolution at variable temperatures and in high magnetic fields. PMID:24517774

  15. From Soccer-Ball and Rugby-Ball to Giant Fullerene Molecules:. a Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Sarid, Dror

    Thin films of carbon fullerene molecules, Cn, prepared on metallic substrates are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) under both ambient and ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The STM and AFM images provide real-space atomic-resolution views of these fascinating molecules and their monolayer growth on metal surfaces which reflect both the intermolecular interactions and interactions with the underlying substrates.

  16. Alkali-metal adsorption on silicon surfaces studied by field ion-scanning tunneling microscopy (FI sbnd STM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Tomihiro; Hasegawa, Y.; Sakurai, T.

    1991-06-01

    Adsorption of alkali metals (Li, K, Cs) on the Si(111) and Si(100) surfaces has been investigated by field ion-scanning tunneling microscopy (FI sbnd STM). The FI sbnd STM data suggest that alkali-metal atoms absorb quite differently between the (111) and (100) surface: almost completely ionized on the (111)7 × 7 surface, while there is small charge transfer on the (100)2 × 1 surface.

  17. Simultaneous study by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and transport measurements in adsorbate-induced two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adsorbate-induced two-dimensional electron system at cleaved surfaces of InSb is investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope and spectroscopy combined with transport measurements in magnetic fields up to 10 T. The magnitude of the potential disorder obtained from the spatially averaged density of states agrees with that deduced from the analysis of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations

  18. Scanning tunneling microscopy study of pinning-induced vortex lattice distortion in ion-irradiated NbSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observe vortex pinning in 2.2 GeV Au-ion irradiated NbSe2 by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 3 K. The ion irradiation generates columnar defects which act as pinning sites. At various external magnetic fields the vortex arrangement is clearly resolved but shows strong distortion. The location of individual defects is extracted from STM data and compared to the vortex arrangement. (orig.)

  19. Structure and structural transition of chiral domains in oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) assembly investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qing; Chen, Ting; Wang, Dong; Liu, Hui-Biao; Li, Yu-Liang; Wan, Li-Jun

    2010-01-01

    OPV3-CHO molecules are employed to prepare assembly on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, and the so-prepared assembly is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. In the assembly chiral domains are observed with various structures such as linear and windmill. The chiral structural formation, stability, transition, and possible unification are intensively studied. After thermal annealing, linear structure was the only structure. To achieve a unified assembly with a single structure, an ...

  20. Atomic Scale Visualization of Quantum Interference on a Weyl Semimetal Surface by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hao; Xu, Su-Yang; Bian, Guang; Guo, Cheng; Chang, Guoqing; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Belopolski, Ilya; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Zhang, Xiao; Sankar, Raman; Alidoust, Nasser; Chang, Tay-Rong; Wu, Fan; Neupert, Titus

    2015-01-01

    Weyl semimetals may open a new era in condensed matter physics, materials science and nanotech after graphene and topological insulators. We report the first atomic scale view of the surface states of a Weyl semimetal (NbP) using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. We observe coherent quantum interference patterns that arise from the scattering of quasiparticles near point defects on the surface. The measurements reveal the surface electronic structure both below and above the chemica...

  1. Atomic origin of the scanning tunneling microscopy images of charge-density-waves on 1T-TaSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of charge density waves (CDWs) at room temperature together with angle-resolved photoelectron band-mapping of 1T-TaSe2. By comparing the results of these two techniques, we demonstrate the atomic structure of the CDW-features observed by the STM and atomic origin of the reconstructed band-structure in this material

  2. Characterization and Properties of Oligothiophenes Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy for Possible Use in Organic Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scanning tunneling microscopy study has been made on a group of alkyl-substituted oligothiophenes. The self-assembled monolayers of this type of semi-conducting oligomers on graphite were observed and characterized. To control the self-assembly, it is important to first understand the forces that drive the spontaneous ordering of molecules at interfaces. For the identification of the forces, several substituted oligothiophenes were examined: carboxylic acid groups, methyl ester carboxylic acid, and iodine atoms at one end and benzyl esters at the other end of the oligomers this is in addition to the non-functionalized oligothiophehens, Self-assembled monolayers of these molecules were then examined by STM. A detailed analysis of the driving forces and parameters controlling the formation of the self-assembled 2- D crystal monolayers was carried out by performing modeling of the experimental observations. The theoretical calculations gave us a conclusive insight into the intermolecular interactions, which lead to the observed conformation of molecules on the surface. An attempt to react two iodinated oligomers on the surface after the formation of the monolayer has been done; a topochemical reaction studies using UV/Vis light irradiation has been preceded. The targeted reaction was achieved. This can be considered as a great step towards the formation of nano-wires and other organic electronic devices. The applicability of the above method of force-driven self organisation in different patterns was examined as template for building donor-nano structures for electronic devices. It was necessary to examine the stability of the formed templates in air. The monolayers were left to dry and STM images were taken; C60 was then added to the monolayer, and the complexation of the C60 (as acceptor) with the formed monolayer template was examined.

  3. Self-assembly of tetraalkoxydinaphthophenazines in monolayers on HOPG by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroch, Tomasz; Maranda-Niedbala, Agnieszka; Kotwica, Kamil; Wamil, Damian; Bujak, Piotr; Pron, Adam; Nowakowski, Robert

    2015-11-01

    2D supramolecular organization in monolayers of tetraalkoxydinaphthophenazines, a new group of solution processable organic semiconductors obtained by simple functionalization of indanthrone (6,15-dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2‧,3‧-h]phenazine-5,9,14,18-tetraone), an old intractable dye, was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Five derivatives with increasing substituent length from butoxy (P-C4) to dodecyloxy (P-C12) were tested. All derivatives show a strong tendency to form ordered monolayers on HOPG graphite via self-assembly which constitute of rows of molecules oriented in one direction. However, local arrangement in this 2D supramolecular organization is strongly dependent on the substituent length. Two tendencies in the structural evolution are observed. For butoxy (P-C4), hexyloxy (P-C6) and octyloxy (P-C8) derivatives increasing substituent length results in the transformation of the structure governed by the conjugated core interactions to the one in which mutual interactions of the alkoxy groups dominate. As a consequence, for P-C8 a very stable 2D structure is obtained with a nearly rectangular 2D unit cell, as a consequence of the alkoxy group interdigitation in two perpendicular directions. With further increase of the substituent length to decyloxy (P-C10) and dodecyloxy (P-C12) a different effect is observed-a directional expansion of the unit cell along the longitudinal axis of the molecules. This is a consequence of structural nonequivalence of the alkoxy groups attached to the same aromatic ring.

  4. Scanning tunneling microscopy study of molecular order at liquid-solid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magonov, S. N.; Wawkuschewski, A.; Cantow, H.-J.; Liang, W.; Whangbo, M.-H.

    1994-08-01

    Adsorbates of normal alkane C36H74, cycloalkanes (CH2)48 and (CH2)72, decanol C10H21OH, 4-hexyl-4'-CyanoBiphenyl (6CB) and 4-octyl-4t'-CyanoBiphenyl (8CB) on graphite and β-Nb3I8 were studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), and the molecular arrangements at the liquid-solid interface were examined. Large-scale STM images show that the adsorbates possess complex multilayered structures, and that molecular ordering at the liquid-solid interfaces occurs primarily in the immediate vicinity of the substrate. Molecular-scale STM images are primarily determined by the electronic contributions of the most protruded atoms of the topmost overlayer. The underlying overlayers and the substrate affect the images indirectly by perturbing the topography of the topmost overlayer. The STM images of the adsorbates on graphite show that the atomically flat surface of graphite leads organic molecules to form lamella-like structures, while on the grooved surface of β-Nb3I8, long chain-like molecules are trapped in the grooves. We were unable to image the cycloalkanes on β-Nb3I8, which suggests that the cycloalkanes cannot assemble on the grooved surface due to a mismatch between the molecular shape and surface topography. The layers of 6CB and 8CB adsorbed on β-Nb3I8 exhibit two types of domains, which may be related to how the grooves of the β-Nb3I8 surface are occupied by the organic molecules. The STM images of decanol adsorbed on β-Nb3I8 show two domains of different brightness. The relative brightness of these domains switches reversibly as the gap resistance is changed in the region around -60 MΩ.

  5. Scanning tunneling microscopy of charge density wave structure in 1T- TaS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    I have used a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to image simultaneously the atomic lattice and the charge density wave (CDW) superstructure in tantalum disulfide (1T-TaS{sub 2}) over the temperature range of 370-77K. In the lowest temperature (commensurate) phase, present below 180K, the CDW is at an angle of 13.9{degrees} relative to the lattice and is uniformly commensurate. In the incommensurate phase, present above 353K, the CDW is aligned with the lattice. 1T-TaS{sub 2} exhibits two other phases; the triclinic (T) phase which is present between 223K and 283K upon warming the sample, and the nearly-commensurate (NC) phase which is present between 353K and 180K upon cooling the sample and between 283K and 353K upon warming the sample. In both of these phases, discommensurate models where the CDW is arranged in small commensurate domains have been proposed. In the NC phase the CDW is rotated between 10{degrees} and 12.5{degrees} relative to the atomic lattice. Such a rotated CDW would create an interference pattern with the underlying atomic lattice regardless of the existence of a true domain superstructure. Previous work on 1T-TaS{sub 2} has not adequately accounted for the possibility of this moire pattern. However, around each fundamental CDW peak in the Fourier transform of the real space STM images, several satellite spots are visible, which conclusively prove the existence of domains in the NC phase.

  6. Scanning tunneling microscopy of charge density wave structure in 1T- TaS sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    I have used a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to image simultaneously the atomic lattice and the charge density wave (CDW) superstructure in tantalum disulfide (1T-TaS{sub 2}) over the temperature range of 370-77K. In the lowest temperature (commensurate) phase, present below 180K, the CDW is at an angle of 13.9{degrees} relative to the lattice and is uniformly commensurate. In the incommensurate phase, present above 353K, the CDW is aligned with the lattice. 1T-TaS{sub 2} exhibits two other phases; the triclinic (T) phase which is present between 223K and 283K upon warming the sample, and the nearly-commensurate (NC) phase which is present between 353K and 180K upon cooling the sample and between 283K and 353K upon warming the sample. In both of these phases, discommensurate models where the CDW is arranged in small commensurate domains have been proposed. In the NC phase the CDW is rotated between 10{degrees} and 12.5{degrees} relative to the atomic lattice. Such a rotated CDW would create an interference pattern with the underlying atomic lattice regardless of the existence of a true domain superstructure. Previous work on 1T-TaS{sub 2} has not adequately accounted for the possibility of this moire pattern. However, around each fundamental CDW peak in the Fourier transform of the real space STM images, several satellite spots are visible, which conclusively prove the existence of domains in the NC phase.

  7. High vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscope based on a scanning tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Zhang, Zhenglong; Sun, Mengtao

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present the construction of a high-vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (HV-TERS) system that allows in situ sample preparation and measurement. A detailed description of the prototype instrument is presented with experimental validation of its use and novel ex situ experimental results using the HV-TERS system. The HV-TERS system includes three chambers held under a 10-7 Pa vacuum. The three chambers are an analysis chamber, a sample preparation chamber, and a fast loading chamber. The analysis chamber is the core chamber and contains a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and a Raman detector coupled with a 50 × 0.5 numerical aperture objective. The sample preparation chamber is used to produce single-crystalline metal and sub-monolayer molecular films by molecular beam epitaxy. The fast loading chamber allows ex situ preparation of samples for HV-TERS analysis. Atomic resolution can be achieved by the STM on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. We demonstrate the measurement of localized temperature using the Stokes and anti-Stokes TERS signals from a monolayer of 1,2-benzenedithiol on a gold film using a gold tip. Additionally, plasmonic catalysis can be monitored label-free at the nanoscale using our device. Moreover, the HV-TERS experiments show simultaneously activated infrared and Raman vibrational modes, Fermi resonance, and some other non-linear effects that are not observed in atmospheric TERS experiments. The high spatial and spectral resolution and pure environment of high vacuum are beneficial for basic surface studies.

  8. What is the orientation of the tip in a scanning tunneling microscope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mndi, Gbor; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Palots, Krisztin

    2015-05-01

    The atomic structure and electronic properties of the tip apex can strongly affect the contrast of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images. This is a critical issue in STM imaging given the, to date unsolved, experimental limitations in precise control of the tip apex atomic structure. Definition of statistically robust procedures to indirectly obtain information on the tip apex structure is highly desirable as it would open up for more rigorous interpretation and comparison of STM images from different experiments. To this end, here we introduce a statistical correlation analysis method to obtain information on the local geometry and orientation of the tip used in STM experiments based on large scale simulations. The key quantity is the relative brightness correlation of constant-current topographs between experimental and simulated data. This correlation can be analyzed statistically for a large number of modeled tip orientations and geometries. Assuming a stable tip during the STM scans and based on the correlation distribution, it is possible to determine the tip orientations that are most likely present in an STM experiment, and exclude other orientations. This is especially important for substrates such as highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) since its STM contrast is strongly tip dependent, which makes interpretation and comparison of STM images very challenging. We illustrate the applicability of our method considering the HOPG surface in combination with tungsten tip models of two different apex geometries and 18,144 different orientations. We calculate constant-current profiles along the direction of the HOPG(0 0 0 1) surface in the | V | ? 1V bias voltage range, and compare them with experimental data. We find that a blunt tip model provides better correlation with the experiment for a wider range of tip orientations and bias voltages than a sharp tip model. Such a combination of experiments and large scale simulations opens up the way for obtaining more detailed information on the structure of the tip apex and more reliable interpretation of STM data in the view of local tip geometry effects.

  9. Co on Pt(111) studied by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, F.K.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis the electronic properties of the bare Pt(111) surface, the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of monolayer and double-layer high Co nanostructures as well as the spin-averaged electronic structure of single Co atoms on Pt(111) were studied by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS). The experiments on the bare Pt(111) surface and on single Co atoms have been performed in an STM facility operating at temperatures of down to 0.3 K and at magnetic fields of up to 14 T under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The facility has been taken into operation within the time period of this thesis and its specifications were tested by STS measurements. These characterization measurements show a very high stability of the tunneling junction and an energy resolution of about 100 {mu}eV, which is close to the thermal limit. The investigation of the electronic structure of the bare Pt(111) surface reveals the existence of an unoccupied surface state. By a comparison of the measured dispersion to first-principles electronic structure calculations the state is assigned to an sp-derived surface band at the lower boundary of the projected bulk band gap. The surface state exhibits a strong spin-orbit coupling induced spin splitting. The close vicinity to the bulk bands leads to a strong linear contribution to the dispersion and thus to a deviant appearance in the density of states in comparison to the surface states of the (111) surfaces of noble metals. A detailed study of Co monolayer and double-layer nanostructures on the Pt(111) surface shows that both kinds of nanostructures exhibit a highly inhomogeneous electronic structure which changes at the scale of only a few Aa due to a strong stacking dependence with respect to the Pt(111) substrate. With the help of first principles calculations the different spectroscopic appearance for Co atoms within the Co monolayer is assigned to a stacking dependent hybridization of Co states with the substrate states. Despite this electronic inhomogeneity, the magnetic domains and domain walls are clearly observed by spin-resolved STS. For both types of Co nanostructures the out-of-plane orientation of the magnetic moments is proven. Furthermore, new insights into the anisotropy of the Co nanostructures as well as a strong dependence of the coercivity on the local sample morphology for Co double-layer islands were found. The experiments performed on single Co atoms on the Pt(111) surface show that two groups of Co atoms are present on the surface. Each group can be characterized by a specific spectroscopic signature. An analysis of the spectroscopy and atom manipulation experiments proves that the spectroscopic differences are related to the two possible adsorption sites of the Co atoms on the Pt(111) substrate. (orig.)

  10. Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy study on the electronic properties of a double-decker DyPc2 molecule at the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajie; Liao, Peilin; Kan, Jinglan; Yin, Cen; Li, Na; Liu, Jing; Chen, Qiwei; Wang, Yongfeng; Chen, Wei; Xu, Guo Qin; Jiang, Jianzhuang; Berndt, Richard; Wu, Kai

    2015-10-28

    To fully achieve potential applications of the double-decker molecules containing rare earth elements as single-molecule magnets in molecular spintronics, it is crucial to understand the 4f states of the rare earth atoms sandwiched in the double-decker molecules by metal electrodes. In this study, low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy were employed to investigate the isolated double-decker DyPc2 molecule adsorbed on Au(111) via its differential conductance measurements. The experimental results revealed that the differential conductance maps acquired at a constant height mode simply depicted the authentic molecular orbitals; moreover, the differential conductance maps achieved at a constant current mode could not directly probe the 4f states of the sandwiched Dy atom. This was consistent with the spectra obtained over the molecule center around the Fermi level, indicative of no Kondo feature. Upon decreasing the tip-molecule distance, the CH-mode images presented high-resolution structure but no information of the 4f states. All results indicated that the Dy atom barely contributed to the tunneling current because of the absence of coupling with the microscope tip, echoing the inaccessibility of the Dy 4f states in the double-decker DyPc2 molecule. PMID:26411704

  11. Simultaneous atomic force- and scanning tunneling microscopy - a new view on two distinct aspects of the atomic structure of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: Frequency-modulation AFM can be combined with scanning tunneling microscopy, yielding a simultaneous data set for current and average force gradient. Ternes et al. have shown that for some metallic contacts, force and current are proportional. The figure shows an example, where combined AFM/STM reveals two strongly distinct aspects of the atomic structure of matter. The gray veil depicts the inverted tunneling current between a CO molecule adsorbed on Cu(111) and a tungsten tip, while the colored surface shows the corresponding force profiles, where the left image corresponds to a W tip oriented in a direction, the right to a direction and the bottom to a direction. While the simultaneous acquisition of current and force can reveal new information about the atomic and electronic structure of matter, the tunneling current can modify the atomic forces. This phantom force, a modification of the electrostatic attraction between tip and sample, originates in an alteration of the effective potential difference between tip and sample caused by strongly localized voltage drop induced by the tunneling current. The talk discusses the merits of combined STM/AFM as well as the challenges, in particular with respect to tip preparation and characterization. (author)

  12. Studies on switching mechanisms in Pd-nanodot embedded Nb2O5 memristors using scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current imaging tunneling spectrum obtained from scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to probe the formation and/or rupture of conductive filaments responsible for bipolar switching in Pd nano-dots embedded Nb2O5 memristors. Filamentary conduction mechanism has been confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy study using a Pt–Ir tip that enabled performing electroforming and reset operations at the nanoscale. The back and forth transition between the fully oxidized and metallic sub-oxide states of niobium under applied bias, as observed from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is believed to be the source of bipolar switching in Nb2O5 memristors. The incorporation of Pd nanodots in Nb2O5 matrix plays a critical role by acting as an oxygen ion reservoir and/or by polarizing a large volume of oxygen vacancies. The formation and/or rupture of the conducting filaments through trapping–detrapping phenomena are found to boost the memristive switching performance. - Highlights: ► STM technique has been applied to study the resistance switching. ► Use of Pd nanodots enhances the switching in Nb2O5 memristors. ► Origin of switching is found to be due to multiple oxide states of Nb.

  13. A Scanning Tunneling Microscope at the Milli-Kelvin, High Magnetic Field Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Brian B.

    The ability to access lower temperatures and higher magnetic fields has precipitated breakthroughs in our understanding of physical matter, revealing novel effects such as superconductivity, the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, and single spin magnetism. Extending the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to the extremity of the B-T phase space provides unique insight on these phenomena both at the atomic level and with spectroscopic power. In this thesis, I describe the design and operation of a full-featured, dilution refrigerator-based STM capable of sample preparation in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and spectroscopic mapping with an electronic temperature of 240 mK in fields up to 14 T. I detail technical solutions to overcome the stringent requirements on vibration isolation, electronic noise, and mechanical design necessary to successfully integrate the triad of the STM, UHV, and dilution refrigeration. Measurements of the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 ( Tc = 2.3 K) directly leverage the resulting combination of ultra-low temperature and atomic resolution to identify its Cooper pairing to be of dx2-y2 symmetry. Spectroscopic and quasiparticle interference measurements isolate a Kondo-hybridized, heavy effective mass band near the Fermi level, from which nodal superconductivity emerges in CeCoIn5 in coexistence with an independent pseudogap. Secondly, the versatility of this instrument is demonstrated through measurements of the three-dimensional Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 up to the maximum magnetic field. Through high resolution Landau level spectroscopy, the dispersion of the conduction band is shown to be Dirac-like over an unexpectedly extended regime, and its two-fold degeneracy to be lifted in field through a combination of orbital and Zeeman effects. Indeed, these two experiments on CeCoIn5 and Cd3 As2 glimpse the new era of nano-scale materials research, spanning superconductivity, topological properties, and single spin phenomena, made possible by the advance of STM instrumentation to the milli-Kelvin, high magnetic field frontier.

  14. The Nanomanipulator: a Virtual-Reality Interface to a Scanning Tunneling Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Russell Morton, II

    We have developed a virtual-reality interface to a scanning tunneling microscope (STM); the resulting system is called the Nanomanipulator. The user interface comprises a stereoscopic color head-mounted display, a force-feedback remote manipulator master station, and a high-performance graphics computer. It provides the illusion of a surface floating in space in front of the user. The user's hand gestures are translated into commands that are sent to the STM in real time; the returned video and haptic signals allow the user to see and feel the surface topography and to control the timing and location of voltage pulses applied between the tip of the STM probe and the sample under study. My thesis is that a virtual-reality interface is a powerful and effective user interface to an STM--allowing qualitatively different types of experiments to be performed. The success of our investigations using this system demonstrates the validity of the thesis. We have used the Nanomanipulator to examine various surfaces and to perform surface modification experiments. This investigation has led to new insight into the meaning of certain surface features and into the mechanisms by which voltage pulses change the tip and sample. These insights were the direct results of the real-time visualization and the more interactive nature of our system compared to standard methods. The key to the success of the Nanomanipulator system is that it provides an intuitive two-way interface to the instrument. Raw data from an STM is not in a format easily understood by a scientist, and the Etch-a-Sketch type of controls required for positioning an STM tip are neither natural nor familiar to a user. The Nanomanipulator system acts as a translator between the instrument and the scientist, allowing the scientist to concentrate on interacting with the surface under study rather than on the computer interface or the STM itself. This system seeks to put the scientists on the surface, in control, while the experiment is happening--thus turning the STM from a remote, batch surface modifier into a real-time, user-guided surface modifier.

  15. A review and outlook for an anomaly of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM): superlattices on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its invention in 1981, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) is well-known for its supreme imaging resolution enabling one to observe atomic-scale structures, which has led to the flourishing of nanoscience. As successful as it is, there still remain phenomena which are observed using STM but are beyond our understanding. Graphite is one of the surfaces which have been most extensively studied using STM. However, there are a number of unusual properties of graphite surfaces. First reported in the 1980s, superlattices on graphite have since been observed many times and by many groups, but as yet our understanding of this phenomenon is quite limited. Most of the observed superlattice phenomena are widely believed to be the result of a Moire rotation pattern, arising from the misorientation between two graphite layers, as verified experimentally. A Moire pattern is a lattice with larger periodicity resulting from the overlap of two lattices with smaller periodicities. As graphite layers are composed of hexagonal lattices with a periodicity of 0.246 nm, as observed using STM, when there are misoriented graphite layers overlapping each other, a Moire pattern with larger periodicity, depending on the misorientation angle, will be produced and appear as a superperiodic hexagonal structure on top of the graphite atomic lattice of the topmost surface layer. It is important to study graphite superlattices because, firstly, knowledge of this phenomenon will enable us to properly interpret STM images; secondly, it helps us to understand the correlation between electronic structures and atomic-structure rearrangement of graphite which is of tremendous aid for engineering material properties; thirdly, and perhaps most importantly, the observation of the phenomenon exhibits the capability of STM to produce images indicating the nature of internal defects which are below the surface. Over recent years, experimental and modelling techniques have been developed to study this anomalous regime of STM; however, there is a lack of a systematic classification of this scattered information. This review article thus serves the purpose of organizing all these results so as to enable a more comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon. We review the discovery of graphite superlattices, the observation of the associated properties, and the research efforts on this subject. An effort is made to envision the future experimental and theoretical research possibilities to unveil the mystery of this anomaly of STM. Applications of graphite superlattices are also proposed. (topical review)

  16. I Situ Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of Dealloying and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Copper - Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Syung Fred

    The mechanism of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Cu-30Au in 0.6 M NaCl was investigated by a series of experiments, in which samples were dealloyed (i.e., selective removal of copper atoms) by potentiostatic anodic polarization at zero applied stress (i) for varying lengths of time (10 seconds to 30 minutes) and then impact bent, and (ii) for 30 minutes followed by a period of time (5 seconds to 10 minutes) at the open circuit potential and then impact bent. The results indicate that dealloying at zero applied stress produces a surface porous layer that is capable, for a brief period of time (15 seconds at open circuit potential, aging or coarsening reverses the ability of the surface layer to induce cleavage. In addition, samples were dealloyed and simultaneously stressed at various nominal values. At low values of applied stress, failure occurred by brittle intergranular cracking (IGSCC); and at high values of stress, failure occurred by brittle transgranular cracking (TGSCC). The results indicate that the mechanism of IGSCC is identical to that of TGSCC and can best be described by a modification of the "film-induced cleavage" model. The implication of the aging phenomenon to the film-induced cleavage model of stress corrosion cracking is also discussed. An electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ESTM) was built and used to study the in-situ dealloying process of thin-film Cu-Au alloys. Thin-films of Cu-75 at%Au alloy were prepared by thermal evaporation of the bulk alloy and deposition of the vapor onto heated mica. The surface structure of the thin film thus grown consists of terrace of well defined (111) planes separated by atomic height steps. The results from in-situ ESTM indicate that if applied potentials were lower than the critical potential (E_{rm c}), dissolution of Cu preferentially occurred at the low coordination sites, namely, sites of defects, kinks and ledges. Surface diffusion of the remaining Au atoms then occurred. This exposed underlying Cu atoms at low coordination sites to the solution. Their dissolution promoted further surface diffusion of Au atoms. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  17. Bimetallic Catalysts and Platinum Surfaces Studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, Magnus

    2000-07-01

    Bimetallic catalyst systems used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Co-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and in the naphtha reforming process (Pt-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been studied in situ using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). Additionally, the adsorption of ethene on platinum single crystal surfaces has been investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy. In situ EXAFS at the cobalt K absorption edge have been carried out at 450{sup o}C on the hydrogen reduction of a rhenium-promoted Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Reductions carried out using 100% hydrogen and 5% hydrogen in helium gave different results. Whereas the reduction using dilute hydrogen leads to bulk-like metallic cobalt particles (hcp or fcc), reaction with pure hydrogen yields a more dispersed system with smaller cobalt metal particles (< 40 A). The results are rationalised in terms of different degrees of reoxidation of cobalt by the higher and lower concentrations of water generated during the reduction of cobalt oxide by 100% and 5% hydrogen, respectively. Additionally, in both reduction protocols a small fraction (3 -4 wt%) of the cobalt content is randomly dispersed over the tetrahedral vacancies of the alumina support. This dispersion occurs during reduction and not calcination. The cobalt in these sites cannot be reduced at 450 {sup o}C. The local environments about the rhenium atoms in Co-Re/{gamma}-A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst after different reduction periods have been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A bimetallic catalyst containing 4.6 wt% cobalt and 2 wt% rhenium has been compared with a corresponding monometallic sample with 2 wt% rhenium on the same support. The rhenium L{sub III} EXAFS analysis shows that bimetallic particles are formed after reduction at 450{sup o}C with the average particle size being 10-15 A. Rhenium is shown to be reduced at a later stage than cobalt. The fraction of cobalt atoms entering the support obstructs the access to the support for the rhenium atoms, leading to weaker metal - support interactions in the bimetallic sample than what is observed for the monometallic sample. Cobalt does not catalyse the reduction of rhenium and more than six hours reduction at 450{sup o}C is required for complete reduction of accessible rhenium. The influence of pretreatment temperature on the metal function of a commercial Pt-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalyst (EUROPT-4) was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. By simultaneously examining the rhenium L{sub III} and platinum L{sub III} EXAFS data, the bimetallic interaction and the metal - support interaction can be distinguished from the overall spectrum. The results show that if the catalyst is dried in air at temperatures {<=} 500{sup o}C before reduction at 480{sup o}C, bimetallic particles of platinum and rhenium are formed. Drying at higher temperatures and in absence of air inhibits the transport of mobile (rhenium) species on the surface causing no intimate contact between the two metals. Platinum L{sub III} EXAFS data show that the average particle size of the bimetallic particles on the alumina surface is less than 10 A. The results from the rhenium L{sub III} EXAFS analysis confirm that rhenium is not completely reduced to metallic rhenium after reduction, with a significant fraction of the rhenium present in low, positive oxidation states and in intimate contact with the support. The EXAFS data are consistent with a structural model of flat rhenium metal particles with smaller platinum particles situated at the boundary of the rhenium particles. Ethene adsorption and subsequent dehydrogenation on the hexagonally reconstructed Pt(100)-hex-R0.7{sup o} surface has been investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The results show that heterogeneous nucleation of the (1x1) domains occur when the hexagonal reconstruction is lifted during ethene adsorption on Pt(100). The (1x1) domains are highly anisotropic, and tend to grow in the [N 1] direction of the hexagonal reconstruction. The diffusion barrier associated with step edges parallel to the [N 1] direction is shown to be an important factor for the anisotropic behaviour of the adsorption process. The Pt(111) and the Pt(100)-hex-R0.7{sup o} surfaces were both saturated with ethene at room temperature followed by heating to 900 K. LEED patterns and STM images of the platinum surfaces after heating consistently show that graphite formation is more pronounced on Pt(111) than on Pt(100). The adsorbate formed on the Pt(100) surface during ethene exposure appears to desorb completely, leaving a clean hexagonally reconstructed surface when heated in UHV to temperatures above 900 K.

  18. Strong tipsample coupling in thermal radiation scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze how a probing particle modifies the infrared electromagnetic near field of a sample. The particle, described by electric and magnetic polarizabilities, represents the tip of an apertureless scanning optical near-field microscope (SNOM). We show that the interaction with the sample can be accounted for by ascribing to the particle dressed polarizabilities that combine the effects of image dipoles with retardation. When calculated from these polarizabilities, the SNOM signal depends only on the fields without the perturbing tip. If the studied surface is not illuminated by an external source but heated instead, the signal is closely related to the projected electromagnetic local density of states (EM-LDOS). Our calculations provide the link between the measured far-field spectra and the sample's optical properties. We also analyze the case where the probing particle is hotter than the sample and evaluate the impact of the dressed polarizabilities on near-field radiative heat transfer. We show that such a heated probe above a surface performs a surface spectroscopy, in the sense that the spectrum of the heat current is closely related to the local electromagnetic density of states. The calculations agree well with available experimental data. - Highlights: Polarizability of a dipolar particle changes close to a sample in near-field. Signal detected in far field coming from a dipolar particle scattering of the near-field. Calculation applied to plasmonic and thermal excitation. Relation between signal and EM-LDOS is established. Heat transfer between a dipolar particle and a sample is calculated

  19. Scanning tunneling microscopy-based in situ measurement of fast tool servo-assisted diamond turning micro-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Zhu, Wu-Le; Yang, Shunyao; Yang, Keji

    2014-05-01

    We propose a new in situ measurement system based on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to realize spiral scanning of a micro-structure without removing it after fast tool servo (FTS) cutting. To avoid distortion of the machined and measured surface, the center alignment of the FTS tool and the STM tip was first implemented by an STM in situ raster scan of two circular grooves cut by the machine tool. To originally observe the machined surface, the trace of the STM tip is put in accord with that of the FTS by setting the same start and end points of cutting and scanning and the same feed rate, and both are triggered by the subdivided rotary encoder of the spindle of the diamond turning machine. The profile data of the in situ spiral scanning of the machined micro-lens array can be fed back to compensate the depth of the cut to guarantee sub-micron form accuracy after second machining. The efficient spiral scanning, proper matching and accurate evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed STM in situ measurement approach is of great significance to the fabrication process.

  20. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of ultrathin Fe/Mo (110) films using W/Au/Co tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, J.; Kukunin, A.; Elmers, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on magnetic contrast observed in low-temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) of Fe nanowires deposited on Mo(110) using tungsten tips covered by Au/Co thin films. Due to the spin reorientation transition of Co films on Au an out-of-plane magnetic sensitivity is obtained for tips with thin cobalt films (up to 8 monolayers of Co), while for thicker Co coverages an in-plane magnetization component can be probed. Using W/Au/Co tips with out-of-plane magnetic sensitivity we show that the one (ML) and two (DL) atomic layers thick Fe nanowires prepared using step flow growth on a Mo(110) crystal are perpendicularly magnetized. The reorientation of the tip sensitivity axis has been confirmed by SP-STM measurements of thicker Fe/Mo(110) films, where an in-plane easy axis has been observed for islands thicker than 3 ML. Spin-resolved spectra were measured using the W/Au/Co tips for ML, DL and thicker Fe/Mo films. The spectra reveal strong characteristic peaks at 0.4eV for ML Fe, and at -0.08eV and 0.78eV for DL Fe. Peak positions and intensities depend on the relative orientation of tip and sample magnetization. Spin-resolved spectroscopic data obtained for different tips are compared.

  1. Characterization of Si3N4/SiO2 optical channel waveguides by photon scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chudgar, Mona H.; Jackson, Howard E.; Miller, Jeffrey S.; De Brabander, Gregory N.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1993-01-01

    Photon scanning tunneling microscopy (PSTM) is used to characterize Si3N4/Si02 optical channel waveguides being used for integrated optical-micromechanical sensors. PSTM utilizes an optical fiber tapered to a fine point which is piezoelectrically positioned to measure the decay of the evanescent field intensity associated with the waveguide propagating mode. Evanescent field decays are recorded for both ridge channel waveguides and planar waveguide regions. Values for the local effective refractive index are calculated from the data for both polarizations and compared to model calculations.

  2. Structural examination of Au/Ge(001) by surface x-ray diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, S.; Umbach, T.; Blumenstein, C; Schäfer, J; Claessen, R.; Sauer, S.; Leake, S. J.; Willmott, P R; Fiedler, M.; Bechstedt, F.

    2012-01-01

    The one-dimensional reconstruction of Au/Ge(001) was investigated by means of autocorrelation functions from surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Interatomic distances found in the SXRD-Patterson map are substantiated by results from STM. The Au coverage, recently determined to be 3/4 of a monolayer of gold, together with SXRD leads to three non-equivalent positions for Au within the c(8x2) unit cell. Combined with structural information from STM topograph...

  3. Scanning-Tunneling Microscope Imaging of Single-Electron Solitons in a Material with Incommensurate Charge-Density Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazovskii, Serguei; Brun, Christophe; Wang, Zhao-Zhong; Monceau, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    We report on scanning-tunneling microscopy experiments in a charge-density wave (CDW) system allowing visually capturing and studying in detail the individual solitons corresponding to the self-trapping of just one electron. This Amplitude Soliton is marked by vanishing of the CDW amplitude and by the ? shift of its phase. It might be the realization of the spinonthe long-sought particle (along with the holon) in the study of science of strongly correlated electronic systems. As a distinct feature we also observe one-dimensional Friedel oscillations superimposed on the CDW which develop independently of solitons.

  4. Surface damage through grazing incidence ions investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redinger, Alex

    2009-07-10

    Surface damage, caused by grazing incidence ions, is investigated with variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The experiments are carried out on a Pt(111) crystal. The kinetic energy of noble gas ions is varied between 1-15 keV and the angle of incidence can be adjusted between {theta} = 78.5 and {theta} = 90 measured with respect to the surface normal. The damage patterns of single ion impacts, on flat terraces and at step edges of monoatomic height, are investigated at low surface temperatures. Ions hitting a flat terrace are usually specular reflected. The energy transfer from the ion to the crystal atoms is small and only little damage is produced. In contrast, at ascending step edges, which are illuminated by the ion beam, large angle scattering events occur. Sputtering, adatom and vacancy production is induced. However, a significant fraction of the ions, which hit step edges, enter the crystal and are guided in between two atomic layers parallel to the surface via small angle binary collisions. This steering process is denoted as subsurface channeling. The energy loss per length scale of the channeled particles is low, which results in long ion trajectories (up to 1000A). During the steering process, the ions produce surface damage. Depending on the ion species and the ion energy, adatom and vacancies or surface vacancy trenches of monoatomic width are observed. The surface damage can be used to track the path of the ion. This makes the whole trajectory of single ions with keV energy visible. The number of sputtered atoms per incident ion at ascending step edges, i.e. the step edge sputtering yield, is measured experimentally for different irradiation conditions. For {theta} = 86 , the sputtering yield is determined from the fluence dependent retraction of pre-existing illuminated step edges. An alternative method for the step edge sputtering yield determination, is the analysis of the concentration of ascending steps and of the removed amount of material as a function of the ion fluence. This method is also applicable under less grazing angles of incidence. The investigations show that the sputtering yield at step edges depends on the azimuthal orientation of the impinging ions with respect to the surface. This change is attributed to the orientation dependence of subsurface channeling. The step edge sputtering yield at small adatom clusters is measured. In this case, the topmost layer (which forms the step edge) has a small lateral extension in ion beam direction. The evaluation shows that the step edge yield is, compared to step edges with a long upper terrace, decreased by a factor of three. The physical reason can be traced back to subsurface channeling. The ions are able to pass underneath the cluster and exit the crystal without a large scattering event. Little energy is transfered to the crystal which results in a low sputtering yield. The influence of adsorbates on sputtering and surface damage in grazing incidence ion erosion is studied for the case of oxygen and carbon monoxide. A partial surface coverage with adsorbates causes an enhancement of the erosion rate (the amount of removed material per ion fluence) by a factor of up to 40 compared to the clean case. The study is performed for 5 keV Ar{sup +} ions for various grazing angles between 81 and 87 and temperatures ranging from 400 K to 550 K. Finally, coarsening of ion beam induced ripple patterns is analyzed. For surface temperatures of 450 K or below coarsening is athermal and kinetic, unrelated to diffusion and surface free energy. Similar to the situation of sand dunes, coarsening takes place through annihilation reactions of mobile defects in the pattern. The defect velocity derived on the basis of a simple model agrees quantitatively with the velocity of monoatomic steps illuminated by the ion beam. (orig.)

  5. Surface damage through grazing incidence ions investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface damage, caused by grazing incidence ions, is investigated with variable temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. The experiments are carried out on a Pt(111) crystal. The kinetic energy of noble gas ions is varied between 1-15 keV and the angle of incidence can be adjusted between θ = 78.5 and θ = 90 measured with respect to the surface normal. The damage patterns of single ion impacts, on flat terraces and at step edges of monoatomic height, are investigated at low surface temperatures. Ions hitting a flat terrace are usually specular reflected. The energy transfer from the ion to the crystal atoms is small and only little damage is produced. In contrast, at ascending step edges, which are illuminated by the ion beam, large angle scattering events occur. Sputtering, adatom and vacancy production is induced. However, a significant fraction of the ions, which hit step edges, enter the crystal and are guided in between two atomic layers parallel to the surface via small angle binary collisions. This steering process is denoted as subsurface channeling. The energy loss per length scale of the channeled particles is low, which results in long ion trajectories (up to 1000A). During the steering process, the ions produce surface damage. Depending on the ion species and the ion energy, adatom and vacancies or surface vacancy trenches of monoatomic width are observed. The surface damage can be used to track the path of the ion. This makes the whole trajectory of single ions with keV energy visible. The number of sputtered atoms per incident ion at ascending step edges, i.e. the step edge sputtering yield, is measured experimentally for different irradiation conditions. For θ = 86 , the sputtering yield is determined from the fluence dependent retraction of pre-existing illuminated step edges. An alternative method for the step edge sputtering yield determination, is the analysis of the concentration of ascending steps and of the removed amount of material as a function of the ion fluence. This method is also applicable under less grazing angles of incidence. The investigations show that the sputtering yield at step edges depends on the azimuthal orientation of the impinging ions with respect to the surface. This change is attributed to the orientation dependence of subsurface channeling. The step edge sputtering yield at small adatom clusters is measured. In this case, the topmost layer (which forms the step edge) has a small lateral extension in ion beam direction. The evaluation shows that the step edge yield is, compared to step edges with a long upper terrace, decreased by a factor of three. The physical reason can be traced back to subsurface channeling. The ions are able to pass underneath the cluster and exit the crystal without a large scattering event. Little energy is transfered to the crystal which results in a low sputtering yield. The influence of adsorbates on sputtering and surface damage in grazing incidence ion erosion is studied for the case of oxygen and carbon monoxide. A partial surface coverage with adsorbates causes an enhancement of the erosion rate (the amount of removed material per ion fluence) by a factor of up to 40 compared to the clean case. The study is performed for 5 keV Ar+ ions for various grazing angles between 81 and 87 and temperatures ranging from 400 K to 550 K. Finally, coarsening of ion beam induced ripple patterns is analyzed. For surface temperatures of 450 K or below coarsening is athermal and kinetic, unrelated to diffusion and surface free energy. Similar to the situation of sand dunes, coarsening takes place through annihilation reactions of mobile defects in the pattern. The defect velocity derived on the basis of a simple model agrees quantitatively with the velocity of monoatomic steps illuminated by the ion beam. (orig.)

  6. Adsorbate structures and catalytic reactions studied in the torrpressure range by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kevin Shao-Lin

    2003-05-23

    High-pressure, high-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (HPHTSTM) was used to study adsorbate structures and reactions on single crystal model catalytic systems. Studies of the automobile catalytic converter reaction [CO + NO {yields} 1/2 N{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}] on Rh(111) and ethylene hydrogenation [C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 6}] on Rh(111) and Pt(111) elucidated information on adsorbate structures in equilibrium with high-pressure gas and the relationship of atomic and molecular mobility to chemistry. STM studies of NO on Rh(111) showed that adsorbed NO forms two high-pressure structures, with the phase transformation from the (2 x 2) structure to the (3 x 3) structure occurring at 0.03 Torr. The (3 x 3) structure only exists when the surface is in equilibrium with the gas phase. The heat of adsorption of this new structure was determined by measuring the pressures and temperatures at which both (2 x 2) and (3 x 3) structures coexisted. The energy barrier between the two structures was calculated by observing the time necessary for the phase transformation to take place. High-pressure STM studies of the coadsorption of CO and NO on Rh(111) showed that CO and NO form a mixed (2 x 2) structure at low NO partial pressures. By comparing surface and gas compositions, the adsorption energy difference between topsite CO and NO was calculated. Occasionally there is exchange between top-site CO and NO, for which we have described a mechanism for. At high NO partial pressures, NO segregates into islands, where the phase transformation to the (3 x 3) structure occurs. The reaction of CO and NO on Rh(111) was monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) and HPHTSTM. From MS studies the apparent activation energy of the catalytic converter reaction was calculated and compared to theory. STM showed that under high-temperature reaction conditions, surface metal atoms become mobile. Ethylene hydrogenation and its poisoning by CO was also studied by STM on Rh(111) and Pt(111). Poisoning was found to coincide with decreased adsorbate mobility. Under ethylene hydrogenation conditions, no order is detected by STM at 300 K, as hydrogen and ethylidyne, the surface species formed by gas-phase ethylene, are too mobile. When CO is introduced, the reaction stops, and ordered structures appear on the surface. For Rh(111), the structure is predominantly a mixed c(4 x 2), though there are some areas of (2 x 2). For Pt(111), the structure is hexagonal and resembles the Moire pattern seen when Pt(111) is exposed to pure CO. From these studies it is concluded that CO poisons by stopping adsorbate mobility. This lack of adsorbate mobility prevents the adsorption of ethylene from the gas phase by hindering the creation of adsorption sites.

  7. Single-molecule conductance of redox molecules in electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiss, W.; Albrecht, Tim; van Zalinge, H.; Higgins, S.J.; Bethell, D.; Hobenreich, H.; Schiffrin, D.J.; Nichols, Richard John; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Ulstrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    maximum in the I-tunneling versus electrode potential relationship can be fitted by a "soft" gating concept. This arises from large configurational fluctuations of the molecular bridge linked to the gold contacts by flexible chains. This view is incorporated in a formalism that is well-suited for data...

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopy and electrical transport in graphene and Au(111); Rastertunnelmikroskopie und elektrischer Transport in Graphen und Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, Viktor

    2010-12-02

    This thesis describes an investigation of morphologic and electronic properties of graphene. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a study of the crystallographic and morphologic structure of graphene on silicon dioxide was performed. The microscopic investigations with atomic resolution show strong variations of the surface corrugation of this system. Besides the substrate induced long range corrugation, graphene features an intrinsic short range corrugation with a preferential wave length of about 15 nm due to a partial decoupling from the substrate. A strong deformation of the graphene membrane induces effective vector and scalar potentials, which can modify the charge carrier transport in this system. In addition, complementary electrical transport measurements were performed, in order to determine macroscopically the effects of lithographical contaminations on the charge carrier transport in clean graphene. Electronic scattering could be observed by means of an energy dependent STM study on a graphene step edge and point impurities.The disorder breaks the lattice symmetry and couples the electronic states of two inequivalent K points in reciprocal space leading to a pronounced backscattering. In addition to graphene, a pseudo relativistic two-dimensional electronic system, the electronic scattering behavior of a classical two-dimensional system has been investigated. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy a surprising effect of electron wave guiding in a periodic potential on the Au(111) surface was detected. STS measurements show, that electrons with an energy 20 times higher than the scattering potential can be channelled by this low potential (40 meV). (orig.)

  9. Preparation of theoretical scanning tunneling microscope images of adsorbed molecules: a theoretical study of benzene on the Cu(110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since its development in 1982, the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) has developed into a powerful tool for the study of surfaces and adsorbates. However, the utility of the technique can be further enhanced through the development of techniques for generating theoretical STM images. This is particularly true when studying molecules adsorbed on a substrate, as the results are often interpreted superficially due to an inadequate understanding of the orbital overlap probed in the experiment. A method of preparing theoretical scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images using comparatively inexpensive desktop computers and the commercially available CRYSTAL98 package is presented through a study of benzene adsorbed on the Cu(110) surface. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods are used to model clean Cu(110) slabs of various thicknesses and to simulate the adsorption of benzene onto these slabs. Eight possible orientations of benzene on the Cu(110) surface are proposed, and the optimum orientation according to the calculations is presented. Theoretical STM images of the Cu(110) surface and benzene adsorbed on the Cu(110) surface are compared with experimental STM images of the system from a published study. Significant differences are observed and are examined in detail

  10. Two-Dimensional Cysteine and Cystine Cluster Networks on Au(111) Disclosed by Voltammetry and in Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik; Friis, Esben P.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Ulstrup, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Microscopic structures for molecular monolayers of L-cysteine and L-cystine assembled on Au(111) have been disclosed by employing electrochemistry and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). HighresolutionSTMimages show that the adlayers of both cyteine and cystine exhibit highly-ordered net......Microscopic structures for molecular monolayers of L-cysteine and L-cystine assembled on Au(111) have been disclosed by employing electrochemistry and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). HighresolutionSTMimages show that the adlayers of both cyteine and cystine exhibit highly......-ordered networklike clusters with (3x3 6)R30° structure. By combining the surface coverage estimated from voltammetric data, each cluster is demonstrated to include six individual cysteine molecules or three cystine molecules. As a comparison, no cluster structure is observed for the 1-butanethiol adlayer prepared...... and examined under the same conditions as those for cysteine and cystine. This suggests that intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds among adsorbed cysteine or cystine molecules could be responsible for the origin of the cluster-network structures for the adlayers. Several models are proposed...

  11. Scanning tunnelling microscopy imaging and spectroscopy of p-type degenerate 4H-SiC(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging and spectroscopy of a highly p-doped wide bandgap semiconducting 4H-SiC(0001) surface. Whereas n- and p-doped 6H-SiC or n-doped 4H-SiC surfaces can be relatively easily imaged with the STM, the p-doped 4H-SiC cannot be imaged due to the absence of any surface conductivity. This is very surprising given the presence of a p-doped, degenerate epitaxial layer. The behaviour can be explained by the formation of a Schottky barrier either between the tip and the surface or between the surface and the sample holder, depending on the polarity of the applied voltage. We found that prolonged and repeated exposures of the SiC surface to a Si atomic flux followed by thermal annealing are required before the surface conductivity is sufficient to allow STM images to be recorded. The result is the deposition of overlayers of Si, with structures similar to Si(111) 7 x 7, Si(113) 3 x 2, and Si(110) 16 x 2 rather than the expected stable SiC(0001) 3 x 3 reconstruction. We have further demonstrated the ability of scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to distinguish between the Si and the SiC phases based on the difference in their bandgaps

  12. Scanning tunnelling microscopy imaging and spectroscopy of p-type degenerate 4H-SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikhtman, A.; Baffou, G.; Mayne, A. J.; Dujardin, G.

    2005-07-01

    In this work we present scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) imaging and spectroscopy of a highly p-doped wide bandgap semiconducting 4H-SiC(0001) surface. Whereas n- and p-doped 6H-SiC or n-doped 4H-SiC surfaces can be relatively easily imaged with the STM, the p-doped 4H-SiC cannot be imaged due to the absence of any surface conductivity. This is very surprising given the presence of a p-doped, degenerate epitaxial layer. The behaviour can be explained by the formation of a Schottky barrier either between the tip and the surface or between the surface and the sample holder, depending on the polarity of the applied voltage. We found that prolonged and repeated exposures of the SiC surface to a Si atomic flux followed by thermal annealing are required before the surface conductivity is sufficient to allow STM images to be recorded. The result is the deposition of overlayers of Si, with structures similar to Si(111) 7 7, Si(113) 3 2, and Si(110) 16 2 rather than the expected stable SiC(0001) 3 3 reconstruction. We have further demonstrated the ability of scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to distinguish between the Si and the SiC phases based on the difference in their bandgaps.

  13. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope operating at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Shashank; Zhou, Brian B.; Drozdov, Ilya K.; Seo, Jungpil; Gyenis, Andras; Kingsley, Simon C. J.; Jones, Howard; Yazdani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) capable of taking maps of the tunneling density of states with sub-atomic spatial resolution at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high (14 T) magnetic fields. The fully ultra-high vacuum system features visual access to a two-sample microscope stage at the end of a bottom-loading dilution refrigerator, which facilitates the transfer of in situ prepared tips and samples. The two-sample stage enables loca...

  14. Preeminent Role of the Van Hove Singularity in the Strong-Coupling Analysis of Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy for Two-Dimensional Cuprate Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy de Castro, Giorgio; Berthod, Christophe; Piriou, Alexandre; Giannini, Enrico; Fischer, ystein

    2008-12-01

    In two dimensions the noninteracting density of states displays a van Hove singularity (VHS) which introduces an intrinsic electron-hole asymmetry, absent in three dimensions. We show that due to this VHS the strong-coupling analysis of tunneling spectra in high-Tc superconductors must be reconsidered. Based on a microscopic model which reproduces the experimental data with excellent accuracy, we elucidate the peculiar role played by the VHS in shaping the tunneling spectra, and show that more conventional analysis of strong-coupling effects can lead to severe errors.

  15. Scanning Josephson Tunneling Microscopy of Single Crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta with a Conventional Superconducting Tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, H.; Barber Jr., R. P.; Ono, S.; Ando, Yoichi; Dynes, Robert C.

    2009-10-28

    We have performed both Josephson and quasiparticle tunneling in vacuum tunnel junctions formed between a conventional superconducting scanning tunneling microscope tip and overdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+ single crystals. A Josephson current is observed with a peak centered at a small finite voltage due to the thermal-fluctuation-dominated superconducting phase dynamics. Josephson measurements at different surface locations yield local values for the Josephson ICRN product. Corresponding energy gap measurements were also performed and a surprising inverse correlation was observed between the local ICRN product and the local energy gap.

  16. Development and set-up of a new low temperature scanning tunneling microscope Applications on microscopy and spectroscopy of lanthanid metals

    CERN Document Server

    Mühlig, A

    2000-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are suitable methods to study the physical properties of thin magnetic metal films with a thickness of a few monolayers. These systems are of current interest because they give insight into solids states physics of metals. This thesis deals with following subjects: Introduction to scanning tunneling microscopy. Set-up of a low temperatur scanning tunneling microscope. Growth of thin Co and lanthanid metal films on W(110). Interplay of morphologie and magnetism on the example of Co/W(110). Making of Gd wires which are only a few nanometers thin. Diskussion of the studied exchange splitting of a d-like surface state in a local moment magnet. Measurement of the lifetime of hot holes and hot electrons near the fermi edge.

  17. Estudio de superficies usando un microscopio de efecto tnel (STM) / A study of surfaces using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alba Graciela, vila Bernal; Ruy Sebastin, Bonilla Osorio.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los microscopios de barrido se han convertido en las manos y los "ojos" de experimentadores de nuestro siglo, son herramientas necesarias en los laboratorios de educacin e investigacin para la caracterizacin a nanoescalas. El presente artculo presenta las modificaciones en la implementacin elec [...] trnica (caracterizacin de los piezoelctricos y sistema de barrido) y mecnica (diseo de un sistema de antivibracin) de un microscopio de barrido de efecto tnel que han permitido visualizacin y modificacin de superficies a nanoescala. Se describe una metodologa para la correcta visualizacin y caracterizacin de superficies usando el instrumento implementado, alcanzando la cuantificacin bidimensional de caractersticas de hasta 1300nm, con resolucin ~15nm. Esta metodologa, determinada experimentalmente, tiene en cuenta parmetros crticos para la estabilizacin de la corriente tnel, como lo son la velocidad de barrido y las geometras y dimensiones de las agujas del microscopio. La versatilidad del microscopio permite modificar y visualizar los defectos introducidos en muestras de HOPG al aplicar voltajes entre la punta del microscopio y la muestra. Los resultados aqu descritos permiten presentar fcilmente los conceptos de barrido topogrfico y litografa. Abstract in english Sweeping/scanning microscopes have become an experimental scientist's hands and eyes in this century; they have become a powerful and necessary tool for nanoscale characterisation in education and research laboratories all around the world. This article presents the modifications made in the mechani [...] cal (isolation or designing an antivibration system) and electrical (piezoelectric and scanning system characterisation) implementation of a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM), thereby allowing nanoscale surfaces to be visualised and modified. A methodology for visualising and characterising surfaces using the aforementioned instrument is described, bidimensional quantification of up to 1,300 nm, with ~15 nm resolution being reached. This experimental methodology took critical parameters for tunnelling current stability into account, such as scanning speed and microscope tip geometry and dimensions. This microscope's versatility allowed defects in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples to be modified and visualised by applying a voltage between the tip and the sample. The concepts of topography scanning and lithography can be easily understood by using the instrument implemented here.

  18. Line and Point Defects in MoSe2 Bilayer Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjun; Zheng, Hao; Yang, Fang; Jiao, Lu; Chen, Jinglei; Ho, Wingkin; Gao, Chunlei; Jia, Jinfeng; Xie, Maohai

    2015-06-23

    Bilayer (BL) MoSe2 films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S). Similar to monolayer (ML) films, networks of inversion domain boundary (DB) defects are observed both in the top and bottom layers of BL MoSe2, and often they are seen spatially correlated such that one is on top of the other. There are also isolated ones in the bottom layer without companion in the top-layer and are detected by STM/S through quantum tunneling of the defect states through the barrier of the MoSe2 ML. Comparing the DB states in BL MoSe2 with that of ML film reveals some common features as well as differences. Quantum confinement of the defect states is indicated. Point defects in BL MoSe2 are also observed by STM/S, where ionization of the donor defect by the tip-induced electric field is evidenced. These results are of great fundamental interests as well as practical relevance of devices made of MoSe2 ultrathin layers. PMID:26051223

  19. Mirror buckling of freestanding graphene membranes induced by local heating due to a scanning tunneling microscope tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelz, J. K.; Neek Amal, M.; Xu, P.; Barber, S. D.; Ackerman, M. L.; Thibado, P. M.; Sadeghi, A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2014-03-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has been an invaluable tool in the study of graphene at the atomic scale. Several STM groups have managed to obtain atomic scale images of freestanding graphene membranes providing insight into the behavior of the stabilized ripple geometry. However, we found that the interaction between the STM tip and the freestanding graphene sample may induce additional effects. By varying the tunneling parameters, we can tune the position of the sample, in either a smooth or step like fashion. These phenomena were investigated by STM experiments, continuum elasticity theory and large scale molecular dynamics simulations. These results confirm that by increasing the tip bias, the electrostatic attraction between the tip and sample increases. When applied on a concave surface, this can result in mirror buckling which leads to a large scale movement of the sample. Interestingly, due in part to the negative coefficient of thermal expansion of graphene, buckling transitions can also be induced through local heating of the surface using the STM tip. Financial support by O.N.R. grant N00014-10-1-0181, N.S.F grant DMR-0855358, EU-Marie Curie IIF postdoc Fellowship/299855 (for M. N. A.), ESF-EuroGRAPHENE project CONGRAN, F.S.F (FWO-Vl), and Methusalem Foundation of the Flemish Government.

  20. Field enhancement factors and self-focus functions manifesting in field emission resonances in scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Bin; Lin, Chun-Liang; Chan, Wen-Yuan; Lu, Shin-Ming; Chang, Chia-Seng

    2016-04-01

    Field emission (FE) resonance (or Gundlach oscillation) in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is a phenomenon in which the FE electrons emitted from the microscope tip couple into the quantized standing-wave states within the STM tunneling gap. Although the occurrence of FE resonance peaks can be semi-quantitatively described using the triangular potential well model, it cannot explain the experimental observation that the number of resonance peaks may change under the same emission current. This study demonstrates that the aforementioned variation can be adequately explained by introducing a field enhancement factor that is related to the local electric field at the tip apex. The peak number of FE resonances increases with the field enhancement factor. The peak intensity of the FE resonance on the reconstructed Au(111) surface varies in the face-center cubic, hexagonal-close-packed, and ridge regions, thus providing the contrast in the mapping through FE resonances. The mapping contrast is demonstrated to be nearly independent of the tip-sample distance, implying that the FE electron beam is not divergent because of a self-focus function intrinsically involved in the STM configuration.

  1. Temperature dependent electron delocalization in CdSe/CdS type-I core-shell systems: An insight from scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Biswajit; Chakrabarti, Sudipto; Pal, Amlan J.

    2016-03-01

    Core-shell nanocrystals having a type-I band-alignment confine charge carriers to the core. In this work, we choose CdSe/CdS core-shell nano-heterostructures that evidence confinement of holes only. Such a selective confinement occurs in the core-shell nanocrystals due to a low energy-offset of conduction band (CB) edges resulting in delocalization of electrons and thus a decrease in the conduction band-edge. Since the delocalization occurs through a thermal assistance, we study temperature dependence of selective delocalization process through scanning tunneling spectroscopy. From the density of states (DOS), we observe that the electrons are confined to the core at low temperatures. Above a certain temperature, they become delocalized up to the shell leading to a decrease in the CB of the core-shell system due to widening of quantum confinement effect. With holes remaining confined to the core due to a large offset in the valence band (VB), we record the topography of the core-shell nanocrystals by probing their CB and VB edges separately. The topographies recorded at different temperatures representing wave-functions of electrons and holes corresponded to the results obtained from the DOS spectra. The results evidence temperature-dependent wave-function delocalization of one-type of carriers up to the shell layer in core-shell nano-heterostructures.

  2. Cluster formation in laser-induced ablation and evaporation of solids observed by laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tench, R.J.; Balooch, M.; Bernardez, L.; Allen, M.J.; Siekhaus, W.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Olander, D.R.; Wang, W. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Laser ionization time-of-flight mass analysis (LIMA) used pulses (5ns) of a frequency-quadrupled Nd-YAG laser (266 nm) focused onto spots of 4--100 {mu}m diameter to ablate material, and a reflectron time of flight tube to mass-analyze the plume. The observed mass spectra for Si, Pt, SiC, and UO{sub 2} varied in the distribution of ablation products among atoms, molecules and clusters, depending on laser power density and target material. Cleaved surfaces of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) positioned at room temperature either 10 cm away from materials ablated at 10{sup {minus}5} Torr by 1--3 excimer laser (308 nm) pulses of 20 ns duration or 1 m away from materials vaporized at 10{sup {minus}8} Torr by 10 Nd-Glass laser pulses of 1 ms duration were analyzed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) in air with {angstrom} resolution. Clusters up to 30 {angstrom} in diameter were observed. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Single molecule manipulation at low temperature and laser scanning tunnelling photo-induced processes analysis through time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes, firstly, the statistical analysis used to determine the processes that occur during the manipulation of a single molecule through electronically induced excitations with a low temperature (5 K) scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). Various molecular operation examples are described and the ability to probe the ensuing molecular manipulation dynamics is discussed within the excitation context. It is, in particular, shown that such studies can reveal reversible manipulation for tuning dynamics through variation of the excitation energy. Secondly, the photo-induced process arising from the irradiation of the STM junction is also studied through feedback loop dynamics analysis, allowing us to distinguish between photo-thermally and photo-electronically induced signals.

  4. Two-probe theory of scanning tunneling microscopy of single molecules: Zn(II)-etioporphyrin on alumina

    CERN Document Server

    Buker, J; Buker, John; Kirczenow, George

    2005-01-01

    We explore theoretically the scanning tunneling microscopy of single molecules on substrates using a framework of two local probes. This framework is appropriate for studying electron flow in tip/molecule/substrate systems where a thin insulating layer between the molecule and a conducting substrate transmits electrons non-uniformly and thus confines electron transmission between the molecule and substrate laterally to a nanoscale region significantly smaller in size than the molecule. The tip-molecule coupling and molecule-substrate coupling are treated on the same footing, as local probes to the molecule, with electron flow modelled using the Lippmann-Schwinger Green function scattering technique. STM images are simulated for various positions of the stationary (substrate) probe below a Zn(II)-etioporphyrin I molecule. We find that these images have a strong dependence on the substrate probe position, indicating that electron flow can depend strongly on both tip position and the location of the dominant mol...

  5. Observation of Buried Phosphorus Dopants near Clean Si(100)-(2x1) with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, G W; Hawley, M E; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Grube, Holger; Hawley, Marilyn E.

    2004-01-01

    We have used scanning tunneling microscopy to identify individual phosphorus dopant atoms near the clean silicon (100)-(2x1) reconstructed surface. The charge-induced band bending signature associated with the dopants shows up as an enhancement in both filled and empty states and is consistent with the appearance of n-type dopants on compound semiconductor surfaces and passivated Si(100)-(2x1). We observe dopants at different depths and see a strong dependence of the signature on the magnitude of the sample voltage. Our results suggest that, on this clean surface, the antibonding surface state band acts as an extension of the bulk conduction band into the gap. The positively charged dimer vacancies that have been observed previously appear as depressions in the filled states, as opposed to enhancements, because they disrupt these surface bands.

  6. Electronic characterization of LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interfaces by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When LaAlO3 is epitaxially grown on TiO2-terminated SrTiO3, an electrically conducting interface is generated. In this respect, the physical properties of the interface differ substantially from those of both LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, which are electrically insulating in bulk form. This dissertation looks into the question of the microscopic structure of the conducting two-dimensional interface electron system. Comparing the electronic density of states of LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interfaces measured by scanning tunneling spectroscopy with results of density functional theory, the interface electron system is found to be substantially coined by the hosting transition metal lattices. The comparison yields a detailed picture of the microscopic structure of the interface electron system. (orig.)

  7. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Observation of a Square Abrikosov Lattice in LuNi2B2C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present scanning tunneling microscopy measurements of the (001) surface of a LuNi2B 2C borocarbide single crystal at 4.2K. In zero field, the conductance versus voltage characteristics recorded at various locations on the sample reproducibly provide a gap value of 2.2meV. In a magnetic field of 1.5 and 0.375T, the recordings of the conductance as a function of position reveal a regular square vortex lattice tilted by 45 degree with respect to the crystalline a axis. This unusual result is correlated with an in-plane anisotropy of the upper critical field Hparallelc2(45 degree)/Hparallelc2(0)=0.92 at 4.2K and is analyzed within the framework of Ginzburg-Landau theory. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. In-gap states of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals investigated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Dorothee; Fornari, Roberto [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Leibniz-Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung, Berlin (Germany); Scherer, Valentina; Janowitz, Christoph; Manzke, Recardo [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Galazka, Zbigniew [Leibniz-Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The influence of intrinsic point defects on the electronic structure of n-type In{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals grown by two methods, namely chemical vapor transport and from the melt, was examined by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. This method is a very surface sensitive technique for measuring the local density of states. So far not resolved states within the fundamental band gap have been observed. The gap states have been studied at different crystals and after several annealing treatments in an oxidizing atmosphere. The spectroscopic results will be compared to state of the art DFT-calculations revealing hints on the origin of the gap states of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to be due to oxygen vacancies as well as indium and oxygen interstitials. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Determination of carbide structures on an Mo(110) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, De-Wei; Wu, Yi-Hsueh; Lin, Rong-Bin; Lo, Rong-Li

    2008-04-01

    Surface properties of transition metals can be modified considerably by forming carbide overlayers. In this study we fabricated molybdenum carbide overlayers by carburizing the Mo(110) surface with ethylene (C2H4) and successfully determined their real space structures by using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). With various carburization recipes, three carbon-terminated structures {\\scriptsize \\bigl (\\matrix {5 & 0 \\cr {-2} & 6 }\\bigr)} , (12 4)-2C, and (4 4) of coverages 1/30,1/24, and 1/16 monolayer (ML) were formed on the surface, respectively. Since the carbide overlayers were formed at high temperatures, inward diffusion of carbon atoms played a key role in structure formation.

  10. Determination of carbide structures on an Mo(110) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface properties of transition metals can be modified considerably by forming carbide overlayers. In this study we fabricated molybdenum carbide overlayers by carburizing the Mo(110) surface with ethylene (C2H4) and successfully determined their real space structures by using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). With various carburization recipes, three carbon-terminated structures ((5)/-2/(0)/6), (12 x 4)-2C, and (4 x 4) of coverages 1/30,1/24, and 1/16 monolayer (ML) were formed on the surface, respectively. Since the carbide overlayers were formed at high temperatures, inward diffusion of carbon atoms played a key role in structure formation

  11. Atomic-Scale Control of Surface Reconstruction on Ge(001) by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy at 80 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasumasa; Nakatsuji, Kan; Yamada, Masamichi; Komori, Fumio

    2004-03-01

    The reconstruction of a clean Ge(001) surface is controlled at the atomic scale by the temporal change in the sample bias voltage during scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) observation at 80 K. A positive voltage pulse on the c(42)-reconstructed region flips the buckled dimers only in the dimer row right under the STM tip apex, and creates a wire of p(22) reconstruction extending along the dimer row. An artificial superstructure is made on the c(42) surface by inverting the buckling of the target dimer rows periodically and forming p(22) wires side by side. A negative voltage pulse on the p(22) region creates a local c(42)-reconstructed area near the point of pulse. Its size can be reduced to 1.6 nm 2.8 nm by manipulating the voltage of the pulse.

  12. Growth of SiC nanodots on Si(111) by exposure to ferrocene and annealing studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the adsorption of ferrocene on Si(111) 7x7 at 600 deg. C, and the succeeding growth of SiC islands by annealing at 600-800 deg. C by using scanning tunneling microscopy. The as-adsorbed surface at 600 deg. C still shows remnant 7x7 structure and, as annealing time is prolonged until 60 min, granules grow to an average width of 1.0 nm. The islands start to grow by annealing at 650 deg. C, but only at the substrate step edges. By annealing at higher temperatures, larger islands are formed and, by annealing at 800 deg. C, some of them show triangular-based trapezoids, which are observed also after flashing at 1130 deg. C. We find that substrate steps play an important role in SiC islands formation as a source of Si atoms at the annealing temperatures studied

  13. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Measurements of the Full Cycle of a Heterogeneous Asymmetric Hydrogenation Reaction on Chirally Modified Pt(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demers-Carpentier, Vincent; Goubert, Guillaume; Masini, Federico; Dong, Yi; Rasmussen, Anton Michael Havelund; Hammer, Bjørk; McBreen, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogenation of a prochiral substrate, 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone (TFAP), on Pt(111) was studied using room-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements. The experiments were carried out both on a clean surface and on a chirally modified surface, using chemisorbed (R)-(+)-1......-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine, ((R)-NEA), as the modifier. On the nonmodified surface, introduction of H2 at a background pressure of ∼1 × 10–6 mbar leads to the rapid break-up of TFAP dimer structures followed by the gradual removal of all TFAP-related images. During the latter step, some monomers display an extra...... protrusion compared to TFAP in dimer structures. They are attributed to a half-hydrogenated intermediate. The introduction of H2 to a mixture of (R)-NEA and TFAP on Pt(111) leads to the removal of TFAP without any change in the population of the modifier, as required for an efficient chirally modified...

  14. Scanning-tunneling-microscopy analysis of the charge-density-wave structure in NbSe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J.; Whangbo, M.-H.

    1992-08-01

    93Nb NMR and scanning-tunneling-microscopy (STM) studies lead to different conclusions on the question of which chains are involved in the formation of the two charge-density waves (CDW's) in NbSe3. To resolve this conflict, we calculated the STM images of a single NbSe3 layer and analyzed the local densities of states (LDOS) of Nb and Se atoms in the vicinity of the Fermi level. The conflict arises from the fact that 93Nb NMR and STM measurements probe the LDOS of different atoms (Nb and Se atoms, respectively) at the Fermi level. Concerning the question of which chains are responsible for the CDW formation in NbSe3, however, the conclusion of the 93Nb NMR studies is appropriate because the major character of the electrons at the Fermi level is the Nb atoms of type-I and -III chains.

  15. Scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of growth of self-assembled indium and aluminum nanostructures on inert substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth and surface morphology of indium and aluminum nanostructures on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) surfaces were investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy in ultra-high vacuum. Mostly triangular and hexagonal In islands with (111) orientation were obtained along the steps of HOPG at room temperature (RT). Triangular, round-shape and large irregular In islands were found on MoS2 surfaces at different growth conditions. Al island chains as well as isolated triangular islands were found on HOPG whereas nanoparticles and ramified Al islands were obtained on MoS2 at RT. The shapes of these self-assembled metal nanostructures were controlled by varying growth conditions. The different shapes of nanostructures on these inert substrates can be explained in terms of differences in energetic and kinetic properties of atoms and clusters of each elements as well as the nature of substrates.

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of growth of self-assembled indium and aluminum nanostructures on inert substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushvaha, S.S., E-mail: kushvahas@imre.a-star.edu.s [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore); Xu, H.; Xiao, W.; Zhang, H.L.; Wee, A.T.S. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore); Wang, X.-S., E-mail: phywxs@nus.edu.s [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore)

    2009-06-30

    The growth and surface morphology of indium and aluminum nanostructures on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) surfaces were investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy in ultra-high vacuum. Mostly triangular and hexagonal In islands with (111) orientation were obtained along the steps of HOPG at room temperature (RT). Triangular, round-shape and large irregular In islands were found on MoS{sub 2} surfaces at different growth conditions. Al island chains as well as isolated triangular islands were found on HOPG whereas nanoparticles and ramified Al islands were obtained on MoS{sub 2} at RT. The shapes of these self-assembled metal nanostructures were controlled by varying growth conditions. The different shapes of nanostructures on these inert substrates can be explained in terms of differences in energetic and kinetic properties of atoms and clusters of each elements as well as the nature of substrates.

  17. INTER-LAYER INTERACTION IN DOUBLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES EVIDENCED BY SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giusca, Cristina E; Tison, Yann; Silva, S. Ravi P.

    2008-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy have been used in an attempt to elucidate the electronic structure of nanotube systems containing two constituent shells. Evidence for modified electronic structure due to the inter-layer interaction in double-walled carbon nanotubes is provided by the...... and the overall electronic structure for double-walled carbon nanotubes, is demonstrated by our experiments, showing that the effect the inner tube has on the overall electronic structure of double-walled nanotubes cannot be neglected, and is key to the opto-electronic properties of the system. We...... postulate that previous analysis of the opto-electronic properties on multiple-walled carbon nanotubes based purely on the outer layer chirality of the tube needs significant modification based on new understanding brought forth with our analysis....

  18. Mn doped InSb studied at the atomic scale by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, S. J. C.; Bocquel, J.; Koenraad, P. M.; Feeser, C. E.; Parashar, N. D.; Wessels, B. W.

    2015-11-01

    We present an atomically resolved study of metal-organic vapor epitaxy grown Mn doped InSb. Both topographic and spectroscopic measurements have been performed by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The measurements on the Mn doped InSb samples show a perfect crystal structure without any precipitates and reveal that Mn acts as a shallow acceptor. The Mn concentration of the order of ˜1020 cm-3 obtained from the cross-sectional STM data compare well with the intended doping concentration. While the pair correlation function of the Mn atoms showed that their local distribution is uncorrelated beyond the STM resolution for observing individual dopants, disorder in the Mn ion location giving rise to percolation pathways is clearly noted. The amount of clustering that we see is thus as expected for a fully randomly disordered distribution of the Mn atoms and no enhanced clustering or second phase material was observed.

  19. Mn doped InSb studied at the atomic scale by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an atomically resolved study of metal-organic vapor epitaxy grown Mn doped InSb. Both topographic and spectroscopic measurements have been performed by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The measurements on the Mn doped InSb samples show a perfect crystal structure without any precipitates and reveal that Mn acts as a shallow acceptor. The Mn concentration of the order of ∼1020 cm−3 obtained from the cross-sectional STM data compare well with the intended doping concentration. While the pair correlation function of the Mn atoms showed that their local distribution is uncorrelated beyond the STM resolution for observing individual dopants, disorder in the Mn ion location giving rise to percolation pathways is clearly noted. The amount of clustering that we see is thus as expected for a fully randomly disordered distribution of the Mn atoms and no enhanced clustering or second phase material was observed

  20. In situ scanning tunneling microscopy study of selective dissolution of Au3Cu and Cu3Au (0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an electrochemical study of Au3Cu (0 0 1) single crystal surfaces in 0.1 mol dm-3 H2SO4 and 0.1 mol dm-3 H2SO4 + 0.1 mmol dm-3 HCl, and of Cu3Au (0 0 1) in 0.1 mol dm-3 H2SO4. The focus is on in situ scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. The changes of the surface morphology, which are time- and potential-dependent, have been observed, clearly resolving single atomic steps and mono-atomic islands and pits. Chloride additives enhance the surface diffusion and respective morphologies are observed earlier. All surfaces have shown considerable roughening already in the passive region far below the critical potential.

  1. Single molecule dissociation by tunneling electrons in NO-Co-Porphyrin complex on Au(111): A novel mechanics revealed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and first-principles thermodynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yunhee; Kim, Howon; Lee, Eui-Sup; Jang, Won-Jun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kahng, Se-Jong

    2015-03-01

    To microscopically understand the mechanisms of electron-induced NO dissociations, we performed first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for NO-CoTPP on Au(111). We explain the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) results that the dissociations of NO were induced by both positive and negative voltage pulses with threshold voltages, +0.68 V and 0.74 V, respectively, at 0.1 nA tunneling current, showing power law relations between tunneling current and dissociation yield. To evaluate first-principles thermodynamics of the NO dissociation, we considered not only adsorption-desorption energetics, zero-point energy, and vibrational free energy at experiment temperature from first-principles, but also the chemical potential of NO gas at the cryogenic ultra-high vacuum condition. Using first-principles thermodynamics for the NO dissociation, we argue that the dissociations are induced with inelastic electron tunneling through molecular orbital resonances.

  2. Controlled assembly and single electron charging of monolayer protected Au144 clusters: an electrochemistry and scanning tunneling spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodappa, Nataraju; Fluch, Ulrike; Fu, Yongchun; Mayor, Marcel; Moreno-Garca, Pavel; Siegenthaler, Hans; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Single gold particles may serve as room temperature single electron memory units because of their size dependent electronic level spacing. Here, we present a proof-of-concept study by electrochemically controlled scanning probe experiments performed on tailor-made Au particles of narrow dispersity. In particular, the charge transport characteristics through chemically synthesized hexane-1-thiol and 4-pyridylbenzene-1-thiol mixed monolayer protected Au144 clusters (MPCs) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical scanning tunneling spectroscopy (EC-STS) are reported. The pyridyl groups exposed by the Au-MPCs enable their immobilization on Pt(111) substrates. By varying the humidity during their deposition, samples coated by stacks of compact monolayers of Au-MPCs or decorated with individual, laterally separated Au-MPCs are obtained. DPV experiments with stacked monolayers of Au144-MPCs and EC-STS experiments with laterally separated individual Au144-MPCs are performed both in aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes. Lower capacitance values were observed for individual clusters compared to ensemble clusters. This trend remains the same irrespective of the composition of the electrolyte surrounding the Au144-MPC. However, the resolution of the energy level spacing of the single clusters is strongly affected by the proximity of neighboring particles.Single gold particles may serve as room temperature single electron memory units because of their size dependent electronic level spacing. Here, we present a proof-of-concept study by electrochemically controlled scanning probe experiments performed on tailor-made Au particles of narrow dispersity. In particular, the charge transport characteristics through chemically synthesized hexane-1-thiol and 4-pyridylbenzene-1-thiol mixed monolayer protected Au144 clusters (MPCs) by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical scanning tunneling spectroscopy (EC-STS) are reported. The pyridyl groups exposed by the Au-MPCs enable their immobilization on Pt(111) substrates. By varying the humidity during their deposition, samples coated by stacks of compact monolayers of Au-MPCs or decorated with individual, laterally separated Au-MPCs are obtained. DPV experiments with stacked monolayers of Au144-MPCs and EC-STS experiments with laterally separated individual Au144-MPCs are performed both in aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes. Lower capacitance values were observed for individual clusters compared to ensemble clusters. This trend remains the same irrespective of the composition of the electrolyte surrounding the Au144-MPC. However, the resolution of the energy level spacing of the single clusters is strongly affected by the proximity of neighboring particles. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03793f

  3. Design and calibration of a scanning tunneling microscope for large machined surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    During the last year the large sample STM has been designed, built and used for the observation of several different samples. Calibration of the scanner for prope dimensional interpretation of surface features has been a chief concern, as well as corrections for non-linear effects such as hysteresis during scans. Several procedures used in calibration and correction of piezoelectric scanners used in the laboratorys STMs are described.

  4. Development of Near-Field Microwave Microscope with the Functionality of Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Tadashi; Gaifullin, Marat B.; Ooi, Shuuich; Kato, Takuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Hirata, Kazuto

    2010-11-01

    We describe the details of an original near-field scanning microwave microscope, developed for simultaneous measurements of local density-of-states (LDOS) and local ohmic losses (LOL). Improving microwave detection systems, we have succeeded in distinguishing the LDOS and LOL even between two low resistance materials; gold and highly orientated pyrolitic graphite. The experimental data indicate that our microscope holds a capability to investigate both LDOS and LOL in nanoscale.

  5. Local optical absorption spectra of MoS2 monolayers obtained using scanning near-field optical microscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Junji; Mori, Shohei; Miyata, Yasumitsu; Maniwa, Yutaka; Yanagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-03-01

    We obtained local optical absorption spectra of MoS2 with a spatial resolution of approximately 200 nm using scanning near-field optical microscopy with a supercontinuum laser light source, and we found that the absorption spectra exhibited a significant site dependence on the MoS2 monolayer crystal. We found clear relationships between local optical absorption spectra and photoluminescence intensities. At a site that exhibited a weak photoluminescence, the intensity of the A exciton optical absorption was also weak, and its line shape was significantly deformed, which suggests the influence of n-doping. The results indicate a significant inhomogeneity in the n-doping levels on a single sheet.

  6. Combined low-temperature scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope for atomic resolution imaging and site-specific force spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Boris J.; Liebmann, Marcus; Schwendemann, Todd C.; Baykara, Mehmet Z.; Heyde, Markus; Salmeron, Miquel; Altman, Eric I.; Schwarz, Udo D.

    2008-03-01

    We present the design and first results of a low-temperature, ultrahigh vacuum scanning probe microscope enabling atomic resolution imaging in both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) modes. A tuning-fork-based sensor provides flexibility in selecting probe tip materials, which can be either metallic or nonmetallic. When choosing a conducting tip and sample, simultaneous STM/NC-AFM data acquisition is possible. Noticeable characteristics that distinguish this setup from similar systems providing simultaneous STM/NC-AFM capabilities are its combination of relative compactness (on-top bath cryostat needs no pit), in situ exchange of tip and sample at low temperatures, short turnaround times, modest helium consumption, and unrestricted access from dedicated flanges. The latter permits not only the optical surveillance of the tip during approach but also the direct deposition of molecules or atoms on either tip or sample while they remain cold. Atomic corrugations as low as 1pm could successfully be resolved. In addition, lateral drifts rates of below 15pm/h allow long-term data acquisition series and the recording of site-specific spectroscopy maps. Results obtained on Cu(111) and graphite illustrate the microscope's performance.

  7. Combined low-temperature scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope for atomic resolution imaging and site-specific force spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Udo; Albers, Boris J.; Liebmann, Marcus; Schwendemann, Todd C.; Baykara, Mehmet Z.; Heyde, Markus; Salmeron, Miquel; Altman, Eric I.; Schwarz, Udo D.

    2008-02-27

    The authors present the design and first results of a low-temperature, ultrahigh vacuum scanning probe microscope enabling atomic resolution imaging in both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) modes. A tuning-fork-based sensor provides flexibility in selecting probe tip materials, which can be either metallic or nonmetallic. When choosing a conducting tip and sample, simultaneous STM/NC-AFM data acquisition is possible. Noticeable characteristics that distinguish this setup from similar systems providing simultaneous STM/NC-AFM capabilities are its combination of relative compactness (on-top bath cryostat needs no pit), in situ exchange of tip and sample at low temperatures, short turnaround times, modest helium consumption, and unrestricted access from dedicated flanges. The latter permits not only the optical surveillance of the tip during approach but also the direct deposition of molecules or atoms on either tip or sample while they remain cold. Atomic corrugations as low as 1 pm could successfully be resolved. In addition, lateral drifts rates of below 15 pm/h allow long-term data acquisition series and the recording of site-specific spectroscopy maps. Results obtained on Cu(111) and graphite illustrate the microscope's performance.

  8. Investigation of the tunneling spectra in HgBr{sub 2}-intercalated Bi-2212 single crystals below and above T{sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurter, C. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: kurter@anl.gov; Mazur, D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ozyuzer, L. [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, TR-35430 Izmir (Turkey); Hinks, D.G.; Gray, K.E. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Interlayer tunneling spectroscopy measurements were performed on mesa arrays of Bi-2212 single crystals, intercalated with HgBr{sub 2}. Tunneling conductances were obtained over a wide temperature range to examine the spectral features, especially the behavior of the quasiparticle peaks corresponding to superconducting energy gaps (SGs). Experimental spectra diverges toward T{sub c}.ith approaching T{sub c} since the in-plane penetration depfar above the transition temperature, T{sub c}. This evidence is consistent with the idea that the SG evolves into a pseudogap above T{sub c} for HgBr{sub 2}-intercalated Bi-2212 single crystals.

  9. Electrochemistry and in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy of pure and redox-marked DNA- and UNA-based oligonucleotides on Au(111)-electrode surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Glargaard; Salvatore, Princia; Karlsen, K.; Nichols, R.; Wengel, Jesper; Ulstrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We have studied adsorption and electrochemical electron transfer of several 13- and 15-base DNA and UNA (unlocked nucleic acids) oligonucleotides (ONs) linked to Au(111)-electrode surfaces via a 50-C6-SH group using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning tunnelling microscopy in aqueous buffer unde...

  10. Note: Automated electrochemical etching and polishing of silver scanning tunneling microscope tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Stephen S.; Perdue, Shawn M.; Perez, Alejandro Rodriguez; Tallarida, Nicholas; Majors, Julia H.; Apkarian, V. Ara; Lee, Joonhee

    2013-09-01

    Fabrication of sharp and smooth Ag tips is crucial in optical scanning probe microscope experiments. To ensure reproducible tip profiles, the polishing process is fully automated using a closed-loop laminar flow system to deliver the electrolytic solution to moving electrodes mounted on a motorized translational stage. The repetitive translational motion is controlled precisely on the ?m scale with a stepper motor and screw-thread mechanism. The automated setup allows reproducible control over the tip profile and improves smoothness and sharpness of tips (radius 27 18 nm), as measured by ultrafast field emission.

  11. A novel cryogenic scanning laser microscope tested on Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Mygind, Jesper

    1995-01-01

    to a very localized heating induced by irradiation with 675 nm wavelength light from a semiconductor laser. The hot spot is moved by a specially designed piezoelectric scanner sweeping the tip of a single-mode optical fiber a few µm above the circuit. Depending on the scanner design the scanning area...... can be as large as 50×500 µm2 at 4.2 K. The microscope can be operated in the temperature range 2–300 K using a standard temperature controller. The central microscope body is mounted inside the vacuum can of a dip-stick-type cryoprobe. A damped spring system is used to reduce interference from...

  12. Scanning tunneling microscopy of charge-density waves in NbSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge-density wave (CDW) structure in NbSe3 due to the two independent CDW's has been imaged by scanning microscopy. As predicted by band-structure considerations, the CDW modulation is observed to be substantially localized on different chains for the separate CDW's. AT 77 K where only the high-temperature CDW exists, a relatively weak modulation with a single component along the b axis is observed. At 4.2 K the low-temperature CDW contributes a much stronger ?4b0 x 2c0 superlattice modulation

  13. Superconductivity and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)/spectroscopy (STS) of transition metal oxide artificial lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Tc superconducting artificial lattices and superlattices have been constructed by a laser molecular beam epitaxy method. A layer-by-layer growth method controlled by RHEED and STM is a promising method for the construction of these artificial lattices. Formation and properties of superconducting artificial lattices and superconducting/ferromagnetic superlattices are presented as the typical examples. In order to investigate the electronic state of carrier doped strongly correlated electronic system, STM measurements have been performed on La2-xSrxCuO4, La2-xSrxNiO4, and La1-xSrxMnO3 thin films. Based on the similarities and the differences between the STM spectra of the three types of the films, electronic states of the strongly correlated system are discussed

  14. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy of the Heavy Fermion Compounds URu2 Si 2 and CeCoIn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aynajian, Pegor

    2011-03-01

    Heavy electronic states originating from the f atomic orbitals underlie a rich variety of quantum phases of matter. We use atomic scale imaging and spectroscopy with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to examine the novel electronic states that emerge from the uranium f states in URu 2 Si 2. We find that as the temperature is lowered, partial screening of the f electrons' spins gives rise to a spatially modulated Kondo-Fano resonance that is maximal between the surface U atoms. At T=17.5 K, URu 2 Si 2 is known to undergo a 2nd order phase transition from the Kondo lattice state into a phase with a hidden order parameter. From tunneling spectroscopy, we identify a spatially modulated, bias-asymmetric energy gap with a mean-field temperature dependence that develops in the hidden order state. Spectroscopic imaging further reveals a spatial correlation between the hidden order gap and the Kondo resonance, suggesting that the two phenomena involve the same electronic states. We further study the behavior of the Kondo lattice in a model heavy fermion compound CeCoIn 5 as a function of temperature and establish a direct comparison between the two heavy fermion compounds. This work is funded by a DOE-BES grant. Infrastructure at the Princeton Nanoscale Microscopy Laboratory are also supported by grants from NSF-DMR, Keck Foundation, and NSF-MRSEC. PA also acknowledges support of a fellowship through the PCCM funded by NSF MERSEC. Work done in collaboration with Eduardo H. da Silva Neto, Colin V. Parker, Yingkai Huang, Abhay Pasupathy, John Mydosh, Eric Bauer, Paul Tobash, and Ali Yazdani.

  15. Electron transport across capped Au nanoclusters adsorbed in different configurations on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate using scanning tunneling microscopy / spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Poonam; Dharmadhikari, C V [Centre for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2007-04-15

    Comparison of electron transport across dodecanethiol capped Au nanoclusters adsorbed in different locations viz. in an agglomeration, on isolated particle either on the terrace or at the step edge of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite using scanning tunneling microscopy / spectroscopy is carried out. Current-distance measurements on these different locations shows different regimes suggesting different mechanisms for electron transport. Current-voltage measurements at these locations have been carried out and the results are discussed in the light of orthodox theory for electron transport in double-barrier tunnel junction.

  16. Two-dimensional TiO x nanostructures on Au(111): a scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, F.; Carrozzo, P.; Mascaretti, L.; Casari, C. S.; Passoni, M.; Tosoni, S.; Bottani, C. E.; Li Bassi, A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the growth of titanium oxide two-dimensional nanostructures on Au(111), produced by Ti evaporation and post-deposition oxidation. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS) and low-energy electron diffraction measurements characterized the morphological, structural and electronic properties of the observed structures. Five distinct TiO x phases were identified: the honeycomb and pinwheel phases appear as monolayer films wetting the gold surface, while nanocrystallites of the triangular, row and needle phases grow mainly over the honeycomb or pinwheel layers. Density Functional Theory investigation of the honeycomb structure supports a (2 2) structural model based on a Ti-O bilayer having Ti 2 O 3 stoichiometry. The pinwheel phase was observed to evolve, for increasing coverage, from single triangular crystallites to a well-ordered film forming a (4\\sqrt{7} 4\\sqrt{7})R19.1^\\circ superstructure, which can be interpreted within a moir-like model. Structural characteristics of the other three phases were disclosed from the analysis of high-resolution STM measurements. STS measurements revealed a partial metallization of honeycomb and pinwheel and a semiconducting character of row and triangular phases.

  17. Adsorption and growth morphology of rare-earth metals on graphene studied by ab initio calculations and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Wang, C. Z.; Hupalo, M.; Yao, Y. X.; Tringides, M. C.; Lu, W. C.; Ho, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    Adsorption of rare-earth (RE) adatoms (Nd, Gd, Eu, and Yb) on graphene was studied by first-principles calculations based on the density-functional theory. The calculations show that the hollow site of graphene is the energetically favorable adsorption site for all the RE adatoms studied. The adsorption energies and diffusion barriers of Nd and Gd on graphene are found to be larger than those of Eu and Yb. Comparison with scanning tunneling microscopy experiments for Gd and Eu epitaxially grown on graphene confirms these calculated adsorption and barrier differences, since fractal-like islands are observed for Gd and flat-topped crystalline islands for Eu. The formation of flat Eu islands on graphene can be attributed to its low diffusion barrier and relatively larger ratio of adsorption energy to its bulk cohesive energy. The interactions between the Nd and Gd adatoms and graphene cause noticeable in-plane lattice distortions in the graphene layer. Adsorption of the RE adatoms on graphene also induces significant electric dipole and magnetic moments.

  18. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Surface-Supported Hydrocarbon Radicals Studied by Low-Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The competition between screening of local spins and magnetic interactions of neighbouring spins determines many of the electronic and magnetic properties of dilute magnetic systems. We report on low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) experiments performed on linear chains of surface-supported hydrocarbon spin-1/2 radicals. The spin chains are prepared by self-assembly of the stable sp magnetic radicals a,g-bisdiphenylene-b-phenylallyl (BDPA) on a single-crystal metal surface under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Below about 50 K the chains exhibit many of the characteristic properties of the Kondo effect observed by STM-based electron transport experiments at the atomic scale. We find strong evidence for a parallel alignment of neighbouring spins within the chains mediated by the electron gas of the supporting metal substrate. Spectroscopic imaging of radical chains reveals extended two-dimensional Kondo patterns. They span several nm2 across the substrate area even into regions of the pristine Au substrate, indicating the involvement of surface-state electrons from the substrate. The single adsorbed radicals exhibit a handedness as revealed by topographic STM imaging at the single-molecule level, which leads to an enantio-selective chain growth and the formation of structurally different domains of neighboring radical chains. (author)

  19. The ReactorSTM: Atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy under high-pressure, high-temperature catalytic reaction conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enable atomic-scale observations of model catalysts under conditions approaching those used by the chemical industry, we have developed a second generation, high-pressure, high-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM): the ReactorSTM. It consists of a compact STM scanner, of which the tip extends into a 0.5 ml reactor flow-cell, that is housed in a ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system. The STM can be operated from UHV to 6 bars and from room temperature up to 600 K. A gas mixing and analysis system optimized for fast response times allows us to directly correlate the surface structure observed by STM with reactivity measurements from a mass spectrometer. The in situ STM experiments can be combined with ex situ UHV sample preparation and analysis techniques, including ion bombardment, thin film deposition, low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of Au(111) and atom-row resolution on Pt(110), both under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions

  20. Single vacancy defect spectroscopy on HfO2 using random telegraph noise signals from scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamankar, R.; Raghavan, N.; Molina, J.; Puglisi, F. M.; O'Shea, S. J.; Shubhakar, K.; Larcher, L.; Pavan, P.; Padovani, A.; Pey, K. L.

    2016-02-01

    Random telegraph noise (RTN) measurements are typically carried out at the device level using standard probe station based electrical characterization setup, where the measured current represents a cumulative effect of the simultaneous response of electron capture/emission events at multiple oxygen vacancy defect (trap) sites. To better characterize the individual defects in the high-κ dielectric thin film, we propose and demonstrate here the measurement and analysis of RTN at the nanoscale using a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope setup, with an effective area of interaction of the probe tip that is as small as 10 nm in diameter. Two-level and multi-level RTN signals due to single and multiple defect locations (possibly dispersed in space and energy) are observed on 4 nm HfO2 thin films deposited on n-Si (100) substrate. The RTN signals are statistically analyzed using the Factorial Hidden Markov Model technique to decode the noise contribution of more than one defect (if any) and estimate the statistical parameters of each RTN signal (i.e., amplitude of fluctuation, capture and emission time constants). Observation of RTN at the nanoscale presents a new opportunity for studies on defect chemistry, single-defect kinetics and their stochastics in thin film dielectric materials. This method allows us to characterize the fast traps with time constants ranging in the millisecond to tens of seconds range.

  1. Switching and sensing spin states of co-porphyrin in bimolecular reactions on Au111 using scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Howon; Chang, Yun Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyeong; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kahng, Se-Jong

    2013-10-22

    Controlling and sensing spin states of magnetic molecules at the single-molecule level is essential for spintronic molecular device applications. Here, we demonstrate that spin states of Co-porphyrin on Au(111) can be reversibly switched over by binding and unbinding of the NO molecule and can be sensed using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS). Before NO exposure, Co-porphryin showed a clear zero-bias peak, a signature of Kondo effect in STS, whereas after NO exposures, it formed a molecular complex, NO-Co-porphyrin, that did not show any zero-bias feature, implying that the Kondo effect was switched off by binding of NO. The Kondo effect could be switched back on by unbinding of NO through single-molecule manipulation or thermal desorption. Our density functional theory calculation results explain the observations with pairing of unpaired spins in dz(2) and pp?* orbitals of Co-porphyrin and NO, respectively. Our study opens up ways to control molecular spin state and Kondo effect by means of enormous variety of bimolecular binding and unbinding reactions on metallic surfaces. PMID:24003896

  2. The ReactorSTM: Atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy under high-pressure, high-temperature catalytic reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbschleb, C. T.; Tuijn, P. C. van der; Roobol, S. B.; Navarro, V.; Bakker, J. W.; Liu, Q.; Stoltz, D.; Caas-Ventura, M. E.; Verdoes, G.; Spronsen, M. A. van; Bergman, M.; Crama, L.; Taminiau, I.; Frenken, J. W. M., E-mail: frenken@physics.leidenuniv.nl [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ofitserov, A.; Baarle, G. J. C. van [Leiden Probe Microscopy B.V., J.H. Oortweg 21, 2333 CH Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    To enable atomic-scale observations of model catalysts under conditions approaching those used by the chemical industry, we have developed a second generation, high-pressure, high-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM): the ReactorSTM. It consists of a compact STM scanner, of which the tip extends into a 0.5 ml reactor flow-cell, that is housed in a ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system. The STM can be operated from UHV to 6 bars and from room temperature up to 600 K. A gas mixing and analysis system optimized for fast response times allows us to directly correlate the surface structure observed by STM with reactivity measurements from a mass spectrometer. The in situ STM experiments can be combined with ex situ UHV sample preparation and analysis techniques, including ion bombardment, thin film deposition, low-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated by atomically resolved images of Au(111) and atom-row resolution on Pt(110), both under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions.

  3. Scanning tunneling microscopic studies of laser-induced modifications of Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning tunneling microscopic studies of Si(001)-2 x 1 surfaces excited with 532-nm laser pulses of intensities below melting and ablation thresholds have revealed two different modes of structural modifications, strongly depending on the intensity of laser lights. The excitation below 100 mJ/cm2 causes bond rupture at individual dimer-sites leading to the formation of vacancies selectively on the outermost layer. The bond rupture, which shows a strongly site-sensitive rate, forms efficiently vacancy-strings elongated along the surface dimer-rows. Selective removal of surface dimers results in the exposure of flat and defect-less underlying layer as reported previously, which is resistive to the excitation at this range of intensity. At intensities above 100 mJ/cm2, on the other hand, the excitation forms not only vacancies but also ad-dimers on terraces. The number density of ad-dimers is in proportion to the square of that for vacancies, indicating strongly that silicon atoms released by laser-induced bond rupture are associated with each other to form ad-dimers. The repeated irradiations at this range of intensities induce anisotropic growth of ad-dimer islands and of vacancy clusters on terrace regions, leading to multiply terraced structure. The primary processes of the structural modifications are discussed based on the quantitative analyses of the growth of vacancy and ad-dimer under excitation.

  4. Design and performance of a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope in high magnetic field for 2D layered materials study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tien-Ming; Chung, Pei-Fang; Guan, Syu-You; Yu, Shan-An; Liu, Che-An; Hsu, Chia-Sheng; Su, Chih-Chuan; Sankar, Raman; Chou, Fang-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    We will describe the design and performance of a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope (STM) system in a high magnetic field. A Pan-type STM is mounted on a homemade low vibration 4He pot refrigerator, which can be operated in continuous flow mode at T ~ 1.6K and in a magnetic field of up to 9 Tesla. A cleavage device at T =4.2K stage is used to cleave the 2D layered materials before inserting into STM as well as functioning as the radiation shield. The liquid helium boil rate of 4.6 liters per day is achieved due to our careful design, which allows the measurement at base temperature up to 10 days. We will demonstrate its capability of measuring atomically registered energy resolved spectroscopic maps in both real space and momentum space by our recent results on Rashba BiTeI. This work is supported by Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan and Kenda Foundation, Taiwan.

  5. Influence of the atmospheric humidity on the behaviour of silicon AFM probes in photon scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfedda, M.; Lahimer, S.; Bonnafe, J.

    1998-11-01

    The photon scanning tunneling microscopy (PSTM) allows to characterize the surface topography with high resolution. This microscopy exploits the exponential decay of the evanescent field achieved by the total internal reflection under the surface sample. When the distance between the sensor and the surface becomes small (sim 100 nm), the non propagating photons of the evanescent field can be converted into guided propagating mode of polaritons. A bulk Silicon probe is used in the AFM experiment as a sensor of van der Waals forces. The aim of this paper is to discuss the influence of the atmospheric humidity on the PSTM measurements. We have showed that the theoretical predictions of the dielectrical capture model (DCM) are very different from the experimental results when the humidity level is higher than a threshold value (30%). We present the results obtained with TE polarization, but the same behaviour is found with TM polarization. Although, in this paper we do not propose a theoretical model explaining the deviations between DCM values and experimental, however we found a validity threshold for our experimental results and we have emited the assumption that under high humidity level the pollution film presents on the sample surface slide during the displacement of the probe. La microscopie optique à effet tunnel (PSTM) est un outil de caractérisation de surface à haute résolution. Ce microscope exploite la décroissance du champ évanescent créé sur la surface de l'échantillon. Quand la distance entre le capteur et la surface est de quelques dizaines de nanomètres, les ondes évanescentes créées sur la surface sont converties en ondes propagatives et détectées en champ lointain. Le capteur est une sonde en silicium utilisée en microscopie à force atomique. Cet article montre l'influence des conditions atmosphériques sur les mesures PSTM. Il montre qu'au-delà d'un certain taux d'humidité (30%), les mesures ne sont plus valables et ne suivent plus les prédictions du modèle de capture diélectrique (DCM). Bien que nous ne proposions pas d'interprétation théorique à ces altérations, nous émettons l'hypothèse que cela est dû aux mouvements des molécules du film présent sur la surface de l'échantillon. De même, nous établissons un seuil de validité aux mesures optiques.

  6. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Adsorbate Structure and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions. Novel Design of an Ultra High Pressure, High Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope System for Probing Catalytic Conversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work presented therein is to take advantage of scanning tunneling microscope's (STM) capability for operation under a variety of environments under real time and at atomic resolution to monitor adsorbate structures and mobility under high pressures, as well as to design a new generation of STM systems that allow imaging in situ at both higher pressures (35 atm) and temperatures (350 C). The design of a high pressure, high temperature scanning tunneling microscope system, that is capable of monitoring reactions in situ at conditions from UHV and ambient temperature up to 1 atm and 250 C, is briefly presented along with vibrational and thermal analysis, as this system serves as a template to improve upon during the design of the new ultra high pressure, high temperature STM. Using this existing high pressure scanning tunneling microscope we monitored the co-adsorption of hydrogen, ethylene and carbon dioxide on platinum (111) and rhodium (111) crystal faces in the mTorr pressure range at 300 K in equilibrium with the gas phase. During the catalytic hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane in the absence of CO the metal surfaces are covered by an adsorbate layer that is very mobile on the time scale of STM imaging. We found that the addition of CO poisons the hydrogenation reaction and induces ordered structures on the single crystal surfaces. Several ordered structures were observed upon CO addition to the surfaces pre-covered with hydrogen and ethylene: a rotated (√19 x √19)R23.4o on Pt(111), and domains of c(4 x 2)-CO+C2H3, previously unobserved (4 x 2)-CO+3C2H3, and (2 x 2)-3CO on Rh(111). A mechanism for CO poisoning of ethylene hydrogenation on the metal single crystals was proposed, in which CO blocks surface metal sites and reduces adsorbate mobility to limit adsorption and reaction rate of ethylene and hydrogen. In order to observe heterogeneous catalytic reactions that occur well above ambient pressure and temperature that more closely resemble industrial settings, a custom STM motor has been designed and constructed in-house. The new STM design features a much reduced size and a rigid coupling to the sample, and has been tested to show considerably higher resonance frequency than conventional tripod designs, providing the ability to image faster and yielding smaller susceptibility to noise. A flow reactor cell of much reduced volume for pressures up to 35 atmospheres has also been designed and constructed to house the new STM. The small volume reduces gas consumption and sensitivity to impurities in high pressure gases, as well as maximizes product concentration and reduces response time. The ability to flow reactant gases also allows for continuous monitoring of reaction mixture by mass spectrometry or gas chromatography, and permits correlation of structural information from STM and reaction kinetics. The reactor cell containing the STM is placed inside an UHV system to allow cleaning and characterization of sample before and after experiments, as well as continuous monitoring by mass spectrometry or gas chromatography through a leak valve. The new ultra high pressure system also allows in vacuo sample and tip exchange through a load lock, without exposing the system to impurities in air. This new ultra high pressure, high temperature STM system has been shown to perform with major improvements over the existing high pressure, high temperature STM system. Unlike the older system which requires extensive vibration damping setup in order to operate, the new system is shown to be less susceptible to noise, and be able to image atomic steps with no vibration isolation and atomically resolve highly ordered pyrolytic graphite with only spring suspension and a cut tip. Extensive vibrational analysis of the new system is presented, as well as an appendix of AutoCAD-generated design schematics for the major components of the system is included at the end

  7. Grain boundary engineering of La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO3 films on silicon substrate: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy-Spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employed a Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM) to study the surface topography and spatially resolved local electronic properties like local density of states (LDOS) of nanostructured films of La0.7 Sr0.3 MnO3 (LSMO). The nanostructured thin films of LSMO on silicon substrate were prepared using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique. The deposition conditions were tuned to yield two different morphologies; one with uniform columnar closely packed islands and other with larger grain distribution in random fashion. The Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy (STS) revealed the extent of variation of density of states (DOS) near the Fermi level. From the spectroscopic features obtained we found the occurrence of phase separation between conducting and semiconducting domains and its possible correlation with the properties of the system. Semiconducting nature was observed at the grain boundaries, which could be extremely promising in futuristic nano-devices

  8. Refined tip preparation by electrochemical etching and ultrahigh vacuum treatment to obtain atomically sharp tips for scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, Till; Ouali, Mehdi El; Paul, William; Oliver, David; Miyahara, Yoichi; Gruetter, Peter [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A2T8 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    A modification of the common electrochemical etching setup is presented. The described method reproducibly yields sharp tungsten tips for usage in the scanning tunneling microscope and tuning fork atomic force microscope. In situ treatment under ultrahigh vacuum (p {<=}10{sup -10} mbar) conditions for cleaning and fine sharpening with minimal blunting is described. The structure of the microscopic apex of these tips is atomically resolved with field ion microscopy and cross checked with field emission.

  9. Interface morphology of a Cr(001)/Fe(001) superlattice determined by scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray diffraction : a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, C. M.; Bürgler, D. E.; Schaller, D. M.; Meisinger, F.; Guentherodt, H. -J.; Temst, K

    2001-01-01

    A Cr(001)/Fe(001) superlattice with ten bilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Ag(001) substrate is studied by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and ex situ x-ray diffraction (XRD). Layer-resolved roughness parameters determined from STM images taken in various stages of the superlattice fabrication are compared with average values reported in the literature or obtained from the fits of our XRD data. Good agreement is found for the rms roughnesses describing vertical roughnes...

  10. Atomic origin of the scanning tunneling microscopy images of charge-density-waves on 1T-TaSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltz, D. [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: stoltz@physics.leidenuniv.nl; Bielmann, M.; Schlapbach, L. [Swiss Federal Lab for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bovet, M. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Berger, H. [Institut de Physique Appliquee, EPF, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goethelid, M. [Materialfysik, MAP, KTH-Electrum, SE-16440 Kista (Sweden); Stoltz, S.E. [MAX-Lab, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Starnberg, H.I. [Department of Physics, Goeteborg University and Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    We show atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of charge density waves (CDWs) at room temperature together with angle-resolved photoelectron band-mapping of 1T-TaSe{sub 2}. By comparing the results of these two techniques, we demonstrate the atomic structure of the CDW-features observed by the STM and atomic origin of the reconstructed band-structure in this material.

  11. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Theoretical Study of Water Adsorption on Fe3O4: Implications for Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Kwang T.; Eom, Daejin; Chan, Siu-Wai; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Flynn, George; Wen, Xiaodong; Batista, Enrique R.

    2012-10-23

    The reduced surface of a natural Hematite single crystal a-Fe2O3(0001) sample has multiple surface domains with di!erent terminations, Fe2O3(0001), FeO(111), and Fe3O4(111). The adsorption of water on this surface was investigated via Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and first-principle theoretical simulations. Water species are observed only on the Fe-terminated Fe3O4(111) surface at temperatures up to 235 K. Between 235 and 245 K we observed a change in the surface species from intact water molecules and hydroxyl groups bound to the surface to only hydroxyl groups atop the surface terminating FeIII cations. This indicates a low energy barrier for water dissociation on the surface of Fe3O4 that is supported by our theoretical computations. Our first principles simulations con"rm the identity of the surface species proposed from the STM images, finding that the most stable state of a water molecule is the dissociated one (OH + H), with OH atop surface terminating FeIII sites and H atop under-coordinated oxygen sites. Attempts to simulate reaction of the surface OH with coadsorbed CO fail because the only binding sites for CO are the surface FeIII atoms, which are blocked by the much more strongly bound OH. In order to promote this reaction we simulated a surface decorated with gold atoms. The Au adatoms are found to cap the under-coordinated oxygen sites and dosed CO is found to bind to the Au adatom. This newly created binding site for CO not only allows for coexistence of CO and OH on the surface of Fe3O4 but also provides colocation between the two species. These two factors are likely promoters of catalytic activity on Au/Fe3O4(111) surfaces.

  12. Investigations on the electronic surface properties of the stoichiometric superconductor LiFeAs using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy investigations on the stoichiometric superconductor lithium iron arsenide (LiFeAs). To reveal the electronic properties, measurements on defect-free surfaces as well as near defects have been performed. The former shows a shift of atomic position with respect to the applied bias voltage. Furthermore, temperature dependent spectroscopic measurements indicate the coupling of quasiparticles in the vicinity of the superconducting coherence peaks. LiFeAs surfaces influenced by atomic defects show a spacial variation of the superconducting gap. The defects can be characterized by their symmetry and thus can be assigned to a position in the atomic lattice. Detailed spectroscopic investigations of defects reveal their influence on the quasiparticle density of states. In particular, Fe-defects show a small effect on the superconductivity while As-defects strongly disturb the superconducting gap. Measurements in magnetic field have been performed for the determination of the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length ξGL. For this purpose, a suitable fit-function has been developed in this work. This function allows to fit the differential conductance of a magnetic vortex at EF. The fit results in a coherence length of ξGL = 3,9 nm which corresponds to an upper critical field of 21 Tesla. Besides measurements on a single vortex, investigation on the vortex lattice have been performed. The vortex lattice constant follows thereby the predicted behavior of a trigonal vortex lattice. However, for magnetic fields larger than 6 Tesla an increasing lattice disorder sets in, presumably due to vortex-vortex-interactions.

  13. The nucleation and growth of uranium on the basal plane of graphite studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, nanometer scale uranium clusters were created on the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by laser ablation under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The physical and chemical properties of these clusters were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as standard surface science techniques. Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies found the uranium deposit to be free of contamination and showed that no carbide had formed with the underlying graphite. Clusters with sizes ranging from 42 Angstrom 2 to 630 Angstrom 2 were observed upon initial room temperature deposition. Surface diffusion of uranium was observed after annealing the substrate above 800 K, as evidenced by the decreased number density and the increased size of the clusters. Preferential depletion of clusters on terraces near step edges as a result of annealing was observed. The activation energy for diffusion deduced from these measurements was found to be 15 Kcal/mole. Novel formation of ordered uranium thin films was observed for coverages greater than two monolayers after annealing above 900 K. These ordered films displayed islands with hexagonally faceted edges rising in uniform step heights characteristic of the unit cell of the P-phase of uranium. In addition, atomic resolution STM images of these ordered films indicated the formation of the β-phase of uranium. The chemical properties of these surfaces were investigated and it was shown that these uranium films had a reduced oxidation rate in air as compared to bulk metal and that STM imaging in air induced a polarity-dependent enhancement of the oxidation rate

  14. Resistivity of thin gold films on mica induced by electron-surface scattering: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, Marcelo E. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Construccion, FCCyOT, Universidad Tecnologica Metropolitana, Dieciocho 390, Santiago 8330526 (Chile); Gonzalez-Fuentes, Claudio A.; Henriquez, Ricardo [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile); Kremer, German [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Santiago 7800024 (Chile); Moraga, Luis; Oyarzun, Simon; Suarez, Marco Antonio; Flores, Marcos [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile); Munoz, Raul C., E-mail: ramunoz@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Casilla 487-3, Santiago 8370449 (Chile)

    2012-02-01

    We report a comparison between the resistivity measured on thin gold films deposited on mica, with predictions based upon classical theories of size effects (Drude's, Sondheimer's and Calecki's), as well as predictions based upon quantum theories of electron-surface scattering (the modified theory of Sheng, Xing and Wang, the theory of Tesanovic, Jaric and Maekawa, and that of Trivedi and Aschroft). From topographic images of the surface recorded with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope, we determined the rms roughness amplitude, {delta} and the lateral correlation length, {xi} corresponding to a Gaussian representation of the average height-height autocorrelation function, describing the roughness of each sample in the scale of length set by the Fermi wave length. Using ({delta}, {xi}) as input data, we present a rigorous comparison between resistivity data and predictions based upon the theory of Calecki as well as quantum theoretical predictions without adjustable parameters. The resistivity was measured on gold films of different thickness evaporated onto mica substrates, between 4 K and 300 K. The resistivity data covers the range 0.1 < x(T) < 6.8, for 4 K < T < 300 K, where x(T) is the ratio between film thickness and electron mean free path in the bulk at temperature T. We experimentally identify electron-surface and electron-phonon scattering as the microscopic electron scattering mechanisms giving rise to the macroscopic resistivity. The different theories are all capable of estimating the thin film resistivity to an accuracy better than 10%; however the mean free path and the resistivity characterizing the bulk turn out to depend on film thickness. Surprisingly, only the Sondheimer theory and its quantum version, the modified theory of Sheng, Xing and Wang, predict and increase in resistivity induced by size effects that seems consistent with published galvanomagnetic phenomena also arising from electron-surface scattering measured at low temperatures.

  15. Resistivity of thin gold films on mica induced by electron-surface scattering: Application of quantitative scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a comparison between the resistivity measured on thin gold films deposited on mica, with predictions based upon classical theories of size effects (Drude's, Sondheimer's and Calecki's), as well as predictions based upon quantum theories of electron-surface scattering (the modified theory of Sheng, Xing and Wang, the theory of Tesanovic, Jaric and Maekawa, and that of Trivedi and Aschroft). From topographic images of the surface recorded with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope, we determined the rms roughness amplitude, δ and the lateral correlation length, ξ corresponding to a Gaussian representation of the average height-height autocorrelation function, describing the roughness of each sample in the scale of length set by the Fermi wave length. Using (δ, ξ) as input data, we present a rigorous comparison between resistivity data and predictions based upon the theory of Calecki as well as quantum theoretical predictions without adjustable parameters. The resistivity was measured on gold films of different thickness evaporated onto mica substrates, between 4 K and 300 K. The resistivity data covers the range 0.1 < x(T) < 6.8, for 4 K < T < 300 K, where x(T) is the ratio between film thickness and electron mean free path in the bulk at temperature T. We experimentally identify electron-surface and electron-phonon scattering as the microscopic electron scattering mechanisms giving rise to the macroscopic resistivity. The different theories are all capable of estimating the thin film resistivity to an accuracy better than 10%; however the mean free path and the resistivity characterizing the bulk turn out to depend on film thickness. Surprisingly, only the Sondheimer theory and its quantum version, the modified theory of Sheng, Xing and Wang, predict and increase in resistivity induced by size effects that seems consistent with published galvanomagnetic phenomena also arising from electron-surface scattering measured at low temperatures.

  16. Construction of a four tip scanning tunneling microscope/scanning electron microscope combination and conductivity measurements of silicide nanowires; Aufbau einer Vierspitzen-Rastertunnelmikroskop/Rasterelektronenmikroskop-Kombination und Leitfaehigkeitsmessungen an Silizid Nanodraehten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkov, Evgeniy

    2013-09-01

    In this work the combination of a four-tip scanning tunneling microscope with a scanning electron microscope is presented. By means of this apparatus it is possible to perform the conductivity measurements on the in-situ prepared nanostructures in ultra-high vacuum. With the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), it becomes possible to position the tunneling tips of the four-tip scanning tunneling microscope (STM), so that an arrangement for a four-point probe measurement on nanostructures can be obtained. The STM head was built according to the novel coaxial Beetle concept. This concept allows on the one hand, a very compact arrangement of the components of the STM and on the other hand, the new-built STM head has a good mechanical stability, in order to achieve atomic resolution with all four STM units. The atomic resolution of the STM units was confirmed by scanning a Si(111)-7 x 7 surface. The thermal drift during the STM operation, as well as the resonant frequencies of the mechanical structure of the STM head, were determined. The scanning electron microscope allows the precise and safe navigation of the tunneling tips on the sample surface. Multi tip spectroscopy with up to four STM units can be performed synchronously. To demonstrate the capabilities of the new-built apparatus the conductivity measurements were carried out on metallic yttrium silicide nanowires. The nanowires were prepared by the in-situ deposition of yttrium on a heated Si(110) sample surface. Current-voltage curves were recorded on the nanowires and on the wetting layer in-between. The curves indicate an existence of the Schottky barrier between the yttrium silicide nanowires and the silicon bulk. By means of the two-tip measurements with a gate, the insulating property of the Schottky barrier has been confirmed. Using this Schottky barrier, it is possible to limit the current to the nanowire and to prevent it from flowing through the silicon bulk. A four-tip resistance measurement with a gate has provided the resistance of the nanowire. From the dimensions of the nanowire the resistivity was calculated. The obtained resistivity was found to be in agreement with literature values. In addition, the contact resistances of the tunneling tips on the silicide nanowires were determined.

  17. Low energy x-ray spectra measured with a mercuric iodide energy dispersive spectrometer in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mercuric iodide energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer, with Peltier cooling provided for the detector and input field effect transistor, has been developed and tested in a scanning electron microscope. X-ray spectra were obtained with the 15 keV electron beam. An energy resolution of 225 eV (FWHM) for Mn-K/sub ?/ at 5.9 keV and 195 eV (FWHM) for Mg-K line at 1.25 keV has been measured. Overall system noise level was 175 eV (FWHM). The detector system characterization with a carbon target demonstrated good energy sensitivity at low energies and lack of significant spectral artifacts at higher energies. 16 refs., 5 figs

  18. Full-dimensional characterization of photoelectron spectra of HOCO− and DOCO− and tunneling facilitated decay of HOCO prepared by anion photodetachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photodetachment of both the HOCO− and DOCO− anions is investigated using full-dimensional quantum wave packets on new ab initio based global potential energy surfaces for both the neutral and anionic species. The calculated electron affinities and neutral fundamental vibrational frequencies of both isotopomers are in good agreement with available experimental data. The measured photoelectron spectra are also accurately reproduced, further validating the accuracy of the potential energy surfaces. In addition, strong mode specificity is found in the lifetimes of the HOCO vibrational features and the tunneling facilitated predissociation rates to H + CO2 are rationalized using the recently proposed sudden vector projection model

  19. Power spectra and auto correlation analysis of hyperfine-induced long period oscillations in the tunneling current of coupled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We outline power spectra and auto correlation analysis performed on temporal oscillations in the tunneling current of coupled vertical quantum dots. The current is monitored for ∼2325 s blocks as the magnetic field is stepped through a high bias feature displaying hysteresis and switching: hallmarks of the hyperfine interaction. Quasi-periodic oscillations of ∼2 pA amplitude and of ∼100 s period are observed in the current inside the hysteretic feature. Compared to the baseline current outside the hysteretic feature the power spectral density is enhanced by up to three orders of magnitude and the auto correlation displays clear long lived oscillations about zero

  20. Power spectra and auto correlation analysis of hyperfine-induced long period oscillations in the tunneling current of coupled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harack, B.; Leary, A.; Coish, W. A.; Hilke, M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Yu, G.; Gupta, J. A. [National Research Council of Canada, M50, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Payette, C.; Austing, D. G. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8, Canada and National Research Council of Canada, M50, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2013-12-04

    We outline power spectra and auto correlation analysis performed on temporal oscillations in the tunneling current of coupled vertical quantum dots. The current is monitored for ∼2325 s blocks as the magnetic field is stepped through a high bias feature displaying hysteresis and switching: hallmarks of the hyperfine interaction. Quasi-periodic oscillations of ∼2 pA amplitude and of ∼100 s period are observed in the current inside the hysteretic feature. Compared to the baseline current outside the hysteretic feature the power spectral density is enhanced by up to three orders of magnitude and the auto correlation displays clear long lived oscillations about zero.

  1. Observations and calculations of adsorbed organic molecules and surface reactions on metal surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaba, Don Norimi

    Much of science occurs at the interface between the solid and gas phases of materials. This unique bulk imperfection provides interesting conditions to investigate the interactions of adsorbed species with low-dimensional systems. The applications of surface science extend across industries, from the automobile industry to the manufacture of solid state devices. I have performed both experimental and theoretical studies investigating the relationship between the surface structure of adsorbed organic molecules and the surface reactivity of metal surfaces. By using an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (STM), I have imaged adsorbed species on a Pd surface to obtain highly detailed images with molecular detail to study the adsorption of xylene isomers and to identify the reactants and intermediates in the decomposition reaction of furan. Variable temperature STM studies of the furan decomposition showed the original furan molecules at 126K and the appearance of the C 3H3 decomposition fragments on the surface at ~300K. I have calculated STM images for each of the molecule- metal systems using extended Hückel theory (EHT). This relatively simple computational method furnishes the ability to predict the characteristic surface features of organic adsorbates and their preferred binding sites and orientations on metal clusters. By comparing the calculated and experimental images for both isolated and adsorbed molecules, we obtain a qualitative understanding of the molecule-metal electronic structure. I also compared the EHT calculations of benzene on Pt(111) and Pd(111) to existing experimental and theoretical results. I predicted STM images of furan, pyrrole, and thiophene on Pd(111). My theoretical study of xylene molecules on Rh(111) was followed by a detailed theoretical and experimental study of the three different xylene isomers on Pd(111), determining the molecular orientations and binding sites. Comparison between experimental data and predicted images for xylene, benzene, and furan and its decomposition fragments showed excellent agreement. Finally, experimental details of the commercial Oxford Instruments STM and the design and construction of a UHV, low-temperature atomic force microscope/STM are discussed.

  2. Probing the limits of Si:P ?-doped devices patterned by a scanning tunneling microscope in a field-emission mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, M.; Carr, S. M.; Ten Eyck, G.; Dominguez, J.; Carroll, M. S.; Bussmann, E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Subramania, G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Pluym, T.

    2014-10-20

    Recently, a single atom transistor was deterministically fabricated using phosphorus in Si by H-desorption lithography with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This milestone in precision, achieved by operating the STM in the conventional tunneling mode, typically utilizes slow (?10{sup 2}?nm{sup 2}/s) patterning speeds. By contrast, using the STM in a high-voltage (>10?V) field-emission mode, patterning speeds can be increased by orders of magnitude to ?10{sup 4}?nm{sup 2}/s. We show that the rapid patterning negligibly affects the functionality of relatively large micron-sized features, which act as contacting pads for these devices. For nanoscale structures, we show that the resulting electrical transport is consistent with the donor incorporation chemistry constraining the electrical dimensions to a scale of 10?nm even though the pattering spot size is 40?nm.

  3. Surface species formed by the adsorption and dissociation of water molecules on Ru(0001) surface containing a small coverage of carbon atoms studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dept of Materials Science and Engineering UCB; Dept of Applied Science and Technology, UCB; Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University; Salmeron, Miquel; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Mugarza, Aitor; Cerda, Jorge I.; Heyde, Markus; Qi, Yabing; Schwarz, Udo D.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-04-26

    The adsorption and dissociation of water on a Ru(0001) surface containing a small amount ({le} 3 %) of carbon impurities was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Various surface species are formed depending on the temperature. These include molecular H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O-C complexes, H, O, OH and CH. Clusters of either pure H{sub 2}O or mixed H{sub 2}O-OH species are also formed. Each of these species produces a characteristic contrast in the STM images and can be identified by experiment and by ab initio total energy calculations coupled with STM image simulations. Manipulation of individual species via excitation of vibrational modes with the tunneling electrons has been used as supporting evidence.

  4. A two-dimensional atom encoder using one lateral-dithered scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and a regular crystalline lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we propose a new 2D displacement atom encoder using only one lateral-dithered scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and one mono-crystalline area of the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal. A high-speed lateral circular dither modulation with proper amplitude is applied to a tip scanner to position the STM tip on six specific points on the HOPG crystalline surface. Multi-tunneling-current signals obtained from the six specific points are utilized to determine the lateral 2D displacement based on the two unit lattice vectors on the HOPG crystalline surface. In addition, the interpolation method can be used in the newly proposed method to measure displacement less than the lattice spacing. In the paper, instrumentation and experiments of the new 2D displacement measurement technique are discussed. The experimental results show that the proposed technique has the capability to measure 2D displacement with a resolution of 10 pm order

  5. Topography and local modification of the HoBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub x/(001) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topography of the (001) surface of a high T/sub c/ superconducting HoBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub x/ single crystal was investigated in air using scanning tunneling microscopy. We found large, flat terraces separated by growth steps. The heights of these steps correspond to multiples of the c-axis lattice constant of 11.7 A of the perovskite structure. These steps have been verified by atomic force microscopy. On a smaller scale the flat terraces showed some fine structure with a corrugation height of 4 to 5 A and a lateral extent of several nanometers. In addition, we succeeded in creating nanometer-sized structures by increasing the sample bias voltage and tunneling current

  6. Probing the limits of Si:P δ-doped devices patterned by a scanning tunneling microscope in a field-emission mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a single atom transistor was deterministically fabricated using phosphorus in Si by H-desorption lithography with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). This milestone in precision, achieved by operating the STM in the conventional tunneling mode, typically utilizes slow (∼102 nm2/s) patterning speeds. By contrast, using the STM in a high-voltage (>10 V) field-emission mode, patterning speeds can be increased by orders of magnitude to ≳104 nm2/s. We show that the rapid patterning negligibly affects the functionality of relatively large micron-sized features, which act as contacting pads for these devices. For nanoscale structures, we show that the resulting electrical transport is consistent with the donor incorporation chemistry constraining the electrical dimensions to a scale of 10 nm even though the pattering spot size is 40 nm.

  7. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy on GaN and InGaN surfaces; Rastertunnelmikroskopie und -spektroskopie an GaN- und InGaN-Oberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, David

    2009-12-02

    Optelectronic devices based on gallium nitride (GaN) and indium gallium nitride (InGaN) are in the focus of research since more than 20 years and still have great potential for optical applications. In the first part of this work non-polar surfaces of GaN are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In SEM and AFM, the (1 anti 100)- and especially the (anti 2110)-plane are quite corrugated. For the first time, the (anti 2110)-plane of GaN is atomically resolved in STM. In the second part InGaN quantum dot layers are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and STM. The STMmeasurements show the dependency of surface morphology on growth conditions in the metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Nucleation, a new MOVPE-strategy, is based on phase separations on surfaces. It is shown that locally varying density of states and bandgaps can be detected by STS, that means bandgap histograms and 2D-bandgap-mapping. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of Artifacts Introduced by the Empirical Volcano-Scan Atmospheric Correction Commonly Applied to CRISM and OMEGA Near-Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, S.M.; Arvidson, R.E.; Wolff, M. J.; Smith, M. D.; Seelos, F. P.; Morgan, F.; Murchie, S. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Morris, R. V.; Humm, D.; McGuire, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    The empirical volcano-scan atmospheric correction is widely applied to Martian near infrared CRISM and OMEGA spectra between 1000 and 2600 nanometers to remove prominent atmospheric gas absorptions with minimal computational investment. This correction method employs division by a scaled empirically-derived atmospheric transmission spectrum that is generated from observations of the Martian surface in which different path lengths through the atmosphere were measured and transmission calculated using the Beer-Lambert Law. Identifying and characterizing both artifacts and residual atmospheric features left by the volcano-scan correction is important for robust interpretation of CRISM and OMEGA volcano scan corrected spectra. In order to identify and determine the cause of spectral artifacts introduced by the volcano-scan correction, we simulated this correction using a multiple scattering radiative transfer algorithm (DISORT). Simulated transmission spectra that are similar to actual CRISM- and OMEGA-derived transmission spectra were generated from modeled Olympus Mons base and summit spectra. Results from the simulations were used to investigate the validity of assumptions inherent in the volcano-scan correction and to identify artifacts introduced by this method of atmospheric correction. We found that the most prominent artifact, a bowl-shaped feature centered near 2000 nanometers, is caused by the inaccurate assumption that absorption coefficients of CO2 in the Martian atmosphere are independent of column density. In addition, spectral albedo and slope are modified by atmospheric aerosols. Residual atmospheric contributions that are caused by variable amounts of dust aerosols, ice aerosols, and water vapor are characterized by the analysis of CRISM volcano-scan corrected spectra from the same location acquired at different times under variable atmospheric conditions.

  9. Characterization of artifacts introduced by the empirical volcano-scan atmospheric correction commonly applied to CRISM and OMEGA near-infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, S. M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Wolff, M. J.; Smith, M. D.; Seelos, F. P.; Morgan, F.; Murchie, S. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Morris, R. V.; Humm, D.; McGuire, P. C.

    2016-05-01

    The empirical 'volcano-scan' atmospheric correction is widely applied to martian near infrared CRISM and OMEGA spectra between ∼1000 and ∼2600 nm to remove prominent atmospheric gas absorptions with minimal computational investment. This correction method employs division by a scaled empirically-derived atmospheric transmission spectrum that is generated from observations of the martian surface in which different path lengths through the atmosphere were measured and transmission calculated using the Beer-Lambert Law. Identifying and characterizing both artifacts and residual atmospheric features left by the volcano-scan correction is important for robust interpretation of CRISM and OMEGA volcano-scan corrected spectra. In order to identify and determine the cause of spectral artifacts introduced by the volcano-scan correction, we simulated this correction using a multiple scattering radiative transfer algorithm (DISORT). Simulated transmission spectra that are similar to actual CRISM- and OMEGA-derived transmission spectra were generated from modeled Olympus Mons base and summit spectra. Results from the simulations were used to investigate the validity of assumptions inherent in the volcano-scan correction and to identify artifacts introduced by this method of atmospheric correction. We found that the most prominent artifact, a bowl-shaped feature centered near 2000 nm, is caused by the inaccurate assumption that absorption coefficients of CO2 in the martian atmosphere are independent of column density. In addition, spectral albedo and slope are modified by atmospheric aerosols. Residual atmospheric contributions that are caused by variable amounts of dust aerosols, ice aerosols, and water vapor are characterized by the analysis of CRISM volcano-scan corrected spectra from the same location acquired at different times under variable atmospheric conditions.

  10. The study of in situ scanning tunnelling microscope characterization on GaN thin film grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The epitaxial growth of GaN by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy was investigated by Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM). The GaN film was grown on initial GaN (0001) and monitored by in situ Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction and STM during the growth. The STM characterization was carried out on different sub-films with increased thickness. The growth of GaN was achieved in 3D mode, and the hexagonal edge of GaN layers and growth gradient were observed. The final GaN was of Ga polarity and kept as (0001) orientation, without excess Ga adlayers or droplets formed on the surface.

  11. Structure determination of the indium induced Si(001)-(4X3) reconstruction by surface x-ray diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, O.; Falkenberg, G.; Seehofer, L.; Zeysing, J.H.; Johnson, R.L.; Nielsen, M.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Landemark, E.

    The indium-induced Si(001)-(4 X 3) reconstruction has been investigated by surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD) measurements with synchrotron radiation and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The Patterson function analysis enables us to exclude In dimers as a structural element in this reconstruction....... We present a new structural model which includes 6 In atoms threefold coordinated to Si atoms and 5 displaced Si atoms per unit cell. Relaxations down to the sixth layer were determined. 'Trimers' made up of In-Si-In atoms are a key structural element. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  12. The impact of structural relaxation on spin polarization and magnetization reversal of individual nano structures studied by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of low temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in magnetic fields for the quantitative characterization of spin polarization, magnetization reversal and magnetic anisotropy of individual nano structures is reviewed. We find that structural relaxation, spin polarization and magnetic anisotropy vary on the nm scale near the border of a bilayer Co island on Cu(1 1 1). This relaxation is lifted by perimetric decoration with Fe. We discuss the role of spatial variations of the spin-dependent electronic properties within and at the edge of a single nano structure for its magnetic properties. (paper)

  13. Facility for low-temperature spin-polarized-scanning tunneling microscopy studies of magnetic/spintronic materials prepared in situ by nitride molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the interest in, as well as exciting outlook for, nitride semiconductor based structures with regard to electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications, it is compelling to investigate these systems using the powerful technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a technique capable of achieving magnetic resolution down to the atomic scale. However, the delicate surfaces of these materials are easily corrupted by in-air transfers, making it unfeasible to study them in stand-alone ultra-high vacuum STM facilities. Therefore, we have carried out the development of a hybrid system including a nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy/pulsed laser epitaxy facility for sample growth combined with a low-temperature, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope system. The custom-designed molecular beam epitaxy growth system supports up to eight sources, including up to seven effusion cells plus a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source, for epitaxially growing a variety of materials, such as nitride semiconductors, magnetic materials, and their hetero-structures, and also incorporating in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The growth system also enables integration of pulsed laser epitaxy. The STM unit has a modular design, consisting of an upper body and a lower body. The upper body contains the coarse approach mechanism and the scanner unit, while the lower body accepts molecular beam epitaxy grown samples using compression springs and sample skis. The design of the system employs two stages of vibration isolation as well as a layer of acoustic noise isolation in order to reduce noise during STM measurements. This isolation allows the system to effectively acquire STM data in a typical lab space, which during its construction had no special and highly costly elements included, (such as isolated slabs) which would lower the environmental noise. The design further enables tip exchange and tip coating without breaking vacuum, and convenient visual access to the sample and tip inside a superconducting magnet cryostat. A sample/tip handling system is optimized for both the molecular beam epitaxy growth system and the scanning tunneling microscope system. The sample/tip handing system enables in situ STM studies on epitaxially grown samples, and tip exchange in the superconducting magnet cryostat. The hybrid molecular beam epitaxy and low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy system is capable of growing semiconductor-based hetero-structures with controlled accuracy down to a single atomic-layer and imaging them down to atomic resolution

  14. High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy images of molecular overlayers prepared by a new molecular beam deposition apparatus with spray-jet technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Miki, Hideki; Maofa, Ge; Mashiko, Shinro

    2005-03-01

    We developed a new molecular beam deposition apparatus using a spray-jet technique for high-quality thin film preparation of nonsublimable molecules. The apparatus was used to deposit chloro[tri-tert-butyl-subphthalocyaninato]boron(III) (TBSubPc) molecules on an Au(111) surface for analysis by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Highly resolved images, in which tert-butyl groups in a TBSubPc molecule were clearly identifiable, were obtained. The image quality and the resolution of these images compared favorably well to STM images taken on reference samples which were sublimed onto Au (111) from a heated crucible. PMID:16851338

  15. Hidden order transition in URu2Si2: Evidence for the emergence of a coherent Anderson lattice from scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ting; Figgins, Jeremy; Morr, Dirk K.

    2012-07-01

    Using a slave-boson approach, we demonstrate that the differential conductance and quasiparticle interference pattern measured in recent scanning tunneling spectroscopy experiments [Schmidt , Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature09073 465, 570 (2010); Aynajian , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1005892107 107, 10383 (2010)] in URu2Si2 are consistent with the emergence of a coherent Anderson lattice below the hidden order transition (HOT). Its formation is driven by a significant increase in the quasiparticle lifetime, which could arise from the emergence of a yet unknown order parameter at the HOT.

  16. Effect of Defects Buried in Pentacene/Alkanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayer/Au Film on Its Electronic Properties Visualized by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Yasuhiko; Takeuchi, Noriaki; Yoshida, Shoji; Taninaka, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2010-08-01

    We have used scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy to visualize the spatial correlation between buried structural defects and observed electronic properties in organic device structures. As a typical structure of an organic field-effect transistor, we have prepared pentacene/alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM)/Au samples with or without defects associated with a gap state at the molecule/Au interface. The effect of the defects, which were hidden behind the pentacene overlayers, on the electronic properties of the SAM was clearly observed. The method used in this study has potential for evaluating the nanoscale correlation between electrical properties and hidden defects inside organic devices.

  17. Cysteine adsorption on the Au(111) surface and the electron transfer in configuration of a scanning tunneling microscope: A quantum-chemical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazmutdinov, R.R.; Manyurov, I.R.; Zinkicheva, T.T.; Jang, J.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2007-01-01

    conforms to the size of a fragment observed experimentally. Adsorption calculations are used to build three-dimensional isosurfaces (STM images), where the tungsten needle of the scanning tunneling microscope is simulated by a tungsten atom or by small clusters. The calculated images are sensitive to both...... the Cys shape and the orientation of adsorbed Cys particles. Calculation results are compared with fresh in situ submolecular-resolution STM data. Simulated images (with commensurate contributions made by sulfur atom and amino group) built for Cys radical adsorbed in the "on-top" position give best...... conformance to experiment....

  18. Preparation of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films with thickness gradients and investigations of growth stages by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of (001) oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ films on LaAlO3(100) has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. Using a special half-shadow technique different growth stages have been obtained simultaneously on a single substrate crystal: nucleation and spreading of two-dimensional islands, their coalescence and growth, formation of well-developed growth hills and finally of a continuous film. The growth steps were determined to be one unit cell spacing in height regarding the crystallographic c-axis

  19. Collective Modes and Structural Modulation in Ni-Mn-Ga(Co) Martensite Thin Films Probed by Femtosecond Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, M.; Schaefer, H.; Mayer, J.; Laptev, A.; Hettich, M.; Merklein, M.; He, C.; Rummel, C.; Ristow, O.; Großmann, M.; Luo, Y.; Gusev, V.; Samwer, K.; Fonin, M.; Dekorsy, T.; Demsar, J.

    2015-08-01

    The origin of the martensitic transition in the magnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga has been widely discussed. While several studies suggest it is electronically driven, the adaptive martensite model reproduced the peculiar nonharmonic lattice modulation. We used femtosecond spectroscopy to probe the temperature and doping dependence of collective modes, and scanning tunneling microscopy revealed the corresponding static modulations. We show that the martensitic phase can be described by a complex charge-density wave tuned by magnetic ordering and strong electron-lattice coupling.

  20. Atomistic structure of stacking faults in a commercial GaAs:Si wafer revealed by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Frank-type stacking fault bounded by a partial dislocation, about a few nanometers in size, was observed in a commercial GaAs:Si wafer (with the Si concentration of ∼1018 cm-3) annealed at the temperature of about 950 K, by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. There existed no charge around the stacking fault, unlike in heavily Si-doped GaAs. There was a localized energy level associated with the stacking fault, as expected theoretically in the pure stacking fault in which Si atoms do not exist

  1. X-ray reflectivity and scanning-tunneling-microscope study of kinetic roughening of sputter-deposited gold films during growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, H.; Chiarello, R.P.; Kim, H.K.; Vandervoort, K.G. (Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States))

    1993-05-10

    An [ital in] [ital situ] x-ray reflectivity study of the dynamic evolution of a growing interface was carried out for gold sputter-deposited onto a polished silicon substrate. X-ray reflectivity data were recorded during growth for thicknesses of the gold film ranging from 50 to 3500 A. A progressive kinetic roughening of the gold-vacuum interface was observed and the time-dependent interfacial width exhibits a power-law behavior. Aided by scanning-tunneling-microscopy measurements the scaling exponents were determined and compared with theoretical studies.

  2. X-ray reflectivity and scanning-tunneling-microscope study of kinetic roughening of sputter-deposited gold films during growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in situ x-ray reflectivity study of the dynamic evolution of a growing interface was carried out for gold sputter-deposited onto a polished silicon substrate. X-ray reflectivity data were recorded during growth for thicknesses of the gold film ranging from 50 to 3500 A. A progressive kinetic roughening of the gold-vacuum interface was observed and the time-dependent interfacial width exhibits a power-law behavior. Aided by scanning-tunneling-microscopy measurements the scaling exponents were determined and compared with theoretical studies

  3. Self-Assembly of TBrPP-Co Molecules on an Ag/Si(111) Surface Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-assembly of TBrPP-Co molecules on a Si(111)-√3 × √3 Ag substrate is studied by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. With the same adsorbed amount (0.07 ML), the molecules deposited by low-temperature evaporation show three kinds of ordered structures whereas those deposited by high-temperature evaporation have size-dependent ordered structures. The distinct differences in the self-assembly structures and in the electron density of states inside the molecule near the Fermi energy demonstrate that the Br atoms of the molecule desorb at the higher evaporation temperature. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  4. Investigation of Supramolecular Coordination Self-Assembly and Polymerization Confined on Metal Surfaces Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao

    Organic molecules are envisioned as the building blocks for design and fabrication of functional devices in future, owing to their versatility, low cost and flexibility. Although some devices such as organic light-emitting diode (OLED) have been already applied in our daily lives, the field is still in its infancy and numerous challenges still remain. In particular, fundamental understanding of the process of organic material fabrication at a molecular level is highly desirable. This thesis focuses on the design and fabrication of supramolecular and macromolecular nanostructures on a Au(111) surface through self-assembly, polymerization and a combination of two. We used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as an experimental tool and Monte Carlo (MC) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations as theoretical tools to characterize the structures of these systems and to investigate the mechanisms of the self-assembly and polymerization processes at a single-molecular level. The results of this thesis consist of four parts as below: Part I addresses the mechanisms of two-dimensional multicomponent supramolecular self-assembly via pyridyl-Fe-terpyridyl coordination. Firstly, we studied four types of self-assembled metal-organic systems exhibiting different dimensionalities using specifically-designed molecular building blocks. We found that the two-dimensional system is under thermodynamic controls while the systems of lower dimension are under kinetic controls. Secondly, we studied the self-assembly of a series of cyclic supramolecular polygons. Our results indicate that the yield of on-surface cyclic polygon structures is very low independent of temperature and concentration and this phenomenon can be attributed to a subtle competition between kinetic and thermodynamic controls. These results shed light on thermodynamic and kinetic controls in on-surface coordination self-assembly. Part II addresses the two-dimensional supramolecular self-assembly of porphyrin derivatives. Firstly, we investigated the coordination self-assembly of a series of peripheral bromo-phenyl and pyridyl substituted porphyrins with Fe. The self-assembly of the porphyrin derivatives in which phenyl groups are substituted by bromo-phenyl results in coordination networks exhibiting identical structures to that of the parent compounds, but contained nanopores that are functionalized by bromine substitutes. Secondly, we studied a two-dimensional coordination networks formed by 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin and Fe. We discovered a novel coordination motif in which a pair of vertically aligned Fe atoms is ligated by four equatorial pyridyl groups. Lateral manipulation, vertical manipulation and tunneling spectroscopy were employed to characterize the networks. These novel coordination networks decorated with Br or vertically aligned Fe atoms may provide potential functions as nano-receptor, molecular magnetism or catalyst. Part III addresses the mechanism of on-surface Ullmann coupling reaction. We studied Pd- and Cu-catalyzed Ullmann coupling reactions between phenyl bromide functionalized porphyrin derivatives. We discovered that the reactions catalyzed by Pd or Cu can be described as a two-phase process that involves an initial activation followed by C-C bond formation. Analysis of rate constants of the Pd-catalyzed reactions allowed us to determine its activation energy as (0.41 +/- 0.03) eV. These results provide a quantitative understanding of on-surface Ullmann coupling reaction. Part IV addresses the on-surface self-assembly driven by a combination of coordination bonds and covalent bonds. Firstly, we utilized metal-directed template to control the on-surface polymerization process. Taking advantage of efficient topochemical enhancement owing to the conformation flexibility of the Cu-pyridyl bonds, macromolecular porphyrin structures that exhibit a narrow size distribution were synthesized. The results reveal that the polymerization process profited from the rich chemistry of Cu which catalyzed the C-C bond formation, controlled the size of the macromolecular products, and organized the macromolecules in a highly ordered manner on the surface. Secondly, we demonstrated a two-step approach for assembling metal-organic coordination network exhibiting very large pores. The first step involves obtaining one kind of building blocks via on-surface Ullmann coupling and the second step is coordination self-assembly. Moreover, the modulation of the surface-state electrons in the network was studied. These results provide new approaches to design and fabricate on-surface nanostructures. In summary, we resolved the structures and studied the on-surface assembly and reaction mechanisms of supramolecular and macromolecular nanostructures at a sub-molecular level. These fundamental studies may shed lights on design and fabrication of low-dimensional organic materials.

  5. Full temperature calibration from 4 to 300 K of the voltage response of piezoelectric tube scanner PZT-5A for use in scanning tunneling microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calibrated the displacement/voltage (A/V) response of our piezoelectric scanning tube (PZT-5A) by imaging graphite at over 40 temperatures between 4 and 300 K. We have also calibrated the (A/V) response as a function of voltage up to 220 V at room temperature, imaging a gold-plated diffraction grating. We find that the temperature dependence of the (A/V) response is linear to within 10% and is reduced by a factor of 5.5 on decreasing temperature from 300 to 4.2 K. The near linearity with temperature of the (A/V) response makes the PZT-5A lead zirconate titanate composition a convenient choice for low temperature scanning tunneling microscope piezo tube elements

  6. A combined frequency modulation dynamic force microscopy (FM-DFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of a SiO2/Ru(0001) model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica based support materials play an important role in catalysis. A stable and well characterized crystalline silica film can act as a model system for bulk silica and help us to understand silica's properties in detail. In order to examine catalytically relevant processes on such model surfaces, a thorough investigation of defect sites of any form is eminent. Recently, a double-layer silica film could be prepared on Ru(0001). Here we used a combined frequency modulation dynamic force microscope (FM-DFM) and scanning tunneling microscope (STM) under low temperature and ultra-high vacuum conditions to unveil the thin film's structural and electronic surface properties. Atomically resolved images of the crystalline silica film grown on Ru(0001) are presented. Structural elements of the pristine film, as well as its defects, are highlighted. Based on atomic resolution FM-DFM and STM images a direct comparison with density functional theory calculation can be made. Theory as well as experiment favor a hexagonal honeycomb structure of the film. Spectroscopy measurements, i.e. scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), provide first insights into electronic properties of the system.

  7. Growth and structure of CrN nanoislands on Cu(001) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a method for the fabrication of high structural quality CrN nanoislands on Cu(001). The CrN nanoislands can be fabricated in ultrahigh vacuum conditions by means of Cr atoms deposition on saturated Cu(001)c(2 × 2)-N surface and subsequent annealing at 500 °C. Existence of two types of nanoislands is shown by scanning tunneling microscopy investigations with atomic resolution for different CrN nanoislands formed on surface with 0.35 monolayer Cr coverage. The measured in-plane lattice constant (a = 0.39 ± 0.01 nm) of the CrN nanoislands is 8% larger than the Cu substrate lattice. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy investigations reveal chromium nitride phase transition from CrN to Cr2N associated with changes of Cr concentration. - Highlights: ► We develop a method for the fabrication of CrN nanoislands on Cu(001). ► Growth of two types of CrN nanoislands is shown by scanning tunneling microscopy. ► Chromium nitride phase transition is shown by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

  8. STM studies on dye molecules embedded in ordered liquid crystal structures and an approach for laser-assisted scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafstroem, Stefan; Probst, Oliver; Dey, S.; Freund, J.; Kowalski, J.; Neumann, R.; Woertge, M.; zu Putlitz, Gisbert

    1993-06-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy, although capable of yielding very high resolution on periodic structures, very often provides only moderate resolution on singular features. Our work aims at the use of laser light to improve the identification of individual molecules. We report on scanning tunneling microscopy measurements performed on dye molecules dissolved in a liquid crystal and adsorbed onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Either localized perturbations of the liquid crystal structure with the size of single molecules or more or less extended ordered domains of well resolved dye molecules were reproducibly imaged for several dyes. To study light-induced resonant effects the influence of non-resonant absorption leading to thermal expansion of tip and sample has to be suppressed. Therefore, an electro- optical system was realized using an ArPLU- and a dye laser of different wavelengths power-modulated with a relative phase shift of 180 degree(s). Preliminary results obtained with this setup are presented documenting the efficiency of the compensation.

  9. Investigation of inelastic electron tunneling spectra of metal-molecule-metal junctions fabricated using direct metal transfer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) characteristics of metal-molecule-metal junctions made with alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers. The molecular junctions were fabricated using a direct metal transfer method, which we previously reported for high-yield metal-molecule-metal junctions. The measured IETS data could be assigned to molecular vibration modes that were determined by the chemical structure of the molecules. We also observed discrepancies and device-to-device variations in the IETS data that possibly originate from defects in the molecular junctions and insulating walls introduced during the fabrication process and from the junction structure

  10. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy observation of atomic arrangement in triple period-A type ordered AlInAs alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic arrangements in a triple-period (TP)-A type ordered AlInAs layer were investigated by a cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscope (XSTM) for the first time. The distributions of cation atoms in the ordered layer were distinguished using the tunneling spectroscopy method. The XSTM image on the cleaved surface of the ordered AlInAs layer revealed the presence of ragged short-range ordering domains comprising periodic structures aligned along the [1-bar 1-bar 2-bar ] direction on the whole surface, separated by three-fold periodicity along the [111] direction. This three-fold periodic structure comprises units of In-In-Al and/or In-Al-Al. That is, the TP-A type ordered AlInAs layer comprises two kinds of three-fold periodic planes; one is composed of two InAs-like planes and one AlAs-like plane, and the other is composed of one InAs-like plane and two AlAs-like planes. In addition, a local two-fold ordered structure having alternating InAs-like and AlAs-like planes can be observed in the STM image

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of deposited single fullerenes: C60, Ce rate at C60 and La rate at C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this PhD thesis the electronic properties of a C60-fullerenes, pure and endohedral doped with Ce and La, has been measured on individual molecules. C60, Ce rate at C60 and La rate at C60 were produced in a pulsed laser vaporization cluster source, deposited on HOPG, and examined topographically and spectroscopically with a scanning tunnel microscope. It is shown that Ce rate at C60 has a reduced band gap in contrasting to pure C60. La rate at C60 even exhibits a vanishing bandgap. The I(V)-curve identifies La rate at C60 to be metallic-like while C60 and Ce rate at C60 show semiconducting character. Moreover La rate at C60 shows a reversible opening of a band gap of 40 meV at a transition temperature of 28 K1 K. The disappearing of the tunneling current at temperatures under 28 K could be explained with the freezing of lanthaniums movement in the C60-Fullerene. (orig.)

  12. Simulation of the soft-landing and adsorption of C60 molecules on a graphite substrate and computation of their scanning-tunnelling-microscopy-like images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A constant-temperature molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to model the soft-landing and adsorption of C60 molecules on a graphite substrate with the C60s treated as soft molecules and released individually towards the substrate. The intra-molecular and intra-planar covalently bonding interactions were modelled by very accurate many-body potentials, and the non-bonding forces were derived from various pairwise potentials. The simulation extended over 1.6 million time steps covering a significant period of 160 picoseconds. The final alignment of the molecules on the surface agrees closely with that observed in an experiment based on scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) on the same system, performed at room temperature and under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. Using a tungsten tip in a constant-current mode of imaging, we have also computed the STM-like images of one of the adsorbed molecules using a formulation of the STM tunnelling current based on Keldysh's non-equilibrium Green function formalism. Our aim has been to search for tip-induced states, which were speculated, on the basis of another STM-based experiment, performed in air, to form one of the possible origins of the extra features purported to have been observed in that experiment. We have not obtained any such states. (author)

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopic and spectroscopic studies on a crystalline silica monolayer epitaxially formed on hexagonal SiC(0001{sup ¯}) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochihara, Hiroshi, E-mail: tochihara@fukuoka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tochihara.hiroshi.146@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Takayuki; Yagyu, Kazuma [Department of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan); Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Takahashi, Toshio [Laser and Synchrotron Research Center, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Miyamachi, Toshio; Yoshizawa, Shunsuke; Komori, Fumio [Nanoscale Science Division, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kajiwara, Takashi; Tanaka, Satoru [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-02-03

    An epitaxial silicon-oxide monolayer of chemical composition of Si{sub 2}O{sub 3} (the Si{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer) formed on hexagonal SiC(0001{sup ¯}) surfaces has been observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Filled- and empty-state STM images with atomic resolution support the previously reported model. Typical structural defects in the Si{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer are found to be missing SiO{sub n} (n = 1, 2, 3) molecules. The band gap of the Si{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer obtained by point tunneling spectroscopy is 5.5±0.5 eV, exhibiting considerable narrowing from that of bulk SiO{sub 2}, 8.9 eV. It is proposed that the Si{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is suitable as a relevant interface material for formation of SiC-based metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  14. Manifestation of dynamic Jahn–Teller distortions and surface interactions in scanning tunnelling microscopy images of the fullerene anion C−60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), it is possible to observe detailed structure of the molecular orbitals (MOs) of fullerene anions C−60. However, understanding the experimental observations is not straightforward because of the inherent presence of Jahn–Teller (JT) interactions, which (in general) split the MOs in one of a number of equivalent ways. Tunnelling between equivalent distortions means that any observed STM image will be a superposition of images arising from the individual configurations. Interactions with the surface substrate must also be taken into account. We will show how simple ideas involving a symmetry analysis and Hückel molecular orbital theory can be used to understand observed STM images without need for the more usual but more complicated density functional calculations. In particular, we will show that when the fullerene ion is adsorbed with a pentagon, hexagon or double-bond facing the surface, STM images involving the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) can be reproduced by adding together just two images of squares of components of the LUMO, in ratios that depend on the strength of the JT effect and the surface interaction. It should always be possible to find qualitative matches to observed images involving any of these orientations by simply looking at images of the components, without doing any detailed calculations. A comparison with published images indicates that the JT effect in the C−60 ion favours D3d distortions. (paper)

  15. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope operating at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S.; Zhou, B. B.; Drozdov, I. K.; Seo, J.; Urban, L.; Gyenis, A.; Kingsley, S. C. J.; Jones, H.; Yazdani, A.

    2013-10-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope capable of taking maps of the tunneling density of states with sub-atomic spatial resolution at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high (14 T) magnetic fields. The fully ultra-high vacuum system features visual access to a two-sample microscope stage at the end of a bottom-loading dilution refrigerator, which facilitates the transfer of in situ prepared tips and samples. The two-sample stage enables location of the best area of the sample under study and extends the experiment lifetime. The successful thermal anchoring of the microscope, described in detail, is confirmed through a base temperature reading of 20 mK, along with a measured electron temperature of 250 mK. Atomically resolved images, along with complementary vibration measurements, are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the vibration isolation scheme in this instrument. Finally, we demonstrate that the microscope is capable of the same level of performance as typical machines with more modest refrigeration by measuring spectroscopic maps at base temperature both at zero field and in an applied magnetic field.

  16. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope operating at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S; Zhou, B B; Drozdov, I K; Seo, J; Urban, L; Gyenis, A; Kingsley, S C J; Jones, H; Yazdani, A

    2013-10-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope capable of taking maps of the tunneling density of states with sub-atomic spatial resolution at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high (14 T) magnetic fields. The fully ultra-high vacuum system features visual access to a two-sample microscope stage at the end of a bottom-loading dilution refrigerator, which facilitates the transfer of in situ prepared tips and samples. The two-sample stage enables location of the best area of the sample under study and extends the experiment lifetime. The successful thermal anchoring of the microscope, described in detail, is confirmed through a base temperature reading of 20 mK, along with a measured electron temperature of 250 mK. Atomically resolved images, along with complementary vibration measurements, are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the vibration isolation scheme in this instrument. Finally, we demonstrate that the microscope is capable of the same level of performance as typical machines with more modest refrigeration by measuring spectroscopic maps at base temperature both at zero field and in an applied magnetic field. PMID:24182125

  17. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope operating at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Shashank; Drozdov, Ilya K; Seo, Jungpil; Gyenis, Andras; Kingsley, Simon C J; Jones, Howard; Yazdani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) capable of taking maps of the tunneling density of states with sub-atomic spatial resolution at dilution refrigerator temperatures and high (14 T) magnetic fields. The fully ultra-high vacuum system features visual access to a two-sample microscope stage at the end of a bottom-loading dilution refrigerator, which facilitates the transfer of in situ prepared tips and samples. The two-sample stage enables location of the best area of the sample under study and extends the experiment lifetime. The successful thermal anchoring of the microscope, described in detail, is confirmed through a base temperature reading of 20 mK, along with a measured electron temperature of 250 mK. Atomically-resolved images, along with complementary vibration measurements, are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the vibration isolation scheme in this instrument. Finally, we demonstrate that the microscope is capable of the same level of perform...

  18. Plain s-wave superconductivity in single-layer FeSe on SrTiO3 probed by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q.; Zhang, W. H.; Liu, X.; Yan, Y. J.; Ren, M. Q.; Peng, R.; Xu, H. C.; Xie, B. P.; Hu, J. P.; Zhang, T.; Feng, D. L.

    2015-11-01

    Single-layer FeSe film on SrTiO3(001) has recently come to the fore as an interfacial superconducting system, with a transition temperature that is significantly enhanced with respect to bulk FeSe. The mechanism for this enhancement, and indeed for the superconductivity itself, is therefore of great interest. Although the film has a simple Fermi surface topology, its pairing symmetry is unclear. By using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy, we have systematically investigated the superconductivity of single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films, and report a fully gapped tunnelling spectrum and magnetic vortex lattice in the film. Quasi-particle interference patterns reveal scatterings between and within the electron pockets, and put constraints on possible pairing symmetries. By introducing impurity atoms onto the sample, we show that magnetic impurities such as Cr and Mn can locally suppress the superconductivity, but non-magnetic impurities (Zn, Ag and K) do not. Our results indicate that single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 has a plain s-wave pairing symmetry, with an order parameter that has the same phase on all Fermi surface sections.

  19. Clusters formed in laser-induced ablation of Si, SiC, Pt, UO sub 2 and evaporation of UO sub 2 observed by laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tench, R.J.; Balooch, M.; Bernardez, L.; Allen, M.J.; Siekhaus, W.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)); Olander, D.R.; Wang, W. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    Cluster formation is traditionally observed by mass spectrometry, which has the disadvantage that the detection sensitivity often decreases with increasing mass. Alternatively, one may collect the clusters onto an atomically flat substrate and identify them by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Both techniques were used here. For the first technique, a Nd:YAG laser (frequency quadrupled to 266 nm, 5 ns pulse width) focused onto spots of 4-100 {mu} diameter was used to ablate refractory materials, and a reflectron time-of-flight tube served to mass-analyze the plumes. The observed mass spectra for Si, Pt, SiC, and UO{sub 2} varied in the distribution of ablation products among atoms, molecules, and clusters, depending on laser power density and target material. For the second technique, cleaved surfaces of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite were positioned either 10 cm away from materials ablated at 10{sup {minus}8} Torr by 1-3 excimer laser (308 nm) pulses of 20 ns duration, or 1 m away from materials vaporized at 10{sup {minus}8} Torr by 10 Nd:Glass laser pulses of 1 ms duration. The deposited material was then analyzed by STM in air. Clusters up to 30 {angstrom} in diameter were observed for all materials, making the use of STM at room temperature for mass analysis questionable.

  20. Adsorption, manipulation and self-assembling of TBrPP-Co molecules on a Ag/Si(111) surface by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual adsorption and two-dimensional assembling of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-bromophenyl)-porphyrin-Co (TBrPP-Co) molecules on a Si(111)-√3x√3 Ag reconstructed surface have been studied using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). All the isolated molecules are observed in a planar shape with slight distortion. The isolated molecules can be controllably rotated with an STM tip to the orientation along the trigonal lattice ([11-bar2] direction) of the substrate. With an increased coverage (0.07 ML) and appropriate annealing, the molecules assemble to form three types of ordered phase. The long-range ordered structures, however, disappear at higher coverage (0.75 ML).

  1. New features of the Ge(111) surface with co-existing c(2 x 8) and 2 x 2 reconstructions investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The c(2x8) ground state reconstruction of the Ge(111) surface can be easily disrupted by the 2x2 reconstruction, since both of them are rather close to each other in terms of the surface free energy. Both structures are comprehensively studied in the literature. However, new surface features can be found on the borders between c(2x8) and 2x2 domains of various registries and orientations. We report scanning tunneling microscopy observations and suggest atomic models for the linear chains of 2x2 cells or c(2x4) cells, as well as adatom/restatom group vacancies, including corner holes of a similar geometry, like the case of the Si(111)-7x7 surface

  2. Alloy formation in the Au{1 1 1}/Ni system - An investigation with scanning tunnelling microscopy and medium energy ion scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trant, A. G.; Jones, T. E.; Gustafson, J.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Bailey, P.; Baddeley, C. J.

    2009-02-01

    Using the techniques of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS), we examine the growth and annealing behaviour of ultrathin Ni films on Au{1 1 1} at 300 K. As has been shown previously, submonolayer growth of Ni on Au{1 1 1} is strongly influenced by the presence of the herringbone reconstruction with two-dimensional clusters nucleating at herringbone elbows. Second layer growth commences prior to the completion of the monolayer. After multiple layers have been deposited, the surface morphology retains a similar cluster-like appearance. Annealing produces surfaces exhibiting long range Moiré structures and, at higher temperature, triangular misfit dislocations. We use MEIS to examine the composition and structure of these surface alloy phases and conclude that in each case, they consist of an essentially pure Au surface layer on a bimetallic second layer.

  3. Superconductivity of Fe1.07Se0.5Te0.5 studied by spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unconventional superconductivity in the recently discovered iron-based superconductors has become an active field of research. We study the electronic structure of Fe1.07Se0.5Te0.5 (Tc?15 K) by spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy (SI-STM). SI-STM has been shown to be an important tool to investigate the electronic inhomogeneities and electronic structure in high temperature superconductors. The iron chalcogenide superconductor Fe1.07Se0.5Te0.5 provides a well defined cleavage plane, making it an ideal candidate for STM investigation. We find the superconducting gap consistent with earlier studies. We show in our study the temperature dependence of the superconducting gap. We observe significant nanoscale inhomogeneity of the superconducting gap.

  4. Self-regulated Ni cluster formation on the TiO 2(1 1 0) terrace studied using scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Keisuke; Suzuki, Shushi; Koike, Yuichiro; Chun, Wang-Jae; Asakura, Kiyotaka

    2006-05-01

    We have studied the growth mode and morphology of Ni clusters on a TiO 2(1 1 0) surface with a wide terrace using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at a low coverage (less than 3 atoms nm -2). The Ni clusters are formed on the terrace at the low coverage of 0.2 atoms nm -2. Their average dimensions are constant in three directions up to 1 atoms nm -2. The Ni clusters have an oval shape with average sizes of 1.8 nm (along [0 0 1]) × 1.4 nm (along [1 1¯ 0])×0.38 nm (in the [1 1 0] directions). Above the coverage of 1.0 atoms nm -2, an increase in the cluster height occurs, retaining an almost constant lateral size. It is proposed that the interaction of the Ni cluster and the support surface regulates the Ni cluster size.

  5. Dimer buckling of the Si(001)21 surface below 10 K observed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masanori; Kamoshida, A.; Matsuura, N.; Ishikawa, E.; Eguchi, T.; Hasegawa, Y.

    2003-05-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we studied the dimer structure of the Si(001)21 surface at low temperature (buckled) dimer structure, locally forming c(42) or p(22) periodicity, was observed with positive sample bias voltages, while most of the dimers appear symmetric with negative bias voltages. Our observation indicates that actual dimer structure is asymmetric and that the apparent symmetric dimer observation is due to an artifact induced by STM imaging. Since a transition temperature between the buckled- and symmetric-dimer imaging, which is found to be 40 K, corresponds to the temperature where the carrier density changes dramatically from intrinsic to saturation range, the apparent symmetric-dimer imaging should be related with the reduced carrier density and ensuing charging effect.

  6. Contrast stability and "stripe" formation in Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy imaging of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: The role of STM-tip orientations

    CERN Document Server

    Mándi, Gábor; Palotás, Krisztián

    2014-01-01

    Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is an important substrate in many technological applications and is routinely used as a standard in Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) calibration, which makes the accurate interpretation of the HOPG STM contrast of great fundamental and applicative importance. We demonstrate by STM simulations based on electronic structure obtained from first principles that the relative local orientation of the STM-tip apex with respect to the HOPG substrate has a considerable effect on the HOPG STM contrast. Importantly for experimental STM analysis of HOPG, the simulations indicate that local tip-rotations maintaining a major contribution of the $d_{3z^2-r^2}$ tip-apex state to the STM current affect only the secondary features of the HOPG STM contrast resulting in "stripe" formation and leaving the primary contrast unaltered. Conversely, tip-rotations leading to enhanced contributions from $m\

  7. Detection of atomic surface structure on NbSe2 and NbSe3 at 77 and 4.2 K using scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies have been performed on NbSe2 and NbSe3 at 77 and 4.2 K. The surface atomic structure has been clearly resolved, but evidence of charge-density wave (CDW) modulation has only been observed at 4.2 K in NbSe3. CDW's exist in NbSe2 at 4.2 K and in NbSe3 at 77 K, but the CDW amplitude is either too small or is screened by the remaining conduction electrons. The linear chain structure in NbSe3 has been clearly resolved and the STM profiles are dominated by the heights and effective charges of the surface Se atoms. Improved sensitivity and resolution will be required to study any details of the CDW structure in both compounds

  8. Iron on GaN(0001) pseudo-1 × 1 (1+1/(12) ) investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated sub-monolayer iron deposition on atomically smooth GaN(0001) pseudo-1 × 1 (1+1/(12) ). The iron is deposited at a substrate temperature of 360 °C, upon which reflection high energy electron diffraction shows a transformation to a √(3)×√(3)-R30° pattern. After cooling to room temperature, the pattern transforms to a 6 × 6, and scanning tunneling microscopy reveals 6 × 6 reconstructed regions decorating the GaN step edges. First-principles theoretical calculations have been carried out for a range of possible structural models, one of the best being a Ga dimer model consisting of 2/9 monolayer of Fe incorporated into 7/3 monolayer of Ga in a relaxed but distorted structure

  9. Thermal stress in the scanning tunneling microscopy of the metallic heterostructure lead on copper(111); Thermospannung bei der Rastertunnelmikroskopie der metallischen Heterostruktur Blei auf Kupfer(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenkamp, Winfried

    2008-02-22

    The thermal stress, which arises, when tip and sample of a scanning tunneling microscope have different temperatures, was studied in the system lead on copper(111). Thereby atomic resolution on the 4 x 4 superstructure of the lead atoms of the first layer was reached. The thermal stress of lead island was studied because the electronic density of states here is in the greatest part determined by quantum pot states. The density of states as function of the energy can by approached as step function und is by this available for a mathematical modelling. As sum of the influence of the substrates and the influence by the quantum pot states it bas possible to develop a model. in which the thermal stress for lead islands on copper(111) can be described also quantitatively.

  10. Iron on GaN(0001) pseudo-1 × 1 (1+1/(12) ) investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Smith, Arthur R., E-mail: smitha2@ohio.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Takeuchi, Noboru [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Apartado Postal 14, Ensenada Baja California, Codigo Postal 22800 (Mexico); Al-Brithen, Hamad A. H. [Physics and Astronomy Department, King Abdulah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and National Center for Nano Technology, KACST, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-04-28

    We have investigated sub-monolayer iron deposition on atomically smooth GaN(0001) pseudo-1 × 1 (1+1/(12) ). The iron is deposited at a substrate temperature of 360 °C, upon which reflection high energy electron diffraction shows a transformation to a √(3)×√(3)-R30° pattern. After cooling to room temperature, the pattern transforms to a 6 × 6, and scanning tunneling microscopy reveals 6 × 6 reconstructed regions decorating the GaN step edges. First-principles theoretical calculations have been carried out for a range of possible structural models, one of the best being a Ga dimer model consisting of 2/9 monolayer of Fe incorporated into 7/3 monolayer of Ga in a relaxed but distorted structure.

  11. Investigations of titanium nanostructures on Si(111) 7x7 by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper were investigations of the growth of Ti nanostructures created by means of an electron gun on Si(111)-(7x7) with the coverage below 0.1 ML. Titanium was deposited on the Si substrate at 673 K. The Ti nanostructures after deposition and subsequent annealing processes were imaged in situ by means of UHV STM. The current imaging tunnelling spectroscopy (CITS) showed a contrast between the semiconducting substrate and Ti nanostructures. Some of the I V characteristics revealed the step-like character typical for the quantum size or Coulomb blockade effects. Annealing of the samples in the range of 673 K to 943 K led to appearing of the r19xr19 reconstruction. This reconstruction appeared at the cost of Ti nanostructures as a result of Ti atoms diffusion into Si sublayers.

  12. Investigations of titanium nanostructures on Si(111) 7x7 by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarnik, M; Cegiel, M; Czajka, R [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Techgnology, ul. Nieszawska 13A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Biskupski, P; Mielcarek, S [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)], E-mail: ryszard.czajka@put.poznan.pl

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper were investigations of the growth of Ti nanostructures created by means of an electron gun on Si(111)-(7x7) with the coverage below 0.1 ML. Titanium was deposited on the Si substrate at 673 K. The Ti nanostructures after deposition and subsequent annealing processes were imaged in situ by means of UHV STM. The current imaging tunnelling spectroscopy (CITS) showed a contrast between the semiconducting substrate and Ti nanostructures. Some of the I V characteristics revealed the step-like character typical for the quantum size or Coulomb blockade effects. Annealing of the samples in the range of 673 K to 943 K led to appearing of the r19xr19 reconstruction. This reconstruction appeared at the cost of Ti nanostructures as a result of Ti atoms diffusion into Si sublayers.

  13. Investigations of titanium nanostructures on Si(111) 77 by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarnik, M.; C?giel, M.; Biskupski, P.; Mielcarek, S.; Czajka, R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper were investigations of the growth of Ti nanostructures created by means of an electron gun on Si(111)-(77) with the coverage below 0.1 ML. Titanium was deposited on the Si substrate at 673 K. The Ti nanostructures after deposition and subsequent annealing processes were imaged in situ by means of UHV STM. The current imaging tunnelling spectroscopy (CITS) showed a contrast between the semiconducting substrate and Ti nanostructures. Some of the I V characteristics revealed the step-like character typical for the quantum size or Coulomb blockade effects. Annealing of the samples in the range of 673 K to 943 K led to appearing of the r19r19 reconstruction. This reconstruction appeared at the cost of Ti nanostructures as a result of Ti atoms diffusion into Si sublayers.

  14. Toward quantitative STM: Scanning tunneling microscopy study of structure and dynamics of adsorbates on transition metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunphy, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    STM was applied to chemisorbed S layers on Re(000l) and Mo(100) surfaces. As function of coverage on both these surfaces, S orders into several different overlayer structures, which have been studied by dynamic LEED. STM images of all these structures were obtained. Approximate location of S atoms in the structures was determined by inspecting the images, especially the regions containing defects. Results are in agreement with LEED except for the p(2{times}l) overlayer of sulfur on Mo(100). The STM images were compared to calculations made with Electron Scattering Quantum Chemistry (ESQC) theory. Variation of contrast in experimental images is explained as a result of changes in STM tip termination structure. STM image contrast is a result of changes in the interference between different paths for the tunneling electrons. The simplest structure on the Mo(100) surface was used as a model for developing and testing a method of quantitative structure determination with the STM. Experimental STM images acquired under a range of tunneling conditions were compared to theoretical calculations of the images as a function of surface structure to determine the structure which best fit. Results matched within approximately 0.1 Angstroms a LEED structural determination. At lower S coverage, diffusion of S atoms over the Re(0001) surface and the lateral interaction between these atoms were investigated by application of a new image analysis technique. The interaction between the S and a coadsorbed CO layer was also studied, and CO was found to induce compression of the S overlayer. A similar result was found for Au deposited on the sulfur covered Mo(100) surface. The interaction between steps on the Mo surface was found to be influenced by S adsorption and this observation was interpreted with the theory of equilibrium crystal shape. Design of an STM instrument which operates at cryogenic and variable sample temperatures, and its future applications, are described.

  15. Near-field study with a photon scanning tunneling microscope: Comparison between dielectric nanostructure and metallic nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) integrates standard optical methods with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques allowing to collect optical information with resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. We study the influence on image formation of several parameters in scanning near-field microscopy. The numerical calculations have been carried out using the differential method. We investigate a 2D-PSTM configuration with a dielectric rectangular object. We will focus on the collection type SNOM in a constant height scanning mode. Various oscillation patterns are observed from both sides of the nanostructure, which we interpret as interference between the diffracted waves scattered by the nanostructure (with the components of the wave vector parallel to the surface) and the evanescent incident wave above the surface. Using an optical near-field analysis and by calculating the electric field intensity distribution, we investigate the probe-sample distance effect. It is found that the distribution of the intensity related to the electric field is depending on sample-probe distance. We noticed the loss of details in the image and the presence of dramatic oscillations. Also, both of the polarization state of the illuminating light effect and the angle of incidence are investigated. We conclude that a differential method provides physical insight into the main features of the different images

  16. Near-field study with a photon scanning tunneling microscope: Comparison between dielectric nanostructure and metallic nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Youcef [Laboratoire d' elaboration et caracterisation des materiaux, Groupe de Microscopie et Microanalyse, Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences (Algeria)], E-mail: mahmoudhamoud@yahoo.com; Bassou, Ghaouti [Laboratoire d' elaboration et caracterisation des materiaux, Groupe de Microscopie et Microanalyse, Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique (LPUB), CNRS UMR 5027, Groupe d' Optique de Champ Proche, Faculte des Sciences Mirande, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47 870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Salomon, Laurant [Laboratoire de Physique (LPUB), CNRS UMR 5027, Groupe d' Optique de Champ Proche, Faculte des Sciences Mirande, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue Alain Savary, BP 47 870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Chekroun, Z. [Laboratoire d' elaboration et caracterisation des materiaux, Groupe de Microscopie et Microanalyse, Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences (Algeria); Djamai, Nesrine [Laboratoire de telecommunications et de traitement numerique du signal (LTTNS), Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Faculte des sciences de l' ingenieur, Departement d' electronique (Algeria)

    2007-08-25

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) integrates standard optical methods with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques allowing to collect optical information with resolution well beyond the diffraction limit. We study the influence on image formation of several parameters in scanning near-field microscopy. The numerical calculations have been carried out using the differential method. We investigate a 2D-PSTM configuration with a dielectric rectangular object. We will focus on the collection type SNOM in a constant height scanning mode. Various oscillation patterns are observed from both sides of the nanostructure, which we interpret as interference between the diffracted waves scattered by the nanostructure (with the components of the wave vector parallel to the surface) and the evanescent incident wave above the surface. Using an optical near-field analysis and by calculating the electric field intensity distribution, we investigate the probe-sample distance effect. It is found that the distribution of the intensity related to the electric field is depending on sample-probe distance. We noticed the loss of details in the image and the presence of dramatic oscillations. Also, both of the polarization state of the illuminating light effect and the angle of incidence are investigated. We conclude that a differential method provides physical insight into the main features of the different images.

  17. Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenstein, Christopher S; Strand, Christopher L; Schultz, Ian A; Sun, Kai; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2014-01-20

    The development and initial demonstration of a scanned-wavelength, first-harmonic-normalized, wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with nf detection (scanned-WMS-nf/1f) strategy for calibration-free measurements of gas conditions are presented. In this technique, the nominal wavelength of a modulated tunable diode laser (TDL) is scanned over an absorption transition to measure the corresponding scanned-WMS-nf/1f spectrum. Gas conditions are then inferred from least-squares fitting the simulated scanned-WMS-nf/1f spectrum to the measured scanned-WMS-nf/1f spectrum, in a manner that is analogous to widely used scanned-wavelength direct-absorption techniques. This scanned-WMS-nf/1f technique does not require prior knowledge of the transition linewidth for determination of gas properties. Furthermore, this technique can be used with any higher harmonic (i.e., n>1), modulation depth, and optical depth. Selection of the laser modulation index to maximize both signal strength and sensitivity to spectroscopic parameters (i.e., gas conditions), while mitigating distortion, is described. Last, this technique is demonstrated with two-color measurements in a well-characterized supersonic flow within the Stanford Expansion Tube. In this demonstration, two frequency-multiplexed telecommunication-grade TDLs near 1.4 ?m were scanned at 12.5 kHz (i.e., measurement repetition rate of 25 kHz) and modulated at 637.5 and 825 kHz to determine the gas temperature, pressure, H2O mole fraction, velocity, and absorption transition lineshape. Measurements are shown to agree within uncertainty (1%-5%) of expected values. PMID:24514120

  18. Origin of the electron-hole asymmetry in the scanning tunneling spectrum of the high-temperature Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Jouko; Lin, Hsin; Markiewicz, R S; Bansil, A

    2009-01-23

    We have developed a material specific theoretical framework for modeling scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) of high-temperature superconducting materials in the normal as well as the superconducting state. Results for Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta (Bi2212) show clearly that the tunneling process strongly modifies the STS spectrum from the local density of states of the dx2-y2 orbital of Cu. The dominant tunneling channel to the surface Bi involves the dx2-y2 orbitals of the four neighboring Cu atoms. In accord with experimental observations, the computed spectrum displays a remarkable asymmetry between the processes of electron injection and extraction, which arises from contributions of Cu dz2 and other orbitals to the tunneling current. PMID:19257381

  19. Ultrasonic lateral modulation imaging, speckle reduction, and displacement vector measurements using simple single-beam scanning or plural crossed-beam scanning with new spectra frequency division processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chikayoshi Sumi, Yousuke IshiiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The development of effective ultrasonic tissue displacement measurement methods increases the number of possible applications for various tissue displacement and strain measurements. These applications include measurements of spontaneous motions/deformations generated by heart motion; pulsations from phenomena such as blood flow (intracardiac, intravascular, and carotid; heart, blood vessel, and liver motion; and motion from artificial sources such as motions/deformations generated by applying static compression/stretching forces, vibration or acoustic radiation forces (breast and liver. For arbitrary orthogonal coordinate systems obtained using arbitrary transducer types (eg, linear, convex, sector, arc, or radial array types, or single aperture types with a mechanical scan, several lateral modulation (LM methods (eg, scanning with plural crossed or steered beams over a region of interest have been developed that can be used with new echo imaging methods for tissue displacement/deformation measurements. Specifically, by using such beamforming methods, in addition to highly accurate displacement vector and lateral displacement measurements, LM echo imaging with a high lateral carrier frequency and a high lateral resolution has been developed. Another new beamforming method, referred to as “a steering angle (ASTA method,” ie, scanning with a defined steering angle, is also described. In addition to conventional non-steered-beam scanning (ie, a version of ASTA and conventional steered-beam scanning with a variable steering angle (eg, sector, arc, radial scan, a simple, single-beam scanning method also permits the use of LM, which yields an accurate displacement vector measurement with fewer calculations than the original LM methods. This is accomplished by using a previously developed spectra frequency division method (SFDM. However, the lateral carrier frequency and the measurement accuracy acquired by using such a single-beam scanning method are lower than those achieved with the original LM scanning methods and should be increased (ie, by using a quasi-LM method. In this report, the effectiveness of the use of the new SFDMs is verified with experiments on agar phantoms, in which conventional non-steered, focused single-beam transmission/reception scanning is performed together with high-speed non-steered single plane-wave transmission and non-steered, focused single-beam reception scanning using a linear array-type transducer. For comparison, the original LMs, with their respective transmissions of crossed, steered focused beams and plane waves are also performed. Because the use of rectangular apodization functions (ie, no apodization yields a larger bandwidth in a lateral direction than the effective use of parabolic functions with the original LM method, it is shown that disregarding the lateral low-frequency spectra yields useful quasi-LM echo imaging with a high lateral frequency, and further significantly increases the measurement accuracy of a displacement vector. In addition, when no apodization is used with the original version of LM, disregarding the low-frequency lateral spectra is effective. In addition, the interchangeability of cosine and sine modulations performed after completing beamforming can also be used for single-beam scanning as well as for the original LM scanning method. Specifically, the cosine and sine modulations, respectively, are used for LM and quasi-LM imaging and displacement vector measurements. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the new SFDMs with simple single-beam scanning or with simple plural crossed-beam scanning with no apodization can achieve almost the same accuracy as the original LM scanning method using plural crossed beams with the effective apodization. Another new application of SFDM is also described: an incoherent superposition of the frequency-divided spectra reduces speckles. The new methods will also be effective for other beamforming methods and with other types of transducers.Keywords: lateral modulation scanning, single-beam scanning, apodization, spectra frequency division method, low-frequency spectra, quasi-LM imaging, coherent superposition, incoherent superposition

  20. Electrochemical etching of metal wires in low-stress electric contact using a liquid metal electrode to fabricate tips for scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Takashi; Hassan, Amer Mahmoud Amer; Tomitori, Masahiko, E-mail: tomitori@jaist.ac.jp

    2013-11-01

    A liquid metal electrode of Ga was used to reproducibly fabricate a sharpened metal tip with an elongated shank by electrochemical etching for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The electrode was in contact with the wire for the tip in low stress; it was prevented that the tip end from being rugged owing to mechanical tear-off on splitting into two pieces by etching. The wire was vertically penetrated down through a film of an electrolyte solution held in meniscus onto a platinum (Pt) ring, and the lower part of the wire under the film was softly in contact with an electrode of the liquid metal having high wettability and viscosity, resulting in a good electric contact. A tip with a radius less than 20 nm and an elongated tip length of order of 1 μm was obtained, which was preferable for the build-up process in a thermal-field treatment. The tip was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and field emission microscopy, and used in STM observation.